This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
1.1 PROJECT OBJECTIVE HCL Infosystems Limited is India’s premier IT System Integration company, with a strong legacy and over thirty years of experience in this domain, HCL offers System Integration services as a single-window turnkey solution, that integrate best-in-class products and solutions to meet the business needs of enterprise. HCL Infosystems wanted to implement a new System Integration Vertical in the automation sector citing their competency in the hardware, software and networking domains. HCL Infosystems wanted to implement SCADA as their new vertical and I had to conduct a market feasibility study in order to suggest certain Go-to market strategy for HCL Infosystems to enter the market. 1.2 DESCRIPTION OF THE SITUATION Lack of a Clear Business Case to justify investments on SCADA Systems dampens market potential. With increasing power requirements and improved economic forecasts in India, utilities are elevating the priority of grid management technologies such as supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. However, a significant restraint on the market is the frequent inability of utility personnel to clearly justify to approving officers of the need for investments on these systems. Consequently, vendors need to refashion approaches to SCADA system justification and work closely with SCADA personnel at different utilities to develop convincing business plans. Besides tangible benefits, many unquantifiable or unanticipated benefits can also be identified to add value to the investments and help demonstrate the importance of SCADA technology as a strategic tool for operations. This research analyses the Indian markets for power transmission SCADA systems. The study reveals important differences between the various electric utility segments and nonutility segments with power transmission application, thus providing a deeper understanding of the markets and its opportunities. It further provides a review of Government of India’s Eleventh 5 year plan on the automation sector supporting SCADA systems.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SUPPORT
SCADA is an acronym that stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. SCADA refers to a system that collects data from various sensors at a factory, plant or in other remote locations and then sends this data to a central computer which then manages and controls the data.
Fig: Typical SCADA System SCADA is a term that is used broadly to portray control and management solutions in a wide range of industries. Some of the industries where SCADA is used are Water Management
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
Systems, Electric Power, Traffic Signals, Mass Transit Systems, Environmental Control Systems, and Manufacturing Systems.
2.1 SCADA AS A SYSTEM There are many parts of a working SCADA system. A SCADA system usually includes signal hardware (input and output), controllers, networks, user interface (HMI), communications equipment and software. All together, the term SCADA refers to the entire central system. The central system usually monitors data from various sensors that are either in close proximity or off site (sometimes miles away). For the most part, the brains of a SCADA system are performed by the Remote Terminal Units (sometimes referred to as the RTU). The Remote Terminal Units consists of a programmable logic converter. The RTU are usually set to specific requirements, however, most RTU allow human intervention, for instance, in a factory setting, the RTU might control the setting of a conveyer belt, and the speed can be changed or overridden at any time by human intervention. In addition, any changes or errors are usually automatically logged for and/or displayed. Most often, a SCADA system will monitor and make slight changes to function optimally; SCADA systems are considered closed loop systems and run with relatively little human intervention. One of key processes of SCADA is the ability to monitor an entire system in real time. This is facilitated by data acquisitions including meter reading, checking statuses of sensors, etc that are communicated at regular intervals depending on the system. Besides the data being used by the RTU, it is also displayed to a human that is able to interface with the system to override settings or make changes when necessary. SCADA can be seen as a system with many data elements called points. Usually each point is a monitor or sensor. Usually points can be either hard or soft. A hard data point can be an actual monitor; a soft point can be seen as an application or software calculation. Data elements from hard and soft points are usually always recorded and logged to create a time stamp or history.
Page 4 . The HMI of a SCADA system is where data is processed and presented to be viewed and monitored by a human operator.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 2.2 USER INTERFACE (HMI) A SCADA system includes a user interface. usually called Human Machine Interface (HMI). This interface usually includes controls where the individual can interface with the SCADA system.
which can use data gathered from PLC's or RTU's to provide graphs on trends.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Fig: Typical Human Machine Interface HMI's are an easy way to standardize the facilitation of monitoring multiple RTU's or PLC's (programmable logic controllers). 2. computing was done by mainframe systems. HMI's can also be linked to a database. SCADA can come in open and non proprietary protocols. schematics for a specific sensor or machine or even make troubleshooting guides accessible. the SCADA system communicates with PLC's throughout the system network and processes information that is easily disseminated by the HMI. Smaller systems are extremely affordable and can either be purchased as a complete system or can be mixed and matched with specific components. 2. In the last decade. Wide Area Networks were later designed by RTU vendors to communicate with the RTU.4 SCADA ARCHITECTURES SCADA systems have evolved through 3 generations as follows : • First generation: "Monolithic" In the first generation. logistic info. Because RTU's and PLC's historically had no standardized method to display or present data to an operator. practically all SCADA systems include an integrated HMI and PLC device making it extremely easy to run and monitor a SCADA system. The communication protocols used were often proprietary at Page 5 . but monitoring each of them individually can be difficult. usually because they are spread out over the system. removing the need for custom made or intensive software development. Thus SCADA systems were independent systems with no connectivity to other systems.3 SCADA SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE COMPONENTS SCADA systems are an extremely advantageous way to run and monitor processes. Usually RTU's or PLC's will run a pre programmed process. Large systems can also be created with off the shelf components. Networks didn’t exist at the time SCADA was developed. SCADA system software can also be easily configured for almost any application. They are great for small applications such as climate control or can be effectively used in large applications such as monitoring and controlling a nuclear power plant or mass transit system.
WAN protocols such as Internet Protocol (IP) are used for communication between the master station and communications equipment. the most typical implementation of SCADA systems include: • Electric power generation.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA that time. • Second generation: "Distributed" The processing was distributed across multiple stations which were connected through a LAN and they shared information in real time. thus distributing functionality across a WAN rather than a LAN. Each station was responsible for a particular task thus making the size and cost of each station less than the one used in First Generation. Since both parties had vested interests in keeping security issues quiet. disk drives. and tape drives due to the use of open architecture. Due to the usage of standard protocols and the fact that many networked SCADA systems are accessible from the Internet. very few people beyond the developers and hackers knew enough to determine how secure a SCADA installation was. The first-generation SCADA system was redundant since a back-up mainframe system was connected at the bus level and was used in the event of failure of the primary mainframe system. It is easier to connect third party peripheral devices like printers. which led to significant security problems for any SCADA system that received attention from a hacker. The SCADA system utilizes open standards and protocols. the security of a SCADA installation was often badly overestimated. Around the world.5 SCADA APPLICATIONS SCADA systems are used to automate complex industrial processes where human control is impractical — systems where there are more control factors. the systems are potentially vulnerable to remote cyber-attacks. The network protocols used were still mostly proprietary. than human beings can comfortably manage. 2. and more fast-moving control factors. if it was considered at all. transmission and distribution: Page 6 . Since the protocols were proprietary. • Third generation: "Networked" These are the current generation SCADA systems which use open system architecture rather than a vendor-controlled proprietary environment.
and to take sections of the power grid online or offline. lighting and entry systems. • Manufacturing: SCADA systems manage parts inventories for just-in-time manufacturing. IEC 61850. facilities and environments: Facility managers use SCADA to control HVAC.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Electric utilities use SCADA systems to detect current flow and line voltage. • Mass transit: Transit authorities use SCADA to regulate electricity to subways. To mitigate such problems. pipe pressure and other factors. regulate industrial automation and robots. reservoir levels. • Buildings. open communication protocols such as IEC 60870-5-101 or 104. to track and locate trains and buses. to monitor the operation of circuit breakers. Open architecture SCADA systems enabled users to mix-and-match products from different Page 7 . End users who invested in a particular vendor's hardware solution often found themselves restricted to a limited choice of equipment when requirements changed (e. In the mid 1990s. • Water and sewage: State and municipal water utilities use SCADA to monitor and regulate water flow. to automate traffic signals for rail systems. • Traffic signals: SCADA regulates traffic lights. and DNP3 LAN/WAN became increasingly popular among SCADA equipment manufacturers and solution providers alike. the typical DAQ I/O manufacturer supplied equipment that communicated using proprietary protocols over a suitable-distance carrier like RS-485. and monitor process and quality control. system expansions or performance improvement). DNP3 serial. trams and trolley buses. controls traffic flow and detects out-of-order signals. 2. refrigeration units.6 TRENDS IN SCADA There is a trend for PLC and HMI/SCADA software to be more "mix-and-match". and to control railroad crossing gates.g.
the shift towards open communications continued with individual I/O manufacturers as well. By 2000.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA vendors to develop solutions that were better than those that could be achieved when restricted to a single vendor's product offering. and web based products are gaining popularity with most major vendors. not all entities responsible for deploying SCADA systems have understood the changes in accessibility and threat scope implicit in connecting a system to the internet. With the emergence of software as a service in the broader software industry. Thin clients. protocol selection. who adopted open message structures such as Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII (originally both developed by Modicon) over RS-485. VPNs and SSL. environment suitability) have restricted the adoption of Ethernet in a few specialized applications. most I/O makers offered completely open interfacing such as Modbus TCP over Ethernet and IP. 2. and latency. SCADA systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. a few vendors have begun offering application specific SCADA systems hosted on remote platforms over the Internet. While these considerations are already considered solved in other sectors of internet services. Although certain characteristics of frame-based network communication technology (determinism. Ethernet and TCP/IP based protocols are replacing the older proprietary standards. Towards the late 1990s. This removes the need to install and commission systems at the end-user's facility and takes advantage of security features already available in Internet technology. SCADA systems are coming in line with standard networking technologies. The increased convenience of end users viewing their processes remotely introduces security considerations.7 SCADA VENDORS Page 8 . the vast majority of markets have accepted Ethernet networks for HMI/SCADA. synchronization. Internet connection reliability. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has specified that electrical system data should be time-tagged to the nearest millisecond. Electrical system SCADA systems provide this Sequence of events recorder function. web portals. Some concerns include security. using Radio clocks to synchronize the RTU or distributed RTU clocks.
only SCADA systems that apply to electrical transmission. load forecasting. EMS contains a suite or modularized set of applications such as AGC. Frequently. distribution. Figure (a) shows the percentage of manufacturer use from the respondents of a recent survey on existing systems.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA SCADA systems come in a myriad of types. For the scope of this report. outage coordination. and business applications. remote clients. many vendors enter or leave the SCADA market based on corporate buy outs. traffic control. mass transit system and generation and were of substantial size were evaluated. Page 9 . and applications. They may monitor/control only a few hundred points or tens of thousands of points. water treatment. sizes.
Their current masters are based on UNIX software and workstations or workstations and servers using RISC processors in an open network environment. EMS. DMS. DMS. Company: Advanced Control Systems (ACS) Background and Strengths: ACS was founded in 1975 to supply real-time control systems and equipment to the electric utility industry. A full line of RTUs is supplied.000 RTUs. etc. SCADA/AGC. all with IED interface capabilities and various communications protocols. and EMS masters and 11.0. The term “EMS” in Figure (b) represents a consolidation of the existing installations (SCADA. including DNP 3.) shown in Figure (a).Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Figure (b) identifies future vendors being considered for new EMS procurements. ACS has delivered more than 470 SCADA. The number of vendors in the legend of Figure (b) is less than shown in Figure (a) due to industry consolidation and vendors no longer providing SCADA systems. A full line of substation equipment is offered from legacy RTUs to protocol’s converters/data concentrators to substation automation systems with or without graphical user interface Company: Siemens Page 10 . The following are vendor profiles of the top six SCADA suppliers shown in Figure (b).
communication. railroad. TeleGYR is now part of Siemens. Company: ABB Background and Strengths: ABB is one of the world’s largest suppliers of automation systems for the electric power industry. and telemetry.000 substation automation systems worldwide.8 SCADA EXPECTED LIFE AND DISPOSAL Procurement. As a result. and commissioning of a SCADA system is a time. They provide both hardware and software solutions. Siemens provides a complete range of products. major upgrades and/or replacements are performed Page 11 . steel. Siemens is a supplier of SCADA and automation systems to the electric. power. and gas utility industries as well as to industrial customers worldwide. They are a worldwide industry leader in SCADA technology. They have installed more than 5. installation.and capitalintensive process. 2. GE provides complete solutions to support T&D automation programs. gas. Company: QEI Background and Strengths: Founded in 1960 as Quindar Electronics. ABB also integrates their own microprocessor-based relays with SCADA systems. Major products include the RANGER system. QEI designs and manufactures SCADA equipment and systems. Company: Alstom ESCA Background and Strengths: Alstom provides small. they provide hardware and software in substation automation and real-time energy information systems.and large-scale SCADA/EMS/DMS systems. petroleum. Products include the TDMS 2000 and RTUs. pipeline. The company supplies industries such as water. Products include e-terra Global energy solutions. Other products include SICAM controllers and RTUs. water. Primarily focused on the electric power industry. Company: GE Network Solutions Background and Strengths: Currently owned by GE Power systems. traffic control.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Background and Strengths: Siemens Power Transmission and Distribution was formed to focus specifically in the operations and needs of domestic and international electric utility markets. The ABB network management specializes in SCADA/DMS/EMS applications software.
The only exception is in the nuclear industry. in addition to the complexity of these systems. CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY OF STUDY 3. With the multitude of requirements that need to be met for a control system replacement. there is almost no aftermarket value for these components. Much of it still uses analog technology as compared to newer digital hardware. many plant owners choose to limp along with older controls rather than upgrade. The average life of a SCADA system is typically 8 to 15 years. Many nuclear plants still have original control system hardware that could be 20 to 30 years old. This is especially true of plants that are near the end of their operating licenses. A web search for aftermarket SCADA hardware confirmed this. once removed. This corresponds with the expected life of typical hardware used. As a result.1 CUSTOMERs PERCEPTION OF SCADA SCADA is used in nearly every industry and public infrastructure project — where automation increases efficiency. Substation and control center hardware. is typically discarded or stored indefinitely in a warehouse or back room. One utility in fact gave its old RTU cabinets to its employees to use as smokers.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA infrequently. Page 12 . which apparently works quite well.
managers need to control multiple factors and the interactions between those factors. you’re laying your reputation on the line and making a major commitment for your company.2 EVALUATING SCADA SYSTEM SCADA can do a lot for the clients — but how can the clients make sure that you’re really getting the full benefits of SCADA? Evaluating complex systems can be tricky — especially if you have to learn a new technology while still doing your everyday job. real-time data about key processes that affect your operations? 3. maybe you don’t. When you make a recommendation about a permanent system like that. these examples don’t show how deep and complex SCADA data can be. there are also some pitfalls to a hasty. unconsidered SCADA implementation: • You can spend a fortune on unnecessary cost overruns Page 13 .1.1. A SCADA system is a major. But think about your operations and all the parameters that affect your bottom-line results: • Does your equipment need an uninterrupted power supply and/or a controlled temperature and humidity environment? • Do you need to know — in real time — the status of many different components and devices in a large complex system? • • • Do you need to measure how changing inputs affect the output of your operations? What equipment do you need to control. In every industry.1 VALUE OF SCADA Maybe you work in one of the fields listed in the previous section. from a distance? Where are you lacking accurate. But you’ve got to be able to make an informed decision. in real time. because the stakes are incredibly high. And as much as SCADA can help you improve your operations.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA What’s more. SCADA systems provide the sensing capabilities and the computational power to track everything that’s relevant to your operations. 3. business-to-business purchase that your company will live with for maybe as long as 10 to 15 years.
