Landscape architecture


Landscape architecture
Landscape architecture is the design of outdoor and public spaces to achieve environmental, socio-behavioral, and/or aesthetic outcomes. It involves the systematic investigation of existing social, ecological, and geological conditions and processes in the landscape, and the design of interventions that will produce the desired outcome. The scope of the profession includes: urban design; site planning; town or urban planning; environmental restoration; parks and recreation planning; Central Park in New York City is a standard example of landscape architecture. visual resource management; green infrastructure planning and provision; and private estate and residence landscape master planning and design; all at varying scales of design, planning and management. A practitioner in the profession of landscape architecture is called a landscape architect. Landscape architecture is the art, planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of the land and the design of large-scale man-made constructs. The scope of the profession includes architectural design, site planning, estate development, environmental restoration, town or urban planning, park and recreation planning, regional planning, spatial planning, and historic preservation. Landscape architects are considered professionals on par with doctors and lawyers, because they are often required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure, similar to the requirements for those other professional occupations. Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field, including within its fold mathematics, science, engineering, art, technology, social sciences, politics, history, philosophy, the activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to the site planning for corporate office buildings, from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. Landscape architects work on all types of external space - large or small, urban or rural, and with 'hard'/'soft' materials, hydrology and ecological issues. They work on: The form, scale and siting of new developments Private estates and public infrastructure and building design The site design for schools, universities, hospitals and hotels Public parks, golf courses, theme parks and sports facilities Housing areas, industrial parks and commercial developments Highways transportation structures, bridges and corridors Town and city squares and pedestrian schemes Large or small urban regeneration schemes Forest, tourist or historic landscapes and landscape appraisal or conservation studies Reservoirs, dams, power stations, extractive industry applications or major industrial projects Environmental assessment, planning advice and land management proposals. Coastal and offshore developments The most valuable contribution is often made at the earliest stage of a project in generating ideas and bringing flair and creativity to the use of space. The landscape architect can: contribute to the overall concept prepare an initial master plan, from which detailed designs can subsequently be prepared let and supervise contracts for construction work prepare design impact assessments conduct environmental assessments or audits act as an expert witness at enquiries on land use support or prepare applications for capital or revenue funding grants Entrance into the profession requires advanced education, training, and licensure in most countries.

landscape design and creation of all types of outdoor green spaces. nature conservation and agriculture. Landscape engineers/surveyors as engineers or surveyors must identify and understand the relevant conditions in order to produce a successful result. the term "landscape architect" became used by professional people who designed landscapes. physical or technical limitations. religious complexes. An example is the extensive work by André Le Nôtre at Vaux-le-Vicomte and for King Louis XIV of France at the Palace of Versailles. and serviceability. Many work in public offices in central and local government. including land uses. estate management. rural and coastal land use. urban planning became a more important need. This use of "landscape architect" became established after Frederick Law Olmsted and Beatrix Farrand with others founded the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA) in 1899. Landscape artworks can be monumental and permanent or temporary and are usually site specific. 2 History of landscape architecture (main article: History of landscape architecture) For the period before 1800. The term "landscape architecture" was invented by Gilbert Laing Meason in 1828 and was first used as a professional title by Frederick Law Olmsted in 1863. The landscape is the surface of the earth. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular species in a given area. Landscape artists historically reflect social perceptions of the environment. and to private individuals. vegetation. or elements thereof. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy. scenic. and renewable resources are major themes of contemporary land art. ecological and recreational aspects of urban. and re-envision the anthropologic role in the natural world. interpret. The combination of the tradition of landscape gardening and emerging city planning that gave Landscape Architecture its unique focus to serve these . Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science. and preparing countryside management or policy plans. In order to achieve a harmonious relationship between needs of people and the environment. They work in horticulture. and thereby explore. and their remit includes masterplanning for new developments. A landscape architect is someone who builds the surface of the earth. earth forms. palaces and royal properties. structures. and walkways. industry and commerce. Other issues include available resources. and factors such as cost. landscape evaluations and assessments.Landscape architecture Persons who may work for or with Landscape Architects: Landscape designers are involved in garden. During the latter 19th century. forestry. Others work in private practice and act as consultants to public authorities. Through the 19th century. roadways & bridges. geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. Landscape artists (Land artists) use the landscape itself. the history of landscape gardening (later called landscape architecture) is largely that of master planning and garden design for manor houses. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. engineers provide recomendations for which a landscape or system may be developed. a landscape architect must be knowledgeable in the areas of ecology and human behavior. he or she must be knowledgeable in the engineering and technical aspects of land development. adaptability. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning. biodiversity. In addition. By understanding these constraints. An "architect" is someone who builds. hydrology. Landscape managers use their knowledge of plants and the natural environment to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. and with the 1949 founding of the International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA). and must be able to demonstrate this knowledge in a creative way in the design of exciting environments for people. Landscape planners are concerned with the location. Issues such as sustainability. The first person to write of "making" a landscape was Joseph Addison in 1712. to explore relationships between nature and culture. and centers of government.

