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Peplink/Pepwave Certification Glossary

Active PoE vs Passive PoE


Active PoE has active components inside and is able to transfer power up to 100 meters.
Passive PoE™ uses free wires in the Ethernet cable to deliver power. The range of Passive
PoE is about 30 to 40 m/100-130 ft., which covers the needs of up to 90% of users,
according to our research.

Broadband Internet
Due to its access speeds, Broadband Internet service is the most highly used form of
Internet access. It is offered in four different forms: DSL (or Digital Subscriber Line),
fiber-optic, cable, and satellite. The old dial-up connection is the only non-broadband
Internet service available. Even though it is cheaper, most Internet users are moving
towards the faster broadband Internet connections.

Cellular Broadband
Also called mobile broadband, it is the marketing term for wireless Internet access through
a portable modem, mobile phone, USB wireless modem, tablet, or other mobile device.
The first wireless Internet access became available in 1991 as a part of the second
generation (2G) of mobile phone technology. Higher speeds became available in 2001 and
2006 as part of the third (3G) and fourth (4G) generations.

Directional Wi-Fi Antennas


In contrast to omnidirectional antennas, directional antennas focus more energy in a
single direction. These are typically used to extend the range of a Wi-Fi network into
hard-to-reach corners of buildings or other specific situations where 360-degree coverage
is not needed.

Distance-Vector Routing Protocols


Distance-vector routing protocols use the Bell-Ford algorithm. In these protocols, each
router does not possess information about the full network topology. It advertises its
distance value (DV, calculated relative to other routers) and receives similar
advertisements from other routers. This occurs unless changes are made in the local
network or by neighbors (routers). Some examples of distance-vector
routing protocols:
- Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
- Routing Information Protocol Version (RIPv2)
- Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP)

DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)


The DSL (or Digital Subscriber Line) Internet service makes its connection by utilizing
unused telephone wires, causing no interruption to your telephone service. The speed you
experience with a DSL connection varies with your distance from the switching station.
More distance results in slower speeds and vice versa. This may be a deciding factor when
you attempt to select between a DSL line and a cable connection.

Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP)


EGP is commonly used between hosts on the Internet to exchange routing table
information. The routing table contains a list of known routers, the addresses at which
they can be reached, and a cost metric associated with the path to each router. This
ensures that the best available route is chosen. A more recent exterior gateway protocol,
the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), provides additional capabilities.
BGP is often the protocol used between gateway hosts on the Internet. Hosts using BGP
communicate using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). They send updated router
table information only when one host has detected a change, and only the affected part of
the routing table is sent. BGP-4, the latest version, lets administrators configure cost
metrics based on policy statements.

FTTX–Fiber To The X (FTTX)


Fiber To The X(FTTX)is a generic term for any broadband network architecture using
optical fiber to provide all, or part of the local loop used for last-mile telecommunications.
The term is a generalization for several configurations of fiber deployment, ranging from
FTTN (fiber to the neighborhood) to FTTD (fiber to the desktop). The newest broadband
service is fiber-optic, which is the fastest Internet connection thus far. However, this type
of Internet service is still in its infancy, as its service areas are quite limited, and because
the laying down of the fiber-optic cable takes a while to complete. Wherever it is available,
the cost not only competes with that of DSL and cable, but it provides a much faster
connection than both of those services.

Hybrid Routing Protocol


Hybrid routing protocols have both the features of distance-vector routing protocols and of
linked state routing protocols. One example is Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing
Protocol (EIGRP).

Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP)


An interior gateway protocol (IGP) is a routing protocol by which elements comprising an
autonomous system (AS) exchange routing information. By contrast, an exterior gateway
protocol is used to determine network reachability between autonomous systems and
relies on IGPs to resolve routes within an AS. Interior gateway protocols can be divided
categorically into distance-vector routing protocol and link-state routing protocol.

IPv4 Private Addresses


These addresses are not routed on the Internet and thus their use need not be
coordinated with an IP address registry. Below table listed the IANA-reserved private IPv4
network ranges, with correspondence to Class A, B, and C.
Class A: 10.0.0.0-10.255.255.255, 24-bit block with /8 prefix, 1 network + 16777216 host
addresses
Class B: 172.16.0.0 -172.31.255.255, 20-bit block with /12 prefix, 16 networks + 1048576
host addresses
Class C: 192.168.0.0 -192.168.255.255, 16-bit block with /16 prefix, 256 networks +
65536 host addresses

Leased Line
Typically, leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices.
The primary factors affecting the monthly fees are the distance between end points and
the speed of the circuit. Because the connection does not carry anybody else's
communications, the carrier can assure a given level of quality. An Internet leased line is a
premium Internet connectivity product, which is dedicated and provides uncontended,
symmetrical speeds, full-duplex.

