This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
About BSNL What is communication Introduction: The Telephone Systems GSM GSM Network GSM Network Areas GSM Specification Subscribers Identity Module GSM Subscriber Services Supplementary Services Types of exchanges EWSD MDF Air Conditioning Evolution of Mobile
2 3 4
7 12 16 18 19 21 22 24 25 26 27
1. About BSNL
Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. Formed in oct. 2000, is world’s 7th largest telecommunications company providing comprehensive range of telecom services in India: wire line, CDMA mobile, GSM mobile, internet, broadband, carrier services. Within a span it has become the one of the largest public sector unit in India. BSNL is the only service provider, making focused efforts and planned initiatives to bridge the rural –urban digital divide ICT sector. In fact there is no telecom operator in the country to beat it reach with its wide network giving services I every nook & corner of country and operates across India except Delhi & Mumbai. BSNL cellular service cellone, has more than 20.7 million cellular customers, garnering 24 % of all mobile users as its subscribers. That means that almost every fourth mobile user in the country has a BSNL connection. In basic services, BSNL is miles ahead of its rivals, with 35.1 million Basic Phone Subscribers i.e. 85 % share of the subscribers and 92 % share in revenue terms. BSNL has set up a world class multi-gigabit, multi-protocol convergent IP infrastructure that provides convergent services like voice, data and video through the same Backbone and broadband access network. At present there are 0.6 million Data one broadband customers. The turnover, nationwide coverage, reach, comprehensive range of the telecom services and the desire to excel has made BSNL the no. 1 telecom company of India.
What is Communication?
Communication can be defined as transfer of information from one point to another as per the desire of the user under control of system. The following elements are in communication network: Switching, Transmission, Signalling, Network elements. SWITCHING: It is basically establishing temporary path or connection b/w two points. There are two modes of switching:CIRCUIT SWITCHING:- Is a telecommunications technology by which two network nodes establish a dedicated communications channel (circuit) connecting them for the duration of the communication session before the nodes may communicate. PACKET SWITCHING:- In which packets are transmitted over a shared network which routes each packet independently from all others and allocates transmission resources as needed.
Introduction: The Evolution of Mobile Telephone Systems Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Cellular Subscriber Growth Worldwide The concept of cellular service is the use of low-power transmitters where frequencies can be reused within a geographic area. Today. and nearly 50 percent of those subscribers are located in the United States. By the year 2005. Figure 1. Currently there are more than 45 million cellular subscribers worldwide. it represents a continuously increasing percentage of all new telephone subscriptions around the world. It has even been estimated that some countries may have more mobile phones than fixed phones by the year 2000. 4 . However. forecasters predict that there will be more than 100 million cellular subscribers worldwide.2. the Nordic countries were the first to introduce cellular services for commercial use with the introduction of the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) in 1981. It is forecasted that cellular systems using a digital technology will become the universal method of telecommunications. The idea of cell-based mobile radio service was formulated in the United States at Bell Labs in the early 1970s.
One challenge facing analog systems was the inability to handle the growing capacity needs in a cost-efficient manner. most mobile telephone systems were analog rather than digital. The advantages of digital systems over analog systems include ease of signaling. especially with 5 . and Oceanic countries. In the early 1980s. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility. like today's newer systems. digital technology was welcomed. The AMPS standard was adopted by Asia. Latin America. Table 1 charts the worldwide development of mobile telephone systems. and increased ability to meet capacity demands.Cellular systems began in the United States with the release of the advanced mobile phone service (AMPS) system in 1983. various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. lower levels of interference. As a result. creating the largest potential market in the world for cellular. Year 1981 1983 1985 1986 1991 1991 1992 1994 1995 1996 Mobile System Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) 450 American Mobile Phone System (AMPS) Total Access Communication System (TACS) Nordic Mobile Telephony (NMT) 900 American Digital Cellular (ADC) Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) Digital Cellular System (DCS) 1800 Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) PCS 1900—Canada PCS—United States Table 1. The Development of Mobile Telephone Systems Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications. integration of transmission and switching.