You know how punishing on equipment your sites can be. you can end up with an inflexible system that just meets your needs today.1. control relays and a communications network to make a complete SCADA system. Yes. but can’t easily expand as your needs grow 3. The right SCADA system will support both your legacy network and LAN. At every site. it’s your choice of a master station and RTUs that really determine the quality of your SCADA system. gradual transition. you want an RTU that can support your expected growth over a reasonable period of time. Keep in Page 14 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • • Even after going way over budget. transitioning to LAN is probably one of your longterm goals. some sensors are better than others. you can STILL end up with a system that doesn’t really meet all your needs Or just as bad. • SCADA RTU requirements Your SCADA RTUs need to communicate with all your on-site equipment and survive under the harsh conditions of an industrial environment. but a glance at a spec sheet will tell you everything you need to know to choose between them. Here’s a checklist of things you should expect from a quality RTU: a) Sufficient capacity to support the equipment at your site … but not more capacity than you actually will use. • Sensors and Networks Sensors and control relays are essentially commodity items.3 WHAT CUSTOMERS WANT FEOM THE SCADA SYSTEM • The Two Most Important Components of SCADA System Although you need sensors. An IP LAN/WAN is the easiest kind of network to work with. But you don’t have to move to LAN immediately or all at once to get the benefits of SCADA. and if you don’t yet have LAN capability throughout all your facilities. but it’s simply wasteful to spend your budget on excess capacity that you won’t use. b) Rugged construction and ability to withstand extremes of temperature and humidity. enabling you to make a graceful.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA mind that your SCADA system needs to be the most reliable element in your facility. New firmware can be easily downloaded to NVRAM storage. As I noted above. There’s no need to pay personnel to watch a board 24 hours a day. If equipment needs human attention. but it does come in handy for some users. b) 24/7. f) Intelligent control. d) Redundant communication ports. Here’s a checklist of SCADA master must-haves: a) Flexible. g) Real-time clock for accurate date/time stamping of reports. NVRAM retains data even when power is lost. the SCADA master can automatically page or email directly to repair technicians. c) Secure redundant power supply. Network connectivity is as important to SCADA operations as a power supply. no excuses. Plus. You need your SCADA system up and working 24/7. programmable response to sensor inputs. e) Non-volatile memory (NVRAM) for storing software and/or firmware. h) Watchdog timer to ensure that the RTU restarts after a power failure. automatic pager and email notification. Look for a system that provides easy tools for programming soft alarms (reports of complex events that track combinations of sensor inputs and date/time statements) and soft controls (programmed control responses to sensor inputs). often over LAN — so you can keep your RTUs’ capabilities up to date without excessive site visits. ideally. A secondary serial port or internal modem will keep your RTU online even if the LAN fails. two power inputs. Your RTU should support battery power and. • SCADA Master requirements Your SCADA master should display information in the most useful ways to human operators and intelligently regulated your managed systems. Page 15 . sophisticated SCADA remotes can control local systems by themselves according to programmed responses to sensor inputs. RTUs with multiple communication ports easily support a LAN migration strategy. This isn’t necessary for every application.
proprietary protocols. You want a system that displays reports in plain English. The best SCADA systems support multiple backup masters.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA c) Detailed information display. Support for multiple open protocols safeguards your SCADA system against unplanned obsolescence. there are still many sensors and instruments that require their own drivers. and they start to believe that all alarms are nonessential alarms. Eventually they stop responding even to critical alarms. in separate locations. geo diverse backup. Look for a SCADA master that includes tools to filter out nuisance alarms. e) Expansion capability. A SCADA system is a long term investment that will last for as long as 10 to 15 years. a second master on the network automatically takes over. with a complete description of what activity is happening and how you can manage it. g) Support for multiple protocols and equipment types. The ability to write your own drivers within your SCADA environment becomes a key factor in your ability to use existing hardware with new hardware. The SCADA package that you choose must be able to communicate with legacy hardware as well as the latest hardware. If the primary SCADA master fails. Does the SCADA package integrate with both existing and new hardware? More often than not you have an existing infrastructure such as programmable logic controllers (PLCs) and remote terminal units (RTUs) to which you need to add new devices to optimize your automation system.1. Single-vendor solutions aren’t a great idea — vendors sometimes drop support for their products or even just go out of business. Page 16 . d) Nuisance alarm filtering. Early SCADA systems were built on closed. with no interruption of monitoring and control functions. While OLE for process control (OPC) has become the defacto industry standard to communicate to automation devices. 3. such as programmable automation controllers (PACs). So you need to make sure it will support your future growth for up to 15 years. f) Redundant.4 FIVE MOST IMPORTANT QUERIES A CUSTOMER MAY ASK 1. Nuisance alarms desensitize your staff to alarm reports.
Modbus is another popular industrial protocol that is often used to access registers on RTUs and sensors. A decent-sized application easily ends up using a few thousand tags. you have to go through the painful process of getting another purchasing order Page 17 . TCP/IP and UDP are some of the other low-level protocols that you can use to communicate with different hardware. 2. What is the total cost incurred after SCADA system is deployed? Most SCADA vendors charge based on the number of tags you use while developing your SCADA system. you can communicate with any existing hardware while adding the newest hardware as your system progresses. If you do reach the limit. With a truly open SCADA system. you typically develop your application with an eye toward the number of tags you have used up so far.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA In addition to OPC client functionality. With the SCADA vendors charging a premium for each tag used. Figure: Typical open architecture HMI/SCADA system connecting to both legacy and the latest hardware.
To reduce costs. you typically turn to separate analysis packages or. How flexible is the SCADA package when the customer wants to add advanced analysis features? While automation systems are designed to optimize by improving uptime and yield. If your SCADA package is flexible enough to double as a programming language to implement custom features and perform advanced analysis functions. which can lead you to exceed your budget if you do not plan properly in the beginning. Page 18 . at best. you greatly reduce the development time and training costs associated with having to learn different packages to meet your final system specifications. invoke a programming language such as Visual Basic or even C from within your SCADA package. SCADA systems are often required to perform advanced analysis and be flexible to implement features not typical of traditional SCADA systems. investigate packages that do not charge by the number of tags but still deliver the performance requirements. vendors charge by the number of tags for their run-time systems. For instance. if you are acquiring vibration data and want to perform fast Fourier transform to discern if your system vibration is above the specified limits. even during the deployment phase.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA approved and devoting time toward all the overhead associated with it instead of concentrating on developing your application. 3. Once the development is complete.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Figure: Specialized development environments such as National Instruments LabVIEW provide the flexibility and integrated HMI and logic required by modern HMI/SCADA systems. 5. Except for the convenience of a single purchase order. Which operating systems can the customer use to run the SCADA application? Page 19 . However. you can minimize your development time considerably. Can the customer program both the controller logic and its HMI/SCADA functionality in the same environment? Many times you prefer to buy most of your hardware and software from a single vendor. You can also save on training costs because you do not have to be proficient in two different environments. if you can program both your control hardware logic and the SCADA in the same environment. you could buy equipment from different vendors as long as the specifications meet your requirements. 4.
standalone network. touch panel manufacturers have developed many touch panels to support these operating systems. SCADA networks and corporate IT systems are often bridged as a result of two key changes in information management practices. the security strategy for utility corporate network infrastructures rarely accounts for the fact that access to these systems might allow unauthorized access and control of SCADA systems.2 MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE SCADA SYSTEM At the heart of the issue of SCADA system security are three major misconceptions that are commonly held by utility managers. these connections are implemented without a full understanding of the corresponding security risks. Page 20 . To do this. listed on the following page. In fact. Unfortunately. However. many utilities have added connections between corporate networks and SCADA networks in order to allow corporate decision makers to obtain instant access to critical data about the status of their operational systems. you need to make sure that the SCADA system can run on different operating systems. Often. The report points to the misconceptions. Linux and Macintosh OSs are not as popular in this field but should be considered nevertheless.” Most SCADA systems were originally built before and often separate from other corporate networks. as the major obstacles to the implementation of the best possible information security strategies. In reality. the demand for remote access computing has encouraged many utilities to establish connections to the SCADA system that enable SCADA engineers to monitor and control the system from points on the corporate network. with Windows CE and Windows XP Embedded gaining popularity because of their relatively lower costs and smaller software footprints. As a result. First. IT managers typically operate on the assumption that these systems cannot be accessed through corporate networks or from remote access points.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA All HMI/SCADA systems typically run on Windows XP and now Windows Vista operating systems. A great option to keep the cost of the total system down is to use this low-cost software where possible. this belief is usually fallacious. • MISCONCEPTION #1 – “The SCADA system resides on a physically separate. Second. 3.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
MISCONCEPTION #2 – “Connections between SCADA systems and other corporate networks are protected by strong access controls.”
Many of the interconnections between corporate networks and SCADA systems require the integration of systems with different communications standards. The result is often an infrastructure that is engineered to move data successfully between two unique systems. Due to the complexity of integrating disparate systems, network engineers often fail to address the added burden of accounting for security risks. As a result, access controls designed to protect SCADA systems from unauthorized access through corporate networks are usually minimal, which is largely attributable to the fact that network managers often overlook key access points connecting these networks. Although the strategic use of internal firewalls and intrusion detection systems (IDS), coupled with strong password policies, is highly recommended, few utilities protect all entry points to the SCADA system in this manner.
MISCONCEPTION #3 – “SCADA systems require specialized knowledge, making them difficult for network intruders to access and control.”
The above misconception assumes that all attackers of a SCADA system lack the ability to access information about their design and implementation. These assumptions are inappropriate given the changing nature of utility system vulnerabilities in an interconnected environment. Due to the fact that utility companies represent a key component of one of the nation’s critical infrastructures, these companies are likely targets of coordinated attacks by “cyber-terrorists”, as opposed to disorganized “hackers.” Such attackers are highly motivated, well-funded, and may very well have “insider” knowledge. Further, a well-equipped group of adversaries focused on the goal of utility operations disruption is certain to use all available means to gain a detailed understanding of SCADA systems and their potential vulnerabilities. Furthering this risk is the increasing availability of information describing the operations of SCADA systems. To support competition in product choices, several standards for the interconnection of SCADA systems and remote terminal units (RTUs) have been published, as have standards for communication between control centres, acceptance of alarms, issuance of controls, and polling of data objects. Further, SCADA providers publish the design and maintenance documents for their products and sell toolkits to help develop software that implements the various standards used in SCADA environments.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
Finally, the efforts of utility companies to make efficient use of SCADA system information across their company has led to development of “open” standard SCADA systems. As a result of this development, SCADA system security is often only as strong as the security of the utility’s corporate network. While the RTUs on a network may be difficult to access outside of the dedicated serial lines, it is only moderately difficult to penetrate the control panel for the SCADA manager through the corporate network and quickly ‘learn’ commands by watching actions that are carried out on the screen. Attacks on highly complex systems become much easier when attackers first penetrate the workstations of SCADA operators. 3.3 TYPICAL REQUIREMENT OF A CUSTOMER 3.3.1 GENERAL CONDITIONS AND MANUFACTURING FACILITIES 1. SCADA Vendor should have complete control over the design,
modification/alteration of basic structure of RCC Software and RTU such as CPU, its programming, communication protocol, bus configuration, input/output modules and analog modules. Detail circuitry of all such module should be available with the vendor. 2. SCADA Vendor should have commissioned at least three complete SCADA systems for reputed organisation like I.R., SEBs, NTPC, ONGC & other reputed Pvt &PSU organisations.
3. SCADA Vendor should have adequate no. of service centres in India. Mention
number of service centres available in India. 4. SCADA Vendor should have adequate covered accommodation for the purpose of effective storage of inward raw material, and the finished product awaiting dispatch and prototype / routine inspection 5. SCADA Vendor should have a proper drawing office to support the designs/ development of product 6. SCADA Vendor should have a clean and pollution free environment, and is taking adequate safety precautions during the production 7. SCADA Vendor should have items like fire extinguishers, safety warning board, shock treatment charts and medical first aid kit in their premises.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
8. SCADA Vendor should carry out regular employee training programs for regular up-gradation of the knowledge and skills of the employees. 3.3.2 MANPOWER REQUIREMENT 1. SCADA Vendor should have dedicated group of professionals for SCADA development and support especially software development personals.
2. Number of qualified engineers (B.Tech) degree holders employed 3. Whether they are associated for the last five to ten year continuously in the field
of SCADA. (Relevant Certificates to this extent are required to be submitted.)
4. SCADA Vendor should have adequate staff /man power to commission SCADA
system anywhere in India and have adequate service network/ centres in the country. 5. SCADA Vendor should have adequate number of software and hardware engineers conversant with SCADA system communication technique and knowledge of communication protocol preferably on IEC 870. Whether Supplier have in house capability to write/develop/test communication protocols.
6. Whether software engineers employed with firm have adequate experience in
multiple platform programming like WINDOWS, .net, Linux, VB, VC++, ASP etc. 3.3.3 QUALITY CONTROL REQUIREMENTS 1. SCADA Vendor should have acquired ISO-9000 certification for the product broadly, for which approval is being sought 2. SCADA Vendor should have the system of easy tractability of the product from the raw-material stage to the finished product stage to the finished product stage is available 3. SCADA Vendor should have a system of monitoring the supplied product complaints. 4. SCADA Vendor should have an effective quality control system to monitor quality control. • Inward raw material
3. monitoring/validation of the action taken.3. Stage inspection details. Current injection set. The System of documentation in respect of following should be available. Various parameters to maintain the control over the manufacturing.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • Stage inspection at various assembly stages such as PCB inspection before and after soldering inspection. MODEM and simulators to simulate field signals. Transducer testing. 3. corrective action taken thereof. 1. Page 24 . Details regarding the final testing and dispatch to the customer in proper packed condition. 2. The Quality manual of SCADA Vendor indicating the extent of control over production and testing should be available. • • • • Incoming raw material with the reference of suppliers as well as internal test. • Rejection at the customer and its warranty replacement e. Flow process chart. A degree/diploma holder should be the head of the inspection / testing / final control section with 5 years of experience in the relevant fields. Variable and stabilised ac voltage source. IC functionality check.4 QUALITY ASSUARANCE REQUIREMENTS 1. • • Inspection of the final assembled product to confirm adherence to the requirement / specification Test equipment to test designed feature of SCADA system. System for calibration of testing and measuring instruments. Details regarding stage inspection and test results. documentation of problems reported from field. modem functionality test etc.g. Variable PF source of adequate range. SCADA Vendor should have the Quality assurance plan for the product detailing following aspect: • • • • Organization chart.
too much information about a utility company corporate network is easily available through routine public queries. employee names. Some common architectural weaknesses include the following: ➢ Configuration of file transfer protocol (FTP). Page 25 .4. Network architecture weaknesses can increase the risk that a compromise from the Internet could ultimately result in compromise of the SCADA system. Examples of this vulnerability are listed below: ➢ Websites often provide data useful to network intruders about company structure. • Insecure Network Architecture The network architecture design is critical in offering the appropriate amount of segmentation between the Internet.4 SECURITY CONSIIDERATIONS 3. The following section outlines several common system vulnerabilities found on SCADA and corporate networks that impact the relative security of SCADA systems: • Public Information Availability Often.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 3. corporate networks and SCADA systems are often linked. and even corporate network system names ➢ Domain name service (DNS) servers permit “zone transfers” providing IP addresses. server names. With pressure from deregulation forcing the rapid adoption of open access capabilities. and e-mail servers sometimes inadvertently and unnecessarily provides internal corporate network access. This information can be used to initiate a more focused attack against the network. the company’s corporate network. and the SCADA network. and e-mail information. web. e-mail addresses.1 COMMON SECURITY VULNERABILITIES As described in the previous section. which means that the security of the SCADA system is only as strong as the security of the corporate network. vulnerabilities in corporate networks are increasing rapidly.
2 ELECTRONIC SECURITY 3. Figure shows the actions taken by respondents when they were attacked. approximately 56% of respondents reported unauthorized computer use in the past 12 months. it does provide a baseline for the types of attacks perpetrated and damage done by unauthorized users in almost all the SCADA implementation.1 ATTACKS Attacks on electronic systems have become a reality for many companies and electric utilities implementing SCADA are no exception. IDS. or virtual private network (VPN) systems consistent with other networks ➢ Dial-up modem access is authorized unnecessarily and maintenance dial-ups often fail to implement corporate dial access policies ➢ Firewalls and other network access control mechanisms are not implemented internally. This survey is not focused on the electric utility industry (4% of respondents were from utilities). Figure shows the data gathered from the survey. The downward trend in reported attacks may be somewhat misleading. Respondents cited fear of negative publicity or exploitation by competitors as primary reasons for not reporting. Page 26 . as opposed to organized patterns of attacks over time 3. According to the survey.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA ➢ Network connections with corporate partners are not secured by firewall. slightly less than the numbers reported in the previous 4 years.2. The report also shows an increasing trend toward not reporting unauthorized use of computer systems. network security staff can only recognize individual attacks.4. leaving little to no separation between different network segments • Lack of Real-Time Monitoring ➢ Vast amounts of data from network security devices overwhelm utility information security resources rendering monitoring attempts futile ➢ Even when intrusion detection systems are implemented.4. This section discusses the types of attacks typically seen and the defence tools used to ward off these attacks.
they are successful 95% of the time. as shown in Figure.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Although documented evidence of attacks on utility systems is sparse. 70% of their electric utility clients experienced at least one major attack in the first half of 2009. denial of service. Types of attacks and/or misuse include viruses. typically use the internet as a source of attack. Since many attackers are not caught. pointed to independent hackers and disgruntled employees as the most common. net abuse. in addition to viruses. it is not clear whether this data is based only on those who are caught or whether these numbers are base on conjecture by the respondents. including system penetration and denial of service. survey respondents. and others. compared with 57% in the last half of 2008. Regarding types of attackers.2 ATTACK TOOLS An attacker need not be an accomplished programmer to penetrate a network or computer system. Viruses are the most common type of attack. laptop theft. foreign corporations.4. 3. the threat is real. system penetration. Several tools are available to either gain access to or learn more about a system targeted for attack. the survey found an increasing trend toward internet-based attacks compared to inside attacks or remote dial-in. According to security firm Riptech (now owned by Symantec). Domestic competitors. Figure shows types of attacks/misuse and their trends during the past four years. One can also see from this figure that several attack types show an increasing trend. This section gives a brief description and some examples of several types of tools of this nature.2. Riptech also reports that when they try to penetrate a utility’s network. and foreign governments were also significant sources of attack. Indeed. These two attack types. Page 27 .
Examples include ToneLoc and THC-Scan. Brute force attack tools simply try every possible character combination that could be entered as a password. PhoneSweep is a commercially available program that can differentiate between modems and faxes. Ethereal is a UNIX/LINUX version that is also freely available. The intent of this software is to try multiple login attempts. war dialers can also be downloaded from the internet. Lophtcrack is a commercially available program that costs about $250 and is capable of performing brute force and dictionary attacks. ➢ Packet Sniffers and Protocol Analyzers Packet sniffers intercept data being transmitted between computers in a TCP/IP network. Port scan programs can then be used to determine which ports are being used. except instead of dialing phone numbers they ping ranges of IP addresses to determine which ones are used. Cost for this program is approximately $1. ➢ War Dialers War dialers use a single modem or a bank of modems to dial a range of numbers to determine whether a particular phone line has a modem connected to it. Like password crackers.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA ➢ Password Crackers The term password cracker is basically self explanatory. If this is the case. the attacker can then attempt to gain access to this modem using a password cracker or other tool. Nmap is an example of a tool that can do ping sweeps and port scans. Brute force attacks can obviously take longer but also have the ability to crack more passwords. Dictionary attack tools use common words or phrases that often appear in passwords.000. dictionary or brute force. typically using one of two methods. A bevy of password cracking programs is available free on the internet. ➢ Ping Sweep and Port Scan Programs Ping sweep and port scan programs work on TCP or UDP networks. Ping sweep programs work similarly to war dialers. It is freely available on the internet and works on Windows-based machines. This requires that the packet sniffer be in the path between sender and Page 28 .
