# STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

Chapter 1
1-1

Calculate the mass m of a body that weighs 600 lb at the surface of the earth.
SOLUTION

1-2

Calculate the weight W of a body at the surface of the earth if it has a mass m of 675 kg.
SOLUTION

W
1-3

600
18.63 slug .................................................... Ans.
32.2

W
g

m

mg

675 9.81 6.62 u 10 3 N 6.62 kN .................................. Ans.

If a man weighs 180 lb at sea level, determine the weight W of the man
(a)
At the top of Mt. McKinley (20,320 ft above sea level).
(b)
At the top of Mt. Everest (29,028 ft above sea level).
SOLUTION

Gme m
re2

W
W0 r02

Therefore:

rh

(a)

r0  h 2.090 u 10 7  2.0320 u 10 4

rh

2.092032 u10

2

7 2

179.7 lb ...................................... Ans.
2.0929028 u 10 7 ft

2.0929028 u 10
2

180 2.090 u 10 7

W0 r02
rh2

7 2

179.5 lb .................................... Ans.

Calculate the weight W of a navigation satellite at a distance of 20,200 km above the earth’s surface if the
satellite weighs 9750 N at the earth’s surface.
SOLUTION

W
W0 r02

Therefore:

r0

where
(a)

2.092032 u 10 7 ft

r0  h 2.090 u 10 7  2.9028 u 10 4
Wh

1-4

180 2.090 u 10 7

W0 r02
rh2

Wh
(b)

Gme m

2.090 u 10 7 ft

r0

where

Wh rh2

rh

r0  h
Wh

Gme m
re2
Wh rh2

Gme m

6.370 u106 m

6370  20, 200

W0 r02
rh2

9750 6370

26,570

1

2

26,570 km
2

560 N ........................................... Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition
1-5

Compute the gravitational force acting between two spheres that are touching each other if each sphere
weighs 1125 lb and has a diameter of 20 in.
SOLUTION

F

Gm1m2
r2

Gms2
d s2

Gms ms
rs  rs 2

3.439 u10 1125 32.2 
8

2012

1-6

15.11u 106 lb .................................. Ans.

2

Gm1m2
r2

6.673 u10 60 80 
11

0.600

0.890 u 10 6 N ........................ Ans.

2

Determine the weight W of a satellite when it is in orbit 8500 mi above the surface of the earth if the satellite
weighs 7600 lb at the earth’s surface.
SOLUTION

W
W0 r02

Therefore:

r0

where

rh

ro  h
Wh

1-8

2

Two spherical bodies have masses of 60 kg and 80 kg, respectively. Determine the gravitational force of
attraction between the spheres if the distance from center to center is 600 mm.
SOLUTION

F
1-7

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

Gm1m2
r2
Wh rh2

Gme mb

2.090 u 10 7 ft

2.090 u 10 7  8500(5280) 6.578 u 10 7 ft
Wo ro2
rh2

7600 2.090 u 107

6.578 u107

2

768 lb ..................................... Ans.

2

Determine the weight W of a satellite when it is in orbit 20.2(106) m above the surface of the earth if the
satellite weighs 8450 N at the earth’s surface.
SOLUTION

W
W0 r02

Therefore:

r0

where

rh

ro  h
Wh

Gm1m2
r2
Wh rh2

Gme mb

6.370 u106 m

6.370 u106  20.2 u106
Wo ro2
rh2

8450 6.370 u106

26.570 u10

6 2

2

26.570 u106 m
2

486 N ..................................... Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition
1-9

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

If a woman weighs 135 lb when standing on the surface of the earth, how much would she weigh when
standing on the surface of the moon?
SOLUTION

Gm1m2
r2

W
Therefore on the surface of the earth where

4.095 u 1023 slugs and r

me

135

3960 mi

G 4.095 u 1023 m

3960 u 5280

2

Gm 1.4413 u 10 7 lb  ft 2 /slug
Then on the surface of the moon where

mm

5.037 u 1021 slugs and r 1080 mi

1.4413 u10 5.037 u10 
7

W

21

1080 u 5280

2

22.33 lb ................................... Ans.