the development of digital radio technology. 3. a digital system was adopted for GSM. the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. After multiple field tests. In May 1987. From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. GSM 6 .
and phase I of the GSM specifications were published in 1990. particularly in Europe.The growth of cellular telephone systems started in the early 1980s. over a million subscribers were using GSM phone networks being operated by 70 carriers across 48 countries. 7 .[ The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Group Special Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. By the end of 1993. The first GSM network was launched in 1991 by Radiolinja in Finland. enabling subscribers to use their phones in many parts of the world. GSM service is used by over 2 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories. This has also meant that data communication was built into the system from the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). GSM differs significantly from its predecessors in that both signaling and speech channels are digital call quality. Its ubiquity makes international roaming very common between mobile phone operators. and so is considered a second generation (2G) mobile phone system. GSM responsibility was transferred to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI). The lack of a technological standardization prompted the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) to create the Group Special Mobile (GSM) in 1982 with the objective of developing a standard for a mobile telephone system that could be used across Europe In 1989.
There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA 8 . each spaced 200 kHz apart. Newer versions of the standard were backward-compatible with the original GSM phones. The advantage for network operators has been the ease of deploying equipment from any vendors that implements the standard. notably Scandinavia. Like other cellular standards. GSM allows network operators to offer roaming services so that subscribers can use their phones on GSM networks all over the world. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. by means of General Packet Radio Service (GPRS). This 25 MHz bandwidth is subdivided into 124 carrier frequency channels. where these frequencies were previously used for firstgeneration systems. Release '99 introduced higher speed data transmission using Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution About GSM Radio interface GSM is a cellular network. Release '97 of the standard added packet data capabilities. such as the Short message service (SMS. For example. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. In the 900 MHz band the uplink frequency band is 890-915 MHz. which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. also called "text messaging"). Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen halfrate speech channels per radio frequency channel.The GSM logo is used to identify compatible handsets and equipment The key advantage of GSM systems to consumers has been higher digital voice quality and low cost alternatives to making calls. and the downlink frequency band is 935-960 MHz.
In addition to being efficient with bit rates. These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). called "Full Rate" (13 kbit/s) and "Half Rate" (6 kbit/s). allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal. Finally. and less robust but still relatively high quality when used in good radio conditions on half-rate channels. they are mainly used indoors. two codecs. they are typically used in urban areas. GSM has used a variety of voice codes to squeeze 3. with the development of UMTS. Originally. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters. which is high quality and robust against interference when used on full rate channels.frame. The transmission power in the handset is limited to a maximum of 2 watts in GSM850/900 and 1 watt in GSM1800/1900.2 kbit/s codec that uses a full rate channel.1 kHz audio into between 6 and 13 kbit/s. The channel data rate is 270. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. a 12. were used. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. There are four different cell sizes in a GSM network . these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level.615 ms. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.833 kbit/s. named after the types of data channel they were allocated. GSM was further enhanced in 1997 with the GSM-EFR codec. and the frame duration is 4. Pico and umbrella cells. micro. antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of 9 . Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot.macro. EFR was refactored into a variable-rate codec called AMR-Narrowband. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height.
the radio signal is strong enough that the solid state amplifiers in the audio chain function as a detector. However. and personal music devices. dit dit dit. the type of terrain and the timing advance. where the cell radius could be double or even more. since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. The clicking noise itself represents the power bursts that carry the TDMA signal. and could be mitigated or eliminated by use of additional shielding and/or bypass capacitors in these audio devices. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors. When these audio devices are in the near field of the GSM handset. depending on the antenna system. DETAILS: A nearby GSM handset is usually the source of the "dit dit dit. These signals have been known to interfere with other electronic devices.kilometers. There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell. the increased cost of doing so is difficult for a designer to justify. such as car stereos and portable audio players. a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 km or 22 miles. dit dit dit" signal that can be heard from time to time on home stereo systems. or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters.. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor picocell base station. 10 . This is a form of RFI. which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel interference). this is not a prerequisite. televisions. In GMSK. to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. However. for example in shopping centers or airports. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK). the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator. computers.
