Point / Factor Encouraging self reliance / Individual

Explanation One of the measures to encourage selfreliance is a savings scheme called Medisave introduced in 1984. Medisave encourages Singaporeans to be responsible for their own health. A certain amount of money from workers central provident fund (CPF) is channeled into their Medisave accounts monthly . This amount of money can be used to pay hospital bills and certain medical treatment when needed.

Keeping healthcare affordable / Government

Governement subsidies are given to government hospitals, polyclinics and some nursing homes for the elderly to ensure that basic healthcare services are available for all Singaporeans. To ensure healthcare remains for Singaporeans that belongs to the lower-income group, the government give different rates of subsides to the different classes of wards in hospitals. (example) As healthcare is a public good, no person should be in a situation where he cannot afford healthcare. Despite medisave, medishield and government subsidies there are still people who cannot afford medical expanses thus Medifund is introduced.ical expenses because they don t have CPF contributions therefore no medisave.

Example For example patients can use medisave to pay for expensive medical treatments such as chemotherapy. On top of Medisave there is Medishield which was introduced as a way to help people who suffers from long term illnesses and cannot afford to pay by medisave. Medishield is a national healthcare insurance scheme where patients can make claims from medishield to pay for larger medical bills which medisave does not cover. For eg, patient can use medisaveto pay for long-term treatment such as dialysis. For example, Class C wards receive the most in subsidies while Class A ward receives no subsidies.

Link By encouraging Singaporeans to have money in their medisave accounts, they are better able to pay for healthcare thus helping to lighten the government s burden of paying for healthcare services

Individuals are encouraged to be self-reliant while the government provides safety nets to ensure that healthcare remains affordable.

Medifund was introduced to target this group of people. The government deposits $200 million into the bank and the interest earned from this fund is given to public hospitals to provide help for needy patients. Means-testing

Restructuring of hospitals was another measure by the government to cope rising healthcare course in the 1990s. For example. (example) One of the concern in keeping healthcare affordable or Singaporeans is that subsides provided by the government should benefit patients who need them most. in conclusion. Restructuring meant that hospitals would have more freedom to reorganize to meet the needs of Singaporeans. Vice versa however means-testing has been debated for many years. those who cannot afford to pay for healthcare get the most subsidies. some patients who are discharged from hospitals may still need medical care. Promoting a healthy lifestyle / community Adopting a healthy lifestyle through community support is one way of coping with rising cost of healthcare for both the government and individuals. How much can people depend on the community or government for support of their healthcare? Thus community supports do play a role in managing healthcare in Singapore. Voluntary welfare organizations are given grant to run community hospitals for these group of patients. A healthy lifestyle is also more important than community support as it is essential to have a healthy. When people take responsibility for their health. SELF RELIANCE is the most important role because it leads to a healthy lifestyle. If a person is in good health. The government would also be able to reduce the amount of subsidies to hospitals. For example. For example. (example) The community also provides some healthcare support servies to meet the needs of the people. he will not need medical treatment and the person can save on medical expenses. they will then realize the importance of giving a healthy lifestyle. robust and productive people in the workforce. It is not feasible for the government to run all the healthcare services . Thus enabling resources to be more fairly distributed. This is because it is not possible for the government to run all healthcare services.

he reconciled feuding cities. head of the western Christian world then. it became a campaign to overthrow the Byzantine Emperor and take over the capital at Constantinople. the six Ducal Councilors and the three heads of the council of Forty formed the Council of ten. Doge Pietro II Orseolo was a capable leader who felt that peace in the region would boost trade (example).Point / Factor Good leadership Reforms in the government Explanations Capable leaders contributed to the rise of Venice. finances and coinage along with a 60-member Senate that took charge of matters concerning foreign relations. During the 12th century Reforms in the government were made to meet the demands of the people and the growing city-state. The Council of ten monitored the activities or organizations and officials to ensure that there were no corrupt practices or abuse of power by the Doge or any high ranking officials.(go to link) Remember to include nominating committee was introduced to nominate positions Example For example. as such the council of Forty was created to handle law. negotiated treaties with major powers and subdued the pirates in Dalmatia. It also settles disputes between members of different councils. The creation of the great council was created to elect capable members from noble influential families to all councils in the government. passed laws meted out punishments and granted pardons to criminals. Eventually the council of ten became one of the most important branches of the government in handling critical matters such as treasons or uprisings. the Doge. With control over Constantinople Venice gained recognition from other states which is an event that will help Venice to rise further. Due to changing circumstances. (go back to explanation) In the 14th century. (example) During the 13th century Venice grew and more specialisation of duties were needed. To prevent any individual or family from dominating the government balloting was used to nominate positions. Link Doge Pietro Zaini succeeded Doge Enrico Dandolo at the beginning of Venice s rise as a maritime empire. In the 12th century. Hence his role was pivotal in setting up military outposts along important trade routes For example. Thus reforms in a government is crucial for the growth of a prosperous city. Doge Enrico Dandolo had helped build the venetian empire as he directed the fourth crusade under the command of Pope Innocent III. . commerce and the operations of Venetian fleets.

