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1.

INTRODUCTION

1.1 ORGANISATION PROFILE

“DAFFODILLS INDIA”, established in the year 2006.They are


located near Edayarpalayam, Coimbatore.

DAFFODILLS INDIA is the organization and the development from


based on the customer satisfaction and service towards the nation and the
clients in abroad.
Solutions are committed in providing innovative Software Solutions
to its Clients and recognize the importance of technology. DAFFODILLS
INDIA seasoned software Professional has Expertise in a wide range of
technologies including, but limited to,

 Web Technology
 Client Server Technology
 Database Design, Development and
Administration
 Customized Package Software implementation
like Accounts
 Development of System Software Low Level
Programming
 Server Side Programming

DAFFODILLS INDIA undertake Short Team and Long Term Projects


on a contract and regular basis with reputed Clients. DAFFODILLS INDIA
goal is to clearly understand their Client’s need and provide them with real
and lasting Solutions that meet and exceed their Expectations.

The data generated has to be processed speedily and accurately to


produce useful formation that will help the organization in managing its
business more efficiently and effectively. This results in an increased need
for the introduction of modern technology to the transaction and events at
source of origin and to make information available to the user.
1.2 ABOUT THE PROJECT

College Management software is a complete solution for managing a


administration, in other words an enhanced tool that assists in organizing the
day-to-day activities of a college.

College management software centralizes college by providing


features to its Administration, Students, Staffs, Attendance. Administrator
Attendance Review Shows all students, staffs absent today and students
absent for the current marking period, select students and parents for email
communications, click on student's name to see demographic information to
call parents, detail level absenteeism, comments entered by teachers/office
staff .Administrator panel can keep eye on the regular money transactions
and schools fees collection program can be customized according to school's
rules. Data in the systems can be analyzed, graphed and reported in the
format of user's choice. Administrators are provided with a full control over
this software. Administration can send announcements to all users in the
school. Announcements can be send to an individual using the Search option
or to a group using the Advanced Search option Groups are Staff types,
parents and student. Staffs payroll management software helps you to
process the allowance, deduction as your management rules.

Students, parents are provided with user ids and password. Students can
access their full details regarding marks, fees and even submit assignments
online. Students and parents can search for assignments based on Class, Due
Date and Assignment Type. Parents can access the details of their wards
report card, performance, comments from teachers and everything related to
their ward.
Module Description:
The modules of the project are,
 STUDENTS DETAILS
 STAFFS DETAILS
 SALARY DETAILS
 ATTENDANCE DETAILS

STUDENT DETAILS:
This module is used to store information about the students admission
details, registration details.

STAFF DETAILS
Staff module contains information about the staffs name, address, city,
state, contact no. designation, dob,date of joining.

SALARY DETAILS
Salary module consists of information about staff name, amount, da
,net salary.

ATTENDANCE DETAILS

Attendance details are used to store details about attendance like


number of days present, absent details
2. SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

2.1 HARDWARE CONFIGURATION

 Processor - PENTIUM IV (450 MHZ)


 Memory - 512 MB RAM
 Cpu Clock Speed - 400 MHZ
 Hard disk - 160 GB
 Mouse - Optical Mouse
 Key board - 108 Windows keyboard
 Monitor - At & T 19” INCH

2.2 SOFTWARE CONFIGURATION

 Operating System - WINDOWS XP


 Front end - VB.NET
 Back end - MS SQL 7.0
3. SYSTEM STUDY AND ANALYSIS

The system analysis is conducted with the following objectives in


mind. They are to satisfy the customers according to their needs, to evaluate
the system concept for feasibility, to allocate functions to hardware,
software, people, database and other system elements to create a system
definition that forms the foundation for all subsequent engineering works.

3.1 FACT FINDING

Fact finding is the stage in which data about the system are collected
in terms of technical and functional requirements. In this project the data
collection is completed using the data carriers which are existing in the
tables.

3.2 FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS

When developing a system, it is necessary to evaluate the feasibility


of project at the earliest possible time. Unexpected technical problems and
timing problems can occur when poor problem definition is obtained. It is
advisable to conduct discussions regarding the analysis and design of the
project before starting it.