1-10 Determine the weight W of a body that has a mass of 1000 kg
(a.) At the surface of the earth.
(b.) At the top of Mt. McKinley (6193 m above sea level).
(c.) In a satellite at an altitude of 250 km.
SOLUTION

Gm1m2
r2

W

6.673 u10 5.976 u10 1000
6370 u10
6.673 u10 5.976 u10 1000
6370 u10  6193
6.673 u10 5.976 u10 1000
6370 u10  250 u10 
11

(a)

W

(b)

W

(c)

W

24

3 2 

11

9830 N ............................. Ans.

24

2

3 

11

9810 N ............................. Ans.

24

3 2

3

9100 N ............................. Ans.

1-11 If a man weighs 210 lb at sea level, determine the weight W of the man
(a.) At the top of Mt. Everest (29,028 ft above sea level).
(b.) In a satellite at an altitude of 200 mi.
SOLUTION

W
Therefore

210

Gm1m2
r2
Gme m

3960 u 5280

2

Gme m 9.181u1016 lb  ft 2

3

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

W

(a)

W

(b)

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

9.181u 1016
2

209.4 lb ....................................... Ans.

2

190.3 lb ........................................ Ans.

3960 u 5280  29, 028
9.181u 1016
ª¬ 3960  200 u 5280 º¼

1-12 A space traveler weighs 800 N on earth. A planet having a mass of 5(1025) kg and a diameter of 30(106) m
orbits a distant star. Determine the weight W of the traveler on the surface of this planet.
SOLUTION

Gm1m2
r2

W
Therefore on the surface of the earth where

800

me

5.976 u 1024 kg and r

6370 km

G 5.976 u 10 24 m

6370 u10

3 2

Gm 5.432 u 109 N  m 2 /kg
Then on the surface of the planet where

m 5 u 1025 kg and r 15 u 106 m

5.432 u10 5 u10
15 u10 
9

W

25

6 2

1207 N ......................................... Ans.

1-13 The planet Jupiter has a mass of 1.302(1026) slug and a visible diameter (top of the cloud layer) of 88,700 mi.
Determine the gravitational acceleration g
(a.) At a point 100,000 miles above the top of the clouds.
(b.) At the top of the cloud layers.
SOLUTION

W

Gm1m2
r2

3.439 u10 1.302 u10 m 
8

W

(a)

mg

26

ª¬ 44,350  100, 000 u 5280º¼
g

7.71 ft/s 2 ................................................................. Ans.

3.439 u10 1.302 u10 m 
8

W

(b)

mg

2

26

44,350 u 5280
g

2

81.7 ft/s 2 ................................................................ Ans.

1-14 The planet Saturn has a mass of 5.67(1026) kg and a visible diameter (top of the cloud layer) of 120,000 km.
The weight W of a planetary probe on earth is 4.50 kN. Determine
(a.) The weight of the probe when it is 600,000 km above the top of the clouds.
(b.) The weight of the probe as it begins its penetration of the cloud layers.
SOLUTION

W

Gm1m2
r2

4

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition
Therefore on the surface of the earth where

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

5.976 u 1024 kg and r

me

6370 km

G 5.976 u 1024 m

4500

6370 u10

3 2

Gm 3.055 u 108 N  m 2 /kg

3.055 u10 5.67 u10 
8

W

(a)

26

ª¬ 60, 000  600, 000 u 103 º¼

3.055 u10 5.67 u10
60, 000 u10 
8

W

(b)

2

39.8 N ..................................... Ans.

26

4810 N ...................................... Ans.

3 2

1-15 The first U.S. satellite, Explorer 1, had a mass of approximately 1 slug. Determine the force exerted on the
satellite by the earth at the low and high points of its orbit, which were 175 mi and 2200 mi, respectively,
above the surface of the earth.
SOLUTION

F

Gm1m2
r2

3.439 u10 4.095 u10 1 
8

F

23

ª¬ 3960  175 u 5280º¼

3.439 u10 4.095 u10 1 
8

F

2

29.5 lb ................................... Ans.

23

ª¬ 3960  2200 u 5280 º¼

2

13.31 lb .................................. Ans.

1-16 A neutron star has a mass of 2(1030) kg and a diameter of 10 km. Determine the gravitational force of
attraction on a 10-kg space probe
(a.) When it is 1000 km from the center of the star.
(b.) At the instant of impact with the surface of the star.
SOLUTION

F

Gm1m2
r2

6.673 u10 2 u10 10
1000 u10
6.673 u10 2 u10 10
5 u10 
11

F

30

3 2 

11

F

1.335 u 109 N ............................... Ans.

30

3 2

5.34 u1013 N ............................... Ans.

1-17 Determine the weight W, in U.S. customary units, of a 75-kg steel bar under standard conditions (sea level at
a latitude of 45 degrees).
SOLUTION

W

mg

75 9.81

735.75 N 0.2248 lb/N

5

165.4 lb ...................... Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

1-18 Determine the mass m, in SI units, for a 500-lb steel beam under standard conditions (sea level at a latitude of
45 degrees).
SOLUTION

W
m

W
g

500
32.2

mg

15.528 slug 14.59 kg/slug

227 kg ........................ Ans.