the fine arts. such as Ontario. Her numerous private estate projects include the landmark Dumbarton Oaks in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington. Geographers. from which detailed design drawings and technical specifications are prepared. etc. Illinois. Massachusetts.large or small. landscapes. form. and with "hard" (built) and "soft" (planted) materials. Massachusetts and London. In some states. such as the history. Forestry and Natural Resources professionals. She was design consultant for over a dozen universities including: Princeton in Princeton. and ecology. Gardens Are For People. McHarg would give every qualitative aspect of the site a layer. Connecticut. Ian McHarg is considered an important influence on the modern Landscape Architecture profession and land planning in particular. scale and siting of new developments • Civil design and public infrastructure . Canada and Santa Barbara. suburban and rural. environmental psychology. vegetation. Among these were Central Park in New York City. and the only woman. 3 Responsibilities Landscape architecture is a multi-disciplinary field. GIS software is ubiquitously used in the landscape architecture profession today to analyze materials in and on the Earth's surface and is similarly used by Urban Planners. New Jersey. he popularized a system of analyzing the layers of a site in order to compile a complete understanding of the qualitative attributes of a place. industrial design. hydrology. They can also support and prepare applications for capital and revenue funding grants. incorporating aspects of: botany. topography. and private estates for the Ford family including Fair Lane and Gaukler Point. D. and use of spaces. Thomas Church was a mid-century landscape architect significant in the profession. horticulture. Prospect Park in Brooklyn. Innovation continues today solving challenging problems with contemporary design solutions for master planning. geology and the earth sciences. from the design of residential estates to the design of civil infrastructure and the management of large wilderness areas or reclamation of degraded landscapes such as mines or landfills. They can also review proposals to authorize and supervise contracts for the construction work. The breadth of the professional task that landscape architects collaborate on is very broad. Landscape architects work on all types of structures and external space . the Netherlands. With his book Design with Nature. One of the original ten founding members of the American Society of Landscape Architects (ASLA). Yuishi Kogazawa in Kyoto and Camille Kelly in Sydney. Frederick Law Olmsted completed a series of parks which continue to have a huge influence on the practices of Landscape Architecture today. but some examples of project types include: • The planning. urban. Two examples of current practice are Martha Schwartz based in Cambridge. all designs for public space must be reviewed and approved by licensed landscape architects. The most valuable contribution can be made at the first stage of a project to generate ideas with technical understanding and creative flair for the design. etc. organization. and the Arnold Arboretum for Harvard in Boston. Yale in New Haven. provinces. architecture. and serving as an expert witness at inquiries on land use issues. Other skills include preparing design impact assessments. The activities of a landscape architect can range from the creation of public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks. The landscape architect can conceive the overall concept and prepare the master plan. and so the country. and numerous campus master planning and residential design projects influenced environmental design in California. municipalities. Roberto Burle Marx in Brazil combined the International style and native Brazilian plants and culture for a new aesthetic. This system became the foundation of today's Geographic Information Systems (GIS). New York and Boston's Emerald Necklace park system. while integrating ecological sustainability. and responded to the various movements in architecture and design through the 20th century.Landscape architecture needs. was Beatrix Farrand. and gardens. Jens Jensen designed sophisticated and naturalistic urban and regional parks for Chicago. California. Other internationally recognized practitioners include Alain de Rogaine in Paris.C. conducting environmental assessments and audits. His book. Landscape architecture continues to develop as a design discipline. In the second half of the century. and jurisdictions. and by the Dutch design group (West 8) based in Rotterdam.