Economic Feasibility

The proposed system developed includes the following related issues.

• Cost of resources needed for development.


• Cost – benefit analysis.
• Potential market growth.
While concerning the cost of resources for the server side, amount is
invested for the high capacity of storage media, high speed processor and
large amount of memory needed for the system. While concerning the client
side a minimal amount of cost is needed. Overall the cost of setting up the
server and configuring it will be costly at the time of installation. While
considering the cost benefit analysis, huge amount will be invested only at
the time of first installation.

Technical Feasibility

The technical feasibility involves the analysis of all possible condition


for obtaining the system. It actually involves a study of function
Performance and constraints that may affect the ability to achieve an
acceptable system, the considerations that are normally associated with the
technical feasibility include the following:

• Development risk
• Resource availability
• Technology

The development risk concerns the probability the function of all


elements and its performance should be same in all platforms and in the
system that is being developed. This system is developed according to the
web standards and the development software tools are selected in such a way
to avoid the problems sited above.

The resource availability states whether skilled staffs are available to


develop the system elements and the availability of hardware and software.
The hardware is provided by the organization satisfying all the requirements.
3.3 EXISTING SYSTEM

Existing system was carried out through manual process. Maintenance of the
records in the existing system is difficult. Lot of time is taken to search for a
particular record. There is a chance of occurrence of errors. Updation and
retrieval of information in this existing system takes more time.

DISADVANTAGE

 Not flexible

 Involves large amount of paper work

 Time consuming process

 Slow Updating and Retrieval of Information.

 Cost huge And Unpredictable

3.4 PROPOSED SYSTEM


4. SYSTEM DESIGN

System design consist of a following,


1. Database Design
2. Input Design
3. Output Design

INTRODUCTION

It is where the approach to the creation of the new system. It


provides understanding of the procedural details necessary for
implementing the system. It involves first logical design and then the
physical construction of the system. Logical design is like the blue print.
Physical design produces software, files and working system. The
fundamental objective in the design is that it ensures very attractive and
user friendly.

4.1 DATABASE DESIGN


The goal of a relational database design is to generate a set of
relations that allows storing information easily. The database is designed in
the relational model in which the data are organized into entries and
relations between them. All the tables designed for the system conform to
the first, second ad third normal forms.
Stored procedures are used to save a significant amount of
processing at execution time and client execution requests use the network
more efficiently. Appropriate integrity constraints such as domain, entity,
integrity, and referential integrity and check conditions are used whenever
possible.
4.1 INPUT DESIGN
Input design is the link between the information system and the users
and those steps that are necessary to put transaction data in to a usable form
for processing data entry. The activity of putting data into the computer for
processing can be activated by instructing the computer to read data from a
written printed document or it can occur by keying data directly into the
system. The designs of input focusing on controlling the amount of input
required controlling the errors, avoid delay extra steps, and keeping the
process simple. This system has individual form for administrator and
customer.
Input design is a part of overall system design. The main objective during
the input designs is as given below:

• To produce a cost-effective method of input.


• To achieve the highest possible level of accuracy.
• To ensure that the input is acceptable and understood by the user.

INPUT STAGES:

The main input stages can be listed as below:


• Data recording
• Data transcription
• Data conversion
• Data verification
• Data control
• Data transmission
• Data validation
• Data correction

INPUT MEDIA:

At this stage choice has to be made about the input media. To conclude
about the input media consideration has to be given to;

• Type of input
• Flexibility of format
• Speed
• Accuracy
• Verification methods
• Rejection rates
• Ease of correction
• Storage and handling requirements
• Security
• Easy to use
• Portabilility
Keeping in view the above description of the input types and input
media, it can be said that most of the inputs are of the form of internal and
interactive. As
Input data is to be the directly keyed in by the user, the keyboard can be
considered to be the most suitable input device.

ERROR AVOIDANCE

At this stage care is to be taken to ensure that input data remains


accurate form the stage at which it is recorded upto the stage in which the
data is accepted by the system. This can be achieved only by means of
careful control each time the data is handled.