1-19 An automobile has a 440 cubic inch engine displacement. Determine the engine displacement in liters.
SOLUTION

440 in. 16.39 u10
3

V

3

mm3 /in.3 10 1 cm/mm 10 3 L/cm3
3

V

7.21 L ................................................................... Ans.

1-20 How many barrels of oil are contained in 100 kL of oil? One barrel (petroleum) equals 42.0 gal.
SOLUTION

100 u10 L 0.2642 gal/L 1 barrel 42 gal
3

V

629 barrel .................. Ans.

1-21* Express the density, in SI units, of a specimen of material that has a specific weight of 0.025 lb/in.3
SOLUTION

J

J
g

U

Ug

· § 1000 mm ·3
in.
§ 0.025 slug · § 14.59 kg · §
¸¨
¨
¸
3 ¸¨
3
3 ¸¨
m
¹
3

U

691 kg/m 3 ............................................................... Ans.

1-22 The viscosity of crude oil under conditions of standard temperature and pressure is 7.13(10-3) N-s/m2.
Determine the viscosity of crude oil in U.S. Customary units.
SOLUTION

P

2
§ 
3 N  s ·§ 0.2248 lb · § 0.0929 m · 
3 lb  s
........... Ans.
¸ 0.1489 u 10
¨ 7.13 u 10
¸¨
2 ¸¨
2
N
ft
ft 2
¹

1-23 One acre equals 43,560 ft2. One gallon equals 231 in.3 Determine the number of liters of water required to
cover 2000 acres to a depth of 1 foot.
SOLUTION
3

V

§ 43,560 ft 2 · § 12 in · § gal · § 3.785 L ·
2000 acre  ft ¨
¸¨
¸ ¨
¸
3 ¸¨
V

2.47 u 109 L .............................................................. Ans.

1-24 The stress in a steel bar is 150 MPa. Express the stress in appropriate U.S. Customary units (ksi) by using the
values listed in Table 1-6 for length and force as defined values.
SOLUTION

§ ft ·
stress 150 u 10 N/m 0.2248 lb/N 0.0929 m /ft ¨
¸
6

stress

2

2

21.75 u 103 lb/in.2

6

2

2

21.75 ksi ......................................... Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

1-25 By definition, 1 hp = 33,000 ft-lb/min and 1 W = 1 N-m/s. Verify the conversion factors listed in Table 1-6
for converting power from U.S. Customary units to SI units by using the values listed for length and force as
defined values.
SOLUTION

ft  lb · § 4.448 N ·§ 0.3048 m ·§ min ·
Nm
§
1 hp ¨ 33, 000
............. Ans.
¸¨
¸¨
¸¨
¸ 745.7
ft
s
1-26 The specific heat of air under standard atmospheric pressure, in SI units, is 1003 N-m/kg-qK. Determine the
specific heat of air under standard atmospheric pressure in U.S. customary units (ft-lb/slug-qR).
SOLUTION

lb ·§ 3.281 ft · § 14.59 kg · § 5 qK ·
¸¨
¸¨
¸¨
¸
1003 N  m kgqK §¨© 0.2248
N
6000 lb  ft

slugqR

.......................................................... Ans.

1-27 Newton’s law of gravitation can be expressed in equation form as

F

G

m1m2
r2

If F is a force, m1 and m2 are masses, and r is a distance, determine the dimensions of G.
SOLUTION

G

Fr 2
m1m2

ML T L
2

2

M M

§ L3 ·
.......................................... Ans.
¨
2 ¸

1-28 The elongation of a bar of uniform cross section subjected to an axial force is given by the equation
G PL EA . What are the dimensions of E if G and L are lengths, P is a force, and A is an area?
SOLUTION

E

PL
GA

ML T L
L L
2

§ M · §F·
¨
¨ 2 ¸ ...................................... Ans.
2 ¸

2

1-29 The period of oscillation of a simple pendulum is given by the equation

T

k L g , where T is in seconds,

L is in feet, g is the acceleration due to gravity, and k is a constant. What are the dimensions of k for
dimensional homogeneity?
SOLUTION
12

k

T g L

§ L T2 ·
T ¨
¸

1 (dimensionless) ............................... Ans.