When these talents decided to settle down in Venice. Industrial development/ social The shipbuilding industry benefited immensely from the expansion of trade. the venetians gained more wealth. artisans and craftsmen and even scholars. Venice had also managed to overcome trade competitors by defeating Genoa thus gaining trade monopoly in the Mediterranean region as Venice was strategically located at the northern tip of the Adriatic Sea. Their exploration to China earned Venice good relations with countries in the Far East enabling Venice to expand its trade. It was formidable enough to discourage most pirates from launching an attack on venetian trading ship. the venetians designed and built superior vessels to meet their sailing needs. the great galley was built with the combination of a merchant and war vessel. (example) With the innovations in maritime technology during the late 13th century. they contribute to the further Thus Industrial development is possible growth and success of due to expansion of trade in Venice Venice. These goods were sold at a very high price. Central and Southern Europe relied on the Venetians for goods from the East such as spices.(link) For example.(back to example) The great galley also enabled efficiency in arrival and departure of voyages as it was able to travel during winter and also transport more goods. With trade expansion. explore new trade routes.Trade developments and expansion/ economic factors Venetians were able to maintain a competitive edge over their competitors such as Genoa by possessing an enterprising spirit. This in turn led to an increase in the demand for goods which promoted the manufacturing industries Venice attracted foreign traders. the main trading port in the lagoon. also willing to make personal and financial sacrifices for the sake of Venice. sugar and even diamonds. enabling the venetian trades to reap large profits. The polo family took risks to extend trade further from beyond the Middle East. Thus improving Venice s trade. The Arsenal was set up to prevent overcrowding and minimize noise pollution at the Bancino San Marco. . they were able to bring highly-prized spices from the East. They also travel in convoys (more profitable large quantities). supplies and markets by travelling to unknown lands. Loyal citizens were helping Venice to generate revenue. For example. Innovative practices were also introduces in trade and business such as double-entry bookkeeping and Giro Banking to facilitate traders.

Venice created alliance with large states such as the feuding France and Spain when the occasion suited its interest. For example. Portuguese explorer. This led to fragile relations between both countries thus Venice had to protect itself by hiring mercenaries. A military alliance against Venice known as the League of Cambrai was formed which consisted of most major powers in Europe such as Spain Hungary and France which aimed to reduce the power of Venice and divide its territories amongst the larger states. corruption was inevitable in the higher offices. thus making renewal of Example For example. Venice lost the war and many of its territories fell to the members of the league. Discoveries of new trade routes followed by new trading companies by rising nations inevitably threatened Venice s future. and tea and porcelain from China adversely affected Venice s position as a prosperous port. the Venetians were left to fight on their own against the Ottomans without aid resulting the lost of Negroponte to the Ottomans which was one of the most important trade outposts.Point / Factor Foreign threats Explanations Involvement in Mainland during the 15th century due to political development in Europe had forced the Venetians to turn its attention to controlling the nearby mainland territories. Incapable leadership From the 16th century a small group of rich nobles dominated the government. Political challenges With power in the hands of a few. (example) Venetians knew that they also could not compete with the rising Ottoman Empire on their own. Their involvement in the mainland had drained a large part their resources forcing Venice to give up some of its less important territories to avoid further losses. Decisions made were not in . nobles who ere previously scholars competed to serve as naval commanders in the wars against the Ottomans even though they did not have adequate Link Venice s growing influence in the region made it unpopular among the various mainland states. As Venice prospers there was a weakening of the government resulting in a political decline. Vasco da Gama successfully reached Calicut a thriving spice centre in India by exploring new routes enabling the Portuguese to buy spices directly from India destroying Venice s monopoly spice trade thus reducing its revenue For example. However. Venice tried to achieve balance of power by offering to help one fight against the other. due to the resentment that Venice faced from the European States. (example) Maritime competition During 15th century many European explorers were encouraged by Marco Polo s tales of his voyages Venice also faced competition from the Dutch East India Company and the English East India. (back to explain) The European states decided to launch a military campaign against the Ottomans. The English East India Company which specialised in bringing cotton and pepper from India.

For example. The rotation of duties ensured that no individual or family could dominate the government. to fight in the War of Gradisca. Venice employed mercenaries of many nationalities. and French. The corrupt government caused the people to quickly degenerate into complacency as the government did not impose policies to source for suitable talent to lead and defend Venice. such as the Dutch. naval expertise or military experience.(example) mercenary army Social challenges As nobles became more affluent. This showed Venice that they could alas be offered better salaries from other they could no longer fully trust states. English. this also means that competent officers would have to leave office after one term replaced by incompetent ones. Some of the Ducal Palace and kill Senate these paid soldiers did not remain loyal to Venice as members. over-indulgence in affluent administration and development of the city-state. Furthermore. corruption had a more negative impact than the other factors because a corrupt government is the first sign of decadence in any society as it is the government which upholds justice and stability. This led to poorer nobles selling their post to rich incapable nobles at a high price causing the government to become increasingly inefficient as it served the nobility s interest. maybe civil servants salaries were suspended in order to finance the war causing a division between rich and poor nobles. over dependence by the Council Of Ten to take over on mercenaries was a very costly decision. the interest of Venice.leadership a challenge. during 1615. Many wealthy nobles indulged in lifestyle contributed to the lavish parties and celebrations downfall of Venice known as carnevale which lasts for 6 months In conclusion. they became less The lifestyles of the Venetians Complacency and involved in important matters such as the changed as they became richer. Soon nobles regarded their office as a matter of personal glory rather than service to the state (explain) There was also Corruption in the government. A plot was found Over-dependence on mercenaries. However. a non-corrupt government would be able to establish polices to encourage work productivity and suppress undesirable social practices such as gambling .

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