ERROR DETECTION

Even though every effort is make to avoid the occurrence of errors,


still a small proportion of errors is always likely to occur, these types of
errors can be discovered by using validations to check the input data.

DATA VALIDATION

Procedures are designed to detect errors in data at a lower level of


detail. Data validations have been included in the system in almost every
area where there is a possibility for the user to commit errors. The system
will not accept invalid data. Whenever an invalid data is keyed in, the
system immediately propts the user and the user has to again key in the data
and the system will accept the data only if the data is correct. Validations
have been included where necessary.

The system is designed to be a user friendly one. In other words the


system has been designed to communicate effectively with the user. The
system has been designed with pop up menus.

USERINTERGFACE DESIGN

It is essential to consult the system users and discuss their needs while
designing the user interface:

USER INTERFACE SYSTEMS CAN BE BROADLY CLASIFIED AS:

1. User initiated interface the user is in charge, controlling the


progress of the user/computer dialogue. In the computer-initiated
interface, the computer selects the next stage in the interaction.
2. Computer initiated interfaces

In the computer initiated interfaces the computer guides the progress


of the user/computer dialogue. Information is displayed and the user
response of the computer takes action or displays further information.

USER_INITIATED INTERGFACES

User initiated interfaces fall into tow approximate classes:


1. Command driven interfaces: In this type of interface the user
inputs commands or queries which are interpreted by the
computer.
2. Forms oriented interface: The user calls up an image of the
form to his/her screen and fills in the form. The forms
oriented interface is chosen because it is the best choice.

COMPUTER-INITIATED INTERFACES

The following computer – initiated interfaces were used:

1. The menu system for the user is presented with a list of


alternatives and the user chooses one; of alternatives.
2. Questions – answer type dialog system where the computer
asks question and takes action based on the basis of the users
reply.

Right from the start the system is going to be menu driven, the opening
menu displays the available options. Choosing one option gives another
popup menu with more options. In this way every option leads the users to
data entry form where the user can key in the data.

ERROR MESSAGE DESIGN:


The design of error messages is an important part of the user interface
design. As user is bound to commit some errors or other while designing a
system the system should be designed to be helpful by providing the user
with information regarding the error he/she has committed.

This application must be able to produce output at different modules


for different inputs.

Performance Requirements:

Performance is measured in terms of the output provided by the application.

Requirement specification plays an important part in the analysis of a


system. Only when the requirement specifications are properly given, it is
possible to design a system, which will fit into required environment. It
rests largely in the part of the users of the existing system to give the
requirement specifications because they are the people who finally use the
system. This is because the requirements have to be known during the initial
stages so that the system can be designed according to those requirements.
It is very difficult to change the system once it has been designed and on the
other hand designing a system, which does not cater to the requirements of
the user, is of no use.

The requirement specification for any system can be broadly stated as


given below:

• The system should be able to interface with the existing system


• The system should be accurate
• The system should be better than the existing system
4.2 OUTPUT DESIGN

Designing computer should proceed in well thought out manner. The


term output means any information produced by the information system
whether printed or displayed. When analyst design computer out put they
identified the specific output that is needed to meet the requirement.
Computer is the most important source of information to the users. Output
design is a process that involves designing necessary outputs that have to be
used by various users according to requirements. Efficient intelligent output
design should improve the system relationship with the user and help in
decision making. Since the reports are directly required by the management
for taking decision and to draw the conclusion must be simple, descriptive
and clear to the user. Options for outputs and forms are given in the system
menus.

When designing the output, system analyst must accomplish the


following:

 Determine the information to present.


 Decide whether to display, print, speak the information and
select the output medium
 Arrange the information in acceptable format.
 Decide how to distribute the output to intended receipt.
5. SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies

application development in the highly distributed environment of the

Internet. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following

objectives:

• To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment


whether object code is stored and executed locally, executed locally
but Internet-distributed, or executed remotely.
• To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software
deployment and versioning conflicts.
• To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe
execution of code, including code created by an unknown or semi-
trusted third party.
• To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the
performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments.
• To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying
types of applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-
based applications.
• To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code
based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
ADO.NET Overview

ADO.NET is an evolution of the ADO data access model that directly


addresses user requirements for developing scalable applications. It was
designed specifically for the web with scalability, statelessness, and XML in
mind.