2. The GSM Network 11 .16(half rate) 4.58 w 4.6ms 40ms GMSK RPE-LTE convolution 13kb/s (full rate) Extra frame Mobile assisted 0.TDMA/FDMA/FDA Multiple Access Uplink frequency(mobile to base) Downlink frequency(base to mobile ) Channel Bandwidth Number of channels Channels/carrier Frame duration Interleaving duration Modulation Speech coding method Speech coder bit rate Associated control channel Handoff scheme Mobile station power levels 890-915 Mhz 935-960 Mhz 200 Khz 124 8(full rate).8.
Figure 2.GSM provides recommendations. The basic GSM network elements are shown in Figure 2. GSM Network Elements 12 . the base station system (BSS). not requirements. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. and the operation and support system (OSS). The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS).
The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. Later.The Switching System The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The HLR is considered the most important database. the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. as it stores permanent data about subscribers. and activity status. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. if the mobile station makes a call. the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. • Home location registers (HLR)—The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. Visitor location registers (VLR)—The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. Mobile services switching center (MSC)—The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. and others. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area. he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. unauthorized. network interfacing. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators. common channel signaling. location information. including a subscriber's service profile. Authentication center (AUC)—A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. The switching system includes the following functional units. equipment identity register (EIR)—The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen. • • • • 13 . or defective mobile stations.
and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized. BTS—The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system.The Base Station System (BSS) All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS. regional. • The Operation and Support System The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC. which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs). A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. 14 . • BSC—The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover. cell configuration data.
The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. fax. fax mail. Through the GIWU. and data messaging. email. GSM interworking unit (GIWU)—The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. the MXE handles short message service. Specifically. voice mail. Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC)—A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.Additional Functional Elements Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows: • Message center (MXE)—The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice. users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. and notification. • • • 15 . Mobile service node (MSN)—The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. cell broadcast.
MSC/VLR service areas. The location area is a group of cells. GSM Network Areas The GSM network is made up of geographic areas. Network Areas The cell is the area given radio coverage by one base transceiver station. It is the area in which the subscriber is paged. and public land mobile network (PLMN) areas. Each LA is assigned a location area identity (LAI) number. yet only by a single MSC (see Figure 4). these areas include cells.5. location areas (LAs). 16 . The GSM network identifies each cell via the cell global identity (CGI) number assigned to each cell. Figure 3. As shown in Figure 3. Each LA is served by one or more base station controllers.
6.Figure 4. GSM Specifications 17 . Location Areas An MSC/VLR service area represents the part of the GSM network that is covered by one MSC and which is reachable. as it is registered in the VLR of the MSC (see Figure 5). Figure 5. MSC/VLR Service Areas The PLMN service area is an area served by one network operator (see Figure 6).
Each call is assigned a particular time slot.850 to 1.000. Transmission rate—GSM is a digital system with an over-the-air bit rate of 270 kbps.000. it is important to understand the following basic terms: • bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits.990 MHz (mobile station to base station). 18 • • • • • • . Access method—GSM utilizes the time division multiple access (TDMA) concept. A channel has two frequencies.000 hertz (cycles per second) milliseconds (ms)—one-thousandth of a second watt (W)—a measure of power of a transmitter • • • • • • Specifications for different personal communication services (PCS) systems vary among the different PCS networks. Duplex distance—The duplex distance is 80 MHz. Listed below is a description of the specifications and characteristics for GSM. In GSM. Modulation—Modulation is the process of sending a signal by changing the characteristics of a carrier frequency. eight bits are equivalent to one byte frequency—the number of cycles per unit of time. TDMA is a technique in which several different calls may share the same carrier. Channel separation—The separation between adjacent carrier frequencies. • Frequency band—The frequency range specified for GSM is 1. this is 200 kHz. Duplex distance is the distance between the uplink and downlink frequencies. the faster data can be sent bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data. frequency is measured in hertz (Hz) kilo (k)—kilo is the designation for 1. the abbreviation kbps represents 1.Before looking at the GSM specifications.000 bits per second megahertz (MHz)—1. This is done in GSM via Gaussian minimum shift keying (GMSK). 80 MHz apart. the broader the bandwidth.