3 ATTACK SCENARIOS As shown in the previous section.g. Plant code that opens a “back door” to allow easy access in the future. fraggle. 5. Change data such as billing information to disrupt financial operations. thereby effectively locking out legitimate traffic. an attacker has several options to choose from if his or her target is an electric utility. many products are available freely from the internet. but never acknowledges the connection so that many ports are left open on the target machine(s).. Change protective device settings to make a protective relay trip when it shouldn’t. circuit overload). Ethereal.4. 4. SYNflood sends connection requests (SYN packets) to the intended target. Protocol analyzers take raw packet data and attempt to determine the protocol used and the information being transmitted by each packet. mentioned in the previous section. ➢ Denial of Service Tools Denial of service (DOS) attack tools work by flooding a network with either legitimate or malformed packets of data. 3. Take direct control of devices in substations and/or generation plants.2. He or she could: 1. there are several ways to gain access to a networked system. 6. also performs sniffing and protocol analysis. Once a system has been penetrated.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA receiver. 2. thus taking the system out of service and/or causing damage to equipment. or both. Plant malicious code or a “logic bomb” that executes on a given event or at a preselected time to disrupt the system. Perform a “man in the middle” attack to intercept and change data to deceive system operators into thinking the system is in a condition that it is not (e. not trip when it should. Some tools come with several malformed packet types known to cause certain systems to crash. and SYNflood. 3. Examples of these tools are smurf. Page 29 . shutting these facilities down. The operators may therefore take unnecessary or damaging action to mitigate this condition. Like other tools.
game hosting). and special characters. name. with at least one special character or digit and mixed-case character. Of course. Strong passwords are defined as passwords of six characters or more. Strong passwords are based on a 90-character set of letters. These tools include passwords. or acronym. The following sections provide a brief description of each of these tools.Table shows a comparison of the time it takes a password cracking program to crack passwords of different lengths for strong passwords (require brute-force cracking) and for dictionary passwords. ➢ Passwords Passwords can be an effective security method. An attacker could initiate a denial of service (DOS) or distributed denial of service (DDOS) attack that basically ties up all network resources and prevents legitimate traffic from getting through a network. firewalls. numbers.4. numbers. that do not form a pronounceable word. Take resources hostage for other purposes (e.g. degrading performance of the system for the tasks it was designed to do. virtual private networks.143word UNIX spell-check dictionary that contains words.2. intrusion detection systems. date. 3. and access control. Two factors that influence their effectiveness are whether the passwords are strong passwords and whether they are encrypted..Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 7. and acronyms. Dictionary passwords in this case are based on the 25. common names. system penetration is not necessarily even required. Page 30 .4 DEFENCE TOOLS Several tools are also available to defend systems.
especially those of six characters or longer.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Table: Comparison of times to crack dictionary vs. Signature detection systems match packets with known intrusion characteristics and. strong passwords As one can see from the table. They can be set up to detect internal abusers. A simple software firewall called TinyFirewall is available to run on Microsoft Windows-based machines. nor do they support password encryption. on the other hand. ➢ Firewalls A firewall serves as a barrier to traffic crossing the boundary of a network. Of course. the strongest password is no better than a weak password. for instance. determine whether an attack is occurring. Anomaly detection compares system behavior with a profile of past behavior to determine whether an intrusion is taking place. if a potential intruder can sniff a network and see the password in clear text. external abusers. They are often set up with a buffer zone. The DMZ allows web servers. Page 31 . Intrusion detection systems fall into one of two categories: signature detection systems or anomaly detection systems. Both system types require care in setting sensitivity as well as monitoring of event logs. to provide information to outside customers without having to get through the firewall. Standalone firewalls are manufactured by companies like Cisco Systems and Nokia. ➢ Intrusion Detection Systems Intrusion detection systems (IDS) are used to detect unauthorized use of a computer network. often do not support a full character set for passwords. between the protected network and the outside world. strong passwords. Firewalls can be either stand-alone devices or software running on a computer. or both. are almost impossible to crack using brute force methods. It is therefore important that passwords not be transmitted in clear text. Firewalls allow only packets satisfying predetermined rules to get from outside a network to the inside or vice versa. Several tools are available for password encryption for workstations and servers. based on sensitivity settings. or DMZ. Intelligent devices in substations.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
➢ Virtual Private Networks Virtual private networks (VPNs) tunnel through open IP-based networks by encrypting data to provide a secure connection. VPNs can encrypt just the data packet payload or the whole packet, including the source and destination address. In the latter case, a new packet header with a new IP address is added. VPN devices in this case are matched so that each has a compatible address. Once a packet is received by a VPN device, the packet is decrypted and, if the entire packet was encrypted, the dummy address is stripped off. The packet is then routed to its proper destination. VPNs typically use the tripledata encryption standard (3DES or triple DES) with 128- to 168-bit encryption. Vendors of these systems include Cisco Systems, Netgear, and Nokia. ➢ Access Control Access control can include the control of physical access to computer systems. It can also refer to electronic access. For electronic access, control measures are identified as one, two, or three factor authentication. The three factors are: ○ Something you have (e.g., ID card) ○ Something you know (e.g., password) ○ Something you are (e.g., fingerprint) Obviously the most secure authentication and access control would incorporate all three, but this is seldom the case in actual systems. Two-factor authentication is sometimes used, but single-factor authentication is still commonplace for many systems. RSA security is a leader in two-factor authentication systems. According to the RSA website (http://www.rsasecurity.com/), their SecurID cards are the most popular two-factor identification systems in the world. Biometrics is the term typically used to describe the third factor. Several methods of using biometrics to verify identity are available. Factors checked by various systems include fingerprints, retinas, iris, face patterns, hand geometry, signature, or voice recognition. Although costs for these devices are decreasing, they do not appear to be used widely. Perhaps one of the reasons is that at least some of them are quite easy to spoof. According to a recent PC Magazine article, fingerprint
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
scanners could be spoofed by simply breathing on the sensor, making the last fingerprint reappear. Some face recognition sensors could be spoofed by a still photo. Iris sensors could similarly be fooled by placing a photograph of a person’s eye on someone else’s face.14 Newer products are addressing some of these problems but it appears for the most part that biometric devices are not quite ready for prime time. 220.127.116.11 USAGE OF DEFENCE TOOLS Respondents to the survey report use several tools to defend against attacks (see Figure). Most common among these are anti-virus software, firewalls, access control, and physical security. Intrusion detection is also becoming a more commonly used tool, as well as encrypted files. Most of the technologies in Figure in the previous section are fairly self explanatory.
Information specific to electric utilities in comparison indicates that perhaps this industry is falling behind. According to the Newton-Evans report, use of defence tools among utilities lags well behind industry in general. Figure shows that most respondents use passwords as a primary means of protection. Only two-thirds of respondents use virus protection as compared to 99% in the survey. Less than half of the respondents use any measure other than these to defend against attacks. A trend that exacerbates the problem for utilities is the increasing use of the internet for applications. Figure shows current and planned implementation of applications using internet technology. Notice that in every application category there is planned expansion in the use of the internet. Of the respondents, nearly 40% either currently use the internet for supervisory control (17%) or plan to do so (21%).
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
Figure: Current/future implementation of functions using internet technology As mentioned previously, NERC has been involved with the security of electric utility systems. Its Urgent Action Standard 1200, which was issued in August 2003, is an attempt to standardize and enforce compliance with cyber-security principles. The standard mandates that every entity involved with the generation, transmission, or distribution of electric power must perform several steps, including: 1. Identify its critical cyber assets. 2. Identify its physical and electronic perimeters. 3. Implement physical and electronic access controls. 4. Monitor physical and electronic access. 5. Identify response actions for physical and electronic incidents. 6. Identify recovery plans in the case of an attack.
3.4.3 PHYSICAL SECURITY Physical security at electric power substations and generation facilities varies from installation to installation depending on level of risk, level of impact, and cost of implementation. Cost is a particularly important factor as a result of the competitive pressures brought on by deregulation. IEEE Std. 1402-2000, “IEEE Guide for Electric Power
building systems. selective access. and locks. Examples of physical barriers include fences. a utility performing transmission. and generation. distribution. 14022000 Effectiveness of Security Methods Page 35 . virus scans. patrols. dial-back verification. Examples of other types of security measures are lighting. encryption. 1402-2000. communications. and a utility performing transmission and distribution only. The three utilities are a hydro-electric utility.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Substation Physical and Electronic Security. Table: Three sample electric power utilities and implementation of IEEE Std. walls. The main categories of physical security at electric power substations are physical barriers and electronic barriers. video surveillance systems.” is available as a resource for planning and implementing security measures. buildings. Examples of electronic barriers include photoelectric/motion sensing. Table identifies three sample electric power utilities and their implementation of IEEE Std. and internal and external information restrictions. computer security systems. landscaping. passwords. and encoding.
and electronic protection) were reported to be completely effective. provide an indication of the effectiveness of security methods used by respondents in an urban substation. motion detectors. shown in Table. The survey results.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA A security survey was performed and documented in IEEE Std. signs. Some of the methods used least often (alarms systems. Table: Results of security survey on effectiveness of security methods Page 36 . and special locks are the most common security methods employed. 1402-2000. these methods were not found to be completely effective and can be defeated. The respondents were from various utilities. One general observation is that lights. Although generally effective according to the majority of the respondents.
24 191. in Lakh) 612376.84 18659 Total Cost of Generation (Rs.5 GOVERNMENT POLICIES 3. But however due to the lack of proper projects on the river beds across India.86 330219 Cost of Generation Unit (Paise/kWh) 68.97 8040393. Subsequently the total cost of production for the Thermal power generation is the maximum followed by Hydro stations and the Nuclear generation in the end. Per Unit cost for Thermal power generation is maximum closely followed by Nuclear power.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 3. In the Eleventh Five year plan the Government of India has given a lot of emphasis on the Hydro electric power stations.74 176. Page 37 .98 The entire power requirement in India is basically met by the following three methods: • • • Hydro Stations Thermal Stations Nuclear Generation From the pie chart we can clearly conclude that the major portion of the requirement of the power is met using the Thermal generation technique.5.1 POWER GENERATION IN INDIA Cost of Generation of Power in India (2008-2009) Net Generation (Million Unit) Contents Hydro Stations Thermal Stations Nuclear Generation 89739. One of the reasons for the low contribution of the Nuclear sector is that it is relatively a new domain and currently the production is only under the control of the Central Government.16 419344. there is a lot of emphasis on the production of electricity using the Thermal stations even though it is very costly. Whereas the per unit cost of Hydro power generation is the least.
Capacity and Amount Spent on Grid-Connected Renewable Power Projects Installed in India (As on 31. Number. Thermal.e. in MW) Particulars Thermal Hydro Nuclear Total Central 12790 8742 1300 22832 State 6676 4481 0 11157 Private 5951 1170 0 7121 Total 25417 14393 1300 41110 In the Eleventh Five year plan (2007-2012) the Government of India plans to clearly increase the capacity of all the three Power generation sectors i. This clearly indicates that there will be an increase in the number of projects to meet the requirement which will provide a clear opportunity for the SCADA implementation as these projects will involve a lot of automation. Hydro and Nuclear in order to satisfy the ever increasing requirement of the Urban and the Rural India.2 POWER CAPACITY ADDITIONS – NEW PROJECTS Power Capacity Addition Targets in India (11th Plan) (Figure.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 3.5.03.2008) Page 38 .
in Crore) Wind power and Hydro electric power stations are the two most cheap way of producing energy to satisfy the requirement of the Urban and Rural masses across India. in Crore) 35000 11000 5500 360 50 51910 145 400 74 59 35 713 Govt. India has been heavily relying on the Small hydro power stations for satisfying the energy requirement and hence the total number of projects is maximum in this particular sector. India has also started concentrating on the generation of energy using Biomass and Urban waste as it is one of the cheapest ways and is environmental friendly. Subsidy$ (Rs. There exists a great potential in the Wind power stations for generating energy and meet the requirements. However being a relatively new sector there are fewer projects in this domain but it is slowly increasing. Due to the limited infrastructure across the river beds in India the total capacity production of Hydro power stations is not adequate to meet the requirements of the Indian population.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Total Capacity (MW) Type of Project Wind Power Small Hydro Power Biomass Power/Cogeneration U&I Waste to Power Solar Power Total 8757 2181 1407 56 2 12403 Total No.) 13 618 181 17 33 13511 Total Estimated Investment* (Rs. Therefore the Government of India has given the maximum subsidies to the projects in these sectors to encourage energy production. of Projects (No. Page 39 . The subsidies provided by the Government of India encourage the projects in the Wind power sector.
Sector Total Nuclear Central Sector All India Central Sector State Sector Pvt. Sector Total Hydro Central Sector State Sector Pvt. 3.2 HYDRO Page 40 .3 SECTORWISE POWER GENERATION Sector/Category-wise Targets Fixed for Electricity Generation in India (2007-2008 to 2009-2010) (Figures in Million Unit) Category/ Sector Thermal Central Sector State Sector Pvt.3.3. Sector Bhutan Import Total 299952 341903 62502 5643 710000 322736 374985 70999 5624 774344 323387 370315 89245 6564 789511 22713 19000 19000 39790 64299 5361 109450 42912 70221 5317 118450 43239 67123 5106 115468 237449 277604 57141 572194 260824 304764 65682 631270 261148 303192 84139 648479 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 The increase in the participation of the private sector over the years for the production of energy provides an opportunity for HCL to provide infrastructure support as well as to implement SCADA for the automation related processes in the project and provide an end to end support.1 THERMAL 3.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 3. HCL has a tremendous potential to tap the Thermal and the Hydro projects across India and thus give a boost to its SCADA domain.5.5.5.
3.91 8.73 8.42 92.86 62.79 61.42 61.37 4.06 18.58 23.76 42.71 206.79 60.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 5.99 78.38 8.55 8.12 28 3.53 3.78 132.57 41.82 150.19 27.73 9.55 10.99 47.27 9.52 140.3.9 80.45 255.39 16. These players are: • • • ONGC OIL Joint Ventures/ Private Companies Page 41 .4 PRODUCTION OF NATURAL GAS AND CRUDE OIL Projected Production of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in India Company Production of Crude Oil (MMT) ONGC OIL Joint Venture/ Private Companies Total Actual Production Production of Natural Gas ONGC OIL Joint Venture/ Private Companies Total Actual Production 60.27 27.5 10.58 151.3 NUCLEAR However Nuclear sector being a relatively new and a niche domain is solely under the control of the Central Government.55 88.99 8.75 103.2 173.78 42.85 39.33 29 3.5.23 34.76 (2007 to 2012) 200820032007-08 09 10 2010-11 201112 Total There are basically three major players involved in the production of the Natural Gas and Crude Oil as a Secondary source of Commercial energy provider.75 41.23 112.3 62. The production of energy has gone down tremendously for 200708 to 2009-10 due to the restrictions introduced for the nuclear energy production by the Indo-US nuclear deal.49 28. All the projects of Nuclear energy production is managed by the Central Government and HCL does not have an opportunity in this particular domain.16 3.3 7.43 126.
5.180 crore Rs. 4. No 1. 3. 6. 8500 crore Rs.5.5.125 crore Total Rs.5 GOVERNMENT POLICIES TOWARDS ENERGY PRODUCTION SECTOR 3.9700 crores • Flood management programme: This centrally sponsored scheme includes the continuing schemes related to Flood Management Works in Ganga Basin/Brahamaputra & Barak Basin and improvement of drainage in Brahamaputra. Whereas in the production of the Natural Gas around 50% of the total projects are under the private sector thus opening up another opportunity for HCLs SCADA implementation.5.1 Water Management Policy Sr.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA The overall production projects of Crude Oil are basically under the Central Government organizations ONGC and OIL.230 crore Rs. PROJECT Flood management programme Development of Water Resources Information System Hydrology project Ground water management and regulation Flood Forecasting Infrastructure development ALLOCATION Rs.150 crore Rs. This scheme will also include activities to be taken up in all the other basins Page 42 . flood management and anti erosion works being executed by Brahamputra Board. 2. However there are around 25 % of projects under the private sector which again throws up an opportunity for HCL to provide infrastructure support and implement SCADA in its automation processes. 3. feasibility studies of channelization of Brahamputra etc. 515 crore Rs.
sedimentation. integrating and strengthening the existing central and State level agencies and improving the quality of data and the processing capabilities. Remote Sensing. SCADA etc. share cost for flood component in multi-purpose water resources development projects etc. It is considered essential to have “On-line monitoring system” for having up to date information of physical and financial progress of ongoing projects in different states. Strengthening of Flood Management Organisation. minor irrigation etc. river morphology. 8500 crore has been kept for this scheme under Central sector in XI Plan. the State of the Art of technologies such as GPS. a standardized National Information System should be established with a network of data banks and databases. Telemetry. it is possible to further improve the planning and operation of the projects. inundation modeling of flood disaster preparedness. CWC. critical flood control and anti erosion works including sea erosion. setting up of National Flood Management Commission. Out of this Rs. GIS. Often there is a considerable time lag between the developmental activities and reporting of physical and financial progress. It is in this background all the activities of data collection including monitoring have been merged under this Central sector scheme of Page 43 Brahamputra . introduction of remote sensing technique in the monitoring system and providing Central Assistance to projects for time bound communication of monitoring related information. As emphasized in the National Water Policy. Grant-in-Aid to Brahamputra Board and Ganga Flood Control Commission. Expert Systems. RDBMS.7000 crore is for the Centrally Sponsored Programme and Rs. improvement in drainage in critical areas. Water resources projects were planned and executed even when long term rainfall or runoff data was not available. With the availability of modern computing technology. MIS.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA throughout the country such as Flood proofing programme. This can be achieved by strengthening the present monitoring mechanism. DSS. • Development of Water Resources Information System: Planning of water resources development and management improves with the availability of data. But this requires substantial amount of spatial and time series data on all aspects including water quality data.1500 crore is meant for the Central Sector Schemes of GFCC. A provision of Rs. Board and CWC. data related to snow hydrology.