green roofs. Their projects can range from site surveys to the ecological assessment of broad areas for planning or management purposes. greenways. bridges. They often work in forestry. Some may also apply an additional specialism such as landscape archaeology or law to the process of landscape planning. and historic garden appraisal and conservation studies • Reservoirs. town and city squares. power stations. and some having little or no regulation. and preparing countryside management or policy plans. dams. landscape evaluations and assessments. exists in order to protect the standing of the profession and promote its interests. and nature preserves Recreation facilities. They may also report on the impact of development or the importance of particular species in a given area.Landscape architecture • • • • • • • • • • • Sustainable development Stormwater management including rain gardens. geomorphology or botany that they relate to the practical problems of landscape work. and sometimes also regulate the practice of landscape architecture. planning advice and land management proposals. Landscape scientists have specialist skills such as soil science. including circulation and open public space. and treatment wetlands Campus and site design for public institutions and government facilities Parks. golf courses. appearance and functionality of towns and cities. theme parks and sports facilities Housing areas. ecological and recreational aspects of urban. The standard and strength of legal regulations governing HI landscape architecture practice varies from nation to nation. ie: playgrounds. groundwater recharge. reclamation of extractive industry applications or major industrial projects and mitigation • Environmental assessment and landscape assessment. sustainable architecture. a professional institute. with some requiring licensure in order to practice. Landscape planners are concerned with landscape planning for the location. transportation structures. landscape architecture is a regulated profession. nature conservation and agriculture. tourist destination. and recreating historical landscapes. Landscape managers use their knowledge of landscape processes to advise on the long-term care and development of the landscape. Their work is embodied in written statements of policy and strategy. waterfronts. hydrology. scenic. botanical gardens.[1] . and their remit includes master planning for new developments. evapo-transpirative cooling. pedestrian schemes. industrial parks and commercial developments Estate and residence landscape master planning and design Highways. and transit corridors Urban design. arboretums. comprising members of the professional community. Profession In many countries. and parking lots Large to small urban renewal planning and design Natural park. In North America and Europe. aesthetics. Green roof designers design extensive and intensive roof gardens for storm water management. rural and coastal land use. and habitat creation. • Coastal and offshore developments and mitigation • Ecological Design any aspect of design that minimizes environmentally destructive impacts by integrating itself with natural processes and sustainability 4 Specializations Urban designers determine the physical arrangement.

landscape architects use the title 'Registered Landscape Architect'.. First Stage: A minimum 12 months of mentoring and assessment.. The AILA has in place processes to recognize equivalent qualifications and experience. The Landscape Principles ... Second Stage: Oral assessment/interview. Any regulations or requirements are state based. Most agencies require AILA professional recognition or registration as part of the pre-requisite for contracts. ... Landscape architects within Australia find that many contracts and competitions require the AILA recognition or 'registration' as the basis of demonstrating a professional status. The AILA's system of professional recognition is a national system overseen by AILA's National Office in Canberra. Professional recognition includes a commitment to continue professional development. A record of Continuing Professional Practice (CPD). The application is in two stages: 1.. In the U.S..A. 2. Australia The Australian Institute of Landscape Architects (AILA) provides professional recognition for landscape architects. A university qualification from an AILA accredited program. At least two years of practice. Canada In Canada..Landscape architecture 5 United States In the United States. Landscape Architecture is regulated by individual state governments... and individual membership in the CSLA-AAPC is obtained through joining one of the provincial or territorial components. For example Ontario's profession is governed by the Ontario Association of Landscape Architects pursuant to the Ontario Association of Landscape Architects Act.R.... Across the eight states and territories within Australia. there is a mix of requirements for landscape architects to be 'Registered'. For a landscape architect. landscape architecture. 2. Once recognised. Several states require passage of a state exam as well. not national. like law and medicine. Landscape architecture has been identified as an above-average growth profession by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics and was listed in US News and World Report's list of Best Jobs to Have in 2006. plus passage of the national examination. licensing is overseen both at the state level. is a self-regulating profession pursuant to provincial statute. an applicant usually needs to satisfy the following pre-requisites: 1. may provide the basis of recognition as a Registered Landscape Architect. Provincial regulatory bodies are members of a national organization. To apply for AILA Registration.E (Landscape Architecture Registration Examination) as a prerequisite to full professional standing. AILA Registered Landscape Architects are required to report annually on their Continuing Professional Development. 2007 and 2008. Landscape architects are considered professionals because they are required to obtain specialized education and professional licensure.. obtaining licensure requires advanced education and work experience. and nationally by the Council of Landscape Architectural Registration Boards (CLARB).. 3. Generally there is no clear legislative registration requirement in place. the Canadian Society of Landscape Architects / L'Association des Architectes Paysagistes du Canada (CSLA-AAPC). which when combined with a number of years of recognized practice as a landscape architect. Ontario landscape architects must complete the specified components of L.