1-30 An important parameter in fluid flow problems involving thin films is the Weber number (We) which can be
expressed in equation form as

U v2L
V

We

where U is the density of the fluid, v is a velocity, L is a length, and V is the surface tension of the fluid. If the
Weber number is dimensionless, what are the dimensions of the surface tension V?
SOLUTION

V

U v2L
We

M L L T L
2

3

1
7

§M · §F·
¨ 2 ¸ ¨ ¸ ................................ Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

1-31 In the dimensionally homogeneous equation

P Mc 

A I

V

V is a stress, A is an area, M is a moment of a force, and c is a length. Determine the dimensions of P and I.
SOLUTION

ML2 T 2 L

P 

I
L2

§ M ·
¨
2 ¸
Therefore

§ M · 2 § ML ·
P ¨
L ¨ 2 ¸
2 ¸

ML T L L ...................................................... Ans.

M LT
2

I

F ............................................... Ans.

2

4

2

1-32 In the dimensionally homogeneous equation

Pd

1
2

mv 2  12 IZ 2

d is a length, m is a mass, v is a linear velocity, and Z is an angular velocity. Determine the dimensions of P
and I.
SOLUTION

P L

2

L
1
M §¨ ·¸  I §¨ 2 ·¸

Therefore

§ ML2 T 2 · § ML ·
P ¨
¸ ¨
¸
I

§ ML2 · 2
¨ 2 ¸ T

F ................................................ Ans.

ML ...................................................... Ans.
2

1-33 In the dimensionally homogeneous equation

Tr VQ 

J
Ib

W

W is a stress, T is a torque (moment of a force), V is a force, r and b are lengths and I is a second moment of an
area. Determine the dimensions of J and Q.
SOLUTION

§ M ·
¨
2 ¸
Therefore

ML

T 2 L

2

J

4

ML T L L ..................................................... Ans.

M LT
2

J

ML T Q
L L
2 

2

4

2

8

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

M LT L L ..................................................... Ans.

ML T
2

5

3

Q

2

1-34 In the dimensionally homogeneous equation

P Tr 

A J

W

W is a stress, A is an area, T is a torque (moment of a force), and r is a length. Determine the dimensions of P
and J.
SOLUTION

ML2 T 2 L

P 

J
L2

§ M ·
¨
2 ¸
Therefore

§ M · 2 § ML ·
P ¨
L ¨ 2 ¸
2 ¸

F ............................................... Ans.

ML T L L ..................................................... Ans.

M LT
2

2

4

J

2

sin at  D is dimensionally homogeneous. If A is a length and t is time,
1-35 The equation x Ae
determine the dimensions of x, a, b, and D.
SOLUTION 
t b

x

L e T b sin ª¬ a T  D º¼

Therefore

L 1 1 L ........................................................... Ans.
b T ...................................................................... Ans.
a 1 T .................................................................... Ans.

x

D 1 (dimensionless) ........................................................ Ans.
1-36 In the dimensionally homogeneous equation
dimensions of a, b, and w?
SOLUTION
If

x

w

L , then each term has the dimension L3 .

x 3  ax 2  bx  a 2 b x , if x is a length, what are the

Therefore

L ..................................................................... Ans.
L L ............................................................... Ans.

L
L L ............................................................... Ans.

L
3

w

3

a

2

3

b

2

Using the last term as a check,

9

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

a 2b
x

L L
2

2

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

L
3

L

1-37 Determine the dimensions of a, b, c, and y in the dimensionally homogeneous equation

Ae bt cos 1  a 2 bt  c

y

in which A is a length and t is time.
SOLUTION

y

L eb T cos ª¬

1  a 2 b T  c º
¼

Therefore

y
b T 1

L 1 1 L .......................................................... Ans.
b 1 T .................................................................... Ans.

a 1 (dimensionless) ........................................................ Ans.
c 1 (dimensionless) ........................................................ Ans.
1-38 Determine the dimensions of c, Z, k and P in the differential equation

m

d 2x
dx 
c  kx
2
dt
dt

P cosZt

in which m is a mass, x is a length, and t is time.
SOLUTION

M L  c L  k L

T 2 T
Therefore

ML T
2

c

§M ·
¨ ¸ ......................................................... Ans.

L T

ML T
2

k

L

§M · §F·
¨ 2 ¸ ¨ ¸ .................................................. Ans.

§ ML ·
P ¨ 2 ¸

Z

P cos Z T

F ............................................................. Ans.

1 T .................................................................... Ans.

1-39 Round off the following numbers to two significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.015362
(b) 55.33682
(c) 63,746.27
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)

0.015  0.015362
u 100 2.36 % ............................................. Ans.
0.015362
55  55.33682
u 100 0.609 % ............................................... Ans.
55.33682

10

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

64, 000  63, 746.27
u100
63, 746.27

(c)

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS 

0.398 % ......................................... Ans.