CWPRS and NIH. CWC. operational management system.180 crore has been kept for this scheme under Central sector in XI Plan. geogenic contamination etc. The scheme will include existing scheme of Ground Water Survey. involving hardware. artificial recharge to ground water. investigations. • Ground water management and regulation: The scheme will cover all activities related to ground water management studies with an objective to evolve sustainable strategies including exploration. • Infrastructure development: Page 44 . etc. conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources. The scheme of “Hydrology Project” is proposed to cover all activities identified under World Bank Assistance for the project and will include the continuing schemes of the hydrology related to MoWR. 515 crore has been kept for this scheme under Central sector in XI Plan • Flood Forecasting: The scheme will include the activities of collection of Hydro-meteorological data and issue of Flood Forecasts in India and will include the continuing scheme related to Strengthening & Modernization of FF & HO network in Brahamaputra & Barak basin and Establishment and Modernization of flood forecasting network in India including inflow forecasts.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA “Development Water Resources Information System” and a provision of Rs.150 crore has been kept for this scheme under Central sector in XI Plan.A provision of Rs. CGWB. software and appropriate training need to be established in all the States including the States in Ganga and Brahmaputra River Systems. Exploration & Investigations. A provision of Rs. • Hydrology project: The system being established under Hydrology Project need to be developed as operational Management System rather than creation of the hydrological system alone. A provision of Rs.230 crore has been kept under Central sector in XI Plan for this scheme. The project component should include decision support system (DSS) – real time. Artificial Recharge of ground water and Central Ground Water Authority.
25 crores Rs.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA This scheme will include the activities related to lands & building and IT Development and will include the continuing schemes related to Land and Buildings of CWC.20 crores Rs. 9.1.5 crores 8. No.5 crores Rs.3 crores Rs.7.10 crores Rs. 7. Rs.125 crore has been kept for this scheme under Central sector in XI Plan. 4. Soft rock tunnelling Testing and simulation laboratory for SCADA (Complying with IEEE 61850) & demonstration projects SCADA implementation in 27 cities Wide area measurements for grid protection & control Total 6. IT Development of MoWR. flood forecasting. 1.16 crores Rs.5 crores Rs. Lands and building of CGWB. Development of desalination technology with LP exhaust steam/Solar heat source Advanced RLA methodologies Application of GIS / GPS in river inflow / discharge measurements.5 crores 2. Upgradation and Modernisation of Computerisation and Information system of CWC etc. Lands and Buildings of GFCC. etc. A provision of Rs.5.5.2 Power Management Policy Sr. 3.1084. • Steam Generator Condition Assessment Model Through Neutron Activation Techniques Page 45 . PROJECT Development of sensor systems for online fuel calorific value & unburnt carbon in ash measurement Steam Generator condition assessment through neutron activation techniques model ALLOCATION Rs. 5.1000 crores Rs. 3.1.
the main elements of technology development in the project shall be following: It would involve complete. iii. phased array technology. The nature of the project is such that the elements mentioned below are neither modular nor discrete. Boiler Condition assessment shall be done through a combinatorial program of Neutron Activation Technique. The main deliverable for the project is to demonstrate these technologies in an integrated manner for true assessment of boiler condition. The entire proposal is to be executed in an integrated manner. iv. However the major issue involved is to make it suitable & approachable. identify the required competence areas and potential collaborating institutes for each of the following technologies and initiation of its execution: i. Electro-Mechanical Acoustic Transducer based scanning of Boiler Tube Thickness. Neutron Activated Tomography for scanning of Boiler Tube Thickness.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA The objective of the proposal is to development of a comprehensive Boiler Condition & Performance Assessment. Electro-Mechanical Acoustic Transducer. The water wall tubes in the primary pass of thermal power plant boiler are subjected to severe corrosion problems especially in the burner zones leading to loss in thickness. Neutron Activation based combustion visualization technology. remote eddy current. • Advanced RLA methodologies (Robotic corrosion mapping. Technologies are available for boiler condition assessment. temper embrittlement and electro magnetic acoustic transducers) Robotic based Corrosion mapping system for water wall tubes through Magnetic Inductance Bridge based robotic system. rather they are intrinsically intermingled and interdependent and hence cannot be taken up in a serial manner. Though interdependent. ii. and Fibre Optic embedded Raman Scattering Technique. The wall thickness of each tube needs to Page 46 . Fibre Optic embedded Raman Scattering Technique or any other alternate technology for scanning of Boiler Tube Metal Temperature. when it comes to real life situation in a boiler.
The advanced linear phased array ultrasonic technology wherein multiple UT probes mounted in a single holder is used to for this purpose and reported that the reliable and redundant results can be obtained in respect of defect detection. A reliable assessment of the fracture toughness properties of steam turbine rotor requires sampling of material from inservice rotor. the conventional techniques suffer by reliability. sizing and shape. HP / IP rotors suffer in-service degradation from rotor material temper embrittlement. large number of tubes and different elevations can be covered in a short shut down period. A miniature sample removal and small punch testing technique for direct estimation of fracture toughness provides a rational basis for reduction of conservatism during RLA of rotor. The application of EMAT probes permits enables direct measurement without any surface cleaning of the boiler. In view of the short shut down periods.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA be monitored during annual shutdown periods for ascertaining their suitability for continued service and schedule for replacement if necessary. the probe/magnetizing coil is supported on robotic device which can crawl along the whole length of the water wall tubes and maps the corrosion thickness. it is not possible to measure the thickness of all tubes using conventional ultrasonic technique. Phased array technique is a specialized type of testing that utilizes multi element array transducers and software controls for steering the ultrasonic beam. rotor steeple and disk rim attachments. The high temperature boiler tube during service forms coherent oxide layer on the outer surface due to oxidation. In a robotic based system. In view of complexity in shape & geometry of component of turbine components such as blades. which governs the size of the critical flaw for fracture. The remote eddy current/CCTV system is capable of examining the trailing and attachment areas of L0 and L-1 turbine blades without turbine disassembly. Critical turbine components must be evaluated to assure safe operation during Page 47 . is hence adversely affected. accuracy & reproducibility. When coupled with a robotic device. Eddy current tests have also been successfully used to detect cracks in the area of the satellite wear strips on the leading edge of last stage blades and for inspection of turbine casing bolt and bolt holes. The presence of this oxide layer on the outside of tubes interferes with ultrasonic wall thickness measurement and prevents proper sound coupling during conventional UT technique. The rotor material fracture toughness.
The project would have deliverables in three stages. • Combustion modelling and technologies for utilization of fly ash unburnt carbon in pressurized fluidized bed gasifier The objective of the project is to demonstrate pressurized fluidized bed char combustor in a pilot scale facility & to explore other ways of separating char from fly ash of pressurized fluidized bed gasifier. The cost of the project has been estimated as 19 crores & project is expected to be completed in six years. Page 48 . The project will support a number of spin off research in the related area.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA their lifetime. The third option is to put the fly ash in a pressurized fluidized bed combustor to produce steam & the hot gases i. However research work needs to be carried for demonstration of such technologies for Indian coal. For high ash Indian coal.e. Tribo-electrostatic separation & dry fluidization separation are among few technologies. large amount of ash recycling is always a big threat in a pressurized system. Next would be a development of a bench scale pressurized char combustor & final will be its integration with main gasifier. The attributing factors are particle attrition & elutriation from the bed. improved deterministic routes and evolution of technology options. Modelling of the char combustor with actual fly ash constituent as an input would be the first deliverable. a mixture of nitrogen & carbon dioxide at around 1000C can be reintroduced back to main gasifier. Freeboard reaction is normally limited due to dearth of oxidant resulting in 15% combustibles in fly ash. The heat carried over with the flue gas will sustain the endothermic reaction & carbon dioxide can be used as a gasifying agent in the gasification process. The project envisages development of state-of-art technology in the area and adopts them in a few thermal power stations. application of Robotics. Another option is to separate char from fly ash & utilize the char in a separate furnace. which have been tried so far. The fly ash recycling is another option to reduce the overall combustible in ash. Pressurized fluidized bed gasifier operating in a bubbling mode normally gives lower carbon conversion efficiency in the range of 90-91% only. The adoption of advanced RLA methodologies leads to the emergence of sophisticated practice in RLA with reliable and upgraded assessment technologies in the short time available during periodic maintenance. Various separation methodologies are still in developmental stage only.
Research on AMR technology is needed to optimize cost of overall distribution system. hilly inaccessible areas. The advantages of VSC based HVDC system can be best utilized for applications like: • Deep river crossings Page 49 . STATCOM. India is endowed with different kinds of renewable sources like solar. Energy Storage Systems. These projects incorporating concepts of microgrid would include suitable communication system required for AMR. Communication Systems. The idea supporting the formulation of the micro-grid is that a paradigm consisting of multiple generators and aggregated loads is far more reliable and economical than a single generator serving a single load. The demonstration micro-grid project would also include energy storage systems to supply power to critical loads and also for emergency system start-up power. while providing continuous power to multiple loads and endusers. AMR. A micro-grid is a portion of a power system which includes one or more DG units capable of operating either in parallel with or independent from a large utility grid. bio-mass etc. hydro. This infrastructure is constructed on the basis of decentralized generation of electricity close to consumption sites using Distributed Generation (DG) sources. The increase in DG penetration depth and the presence of multiple DG units in electrical proximity to one another have brought about the concept of the micro-grid. India being geographically diverse country with habitation spread over all kind terrains such as. HVDC Light Distributed power generation system is emerging as a complementary infrastructure to the traditional central power plants. Micro grid system encompassing locally available one or more resources for power generation could offer possible solution to the challenges of a nation to provide energy to the remote locations. At the same time. desert lands. providing reliable power at affordable price is a challenging task.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • AC/ DC Microgrid Demonstration Project By Deploying Various Distributed Energy Sources. DVR. small islands etc.
small hydro. The project would pave the way for design of future rural energy network. The deliverables from the project would result in demonstration of high quality power distribution systems. Coal Liquefaction Project by OIL XI Plan Break Up Upstream Refining Gas Marketing Crude Pipelines/Crude Oil Terminal R&D (including in upstream) Others including RGIPT Rs.536 Page 50 . 3.161 81. power electronics devices such as DVR.079 6.) to a grid or to a separate load without affecting power quality of receiving network. These demonstration systems would have suitable AMR system to monitor energy supplied to customers.080 4.250 Crore Rs Crore 159. tidal solar etc. The selection and development of suitable power electronics devices and a field show casing as stated above forms an integral part of the project. Here. PROJECTS ALLOCATION 1.3 Petroleum Management Policy Sr No. The implementation of technology developed in the area of power distribution is also envisaged. based on VSC based converters would be developed.545 13. mine. where distributed generation sources are likely to be deployed and would act as a benchmark.418 3.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • • Power supply to isolated loads (supply to distant town.5. These would be included in the feeders to improve power quality. STATCOM etc. Feeding Power from small isolated generation (wind.230 1.5. island or even production platform in the sea needing power from main land).
and threats.049 The above investments are based on the information received from various companies and does not include investment in the oil and gas sector by the private sector. opportunities. However.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA TOTAL 269. these investments may undergo some change at the time of finalisation of the Annual Five Year Plans. Page 51 . SWOT stands for strengths. Opportunities and threats are external factors. It is the first stage of planning and helps marketers to focus on key issues.5 SWOT ANALYSIS SWOT analysis is a tool for auditing an organization and its environment. Strengths and weaknesses are internal factors. weaknesses. 3.
c) SCADA software enables you to monitor the operations in real time thus reducing the operational costs and improves the efficiency of any automation set up. so they can increase the life-period of your equipment and save on the need for costly repairs. Advantages of the proposition-SCADA System a) A SCADA system can help industry to save time and money through standardisation of technology. b) SCADA systems are equipped to make immediate corrections in the operational system. Page 52 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Strengths 1.
and ability to control groups of assets) e) Standardize operating procedures and better utilization of staff and the auto- generated reporting system can ensure compliance with regulatory principles. Page 53 . Weaknesses HCL Infinet while providing the networking solution for SCADA might adopt the standardized technologies with known vulnerabilities because of the constraints on the use of existing security technologies and practices which may give rise to the security vulnerabilities. d) HCL Infinet. email. Therefore the clients can be assured of the solution provided by HCL will not become obsolete. Hardware and Networking b) HCL thus can have a competitive advantage over other existing niche players in the market by providing end-to-end solutions by itself. etc 1. HCL Infinet has also received the ELCINA award for quality in networking solution. IT domain ii.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA d) Reduced incident risks through the reduction in the number and severity of operational incidents and improved capability to respond once an incident has occurred (remote monitoring. planning. geographic.the Networking service provider has received MAIT's 'Level II recognition for Business Excellence'. c) HCL keeps up its pace with the changing trends in the technology. Capabilities of HCL a) HCL has a well established and reputed brand name in the market in both primary sector requirements for SCADA implementation i. maintenance management. remote control. customer. f) Improved ability to integrate with other company information systems such as financial.
(IP Spoofing) Opportunities 1.4% over the next five years Page 54 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 1. Market developments a) SCADA system for different verticals are showing tremendous growth potential in the next few years: i. Security Concerns for SCADA a) Denial of Service (DoS) attack to crash the SCADA server leading to shut down condition (System Downtime and Loss of Operations) b) Delete system files on the SCADA server (System Downtime and Loss of Operations) c) Planting a Trojan and take complete control of system (Gain complete control of system and be able to issue any commands available to Operators) d) Log keystrokes from Operators and obtain usernames and passwords (Preparation for future take down) e) Log any company-sensitive operational data for personal or competition usage (Loss of Corporate Competitive Advantage) f) Change data points or deceive Operators into thinking control process is out of control and must be shut down (Downtime and Loss of Corporate Data) g) Modify any logged data in remote database system (Loss of Corporate Data) h) Use SCADA Server as a launching point to defame and compromise other system components within corporate network. Water & Waste water treatment industry– 5.
1. c) SCADA integration with GIS .5% over the next five years b) Indian market is showing an above average growth rate as compared to the EMEA in the automation sector which provides a great opportunity for SCADA implementation. Electric Power industry – 5. 1. Hospitals & Laboratories and Food Processing industry. Page 55 . Strategic Alliances / Acquisitions a) HCL can go for key strategic alliances with established core automation sector players in the market and provide them with the required hardware. software and networking technologies for SCADA implementation. b) HCL can also target operations in niche segments like Nuclear and Radioactive processing industry which is a booming sector in India due to the recent Indo-US nuclear deal. Technological Development & Innovation a) Customization of the PLCs through the use of Software is a market which has remained aloof from the existing players. 1.3% over the next five years iii. Oil & Gas industry – 9.HCL can also plan to integrate SCADA with the existing System Integration vertical of HCL-Vehicle Tracking Signal for proper Traffic Signal control and Congestion Management System. New Verticals a) Opportunities exist for the implementation of SCADA in new verticals in India like the Traffic Signal control system. HCL has the capability to explore this opportunity in a profitable manner and can use it as a potential entry point.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA ii.
b) Difficulty in acquiring projects due to customer’s perception that HCL might lack knowledge about the automation domain. are the biggest threat that HCL might face while developing and implementing the SCADA system 1. web based products and web portals which provides low cost solution for SCADA implementation can pose a threat for new entrant like HCL CHAPTER 4 Page 56 . Low cost implementation a) Thin clients. 1. Existing players a) A number of domestic and international players in the Indian market can pose a great challenge and competition for HCL. Threats 1. Insurmountable weakness a) Security threat which is a weakness of the SCADA system both internal and external.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA b) HCL can also go for the acquisition of some small SCADA implementing firms and thus need not worry about acquiring new projects.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS 4.1 WIPRO Page 57 .1.1 COMPETITIOR’S ANALYSIS 4.