The purpose of LPC is to reduce the bit rate. and operators want to try to avoid subsidizing competitor's mobiles. The locking applies to the handset. While most web sites offer the unlocking for a fee. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. The signal passes through this filter. 19 . This is done because the price of the mobile phone is typically subsidized with revenue from subscriptions. Alternatively. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phonebook. commonly known as a SIM card. and is illegal in some countries. Speech is encoded at 13 kbps. Canada. leaving behind a residual signal. Subscriber identity module A SIM for Bell Mobility (Canada) One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). identified by its International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) number. the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM. or make use of ample software and websites available on the Internet to unlock the handset themselves. some do it for free. In Australia. 7. The LPC provides parameters for a filter that mimics the vocal tract. or only a SIM issued by them.• Speech coder—GSM uses linear predictive coding (LPC). Europe and the United States many operators lock the mobiles they sell. A subscriber can usually contact the provider to remove the lock for a fee. this practice is known as SIM locking. utilize private services to remove the lock.
Cingular and T-Mobile provide free unlocking services to their customers after 3 months of subscription In countries like Belgium. It is always possible to switch to another (non-locked) handset if such a handset is available. it is unlawful for operators there to offer any form of subsidy on the phone's price. Indonesia and Pakistan. GSM Subscriber Services There are two basic types of services offered through GSM: telephony (also referred to as teleservices) and data (also referred to as bearer services). India.. Telephony services are mainly voice services that provide subscribers with the complete capability (including necessary terminal equipment) to communicate with other subscribers. 2006. 8. though operators have to unlock phones free of charge after a certain period (at most 24 months). all phones are sold unlocked. In most countries.not to the account (which is identified by the SIM card). etc. However. Some providers will unlock the phone for free if the customer has held an account for a certain time period. removing the lock is legal. when selling subsidized combinations of handsets and accounts became legal. Third party unlocking services exist that are often quicker and lower cost than that of the operator. Data services provide the capacity 20 . in Belgium. This was also the case in Finland until April 1.
which is controlled by the subscriber. Calls can be forwarded to the subscriber's voice-mail box and the subscriber checks for messages via a personal security code. Voice mail—This service is actually an answering machine within the network. This enables a GSM–connected fax to communicate with any analog fax in the network. In addition to normal telephony and emergency calling. the subscriber can receive fax messages at any fax machine. The messages are stored in a service center from which they can be retrieved by the subscriber via a personal security code to the desired fax number. Typical applications include traffic congestion warnings and reports on accidents. Fax mail—With this service. As standard fax machines are designed to be connected to a telephone using analog signals. • • • • • 21 . the following subscriber services are supported by GSM: • Dual-tone multi frequency (DTMF)—DTMF is a tone signaling scheme often used for various control purposes via the telephone network. GSM supports full-originating DTMF. such as remote control of an answering machine. If the subscriber's mobile unit is powered off or has left the coverage area. Cell broadcast—A variation of the short message service is the cell broadcast facility. a special fax converter connected to the exchange is used in the GSM system. This function ensures that the message will be received.necessary to transmit appropriate data signals between two access points creating an interface to the network. Facsimile group III—GSM supports CCITT Group 3 facsimile. Short message services—A convenient facility of the GSM network is the short message service. the message is stored and offered back to the subscriber when the mobile is powered on or has reentered the coverage area of the network. A message of a maximum of 93 characters can be broadcast to all mobile subscribers in a certain geographic area. A message consisting of a maximum of 160 alphanumeric characters can be sent to or from a mobile station. This service can be viewed as an advanced form of alphanumeric paging with a number of advantages.