Link-State Routing Protocol


In link-state routing protocols, each router possesses information about the complete
network topology. Each router then independently calculates the best next hop from it for
every possible destination in the network using local information of the topology. The
collection of best-next-hops form the routing table.
This contrasts with distance-vector routing protocols, which work by having each node
share its routing table with its neighbors. In a link-state protocol, the only
information passed between the nodes is information used to construct the connectivity
maps.
Examples of link-state routing protocols:
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)
Intermediate system to intermediate system (IS-IS)

Metro Ethernet
Metro Ethernet network is a metropolitan area network (MAN) that is based on Ethernet
standards. It is commonly used to connect subscribers to a larger service network or the
Internet. An Ethernet interface is much less expensive than a SONET/SDH or PDH
interface of the same bandwidth. Another distinct advantage of an Ethernet-based access
network is that it can be easily connected to the customer network, due to the prevalent
use of Ethernet in corporate and, more recently, residential networks.

Mobile Data Communications Standards and Speeds:


Basic GSM (2G) –14.4Kbps Download
GPRS (2G) -48Kbps Download
EDGE (2G) -236Kbps Download
UMTS (3G / IMT-2000) -384Kbps Download [64Kbps upstream]
HSPA (3G / IMT-2000) -14.4Mbps Download [5.8Mbps upload]
HSPA+ (3G / IMT-2000) -84Mbps Download [22Mbps upload]
WiMAX 802.16e (3G / IMT-2000) -128Mbps Download [56Mbps upload] -Frequency:
500–800MHz, 2.3GHz, 2.5-2.6GHz, 3.3-3.5GHz
LTE (3G / IMT-2000) -100Mbps Download [50Mbps upload] -Frequency: 800MHz,
900MHz, 1800MHz, 2.6GHz
WiMAX2 802.16m (4G / IMT-Advanced) -1Gbps Download -Frequency: 2.3GHz, 2.5GHz,
2.6GHz (UK) or 3.5GHz
LTE-Advanced (4G / IMT-Advanced) -1Gbps Download -Frequency: 800MHz, 900MHz,
1800MHz, 2.6GHz

MPLS
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a scalable, protocol-independent protocol. In an
MPLS network, data packets are assigned labels. Packet-forwarding decisions are made
solely on the contents of this label, without the need to examine the packet itself. This
allows one to create end-to-end circuits across any type of transport medium, using any
protocol. MPLS belongs to the family of packet-switched networks.
MPLS technologies have evolved with the strengths and weaknesses of ATM in mind. Many
network engineers agree that ATM should be replaced with a protocol that requires less
overhead, while providing connection-oriented services for variable-length frames. MPLS is
currently replacing some of these technologies in the marketplace.

Network Address Translation (NAT) is the process where a network device, usually a
firewall, assigns a public address to a computer (or group of computers) inside a private
network. The main use of NAT is to limit the number of public IP addresses an
organization or company needs to use, for both economy and security purposes.

NAT one-to-one is commonly used when you go from one autonomous system to
another autonomous system. It is used when you need your source address while
communicating to the destination to be a specific IP address, but that IP address does not
match your current IP address layout. In which case, you’d need to NAT one-to-one the
source address to a destination address. In this case, NAT one-to-one is commonly
performed on both sides.

A NAT Pool, in simple terms, is a pool that has been carved out of an allocated address
block. This pool assigns global addresses on a first come first serve basis to local hosts
based on a match found in a specified access control list. The benefit of this type of
configuration is that your inside network can use RFC1918 private addressing such as the
10.0.0.0/8 range but still obtain IP connectivity to the outside world using a single public
IP address per host.

Omnidirectional Wi-Fi Antennas


Omnidirectional radio antennas are designed to work with signals in any direction. These
are commonly used on Wi-Fi routers and mobile adapters as such devices must support
multiple connections. Factory Wi-Fi gear often uses basic dipole antennas of the so-called
"rubber duck" design, similar to those used on walkie-talkie radios, with a gain from 2 to 9
dBi.

Port Address Translation (PAT) is a type of Network Address Translation that


translates inside local addresses to a single inside global address which would be, in most
cases the IP Address your ISP assigns you. You can think of PAT as a dynamic form of
extended NAT.

Port forwarding or port mapping is a name given to the combined technique of:
• translating the address and/or port number of a packet to a new destination
• possibly accepting such packet(s) in a packet filter(firewall)
• forwarding the packet according to the routing table

Port forwarding allows remote computers (for example, computers on the Internet) to
connect to a specific computer or service within a private local-area network (LAN).

Example 1 -NAT:
• A company hosts their web server (Web-A) internally, and wants to be publicly
accessible. So the web server LAN IP: 192.168.1.10/24 will be translated to public IP:
211.25.231.154 (assuming this is given by the ISP). External users will be accessing the
web server via the public IP (211.25.231.154).