Our engineering services include • • • • • • • • • • Obsolescence protection such as feasibility studies. GIS Systems. particularly when system integration across a variety of technologies is key to success. others.. porting to 64 bit environment Testing and deploying vendor-solutions Remote management and SCADA implementation such as pipelines Design and development of HMI/GUI for process monitoring Customization and implementation of standard HMI packages Simulation and Modeling based on Matlab.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA WIPROs Strategy for SCADA implementation Wipro's engineering services help automate plants for process industries.. Labview. Simulation Integrating industrial and business systems Implementation of surveillance systems for pumping stations For the implementation of the SCADA successfully Wipro has gone into a number of strategic alliances with the leading players in this particular domain. PLC System partners of WIPRO • Allen Bradley • GE Fanuc • Siemens SCADA & DCS systems partners of WIPRO • • • • • • Wonderware Honeywell Yokogawa Intellution Cimplicity Page 58 . Enhancement of in-house solutions such as Data Analysis and Visualization High Performance Computing such as high volume data analysis.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Spectrum of SCADA Services offered by WIPRO Page 59 .
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA BCG Matrix of WIPROs SBUs WIPROs alliance with Schneider Electric Wipro will market and deliver Schneider Electric's solutions including Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) and Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) in India. Page 60 .
Wipro's matured consulting practice and proven delivery model for large and complex projects will help Schneider Electric’s collective customers make the most of their energy.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA To begin with. 4. Pharmaceutical.1. Proficy Plant Applications. quality. tracking. plant floor operations. point solution development and joint go-tomarket activities. WIPROs alliance with GE Fanuc GE Fanuc Automation entered into a Solution Provider go-to-market agreement with Wipro Technologies. The scope of the agreement covers services. This relationship will provide significant value to customers looking to integrate their Production Management and ERP systems by leveraging Wipro’s knowledge of GE Fanuc Production Management solutions and their expertise in ERP.2 ASEAN BROWN BOVERI Page 61 . as well as Proficy Historian. Wipro’s knowledge of supply chain. Proficy Change Management and Proficy Real-Time Information Portal products that encompass an integrated suite of applications providing execution. Food & Beverage and Consumer Packaged Goods industries with solutions in the Production Management area. mineral processing and metals industries. Wipro shall provide Schneider Electric’s Ampla MES Solution to the mining. logistics. The two companies will work together globally to better serve manufacturing enterprises in the Automotive. Wipro’s System Integration capabilities and Schneider Electric’s reach in the SCADA market will promote the synergy and alliance. reporting and visibility throughout all of a company’s plant operations. Proficy HMI/SCADA CIMPLICITY and iFIX. the global IT services business of Wipro Limited (NYSE:WIT). enterprise technologies and business processes will enable timely and effective deployment of GE Fanuc Production Management solutions which include the Proficy family of products: Proficy Tracker.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Page 62 .
The rescheduling of few power projects and Page 63 . Power System Segment 2008 Orders Received Revenues 25608 23054 2007 30029 22514 Central Government’s focus on the power sector reforms and introduction of the National Electricity policy in past few years is reflected in increasing investments in capacity addition. economic downturn and increase in capital costs resulted in the postponement and implementation of several power projects. The revenue from all the other segments of ABB in 2008 other than the Power System shows a significant increase in the performance from the year 2007.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Business Segments Power Systems Power Products Process Automation Automation Products 2008 31% 28% 18% 23% 2007 36% 26% 17% 21% The following pie chart shows the segment wise performance of ABB in the year 2008 and 2007. development of transmission network and power distribution improvements. especially those which has been taken up by industrial houses. However due to the exceptional global liquidity crunch.
distribution and transmission projects. Power Product Segment 2008 Orders Received Revenues 24062 20492 2007 20433 16321 Buoyancy in the transmission sector and the distribution sector continued during the year with higher level of investment in this sector until the middle of the year. However as per the current indications in the Eleventh five year plan the Government of India is planning towards the implementation of the power generation.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Company’s decision to exit Rural Electrification projects due to safety and cash flow concerns has resulted in lower orders received as compared to the previous year. The orders somehow slowed down during the second half of the year due to liquidity crunch and slowdown in the global market. Thus the impetus of the Government towards this sector can be perceived by HCL as a positive indicator and can use this as an opportunity to enter the market. Page 64 . The exit of ABB from the Rural Electrification projects presents an opportunity in front of HCL to grab these projects and thus enter the market in automation projects and provide end to end solution to the Government of India.20 crore shows the seriousness of the Government of India towards this sector. The stimulus package announced by the Government of India of around Rs.
HCL can plan acquisitions or a strategic merger with Siemens and acquire mechanical OEMs in the metal sector and then put effort to consolidate this acquisition with their own automation solutions for metals to provide an end to end solution to the customer Automation Products Segment 2008 Orders Received Revenues 20679 17376 2007 15395 13333 Page 65 . The industry has significant opportunities for investments looking at the trend of increasing per capita consumptions of steel. Also the setting of industrial plants by steel majors like POSCO and Arcelor-Mittal provides an opportunity for this sector to grab new projects. The global market meltdown affected the second half of the year with some of the proposed investments being deferred or postponed indefinitely. cement etc.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Process Automation Segment 2008 Orders Received Revenues 15659 13334 2007 14600 10665 The Industrial climate in the country remained buoyant during the first half of the year with strong growth indicators from various verticals.
maintain efficient distribution network and continuous range expansion in order to establish itself in the market. water. waste water management. pumps. Building up of capacities by the segment and increase in competition coupled with reduction in the demand in the market on account of the slow down posed challenges for the growth in business volumes. wind energy. HCL can plan major marketing activities in potential growth areas like railways.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA A positive market environment particularly in the first half of the year coupled with strategic thrust on capacity and product range expansion and focused marketing efforts depending upon the industry verticals helped the segment in registering a growth of 34% in orders received and 30% increase in the revenues during the year. boiler machinery. There was a strong marketing focus on the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) segment including HVAC. waste water. compressor.1. railways. 4. wind and water management projects are expected to grow. Capacity expansion planned in infrastructure sector like water. roads.3 ROCKWELL AUTOMATION Page 66 .
Page 67 . control and information solutions that help manufacturers achieve a competitive advantage for their businesses. to allocate resources and assess performance. Based upon these criteria.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Business Segment Information Rockwell Automation is a leading global provider of industrial automation power. Rockwell organized their products and services into two operating segments: Architecture & Software and Control Products & Solutions. Chief Executive Officer. Rockwell determines their operating segments based on the information used by their chief operating decision maker. Architecture & Software The Architecture & Software segment contains all of the elements of our integrated control and information architecture capable of controlling the customer’s plant floor and connecting with their manufacturing enterprise.
419. electronic operator interface devices.7 24. drives control. tracking. communication and networking products. genealogy and manufacturing business intelligence. • Other Architecture & Software products. sensors and machine safety components. advanced process control software and manufacturing execution software (MES) that addresses information needs between the factory floor and a customer’s enterprise business system. 7 584. The information-enabled Logix controllers provide integrated multidiscipline control that is modular and scalable.723. Examples of MES applications are production scheduling. industrial computers and condition based monitoring systems. continuous process. motion control and machine safety control. • Software products that include configuration and visualization software used to operate and supervise control platforms. electronic input/output devices.20% Sales Page 68 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Architecture & Software has a broad portfolio of products including: • Control platforms that perform multiple control disciplines and monitoring of applications. asset management. batch. Our platform products include controllers. except percentages) 2009 $1. Sales Segment Operating Earnings Segment Operating Margins (in millions. including discrete.90% 2008 $2. including rotary and linear motion control products. 5 223 12.
9 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. Operating Margin Architecture &Software segment operating margin decreased by 11. while the decline in sales of our legacy processor products was greater than the segment’s average rate of decline.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Architecture & Software sales decreased 29 percent in 2009 compared to 2008 as plant shutdowns occurred and production slowed across many industries. Logix sales declined 17 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. The unfavorable impact of currency exchange rates and restructuring charges also contributed to the decrease.3 points to 12. Organic sales decreased 24 percent. The decrease was primarily due to significant declines in sales volume. Control Products & Solutions The Control Products & Solutions segment combines a comprehensive portfolio of intelligent motor control and industrial control products with the customer support and application Page 69 . as the effects of currency translation contributed approximately 5 percentage points to the decline. partially offset by cost reductions. We experienced year-over-year declines in sales of this segment as a result of the global recession and the short-cycle nature of this segment’s sales activities.
except percentages) Sales Control Products & Solutions sales decreased 20 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. motor control centers and custom-engineered panels for OEM and end-user applications. Automation and information solutions. motion.5 7. Operating Margin Page 70 . as we delivered solutions from our backlog. • • Value-added packaged solutions. 2009 2008 2.0 3. signaling devices.278.7 440. contactors. Organic sales decreased 15 percent as the effects of currency translation contributed 5 percentage points to the decrease.609. including configured drives. process. This comprehensive portfolio includes: • Low voltage and medium voltage electro-mechanical and electronic motor starters. AC/DC variable frequency drives.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA knowledge necessary to implement an automation or information solution on the plant floor.1 0 0 206. termination and protection devices. We experienced significant year-over-year declines in sales by the products businesses of this segment as a result of the global recession and the short-cycle nature of these businesses’ sales activities. including custom-engineered hardware and software systems for discrete. Sales by our solutions and services businesses declined at a lower rate than the segment’s average rate of decline. drives and manufacturing information applications.90% 13. motor and circuit protection devices.40% Sales Segment Operating Earnings Segment Operating Margins (in millions. relays and timers and condition sensors. push buttons.
• The major competitors of our Control Products&Solutions operating segment include Siemens AG.5 points to 7. Competitors • The major competitors of our Architecture & Software operating segment include Siemens AG. Honeywell International Inc. and Emerson Electric Co. The decrease resulted primarily from significant declines in sales volume. ABB Ltd. Inflation. the unfavorable impact of currency exchange rates and restructuring charges also contributed to the decrease..9 percent in 2009 compared to 2008. ABB Ltd. Schneider Electric SA. Page 71 . Honeywell International Inc.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Control Products & Solutions segment operating margin decreased by 5.. Schneider Electric SA and Emerson Electric Co. Mitsubishi Corp.
4 SIEMENS Page 72 .1.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 4.
35.10.84.08.596 2007 1. 711 663 1.088 0 Automation and drives Industrial solutions and services Transport Building technologies Power Healthcare and other services Real estate Information and communication Automotive External sales 2008 2007 18.104.22.168 8 4 0 4. These segments are the basis for management control and hence.78.46 0 6.59.44. Business Segments: The business of the company is divided into eleven segments.22.214.171.124.69.08. medium Page 73 .42 4 10.2 49 0 0 28.92 420 8 67.568 14.20. 155 52.530 0 2.85 8 0 4.568 14.48.05 9 2 0 0 8.28. 906 52.98 0 34. 1.93 1 4.31.03.53.43 7 Total 2008 2. 429 67.274 12.95.41. 351 126.96.36.199 40 16 2.44. 879 60.37.29. form the basis for reporting.15.08.96 8 12.59 3 4.530 0 2.67.93 1 4.31.43 7 • Power Provides automation solutions for a wide range of applications in power plants.6 188.8.131.52. 92.03.67.319 4. 344 60.46 0 6.30.46 5 0 0 0 0 0 35.42.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Segment information : The primary and secondary reportable segments are business segments and geographical segments respectively.34.69.17. 479 95.17. The business of each segment comprises of: Revenue Inter segmental sales 2008 2007 184.108.40.206.596 9.00 2.88 0 12.91. focusing on a complete range of medium and high voltage switchgears.19.85 34.
special purpose motors. mobility. Provides back office support services to group companies and other external customers. process and motion control systems. industrial automation systems to low-voltage controls and distribution and electrical installation technology.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA voltage switchboards. from large and standard drives and motors. video conferencing. • Automation & drives Provides the complete range of automation products & systems. power system control and energy management systems. teleworking. Siemens India has discontinued the operations in the Information Communication sector in 2008. protection and control systems for sub-stations. Provides mobile handsets and accessories. Convergence communications solutions for enterprises. including software development. multimedia customer relation management. transformers and industrial turbines. packaged software integration and systems maintenance to its worldwide customers operating in different industries. meters. communications. Page 74 . This is clearly evident from the fact that the sales in the year 2008 were zero. and call centers. • Information technology services Provides comprehensive range of technology services. networking.
radiology networking systems. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Siemens India has discontinued the operations in the Building Technologies sector in 2008. This is clearly evident from the fact that the sales in the year 2008 was zero. • Healthcare & other services Provides diagnostic. locomotives. commissioning and after sales services. railway electrification. nuclear medicine. digital angiography. digital radiography systems. procurement. turnkey projects and integrated services. • Industrial solutions & services Undertakes turnkey projects in the industrial and infrastructure sectors over the entire life cycle including concept. ultrasonography. light and heavy rail. Fire Alarm/Access Control/Security Systems. patient monitoring systems. therapeutic and life-saving products in computer tomography (CT). installation. engineering. • Building Technologies Executes projects for providing Integrated Building Management Systems including Building Automation Systems. Page 75 . trains. lithotripsy and linear accelerators. supplies.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • Transport Provides solutions for rail automation.
domestic and exports. • Automotive Manufacturing and trading of dashboard instruments. Geographical Segments: The business is organised in two geographic segments i. tachographs and other allied equipments for the automobile.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • Real estate Provides comprehensive real estate management. Page 76 .e.
1.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 4.5 HONEYWELL Honeywell manages their operations basically through four major businesses that are reported as operating segments: • Aerospace Page 77 .
equipments and services. speciality materials and electronic equipments.236 12. space and other operations.611 4. engines. security and life safety products and services.763 12. sensing controls. systems and service solutions for aircraft manufacturers.588 2008 2.144 3. 2009 Net Sales Aerospace Automation and Control Solutions Specialty Materials Transportation Systems Corporate (dollars in millions) 2008 12650 14.266 4. • Automation and Control Solutions Automation and Control System is a leading global provider of environmental and combustion control systems. adsorbents. business and general aviation.197 1. airlines. buildings and industrial facilities. catalysts. • Speciality materials Speciality material segment is a global leader in providing customers with high performance speciality materials. military. scanning and mobility devices and process automation and building solutions and services for homes.866 5.893 1. including hydrocarbon processing technologies.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Aerospace segment is a leading global provider of integrated avionics.405 Page 78 . • Transportation Systems Transportation System segment is one of the leading manufacturers of engine boosting systems for passenger cars and commercial vehicles as well as a leading provider of automotive care and braking products.478 4.622 0 $ 36556 2007 12.622 2007 2.009 0 $ 34589 10.389 1 $ 30908 2009 Segment Profit Aerospace Automation and Control 1.300 1.018 5.
Continuing to design equipment that enhances the safety. performance and durability of aerospace and defense equipment. • • • Expanding sales and operations in international locations. Pursuit of new defense and space platforms. Automation and Control Solutions 2010 Areas of Focus ACS’s primary areas of focus for 2010 include: Page 79 . and • Continued deployment of our common enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. • Delivering world-class customer service and achieving cycle and lead time reduction to improve responsiveness to customer demand.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Solutions Specialty Materials Transportation Systems Corporate (dollars in millions) 605 156 (145) $ 4097 721 406 (204) $ 4845 658 583 (189) $ 4654 Aerospace 2010 Areas of Focus Aerospace’s primary areas of focus for 2010 include: • Focus on cost structure initiatives to maintain profitability in the face of challenging commercial aerospace conditions. • Aligning inventory. while reducing weight and operating costs. production and research and development with customer demand and production schedules.
renewable energy sources. and Continued deployment of our common ERP system. global warming. • • • • • Commercialize new products and technologies in the petrochemical. Defending and extending our installed base through customer productivity and globalization. products and technologies that address energy efficiency. and Prioritize critical investment to increase plant reliability and attainment. Sustaining strong brand recognition through our brand and channel management. Drive sales and marketing excellence and expand local presence in fast growing emerging markets. gas processing and refining industries. execute and integrate acquisitions in or adjacent to the markets which we serve. productivity.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • • • • • • Products and solutions for energy efficiency and asset management. • • • Speciality materials 2010 Areas of Focus Specialty Materials primary areas of focus for 2010 include: • Continue to develop new processes. quality and operational excellence. Centralization and standardization of global software development capabilities. Continuing to invest in new product development and introductions. Execution of awarded government stimulus projects and pursuit of additional projects. Continuing to identify. security regulations and position the portfolio for higher value. Page 80 . Extending technology leadership: lowest total installed cost and integrated product solutions. Continuing to establish and grow emerging markets presence and capability. Manage exposure to raw material commodity fluctuations.