The call hold service is only applicable to normal telephony. or if call forwarding is allowed unconditionally. There are two types of AoC information: one that provides the subscriber with an estimate of the bill and one that can be used for immediate charging purposes. A partial listing of supplementary services follows. Call waiting—This service enables the mobile subscriber to be notified of an incoming call during a conversation. or ignore the incoming call. The following two conditions for incoming call barring exist: baring of all incoming calls and barring of incoming calls when roaming outside the home PLMN. Barring of incoming calls—This function allows the subscriber to prevent incoming calls.9. Supplementary services are defined by GSM and are characterized as revenue-generating features. Multiparty service—The multiparty service enables a mobile subscriber to establish a multiparty conversation—that is. reject. if there is no reply. a simultaneous conversation between three and six subscribers. The subscriber can answer. • Call forwarding— This service gives the subscriber the ability to forward incoming calls to another number if the called mobile unit is not reachable. Call hold—This service enables the subscriber to interrupt an ongoing call and then subsequently reestablish the call. This service is only applicable to normal telephony. Advice of charge (AoC)—The AoC service provides the mobile subscriber with an estimate of the call charges. Barring of outgoing calls—This service makes it possible for a mobile subscriber to prevent all outgoing calls. Call waiting is applicable to all GSM telecommunications services using a circuit-switched connection. 22 • • • • • • . Supplementary Services GSM supports a comprehensive set of supplementary services that can complement and support both telephony and data services. if it is busy. AoC for data calls is provided on the basis of time measurements.
Closed user groups (CUGs)—CUGs are generally comparable to a PBX. The restriction overrides the presentation. They are a group of subscribers who are capable of only calling themselves and certain numbers. The restriction service enables the calling party to restrict the presentation.• Calling line identification presentation/restriction—These services supply the called party with the integrated services digital network (ISDN) number of the calling party. • Types of Exchanges OLDEN DAYS EXCHANGES:Magneto CB (central battery) 23 .
Strauzer Cross bar NEW EXCHANGES:E10B OCB-283 EWSD 5ESS AXE10 FETEX C-DOT 256 C-DOT SBM C-DOT MBML C-DOT MBMXL EWSD (Electronic Wheeler Systematic Digital) SYSTEM FEATURES:EWSD is manufactured by M/s SIEMENS.50.000 incoming or outgoing or both way trunks. EWSD switch can support maximum 2. Germany. 24 . The name is abbreviated form of German equivalent of electronic switching system digital.000 subscriber or 60.
In India it was first setup in Calcutta. Each subscriber unit in EWSD carry out practically all the task arising in there area independently. H/w of EWSD:DLU: Digital Line Unit: Traffic capacity:100 erlang Subscriber capacity: 944 half capacity:432 It is also called functional unit. Main Distribution Frame (MDF) At BSNL two types of networks are used:Indoor network 25 . interconnected subscriber line and trunk to exchange.4 million BHCA. CP: Coordination Processor: It can provide call route and make all units work properly and freely. It can carry 25. SN: Switching Network: All the LTG are connected.when working as a pure tandem exchange. LTG: Line and Trunks Groups: Digital trunks and DLU are connected here. CCNC: Common Channelling Network Control: It transfers the message.200 Erlang traffic and can withstand 1. Subscriber line is terminated here.
Outdoor network Both the networks are connected on MDF.For small exchanges wall type MDF are used. It is a long steel rack accessible from both sides. Each vertical connected with earthed wire of main Earthing. It is the mirror of the telephone exchange by which we can see the working culture of the employees. VERTICAL TYPE:. Types of MDF: VERTICAL TYPE:. MDF is the main point of exchange by which we can locate the total number of connections and the density of the local area network. It is mounted on the wall with the help of brackets and the underground cables are terminated at upper side of the box. Capacity of this MDF is 2000 numbers. It can work satisfactorily in 26 .It is used for a huge n/w like that more than 2000 numbers. Every pillar or cabinet is properly earthed. AIR CONDITIONING Air conditioning is an essential requirement for telecom installation as electronic equipment. Safety point: Use of GD tube (gas discharge tube) on vertical of each subscriber.