though its penetration into the public sector is problematic and under-represented. and is closely involved in multi-disciplinary endeavours and initiatives with allied built environment and natural heritage professionals. holistic outcomes. AILA Climate Change project [2] Information updated by the National Office. The Australian Landscape Principles articulate an ethical decision making framework for landscape planning. The Institute provides services to assist members including support and promotion of the work of landscape architects. Italy AIAPP (Italian Association of Landscape Architecture) is the Italian association of professional landscape architects formed in 1950 and is a member of EFLA and IFLA. The campaign aims to raise the profile of landscape architecture and highlight its valuable role in building sustainable communities and fighting climate change.[3] In Italy. In 2008. It is a chartered body which accredits landscape professionals and university courses. The recent economic boom saw a flourishing and expansion of private practices. including architects. civil engineers. academics and professionals Landscape Architects and there are over 3. design and management within the built environment. Australian Institute of Landscape Architects 6 Republic of Ireland The profession is now firmly established in the Republic.Landscape architecture The major advocacy direction for 2008 . spatial planners. United Kingdom The UK's professional body is the Landscape Institute (LI). Membership of the LI is available to students. ecologists and chartered surveyors. both in our existing and future built environments. there are several different professions involved in landscape architecture: • Architetti (Architects) • Paesaggisti (Landscape designs) • Dottori Agronomi Paesaggisti e Dottori Forestali Paesaggisti (Doctor landscape agronomists and Doctor landscape foresters) • Periti Agrari e Periti Agrari Laureati (Agrarian Experts and Graduated Agrarian experts) . At the same time.2009 has been to develop a set of Landscape Principles. The profession has gained a standing and status. the existence of AIAPP has been totally ignored in spite of its international recognition. Their purpose is to strategically direct landscape interventions. and training and educational advice to students and professionals looking to build upon their experience. Planners and Conservationists whether or not they have had any training or experience in any of these fields other than Architecture.000 professionally quaified members. towards more sustainable. the LI launched a major recruitment drive entitled "I want to be a Landscape Architect" to encourage the study of Landscape Architecture. Landscape Architects. information and guidance to the public and industry about the specific expertise offered by those in the profession. At present there are fifteen accredited schools in the UK. outweighing its relatively small numbers in Ireland. AIAPP is in the process of contesting this new law which has given the Architects' Association the new title of Architects.

aila. efla. org/ base/ frames/ centre. au/ climate [3] http:/ / www.Landscape architecture 7 See also • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Architecture Energy-efficient landscape design Environmental graphic design Green roof Hard landscape materials History of landscape architecture Landscape engineering Landscape Institute Landscape products Landscape detailing Landscape planning List of landscape architects Lyle Center for Regenerative Studies Master of Landscape Architecture Planting design Principles of Intelligent Urbanism • List of schools of landscape architecture • Soft landscape materials • Sustainable landscape architecture References [1] http:/ / www. ca [2] http:/ / www. asp?LG=uk . org. oala. on.

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