Maintaining the high quality of current products while executing new product introductions. and successful execution of repositioning actions. • Aligning cost structure with current economic outlook. • Increasing global penetration and share of diesel and gasoline turbocharger OEM demand. • Increasing plant productivity to address capacity challenges generated by volatility in product demand and OEM inventory levels. Page 81 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Transportation Systems 2010 Areas of Focus Transportation Systems primary areas of focus in 2010 include: • • Sustaining superior turbocharger technology through successful platform launches. • Aligning development efforts and costs with new turbo platform launch schedules. and • Continuing global expansion and extension of established strong product brands in CPG.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
4.1.6 GENRAL ELECTRIC
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
Segment Operations Our five segments are focused on the broad markets they serve: • • • • • Energy Infrastructure Technology Infrastructure NBC Universal Capital Finance Consumer & Industrial
Energy Infrastructure Technology Infrastructure NBC Universal Caital Finance Consumer & Industrial
2009 37,134 42,474 15,436 50,622 9,703
Revenues 2008 38,571 46,316 16,969 67,008 11,737
2007 30,698 42,801 15,416 66,301 12,663
Energy Infrastructure Technology Infrastructure NBC Universal Caital Finance
Segment Profit 2009 2008 2007 6,842 6,080 4,817 7,489 2,264 2,344 8,152 3,131 8,632 7,883 3,107 12,243
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA
Consumer & Industrial 400 365 1,034
Energy Infrastructure Energy Infrastructure segment revenues decreased 4%, or $1.4 billion, in 2009 as higher prices ($1.3 billion) were more than offset by lower volume ($1.6 billion), the stronger U.S. dollar ($0.7 billion) and lower other income ($0.5 billion), primarily related to lower earnings from associated companies and marks on foreign currency contracts. The increase in price was primarily at Energy. The decrease in volume reflected decreased equipment sales at Energy, partially offset by increased equipment sales at Oil & Gas. The effects of the stronger U.S. dollar were at both Energy and Oil & Gas. Segment profit increased 13% to $6.8 billion, compared with $6.1 billion in 2008, as higher prices ($1.3 billion) and lower material and other costs ($0.5 billion) were partially offset by lower other income ($0.7 billion), primarily related to lower earnings from associated companies and marks on foreign currency contracts, and lower volume ($0.2 billion). Lower material and other costs were primarily at Energy. Lower volume at Energy was partially offset by higher volume at Oil & Gas. Technology Infrastructure
Technology Infrastructure revenues decreased 8%, or $3.8 billion, in 2009 as lower volume ($4.1 billion), the stronger U.S. dollar ($0.4 billion) and an update at Transportation of our estimate of product service costs in maintenance service agreements ($0.3 billion) were partially offset by higher prices ($0.5 billion) and higher other income ($0.5 billion), primarily including gains on the ATI-Singapore acquisition, dissolution of the joint venture with FANUC Ltd. and the Times Microwave Systems disposition. The decrease in volume
3 billion decreased 28%. lower revenues in film ($0. or $0.4 billion). reflecting the lack of a current-year counterpart to the 2008 Olympics broadcasts and the effects of lower advertising revenues.1 billion). Enterprise Solutions and Aviation.2 billion in 2008.2 billion) were partially offset by the gain related to AETN ($0.6 billion). compared with $8.5 billion in 2009. primarily at Aviation.4 billion) were partially offset by the gain relating to A&E Television Network (AETN) ($0. Segment profit decreased 8% to $7. as lower earnings in film ($0. NBC Universal NBC Universal_ revenues decreased 9%.4 billion). were partially offset by lower prices at Healthcare. primarily including gains on the ATI-Singapore acquisition. Capital Finance Page 85 .4 billion) and lower earnings in our broadcast television business ($0.4 billion) were partially offset by higher prices ($0.5 billion) and higher other income ($0.2 billion).0 billion) and lower productivity ($0.S. and the Times Microwave Systems disposition. Lower productivity at Transportation and Enterprise Solutions was partially offset by Aviation. lower earnings and higher impairments related to associated companies and investment securities ($0. in 2009 as lower revenues in our broadcast television business ($1.9 billion.3 billion).6 billion) and higher revenues in cable ($0.8 billion) and lower earnings and higher impairments related to associated companies and investment securities ($0. dollar were at Healthcare. The effects of the stronger U. dissolution of the joint venture with FANUC Ltd.5 billion.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA was across all businesses in the segment. or $1.6 billion) and higher earnings in cable ($0. Higher prices. as the effects of lower volume ($1. Segment profit of $2. The decrease in volume was across all businesses in the segment. lack of current-year counterpart to 2008 proceeds from insurance claims ($0.
000 small businesses through retail programs in the U.S. markets.3 billion in 2009 compared with 2008. L.2 billion).S. Additionally.S.7 billion decreased 17%. The decrease in volume primarily reflected tightened consumer spending in the European and U. in 2009 compared with 2008.1 billion) were partially offset by higher prices ($0. or $2. GE Capital provided $72 billion of new financings in the U. 4. Revenues in 2009 and 2008 included $3.2 billion) and lower material and other costs ($0. to various companies.S.200 new commercial customers and 40. primarily driven by a lower asset base and a lower interest rate environment. Revenues in 2009 also decreased $14.8 billion as a result of dispositions. (PTL).3 billion) and lower other income ($0. Consumer & Industrial Consumer & Industrial_ revenues of $9. including the effect of the deconsolidation of Penske Truck Leasing Co. Net earnings decreased by $6.4 billion of revenue from acquisitions. we extended $74 billion of credit to approximately 54 million U.000 commercial customers and 174.1 billion). partially offset by lower selling. respectively. dollar ($0. and ended the period with outstanding credit to more than 346.2 billion) and the stronger U. During 2009.S. dollar.S. GE Capital provided credit to approximately 14.1 billion compared with 2008 as a result of organic revenue declines. primarily due to higher provisions for losses on financing receivables associated with the challenging economic environment..2 billion) were partially offset by lower productivity ($0.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Capital Finance revenues decreased 24% and net earnings decreased 73% compared with 2008. and the stronger U.0 billion and $0. general and administrative costs and the decision to indefinitely reinvest prior-year earnings outside the U.P.S. consumers. infrastructure projects and municipalities.2 COMMISSIONING/VALIDATION Page 86 . as lower volume ($2. Segment profit increased 10% in 2009 as higher prices ($0.0 billion.S.000 new small businesses during 2009 in the U. and in 2009 were reduced by $4.
Roles and responsibilities of the various parties within the commissioning process may vary with the agency and the type of project. certain key components of the program that must be included for a successful outcome: (1) A clear definition of the process and the parties’ roles and responsibilities (Commissioning Plan). Those represented should include as a minimum: (1) Government project management (2) Facility operations (3) Design engineer (4) General contractor (5) Mechanical subcontractor (6) Electrical subcontractor (7) System integrator (8) Installation subcontractor (9) Major equipment vendors (10)Reliability engineer b. a. (2) Integration of commissioning activities into the overall project schedule. If an independent engineer is not used. A commissioning team should be assembled including representatives of all involved parties. In either case. as defined in the design documentation.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 4. management and monitoring during the design and construction process. In some cases. Page 87 . the design engineer should be retained to oversee the commissioning process. an independent engineer may be brought in to coordinate and oversee the commissioning process. scheduling.1 GENERAL COMMISSIONING Commissioning is the formal process of verifying and documenting that the installed SCADA system complies with and performs in accordance with the design intent.2. (4) Development of written testing and verification procedures for every critical aspect of system performance. Commissioning should be identified as a specific activity requiring its own planning. (3) An organized system of commissioning documentation.
2 FACTORY ACCEPTANCE TESTING A factory acceptance test and demonstration should be required in which the controller(s).2. (6) Clear definition prior to testing of the criteria for acceptance. Facility managers must assure that commissioning is included in the scope of site initiated projects. c.4 CALIBRATION Page 88 .2.3 INTEGRITY TESTING Pneumatic lines should be pressure tested per ISA RP 7. 4. I/O. (7) Procedures for correction and retesting in the case of failure. Electrical conductors should be tested for continuity and insulation resistance according to industry standards for their voltage ratings. displays. Projects completed through the Military Construction (Mil Con) process automatically include commissioning.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (5) Review of these procedures by all affected parties prior to testing. 4. 4.2.1 and checked for obstructions. and HMI hardware and software are verified to the extent possible without the actual field devices. a. This test should demonstrate the following: (1) Simulation of all inputs (2) Operation of all outputs with dummy load (3) Loop operation (4) Control sequences (5) Network communications (6) HMI screens. PLC systems providing control of standby generators and paralleling switchgear should be factory tested with the switchgear to demonstrate actual operation of the breakers and other controls with simulated utility and generator voltage and frequency sources. and alarms (7) Operator control functions (8) Physical and information security measures b.
(2) Stroke all control valves. or current signal. continuity verification. Each calibrated instrument should be field-marked with a waterproof calibration tag bearing the range. The calibration program should include the following: a. 4. record all setpoint and calibration changes on all system documentation. f. Tags and labels placed during construction should not be considered adequate verification. b. terminal board and terminal designations should be verified and marked off as such on a copy of the loop diagram or equivalent schematic or wiring diagram. All sensors. elements. drives and connecting linkages from the local control station and from the control room operator interface.2. conductor. Page 89 . An Instrument Certification sheet should be completed for each instrument and included in the system documentation. indicators. e. remote setpoints. voltage. and end switches. Use actual signals where available. alarm and trip units. In addition to any other as-recorded documents. ratio systems. a. or “ringing out”. All calibration equipment should have current independent certification of accuracy. A Final Control Element Certification sheet should be completed for each control valve and included in the system documentation. cylinders. (3) Check all interlocks to the maximum extent possible. recorders. and other control components. Cable. d. Following any corrections. set point. limits. Each control loop should be verified by injection of an appropriate pressure.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Instrument and actuator calibration should be completed prior to loop checkout or startup of systems. Make corrections as required. date and calibrator’s initials. c. Stroke actuators and verify control action. (1) Closely observe controllers. transmitters and actuators should be calibrated from NIST traceable standards according to the manufacturer’s instructions. retest the loop as before.5 LOOP VERIFICATION The wiring of each control loop should be physically verified from the field device terminals to the controller. Verification should be by signal tracing.
8 RE-COMMISSIONING Page 90 . Functional performance tests must verify the following: a. g. Normal system conditions and modes of operation. reset and rate recorded on the loop checkout sheet. b. 4. Physical and information security measures.2. It is also common for unforeseen circumstances to dictate that a change be made to the specified sequence of operation in the field. A Control Loop Checkout sheet should be completed for each loop. Manual and automatic control modes. Operation of all interlocks and permissives.2. Typically these are easily corrected by revising the program logic via a laptop computer and testing is then continued. f. Functional performance testing consists of executing written step-by step procedures in which a condition is initiated or simulated and the response of the system is noted and compared to the specified response. Contingency conditions and modes of operation.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA b.7 SOFTWARE INTEGRITY It is common for PLC programming errors to be identified during functional performance testing of SCADA systems. 4. 4. c. All analog loops should be tuned for optimum response using a closed-loop tuning method and the resulting gain.6 FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE TESTING Performance testing of all systems should be performed to verify compliance with the specified sequences of operations and control diagrams. c. Effect of all operator controls. These common startup processes contain the serious risk that a change made to correct misoperation at one point in the PLC control sequence may inadvertently affect the performance of other control sequences that have already been tested and accepted. e. d. Confirmation of failure state of all outputs. again easily implemented by changing the PLC logic.2.
all sensors and instruments should be calibrated and documented using an Instrument Certification Sheet. a. More extensive modifications may require re-commissioning of the complete SCADA system. repaired or replaced.9 INSTRUMENT CERTIFICATION SHEET Prior to functional performance testing.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Whenever all or part of a SCADA system is modified. 4. For changes to controller program logic or settings. recommissioning is required to verify that the portions of the system affected function correctly and that the work has not affected other portions of the system. A list of the Calibration equipment used. Each Instrument Certification Sheet should include four sections: a. c. For this reason it is highly recommended that a complete pre-test be conducted. b. A table to record the calibration of Process Switches. the affected loops should be verified and functionally tested. and the interface to the supervisory level HMI verified. d. Functional performance testing for system certification must take place without operator intervention in the processor from beginning to end of the test. A table to record the calibration of Transmitters and Indicators. c. Instrument Description: The Instrument Description section should include the following information: (1) Project name (2) Project location (3) Project number (4) Certifier’s name (5) Certification date Page 91 . using the full functional performance test procedure. prior to undertaking the certification test. The extent of recommissioning required should be determined from the extent of the modifications. Description of the Instrument such as Tag Number and Description. b. d. For work that affects only devices and wiring external to the controller.2. the entire process or subsystem supported by that controller should be functionally tested. e.
(1) Input value (2) Output value (3) Error g. A record of the transmitters and indicators calibration should contain the following data for both increasing and decreasing input signals at 0. Definitions: (1) Input: the process value (2) Output: the measured value of the switch actuation point Page 92 . etc. wiring diagram. A record of the process switches calibration should contain the following data for both increasing and decreasing inputs at all setpoints: (1) Setpoint value (2) Operate value (3) Error h. 75 and 100 percent of span. (1) Type of Device (2) Manufacturer and Model Number (3) Accuracy (4) NIST Traceability (Yes/No) i.) (8) Instrument tag number (9) Instrument Description (10) Instrument location (11) Instrument manufacturer (12) Instrument model number (13) Instrument serial number.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (6) Control loop number (7) Drawing references (such as P&ID. Calibration equipment: The certification sheet should include the following information on the calibration equipment used. if applicable (14) Instrument range (15) Instrument setpoint and deadband (for switches) f. 50. 25.
(1) Project Name (2) Project Location (3) Project Number (4) Certifier’s Name (5) Certification Date (6) Control Loop Number (7) Drawing References (such as P&ID. if applicable c. if applicable (16) Control Valve Positioner Input and Output Signal. if applicable Page 93 . A table to record the calibration of the final control element d. if applicable (17) Control Valve I/P Converter Input and Output Signal. etc.2.) (8) Control Valve Tag Number (9) Control Valve Description (10) Control Valve Location (11) Control Valve Manufacturer (12) Control Valve Model Number (13) Control Valve Serial Number. if applicable (14) Control Valve Actuator (Pneumatic or Electric) (15) Control Valve Positioner (Direct or Reverse). A table to record the calibration of the I/P (current to pneumatic) converter. A list of the calibration equipment used e. Description of the final control element such as tag number and description b. A final control element certification sheet should include four sections: a. Wiring Diagram.10 FINAL CONTROL ELEMENT CERTIFICATION SHEET Valve actuators and other final control elements should also be calibrated and documented. The final control element description section should include the following information.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (3) Span: the difference between the Maximum and Minimum value of the instrument (4) Error: [(Output – Input) / Span] x 100% 4.
The certification sheet should include the following information on the calibration equipment used. Definitions: (1) Input: the control signal from the controller (PLC) (2) Output: the measured value of the valve controller to the valve (3) Travel: the valve percent open (not all valves are linear) (4) Error: [(Output – Input) / Span] x 100% 4. (1) Type of Device (2) Manufacturer and Model Number (3) Accuracy (4) NIST Traceability (Yes/No) i. 75 and 100 percent of span: (1) Input value (2) Output value (3) Error g. The control loop checkout sheet should have a section verifying each of the six Page 94 . 50. 75 and 100 percent span: (1) Input value (2) Output travel (position) (3) Error h.11 CONTROL LOOP CHECKOUT SHEET The control system integrator should perform loop checkouts for each control loop in the system and provide suitable documentation certifying that the loop is tuned and operating properly. if applicable f. 25. 50.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (18) Control Valve Failure Mode (open or close) on air failure. A record of the I/P (current to pneumatic) converter calibration should contain the following data for both increasing and decreasing inputs at 0. 25. if applicable (19) Control Valve Failure Mode (open or close) on power failure.2. A record of the final control element calibration should contain the following data for both increasing and decreasing signals at 0.
a. (1) Digital (switch) inputs (2) Digital (on/off) outputs (3) Analog (transmitters) inputs (4) Analog (VFD’s. When this has been verified and signed off. (1) Correct programs are loaded (2) Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) thoroughly completed (3) Software Management Practices in place f. Verify that all instruments are calibrated correctly for the specified ranges and setpoints. Verify control system Input and Output wiring. Verify Mechanical Field Installation. Verify HMI (or OIT) points and displays are complete. that are no leaks. valves. (1) Pressure instruments (2) Flow instruments (3) Level instruments (4) Temperature instruments (5) Analysis instruments c. the functional performance testing (FPT) can be started.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA steps described below. Verify Electrical power wiring. (1) Incoming power sources for proper voltage (2) Field cables properly installed and identified (3) Circuit breakers sized and operating correctly (4) Fuses sized correctly inside control panels d. Verify software logic is complete. and meters) outputs e. (1) Motors and Pumps (2) Valves and Dampers b. (1) Graphic screens and screen navigation (2) Alarm screens and operator actions (3) Trend Displays and Data Archiving configured properly Page 95 .
the Functional Performance Testing can be started.3.3 MAINTENANCE PRACTICES 4. preventive maintenance. 4.3.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA g. When this has been verified and signed off.2 PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE The SCADA system should be part of the overall preventive maintenance (PM) program for the facility. Periodic device calibration. and testing allow potential problems to be identified before they can cause mission failure. 4. Prompt corrective maintenance assures reliability by minimizing downtime of redundant components. Preventive maintenance schedules for SCADA components and subsystems should be coordinated with those for the mechanical/electrical systems they serve to minimize overall scheduled downtime. The Control Loop Checkout Sheet should have a section verifying each of the steps describe above.1 GENERAL MAINTENANCE A comprehensive maintenance program is critical to attaining long-term reliable performance of SCADA systems. h. Page 96 . The software logic and HMI/OIT should have been verified during the factory acceptance test.
c. Page 97 . In addition. are not required to function under normal system operating modes. These tests should approach as closely as possible the actual off normal conditions in which the system must operate. Normal operation requires that the SCADA computer not be connected to the Internet. b. software antivirus updates should be maintained. The SCADA software maintenance should include timely updates of any new versions from the supplier and testing to verify proper installation on the SCADA computer.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA a. For example. such as dead-bus relays. Periodic system testing procedures can duplicate or be derived from the functional performance testing procedures. This should be performed any time after the computer is connected to the Internet. For this reason the system should be tested periodically under actual or simulated contingency conditions. SCADA for standby generator plants should be tested by interrupting the utility source as far upstream of the normal service as possible. Many components of SCADA systems.
and safety. Where SCADA components are associated with equipment that has redundancy and therefore are not themselves redundant. 4. RCM has changed the approach to preventive maintenance. RCM provides a logical. The ability to perform concurrent maintenance is critical to attaining the specified reliability/availability criteria for C4ISR facilities and must be designed into the SCADA system.3. 4. repaired or replaced and tested without interfering with the operation of the redundant component. A significant by-product of the application of SCADA systems to the control of C4ISR facilities is the large amount of operational data made available through the trending and data storage features of the SCADA.3.5 OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE DOCUMENTATION Page 98 . serving SCADA systems should be maintained in accord with the requirements of TM 5-692-1 and NFPA 70B. SCADA components and controllers that are redundant must be capable of being taken out of service. and can be considered the “next step” in moving from a trial and error based approach to establishing PM frequencies to an intelligent approach to maintenance planning.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA d. economics. 4. repair or replacement of a component or subsystem while redundant component(s) or subsystem(s) are serving the load. This operational data can be used for automated performance monitoring of mechanical and electrical systems that can support a RCM approach. their maintenance should be scheduled to occur during maintenance of the associated equipment.4 RELIABILTY CENTRED MAINTENANCE Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) is an approach for developing an effective and efficient maintenance program based on the reliability characteristics of the constituent parts and subsystems. both AC and DC.3 CONCURRENT MAINTENANCE Concurrent maintenance is defined as testing. Electrical power systems. structured framework for determining the optimum mix of applicable and effective maintenance activities needed to sustain the operational reliability of systems and equipment while ensuring their safe and economical operation and support.3. troubleshooting.