The refrigerant has a much lower BP and changing pressure varies the boiling point.It should be non-toxic. The transfer of heat is facilitated by the change of state as refrigerant needs latent heat to change the state from liquid to gas at its boiling point. Control moisture content of air.controlled environment condition. TOXCITY:. feron-22. Air conditioning system has refrigeration system which allows transfer of heat from cooling space to a location where heat can be easily discarded. The refrigerants used are ammonia.It should be high as it will result in smaller amount of refrigerant for given capacity of air condition. Components of AC system:- 27 . CONDENSING PRESSURE:.It should be low otherwise there will be large expenditure on heavy construction of condenser and piping. feron-12.It should be below the evaporating temperature otherwise there will be ice formation in the air conditioner. This air conditioning system performs following functions:Maintaining air at desired temperature. FREEZING TEPERATURE:. Circulate air properly. non inflammable and noncorrosive further the detection of leaks should be easy and should have very less environment impact. Properties of refrigerant:LATENT HEAT OF VAPOURIZATION:.
EVAPORATOR:. The system is highly flexible and better controls are possible.COMPRESSOR:. refrigerating piping all assembled in compact single unit.In this the condenser and compressor unit (outdoor unit) and cooling coil (indoor unit) are housed in two separates enclosures and both the indoor and outdoor unit are connected to refrigerant pipeline and it should not be more than 30ft.Function is to control a regular rate flow of liquid from under pressure and allow it in the evaporator under low pressure. SPLIT TYPE AC:.These are also very similar the window model but are very much bigger in size and therefore installed on the floors. PACKAGE TYPE AC:. condenser. evaporator. CENTRAL AC Plant:. It can be installed in AC space with or without duct system. The control panel is conveniently located on unit itself.They are completely self contained unit with compressor.Constitutes cooling unit in which liquid from under low pressure evaporates. Types of AC Systems:WINDOW TYPE AC:. EXPANSION VALVE:.It becomes a necessity when the air of a conditioning is large.Compresses and discharge the refrigerant in gas form to condenser at high pressure because of rapid compression refrigerant becomes hot. CONDENSER:.It is intended to cooling the gases and liquefying under pressure and allow it in the evaporator under low pressure. Factors affecting AC load:28 .
Physical dimensions of space. Utility of space. Building material used. Ventilation 29 . Lighting Occupancy. Orientation and location of the building. Appliance and equipment. Number and types of windows used.
It help us to get used to working in groups of known people in it teach us team work because my work in industrial is accomplished by a group and not an individual. We should known in order to get a good job i.e. Industrial training teaches us a lot of things. Some advance technical knowledge how and help us to acquired with industrial working style. have a good professional carrier. Industrial training helps us to know what kind of grade an engineer of specific branch plays in an industry. It helps us to know the kind of environment we would be getting in an industry and help us to get with the kind of environment. 30 . In totality the industrial teaches us industrial ethics.PREFACE Industrial training is must for every student pursuing professional degree because the ultimate goal of every student is to get the information the industrial training helps us to get an idea of things.
Power Plant. Sharma (D/E. Outdoor n/w. different type of exchanges. 31 . Engine Alternator. K. I/D) boundary road. who gave me this opportunity to undergo my summer training at BSNL. Indoor n/w. let us thank the Almighty God who is the most graceful and merciful for His blessing that Contributed to the successful completion of our project. who gave me his time to help me in Switching. Vinod Kumar Yadav. I would like to pay my sincere gratitude to Mr. I would also like to thanks Mr. Transmission.Acknowledgement First of all. Meerut. A.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.