1-40 Round off the following numbers to two significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.837482
(b) 374.9371
(c) 937,284.9
SOLUTION

0.84  0.837482
u 100 0.301 % ............................................. Ans.
0.837482
370  374.9371
u100 1.317 % ............................................. Ans.
374.9371
940, 000  937, 284.9
u 100 0.290% ......................................... Ans.
937, 284.9

(a)
(b)
(c)

1-41 Round off the following numbers to three significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.034739
(b) 26.39473
(c) 55,129.92
SOLUTION

0.0347  0.034739
u 100 0.1123 % ......................................... Ans.
0.034739
26.4  26.39473
u 100 0.01997 % .......................................... Ans.
26.39473
55,100  55,129.92
u 100 0.0543 % ......................................... Ans.
55,129.92

(a)
(b)
(c)

1-42 Round off the following numbers to three significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.472916
(b) 826.4836
(c) 339,872.8
SOLUTION

0.473  0.472916
u 100 0.01776 % ......................................... Ans.
0.472916
826  826.4836
u 100 0.0585 % ............................................ Ans.
826.4836
340, 000  339,872.8
u 100 0.0374 % ....................................... Ans.
339,872.8

(a)
(b)
(c)

1-43 Round off the following numbers to four significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.056623
(b) 74.82917
(c) 27,382.84
SOLUTION
(a)
(b)

0.05662  0.056623
u100 5.30 u103 % ..................................... Ans.
0.056623
74.83  74.82917
u 100 1.109 u 103 % ...................................... Ans.
74.82917

11

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

27,380  27,382.84
u 100 10.37 u 103 % .................................... Ans.
27,382.84

(c)

1-44 Round off the following numbers to four significant figures. Find the percent difference between each
rounded-off number and the original number by using the original number as the reference.
(a) 0.664473
(b) 349.3378
(c) 274,918.2
SOLUTION

0.6645  0.664473
u 100 4.06 u 103 % ...................................... Ans.
0.664473
349.3  349.3378
u 100 10.82 u 103 % ...................................... Ans.
349.3378
274,900  274,918.2
u 100 6.62 u 103 % .................................... Ans.
274,918.2

(a)
(b)
(c)

1-45 The weight of the first Russian satellite, Sputnik I, was 184 lb on the surface of the earth. Determine the force
exerted on the satellite by the earth at the low and high points of its orbit which were 149 mi and 597 mi,
respectively, above the surface of the earth.
SOLUTION

Gm1m2
r2
Gme m

F
184

Therefore

3960 u 5280

2

Gme m 8.044 u1016 lb  ft 2
F
F

8.044 u1016
ª¬ 3960  149 u 5280 º¼

2

170.9 lb ......................................... Ans.

2

138.9 lb ......................................... Ans.

8.044 u 1016
ª¬ 3960  597 u 5280º¼

1-46 The planet Jupiter has a mass of 1.90(1027) kg and a radius of 7.14(107) m. Determine the force of attraction
between the earth and Jupiter when the minimum distance between the two planets is 6(1011) m.
SOLUTION

Gm1m2
r2

F

6.673 u10 5.976 u10 1.90 u10
6 u10 
11

F

24

27

11 2

2.10 u 1018 N .................... Ans.

1-47 Convert 640 acres (1 square mile) to hectares if 1 acre equals 4840 yd2 and 1 hectare equals 104 m2.
SOLUTION
2

§ 4840 yd 2 · § 3 ft · § 0.0929 m 2 · § hect ·
640
acres

¨
¸¨
¸¨ 4 ¸
¸ ¨
ft 2

12

259 hectare ............ Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

1-48 Determine the dimension of c in the dimensionally homogeneous equation

mg
1  e ct m
c

v

in which v is a velocity, m is a mass, t is time, and g is the gravitational acceleration.
SOLUTION

M L T 2

§L·
¨ ¸

c

Therefore

1  e

ML T
2

c
As a check,

ct
m

M

L T
T T
1

M 

c T M

§M ·
¨ ¸ ......................................................... Ans.

(dimensionless)

1-49 Develop an expression for the change in gravitational acceleration 'g between the surface of the earth and a
height h when h << Re.
SOLUTION

Gme m
r2

W

mg

Therefore

Gme m re2

mg e

Gme m re  h

mg
'g

2

ª 1

Gme « 

2

«¬ re  h re »¼

g  ge
Gme

ª re2  re2  2re h  h 2 º
¼
re  h re ¬
2

2

Gme

re  h
'g #

2

re

2

ª¬ 2re h  h 2 º¼

Gme 
2re h
4
re 

2Gme h
.......................................................... Ans.
re3

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