(4) Tools required to terminate coaxial on fiber optic cables. d.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA The design agency should perform an O&M analysis to determine the O&M data required to support maintenance of the SCADA system by the using government agency. (3) Permission to modify program code. Recommended O&M training. Reliability calculations demonstrating compliance with “six nines” criteria typically use repair times based on “replace with spare” which are shorter than those for “repair failed component”.6 SPARE PARTS STOCKING An adequate on-site stock of spare parts is essential to obtaining high availability of SCADA systems. actual availabilities will be significantly less than these calculated values. (2) Licenses for all software installed on the system. (2) One each of all line replaceable boards or modules. Typical O&M data requirements include the following items: a. Minimum recommended stocking levels include the following.3. Specifications should also require that the following be furnished with each system: (1) Laptop computer loaded with software required to access controllers. This analysis should be coordinated with the using government agency to determine maintenance parameters and O&M data that are available to the using government agency. c. Minimum spare parts list. Recommended spare parts list. (3) Six each power and control fuses used in the system. b. f. System documentation as defined in chapter 10. b. Page 99 . If on-site stocks are inadequate. e. Recommended O&M to be performed by contract. Recommended onsite test equipment. These quantities may need to be increased for components which are used in large numbers in the facility: (1) Manufacturer’s recommended spare parts list. a. 4.
Commercial SCADA software typically has provisions for remote modem access that permit this type of support from the vendor’s location or an agency central engineering group. Such remote access provisions represent a vulnerability to “hacking” and must be used with great caution.01 D. Password protection policies for all SCADA systems. Ongoing O&M of SCADA system software may require technical support from the system vendor or from agency technical personnel not located at the facility. SCADA system documentation provided by the system designer and/or system integrator should include the following: (1) One-line diagrams (2) Process and instrumentation diagrams (P&IDs) (3) Sequences of operation Page 100 . including PLC’s. These policies require that the default password that came from the control supplier be changed when placed into operation at the facility. They should be monitored when in use and physically disconnected when not in use.1 GENERAL Complete and accurate documentation is critical to the commissioning and ongoing maintenance and operation of a SCADA system and should be a high priority of design contract administration. 4. 4.4 DOCUMENTATION AND CHANGE CONTROL 4. validation. checkout.4.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (4) Spare cables for connecting computer to controllers. a. The DoD policy is established by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 6510. shall be in compliance with established DoD policies.7 TECHNICAL SUPPORT The design agency should specify functional areas of the operating system and/or equipment where a technical representative will be furnished by the manufacturer for training. or pre-operational exercises. PLC suppliers have indicated that they are unable to provide a firewall that will protect the controller program in the event of unauthorized access to the HMI processor. Information Assurance (AI) and Computer Network Defense (CND).3. test.
Electronic format should be capable of revision. pumps.4.e. All system documentation for C4ISR facilities should be treated as sensitive and this applies to SCADA system diagrams and documentation as well. chillers. All SCADA documentation should be furnished in both hard copy and appropriate electronic format. At a minimum. actuator and control point should have a unique tag number incorporating the loop number and identification letters per table 1 of ISA S5.2 SYMBOLS AND IDENTIFICATION Individual control loops should be identified by loop number following the convention established by ISA S5. although pdfs may be submitted as archive copies in addition to revisable files.1. compressors.3 PROCESS AND INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&IDs) P&IDs should be provided for all mechanical systems. c.1. i. heat exchangers. P&IDs should depict all components of mechanical systems including vessels. 4. All equipment and instruments should be consistently identified by their complete tag number on all drawings and points lists.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA (4) Instrument data sheets (5) Points list (6) Loop diagrams or I/O wiring diagrams (7) Binary logic diagrams (8) Control schematics (9) PLC program listing (10) HMI description (screen prints and database) (11) Software configuration management documentation (12) Facility physical and information security policies b.4. document security measures should include: (1) Marking all documents For Official Use Only (FOUO) (2) Controlling access to documents (3) Properly destroying outdated or unused documents 4. scanned documents or portable document format (pdf) files are not acceptable. Each instrument. Page 101 .
4. (2) Normal system conditions and modes of operation. rack and slot (6) Point type (7) Field location (8) Range (9) Failure state 4. (3) Contingency conditions and modes of operation. Provide the following information. where applicable. output and control points. (6) Identification of failure state of all outputs. Logic and Computer Systems.5 INSTRUMENT DATA SHEETS Instrument data sheets should be provided per ISA S20. 4. a. Symbols used should comply with ISA S5.6 LOOP DIAGRAMS Page 102 . 4.4. (5) Description of all interlocks and permissives. Sequences of operation should include the following minimum information: (1) Manual and automatic control modes. (4) Effect of all operator controls.1 – Instrumentation Symbols and Identification and ISA 5.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA piping.4 SEQUENCE OF OPERATIONS Written sequences of operation should be provided for all control loops.3 Graphic Symbols for Distributed Control/Shared Display Instrumentation. Points list A points list should be provided that includes all real and virtual input. a. valves and instruments and the control relationships between them.4. for each point: (1) System (2) Equipment (3) Loop number (4) Tag number (5) Controller.
All devices. Proper development of control schematics requires a significant effort on the part of the SCADA system integrator because the standard drawings provided by manufacturers of these related system drawings are typically inconsistent in format. are depicted along with the signal type and range. and loop tuning.4. etc. etc. 4. pump control panels. issue date.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Loop diagrams define the physical wiring for each loop from each instrument or actuator to the controller. 4.3 – Binary Logic Diagrams. – Electrical and Electronic Diagrams. Documentation should consist of an English-language description of the function of each logic rung inserted into the listing.4. Symbols used on control schematics should comply with the previously referenced ISA standards and ANSI Y14. generator control panels. 4. Page 103 .8 CONTROL SCHEMATICS Control schematics show the interface between the SCADA system and the internal wiring of related equipment such as motor starters. A document database or spreadsheet should be maintained that provides a current listing of all documents and their revision status. junction boxes. revision data. symbols and content.4 – Instrument Loop Diagrams.7 BINARY LOGIC DIAGRAMS Binary logic diagrams are flowcharts that depict all discrete logic using Boolean logic symbols. cables and conductors must be completely identified on the loop diagrams per ISA S5. 4.15. terminal boards. and revision history in a format that is consistent across all documents.4. requiring that they be redrafted by the integrator to provide an integrated documentation package.9 PLC PROGRAM LISTING A documented listing of the complete program of each PLC should be provided. These drawings are the basis for verification of all SCADA system field wiring. instrument calibration. Logic diagrams should comply with ISA S5.10 CHANGE CONTROL All SCADA documentation should include creation date. All field devices.4. terminals.
) and to guarantee the conservation for a long time of special tissues and materials. . any operational abnormal condition is immediately recognized and filtered according to user settings.1. The database should be provided in electronic format and maintained on an ongoing basis by the facility manager after system commissioning. All changes made to the system should be promptly reflected by revising the documentation and the database and distributing copies of the revised documentation and updated database to the field.1 HCLs INFOSYSTEMs SCADA 5. CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 5.1. Page 104 . The database should include the following: (1) Document Type (2) Document Number (3) Page Number (4) Sheet Number (5) Title (6) Current Revision (7) Revision Date b. in case of persistent anomalies an alarm is created that. can be related with a local signal (siren.. depending on its gravity. Each submittal of SCADA documentation should include an updated submittal of the document database.1.1 HEALTHCARE SECTOR SCADA Software can be installed in many hospitals and research facilities in order to ensure the continuous monitoring of all medical devices providing a steady and controlled temperature (refrigerators. freezers.1 HCL VERTICALS FOR SCADA IMPLEMENTATION 5.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA a.
1. at defined time interval or at user request.1. Unlike conventional airport control applications. ➢ Data Migration/Porting from Existing/Legacy Application (HIS) ➢ Support during Warranty 5. baggage handling at airports requires maximum logistical performance.2INFRASTRUCTURE ➢ Airports • An advanced Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system can be used at the Airports to control runway lighting.. ➢ Deployment of Integrated HIS with Data mining tool. SCADA Systems can be used to automate and control the baggage management system at any airport in a very efficient manner..Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA lamp.) or broadcast via SMS to a maintenance technician cellular phone. • With increasing passenger volume and stricter legal provisions. HCL's current Focus areas HCL offers end-to-end turnkey solutions to our customers in the 'Healthcare' domain. Development & Customization of HMIS application as per approved SRS & BPR document. Page 105 . . a TCP/IP network can provide all data related to devices functionality and organic material conservation to one or more client analysis stations. the SCADA system can be directly operated from the airport's control tower. Hospital Management Information Software (HMIS) Application: ➢ Design. Listed below are the areas on which we provide our services as a System Integrator.
jetty mainline metering/proving. 5. hydrant and truck rack. ➢ Railways Indian Railways can use SCADA system for monitoring and control of Traction Power system which is responsible for providing power to the electric trains. tank inventory. development and rollout of e-Procurement solution for optimizing the stores operations and ease to vendors. creating WAN networks. The following railways specific applications can be implemented: • • • • Auto Fault Localization CB Tripping reports Power Block Maximum demand handling HCL's current Focus areas IT enablement through solutions on reservation terminals. mainline pump control. distribution pump control. Setting up Automatic Ticket vending machines infrastructure for unreserved ticketing system. setting up Data centres. Providing energy management solutions for reducing energy consumption. ESD.1. valve manifold control. fire and safety systems. interface to leak detection system.3 HOMELAND SECURITY Page 106 .1.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • SCADA System can also be used for the airport fuelling system that handles barge and ship receiving.
1. improve the monitoring of traffic flow.1. as well as rush hour traffic management. Red Light Violation Detection: This system includes inductive loops which are placed in a roadbed to detect vehicles as they pass over the loop by measuring the vehicle's magnetic field. while more sophisticated sensors estimate the speed. City Surveillance It is the process of monitoring the behavior of people. The simplest detectors simply count the number of vehicles during a unit of time (typically 60 seconds ) that pass over the loop. model routes and schedules while providing you with intuitive insight into the status of routes in progress – just what you need to improve the efficiency and timeliness of daily operations. The purpose of the project is to investigate and generate better public understanding of the practices.4 TRANSPORT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM SCADA System is important for maintaining good traffic and road conditions. length. 5. As the right light is violated by the person. Page 107 . programs and systems used to screen in order to assess the scope and depth of their concrete impacts on civil liberties. This basically makes the security personnel to be OMNIPRESENT in places where they do not need to be physically. and weight of vehicles and the distance between them. objects or processes within city for conformity to expected or desired norms in trusted systems for security or social control.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA SCADA Systems can be used for the Homeland Security in the following areas: Fleet Management Fleet management is an all-inclusive urban public transit management solution which enables you to plan your operations on strategic level. safety signs and emergency alarm systems. privacy rights and mobility rights. it will be highlighted to the control room.
2 PROJECT PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION Page 108 . The second key factor was to overcome the mountainous area around the Indian terrain. high quality.1. Wireless SCADA System is the best and the most cheap option for the implementation of the SCADA System. the SCADA System has to provide a fast and reliable. technical and operational functions & ERP for corporate level functions ➢ Energy Audit services ➢ Advance Metering Infrastructure ➢ Smart Grid Technology ➢ Automated Meter Reading Systems ➢ LT SCADA 5.1.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Firstly. SCADA System can also be used for keeping a track of the efficient management of the Toll Plaza.5 POWER SECTOR ➢ HCL Offerings to Power Field Automation to address IT automation of commercial. 5. data transfer solution over long geographical distances.
Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA 5. Costs to within (-50+100%) 3. Project Closeout.g. design. usually with approval gateways at the end of each phase. Acquisition. 1. Initiation.1. and does not require a lot of resources The identification of need may have arisen out of some other activity e.1 GENERAL PLANNING This chapter has two objectives: to outline the basic process and key issues in planning. construction and commissioning of a SCADA project. Design. To comply with regulators requirements. Typically SCADA will be required for some of the following reasons: • • • • • • • • To reduce power costs. development of Corporate Strategies. Typical Project Management Phases of a Typical SCADA project • • • • • • Identification. Identify need 2. and to summarize key points from the rest of the technical manual in a way that can serve as a checklist for the facility manager during the implementation process. All project management methodologies involve breaking a project down into phases. To obtain a competitive edge Page 109 . Prepare Preliminary estimate.2. This phase is 5.1 IDENTIFICATION normally informal. To avoid environmental incidents. Definition. A further breakdown into tasks is used to produce a work breakdown structure (WBS). or from the aftermath of coping with a major incident. To improve level of service. To reduce future capital requirements.2. review of plant condition. It may not be possible to run the business without SCADA. Obtain approval for funds or resources to proceed to the next phase. To reduce staffing.
It is here the business case for the project is fleshed out to determine initial feasibility.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • To replace an existing aging system Often SCADA is not rigorously justified but simply required by management as being part of the way management want to run the business. A progressive management will create a climate in which staff will actively seek ways in which to improve the productivity of the organisation.2 INITIATION 1. then it is likely this will encompass automation. every such proposal will be treated with sceptism. unexpected benefits arise that overwhelm the originally predicted benefits. The key to this is for management to have developed a vision of how they want the organisation to run in the future. and it is extremely common that after the system is installed. Establish Summary Work Breakdown Structure 4. In addition. Validate project need 2. identify the main technologies to be used. it is unlikely you will include this in the SCADA project at a later date. the benefits may arise because of SCADA and several other key initiatives which are proceeding in parallel eg business re-engineering and it is impossible to separate the benefits of SCADA from the benefits arising from other initiatives. SCADA etc in order to become more efficient. Page 110 . Sufficient work needs to be done to enable a cost estimate to be prepared that is accurate to within -30 to +50%. Conceptual estimate (-30 to +50%) At this stage some small amount of funding has been approved to undertake the preliminary investigations.2. If they have this. In other organisations.1. For example if you do not look at the benefits of use of off peak electricity tariffs to reduce pumping costs. and gain agreement and approval of the potential users of the system. It will be necessary to firm up on the scope. The scope of the project is essentially defined at this point. Establish concepts and scope 3. This may be the best way. In any event the decision as to whether to proceed with SCADA will often arise directly out of the management philosophy. and prepare a preliminary project management plan. as often substantial resources are consumed attempting to provide a justification for SCADA. 5. This phase is a crucial one in any SCADA project.
to use consultants. and minimise the project timeframe. A consultant may have preconceived ideas as to how the project should be managed.g. If the system is being introduced to improve productivity.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Similarly sufficient work needs to be done to establish the benefits of the system to enough accuracy to convince management to give approval to proceed to the next phase. Restricting the amount of custom software that the system will require is probably the biggest single action you can take to reduce costs. to use design and construct contracts (recommended) and so on. it is necessary to keep an eye on the technical capabilities offered by suppliers as "off the shelf" in your industry. Do you want to take a low risk approach to your Page 111 . then it is important that user management understand how they can use the SCADA system to change work practices. They can normally point to a track record of "success" for their approach. Some preliminary idea of the contracting strategy will have been developed e. Although the work should be concentrating on the functional requirements. The decision to use consultants must be taken with care. The work at this stage should be concentrating on the functional (or user) requirements. as they may wish to carry out the design for example. and the technological requirements should only be looked at to the point of enabling cost estimates to be produced (and only to within -30 to +50%). It is important at this stage that the project team include someone from the end user part of the organisation to begin to build a sense of ownership of the system. It is surprising how often detailed I/O listings for example are produced at this stage. Therefore you must be clear as to what your priorities are before selecting the consultant. risks. The emphasis should be on ensuring that there is a common understanding within the end users of what functionality the system will provide. A common mistake at this point is to go into too much technical detail. This involvement should continue throughout the project so that the system can be handed over on completion to an operator who is committed to using it to its full potential. Some decisions such as the use of design and construct contracts may not be in consultants interests. Care must be taken in the selection of the consultant to ensure that you get what you want. This can have a substantial impact on costs and in particular a decision to use consultants requires funding to proceed to the next phase.
and organisational and reporting processes are established. which functions. Be sure to select a consultant who is familiar with this contracting approach. and are comfortable with the technology. Develop baseline and schedules for project management 4. and the technological requirements should still only be looked at to the point of enabling cost estimates to be produced) and only to within -15 to +25%). then design and construct contracts are for you. The scope is being finalised (which sites. Studies (eg value management.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA SCADA acquisition to avoid purchasing an expensive boat anchor. then an approach which stipulates extensive testing at all phases of the contract may be best for you. It is important at this stage to firmly identify the benefits of the system. The work at this stage should still be concentrating on the functional (or user) requirements. Develop contracting strategies Develop implementation strategies 7. Most consultants are comfortable with this approach (low for them too). 5. A project team is in place. Assess risks 5. This will give management confidence that the investment is going to be worthwhile. etc. If so. economic) 6.1. Definitive estimate (-15 to +25%) 8. If however you want a low cost solution. Site audits should normally be conducted at this stage to avoid nasty surprises in the future. Page 112 . and to develop "benefit realisation plans". Establish a preferred option (if not already done) 3. Go/No-go decision At this stage the project is starting to get serious.3 DEFINITION 1.2. Appoint key team members 2. etc). These plans will identify exactly how the proposed benefits will be realised ie what changes will be made to existing processes to achieve the intended benefits. Firm decisions are being made on contracting strategies such as design and construct. Involvement of consultants in the design gives a second perspective.