Example 2 –Port Forwarding/Port Mapping:


• Company A added another web server (Web-B) with LAN IP: 192.168.1.11/24, and they
only have one public IP (211.25.231.154) to be shared by the Web-A. So, port forwarding
can be configured to translate the Web-A with public IP: 211.25.231.154 and TCP port:
80, while Web-B with public IP: 211.25.231.154 and TCP port: 8080. From the Internet,
external users will able to access Web-A via http://211.25.231.154:80, and Web-B via
http://211.25.231.154:8080.

Example 3 -PAT:
• Company B has 200 staff who need to access Internet to retrieve email and web
browsing. Their LAN IP range is 192.168.1.0/24, so the company needs to have an
Internet gateway (router or firewall) to translate these 200 internal IPs into single public
IP (assuming ISP assigned 211.25.231.154 to their internet gateway). External parties will
see all these 200 internal hosts with the only public IP, which is 211.25.231.154.

Public IP
An IP address is considered public if the IP number is valid and falls outside any of the IP
address ranges reserved for private uses by Internet standards groups. Each public IP is
assigned to a range or block of addresses. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) controls ownership of these IP ranges and assigns each block to organizations such
as Internet Service Providers (ISPs) who, in turn, allocate individual IP addresses to
customers.
IPv4 multicast addresses are defined by the leading address bits of 1110, originating from
the classful network design of the early Internet when this group of addresses was
designated as Class D. The Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) prefix of this
group is 224.0.0.0/4. The group includes the addresses from 224.0.0.0 to
239.255.255.255.

Satellite
Satellite WAN mainly refers to VSAT, Very Small Aperture Terminals. In short, there are
three main components of the VSAT Technology –The Satellite, A Central Hub (With a Big
Dish Antenna) and a number of smaller nodes (smaller dish antenna) kept at various
remote locations that together form a Star topology (Even Mesh topologies are possible
for small networks) using the satellite network. General application of VSAT would be
access in remote locations. This has been the traditional strength of Satellite Networks,
where the remote locations (rural areas, ships and coastal regions, hills, etc.) physical
reachability limitation or no terrestrial connectivity.
However, we do not generally consider VSAT satellite technology for providing primary
WAN links in our organizations or broadband Internet access at our homes, due to the
high start-up cost, high latency, lower bandwidth, and outage due to weather conditions.

Static vs Dynamic Routing


Static routing is simply the process of manually entering routers into a device's routing
table via a configuration file that is loaded when the routing device starts up. Static
routing is the simplest form of routing, but it is a manual process.
Dynamic routing protocols are supported by software applications running on the routing
device (the router). These devices dynamically learn network destinations, how to reach
them, and they also advertise those destinations to other routers. Examples of dynamic
routing protocols are RIP, RIP2, EIGRP, OSPF, IS-IS, BGP etc. Dynamic routing protocols
will then distribute this 'best route' information to other routers running the same routing
protocol, thereby extending the information on what networks exist and can be reached.
This gives dynamic routing protocols the ability to adapt to logical network topology
changes, equipment failures or network outages 'on the fly'.

Virtual Private Network


A VPN's purpose is to provide a secure and reliable private connection between computer
networks over an existing public network, typically the Internet. A business might not
require all these benefits from its VPN, but it should demand the following essential VPN
features:
• Security-The VPN should protect data using encryption while it's traveling on the public
network.
• Reliability-Employees and remote offices should be able to connect to the VPN with no
trouble at any time, and the VPN should provide the same quality of connection for each
user.
• Scalability-As a business grows, it should be able to extend its VPN services to handle
that growth without replacing the VPN technology altogether.

VPN Protocols: PPTP, L2TP/IPsec, OpenVPN, SSTP


VPN Types: Site-to-Site, Client/Remote, SSLVPN, DMVPN

WirelessLAN
By the turn of the Millennium, the first popular standards for wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11a
and b, and 802.11g in 2003) were widely available, and aimed in the first instance at
delivering connectivity "on the road" in airports, hotels, Internet cafes, and shopping
malls. Their goal was to provide web browsing, email and, for business users, access to
the office network through Virtual Private Network (VPN) applications.
802.11n was introduced in 2009, improving the maximum single-channel data rate from
the 54 Mb/s of 802.11g to over 100 Mb/s, and introducing MIMO (multiple input, multiple
output or spatial streaming), where up to 4 separate physical transmit and receive
antennas carry independent data that is aggregated in the modulation/demodulation
process.
The 802.11ac physical layer is an extension of the existing 802.11n standard, and
maintains backward compatibility with it. The theoretical maximum data rate for 802.11n
is 600 Mb/s using 40 MHz bandwidth with 4 spatial streams, though most consumer
devices are limited to 2 streams. The theoretical 802.11ac maximum data rate is 6.93
Gb/s, using 160 MHz bandwidth, 8 spatial streams, modulation and coding scheme 9
(MCS9) with 256QAM modulation, and short guard interval. A more practical maximum
data rate for consumer devices might be 1.56 Gb/s which would require an 80 MHz
channel with 4 spatial streams, MCS9, and normal guard interval.