In effect you are minimising the numbers of interfaces between designer and supplier. reliability required. The so-called "go-no go" decision at the completion of this phase is probably the last serious chance that the project can be stopped. it is important that the contracting strategies are firmed up. and so on. The trends are towards increasing use of design and construct contracts. This meant the SCADA supplier was told how the system was to be put together.1. must have diagnostic facility built in. and in effect he was somewhat absolved of responsibility. and then tender for a system based on this design. Bundling all parts of the system into a single contract (communications. and allowing the SCADA supplier to organise the project in the most efficient manner for him. but should lay down some guidelines eg must be radio. and the prequalification phases.4 DESIGN • • • • Design Reviews Definition Report Reviews Funds Justification Design Estimate -10%+10% If using a design and construct approach. It is important that if you are going to use design and construct contracts. and should always be undertaken. then this phase normally involves preparing the specification. and developing tender evaluation plans.2. If it didn't work. x numbers of RTU's per repeater. RTU's and SCADA system ) and using a design and construct approach can substantially reduce costs and increase the chance of the project being delivered on time. you still don't do the design. Your contract for example should not mandate the communications design to be used. between communications and SCADA. Prequalification allows the selection of potential suppliers before they have submitted a Page 113 . In the past it has been common to engage a consultant (or to do "in-house") to do the design. 5. and will reduce costs substantially. These are highly recommended. etc. (Prequalification is used to preselect reputable tenderers who have a proven track record in this field. instrumentation. then it was an additional cost for him to fix up someone elses mistakes.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA As the project is about to proceed to design. It is probable that a prequalification phase could proceed at this time to overlap the tender preparation.
If the radio system does not perform.g. one for the SCADA. and pay for performance. Commissioning tests. you are taking the risks. Construction 5. and so on. The vendors basically resist all suggestions to split the work. Specification and working drawing preparation 2. Without prequalification you run risks of having to reject inappropriate tenderers in the tender evaluation.5 ACQUISITION 1.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA priced quotation. Commissioning 7. Off-site fabrication 6. all the detailed work is carried out by the supplier(s). 5. Pre-construction estimate(after receipt of tenders) -5%+5% 3. e. The key players at this stage are • • • The supplier's project manager The contract superintendent The project manager Page 114 . If the supplier wants to run factory acceptance tests. Site Acceptance tests. A functional test at the end is all that is required from the perspective of the purchaser.1. then that is his business. expensive and the separation of design and acquisition meant there was a great deal of customisation. then you have problems with both contracts. This was required because the technology was new.2. ie on the basis of their capability and experience. Every time you split the work. are you sure the radio contractor is responsible? If it meets your specification. The modern approach is to use design and construct contracts.) A key decision in the tender documents is the extent of testing specified. Procurement 4. I have been told by one supplier that 80% of contracts no longer specify factory tests. Practical completion Under design and construct contracts. and if your tender documents are not well prepared you can wind up in a difficult position. one contract for the communications network. In the 1980's contracts routinely specified Factory Acceptance Tests.
and testing Field installation of instrumentation. Project Final report 2.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA The success of the project will depend on all three performing. 5. Post implementation review (PIR) as required The post implementation review is something that is probably rarely undertaken.2.6 PROJECT CLOSEOUT 1. What needs to be done now to remedy these "faults"? Remember as far as the contractor and project team are concerned.2 PROJECT TEAM SELECTION The following key personnel or their representatives make up the recommended project implementation team. 5. Although time commitment and degree of involvement will vary with the stage of the project. and beyond that maintenance must be contracted for. Closeout of any outstanding defects and nonconformities 3. the system normally has a defects liability period. these are not faults . If it is likely that your organisation will be undertaking future SCADA projects. Final completion 4.1. and RTU's Commissioning Site acceptance testing Customer training Subsequent to this. In this phase the project will go through a number of phases: • • • • • • • • Design (culminating in a design report from the supplier for approval) Configuration of SCADA master software Development of custom software Assembly of RTU's in factory. It is important that an assessment be made of how well the system is meeting the organisations needs as they are now understood.2. but should be a mandatory part of all projects. all team members should be involved from the planning stage and Page 115 . then the PIR can be used to document any lessons learnt to avoid repeating the same mistakes.the system has been delivered as specified. communications.
making changes at this late stage based on their input will undoubtedly impact schedule and cost. SCADA system designer h. including business Page 116 . Project manager b.1 HCL STRATEGY FOR SCADA The far-reaching impact of new technologies and quantum change in the way companies are restructuring and streamlining business processes are transforming the global Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) market. Facility manager c. The market was nearly $850 million in 2007 and is forecasted to be over $1.3 billion in 2012.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA remain in the communications loop throughout the duration of the project. SCADA systems are now being considered in a wide range of applications and true business processes for a variety of purposes. The worldwide market for SCADA systems for the oil and gas industry is expected to grow at a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 9.3% over the next five years. according to a new ARC Advisory Group study. Mission commander f. These new generations of SCADA components are easier to integrate and provide vastly improved capabilities and functionalities. Controls technician e. a. Utility system designer(s) g. The latest SCADA systems encompass a new generation of technology components. Operations and maintenance manager d. Physical security specialist CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATION 6. It is a mistake to delay the involvement of maintenance staff or the commissioning agent until the end of the design stage or the construction stage.
Global demand for energy in the form of oil and gas is driving both exploration and production activities of the oil and gas industry. monitored.1. software. project size. SCADA will be at the core of technology adoptions as the world economy strengthens and as the industry moves to improve business processes to meet growing energy demand and economic challenges. The energy sector in developed regions is using SCADA as a core technology to support new business processes in response to changing industry dynamics.1 MARKET OVERVIEW ARC has analyzed the SCADA market by geographic region. and the existing energy infrastructure utilizes the enhanced functionalities of SCADA to improve its core business processes of managing global disparate assets.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA performance management thus providing ample opportunity for a new player to exploit the profits in the different verticals related to this sector.1. and optimized globally using advanced technologies including SCADA. Page 117 . Migration planning to enable efficient transition of legacy systems to meet new demands from all stakeholders. SCADA will play an increasingly important role in the real-time dissemination of knowledge and management control of assets. Developing regions are seeing increased exploration and production activities for which SCADA is used to link the geographically separated facilities. Challenges and issues the energy industry must address include: • • Tightening integration of business processes to midstream oil and gas operational systems such as SCADA. including hardware. and component type. New SCADA technology enables energy companies to conduct their business in remote and increasingly hostile environments. 6. controlled. The worldwide SCADA market is expanding as upstream development and new production occurs in remote and newly developed regions. Exploration activities and new production fields are developed. In both the upstream and midstream portions of the oil and gas industry.2 STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS Strategic planning for energy investments and the transition of the operation and management of existing assets to incorporate new advances in technology is critical. 6. and services.
SCADA systems are an enabling technology that can help to change the way energy companies restructure business processes to respond to market dynamics with real-time knowledge flow. integrating SCADA systems with other systems at the plant level and with higher level corporate business systems. SCADA system design must go beyond plant systems that are open. it is becoming necessary to be able to communicate with business systems throughout a company. Energy industry operating firms are seeking ways to become more responsive to the demands of all stakeholders. These systems include an ever-expanding number of outside systems that typically reside in an extended supply chain. is particularly supply chain-centric. modular. and the proliferation of intelligence to all levels of physical assets on a global basis. Page 118 . For a SCADA system to be marketable. SCADA. including supply chain applications. There are a number of strategies that ARC recommends to suppliers and users of SCADA systems and components to maximize their potential in the changing marketplace. the coming of age of the digital oilfield. SCADA suppliers can play a major role by providing solutions. With change come opportunities. and Increasing concern over security and environmental issues. long associated with operations management of pipelines. Energy companies are increasingly looking for a total solution. SCADA has evolved into a more robust technology capable of serving as the channel for information flow to a number of higher level applications. 6. suppliers must show how their SCADA systems can provide appropriate realtime data to systems across this extended supply chain. and provide for simplified connectivity to other control systems. The midstream segment of the oil and gas industry.1.2.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • • • Updating and automating older fields. Implementation of Asset Lifecycle Management programs and regulatory compliance initiatives such as integrity management. with its focus on transport (pipelines). both now and in the future. must now have the functionality to provide supply chain systems with real-time information.1 INTEGRATION OF BUSINESS AND MIDSTREAM SYSTEMS Suppliers must develop a SCADA system that can be fully integrated with corporate business systems. To be competitive. Here is a closer look at three of the strategies.
1. batch tracking. Functions such as custody transfer. nominations. There's also increasing need to operate the midstream portion of the industry as a value-add business and to generate increased revenue from existing assets. This collaboration is closely tied to supply chain and other business processes. an increasing product mix.2 INITIATE AND MAINTAIN MIGRATION PLAN Page 119 . increasing market volatility.2. The net result is a more complex set of scheduling and inventory management issues that are forcing the adoption of more efficient business processes. Emerging SCADA systems should have the capability to be both fully compatible with IT and to communicate with internal and external enterprise systems. The supervisory control portion of SCADA is already transitioning to better accommodate a collaborative production management approach. and transactional management.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Just as the upstream and downstream portions of the energy industry have become more sophisticated in integrating operations management with business processes. Most of the issues that pipeline management programs address may also be viewed in the context of creating an efficient supply chain. and terminal management all reside in both the operations management and supply chain domains. with linkage to upstream and downstream industry workflows. so too will the midstream portion. such as: • • • • • Strategic network planning Replenishment planning/inventory management Distribution planning and optimization Scheduling movements Execution management 6. accounting. and tightened regulatory constraints. They should also include an expanding number of applications that typically reside in the extended supply chain. Business drivers for implementing supply chain management initiatives include clean fuels regulatory issues.
it is doubtful the software applications that connect to business or IT systems would be viable for that length of time. and also serves to enhance the standing of SCADA professionals in the industry. component obsolescence. There are a number of perspectives and issues to consider. Migration planning is the interface for merging the automation and IT worlds. Companies must employ a SCADA system that provides a flow of data and information to support these evolving workflows. Software is continually being developed to reflect the changing demands of business processes and workflows.3 PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION HCL should look for a comprehensive SCADA professional's certification program that enables the measurement of SCADA knowledge. skills and abilities. Legacy SCADA system components may still function as designed. This makes SCADA migration planning critical.1. and increasing security concerns. The objectives of a certified SCADA professional's program should seek to: Page 120 .Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA When evaluating the lifecycle of a SCADA system. it's important to note that the components that comprise a complete system have distinctly different lifecycles. Proper migration planning is critical. higher-level functionality not included in the original components. More information is demanded more frequently by additional functional groups. 6. However. The principal issues are deficiencies in the functionality of legacy systems.2. new operational and business processes often require new. While some owner/operator firms have RTUs that are more than 25 years old. both internal and external to an enterprise. This often requires an upgrading of SCADA systems. SCADA's role is changing dramatically in response to changing business processes.
power.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • • Provide a means for an individual or organization to assess their skills against a recognized and appropriate industry standard.2 SCADA SYSTEM CONSULTANCY HCL SCADA consulting services can accelerate the productivity of the prospective channel partners as well as our prospective end users. HCL’s Consulting team will be leveraged to provide Quality Consulting Services to HCL’s clients. implementation & training to Process assessments for Model and nonmodel based improvement initiatives. transportation and water.1. 6. who have experience in Energy sector. productive and professional manner. rail and metro transportation and water/wastewater applications. • Custom application development HCLs consulting team would have a wealth of vertical industry experience that they can bring to bear on partner and end user efforts to develop specialized applications. HCLs System Integration team has an impressive track record. They bring with them practical Page 121 . offering first-hand experience working for channel partners in mission-critical industries including oil & gas. Our consultants can help customers develop the specialized software in applications such as power generation and distribution. • Certify that employees are properly prepared for the professional responsibilities of successfully supporting a SCADA system environment and fully understand the impact of their actions on the safety and reliability of the operation. Thus HCL can become only the second organization in India after Reliance to provide both IT Consultancy and SCADA Consultancy to the end user. Establish a recognized standard that ensures anyone who has access to a live SCADA system for the purposes of support or administration has achieved a specified level of competence and is aware of the best practices for performing specific tasks in a safe. gas and liquids pipelines. HCL’s Quality Consulting strength lies in the skills and rich experience of our consultants. HCL Quality Process Consulting offers process improvement services that span the entire continuum ranging from Process definition.2. HCL Quality Process Consulting is a niche service offering as a part of the suite of Transformation Services.
Some of the potential partners of HCL in the SCADA domain are listed below: • • • • • ABB Siemens Larsen & Toubro GE Honeywell Automation India Ltd HCL can also acquire a pre established small firm in the SCADA domain and thus be assured of gaining a sure entry in to the market and provide an enhanced end to end solution to the established clients.2. and environment change tracking industry. water and wastewater. As part of this alliance.2. Fig: Perceptual map showing the potential entry point in the SCADA domain 6. power and utilities industries.2 STRATEGIC ALLIANCES & ACQUISITIONS HCL can form a Global Strategic Alliance with some of the leading SCADA players and thus combine its IT expertise with the SCADA domain knowledge of the leading players to provide an end to end solution to the prospective customers. while the prospect partner will be responsible for the marketing and sales of both companies HMI/SCADA products. By doing this HCL can actually showcase its capability in the SCADA domain and this will help HCL to acquire new projects.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA implementation experience of various processes that best fits client’s SCADA environment. HCL can focus on providing full-solution system integration services in established markets. 6. However it needs to be ensured that the target markets for both companies are oil and gas production.1.1.2 HCL – OUTSOURCEE & OUTSOURCER Page 122 .
While looking for a SCADA firm HCL should look for the following: • Visit the data centre and talk to the staff. not just the salespeople. as well as the physical aspects such as power redundancy and redundant router configurations. • Ensure system security without distraction. Markets shift. Providers of outsourced IT infrastructure typically offer Service Level Agreements which guarantee a certain level of data and application availability for a set price. And managers face the possibility of either constantly buying or underutilizing IT resources. floor space. From auditing traffic patterns to maintaining security patches to firewall management. Acquiring new capacity may necessitate expansion of IT staff. Explore the environment and infrastructure--and how long they've been in business. • Get references from the pipeline industry. software licenses. HCL can provide the following advantage to the outsourcing company: • Manage risk cost-effectively. Test their knowledge. monitoring basic security and ensuring fundamental network and application performance. However every operator is not a prime outsourcing candidate. A glossy brochure with a compressor station on the front doesn't mean they understand what pipelines do. On the other hand HCL can also outsource its SCADA operations to some of the already established players in the market. Operators are assured that IT best practices are applied to their infrastructure without investing in the latest and greatest of everything. How can players across the industry keep SCADA data and other mission-critical applications safe without wasting money? To stay out of the fire-fighting mode it is better for niche SCADA players to outsource functions like managing data centres.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA Scalability is a constant challenge in IT. Companies with little inherent fluctuation in SCADA resource demand are less likely candidates. Page 123 . power and more. Enbridge handed over security functions to focus on the strategic capitalization of its SCADA data. HCL thus can provide turnkey IT infrastructure to a number of energy-related companies. Contracts change.
• Page 124 . how it will be measured and what penalties apply if you step outside the lines. Draft up an exit strategy. Define what you really need. Make sure non-executive SCADA staff understands that these measures will help them. • Get grassroots support. Get the details of what they're guaranteeing.Business credibility of System Integration in ICT domain using SCADA • Don't rush into a Service Level Agreement. not undermine them. Involve them in the selection process. just in case.