ADO.NET uses some ADO objects, such as the Connection and Command
objects, and also introduces new objects. Key new ADO.NET objects
include the Dataset, DataReader, and DataAdapter.

The important distinction between this evolved stage of ADO.NET and


previous data architectures is that there exists an object -- the DataSet -- that
is separate and distinct from any data stores. Because of that, the DataSet
functions as a standalone entity. You can think of the DataSet as an always
disconnected recordset that knows nothing about the source or destination of
the data it contains. Inside a DataSet, much like in a database, there are
tables, columns, relationships, constraints, views, and so forth.

A DataAdapter is the object that connects to the database to fill the DataSet.
Then, it connects back to the database to update the data there, based on
operations performed while the DataSet held the data. In the past, data
processing has been primarily connection-based. Now, in an effort to make
multi-tiered apps more efficient, data processing is turning to a message-
based approach that revolves around chunks of information. At the center of
this approach is the DataAdapter, which provides a bridge to retrieve and
save data between a DataSet and its source data store. It accomplishes this
by means of requests to the appropriate SQL commands made against the
data store.

The XML-based DataSet object provides a consistent programming model


that works with all models of data storage: flat, relational, and hierarchical.
It does this by having no 'knowledge' of the source of its data, and by
representing the data that it holds as collections and data types. No matter
what the source of the data within the DataSet is, it is manipulated through
the same set of standard APIs exposed through the DataSet and its
subordinate objects.

While the DataSet has no knowledge of the source of its data, the managed
provider has detailed and specific information. The role of the managed
provider is to connect, fill, and persist the DataSet to and from data stores.
The OLE DB and SQL Server .NET Data Providers (System.Data.OleDb
and System.Data.SqlClient) that are part of the .Net Framework provide four
basic objects: the Command, Connection, DataReader and DataAdapter. In
the remaining sections of this document, we'll walk through each part of the
DataSet and the OLE DB/SQL Server .NET Data Providers explaining what
they are, and how to program against them.

The following sections will introduce you to some objects that have evolved,
and some that are new. These objects are:

• Connections. For connection to and managing transactions


against a database.
• Commands. For issuing SQL commands against a database.
• DataReaders. For reading a forward-only stream of data records
from a SQL Server data source.
• DataSets. For storing, remoting and programming against flat
data, XML data and relational data.
• DataAdapters. For pushing data into a DataSet, and reconciling
data against a database.

Commands

Commands contain the information that is submitted to a database, and are


represented by provider-specific classes such as SQLCommand. A command
can be a stored procedure call, an UPDATE statement, or a statement that
returns results. You can also use input and output parameters, and return
values as part of your command syntax. The example below shows how to
issue an INSERT statement against the Northwind database.

DataReaders

The DataReader object is somewhat synonymous with a read-only/forward-


only cursor over data. The DataReader API supports flat as well as
hierarchical data. A DataReader object is returned after executing a
command against a database. The format of the returned DataReader object
is different from a recordset. For example, you might use the DataReader to
show the results of a search list in a web page.
DataSets and DataAdapters

DataSets
The DataSet object is similar to the ADO Recordset object, but more
powerful, and with one other important distinction: the DataSet is always
disconnected. The DataSet object represents a cache of data, with database-
like structures such as tables, columns, relationships, and constraints.
However, though a DataSet can and does behave much like a database, it is
important to remember that DataSet objects do not interact directly with
databases, or other source data. This allows the developer to work with a
programming model that is always consistent, regardless of where the source
data resides. Data coming from a database, an XML file, from code, or user
input can all be placed into DataSet objects. Then, as changes are made to
the DataSet they can be tracked and verified before updating the source data.
The GetChanges method of the DataSet object actually creates a second
DatSet that contains only the changes to the data. This DataSet is then used
by a DataAdapter (or other objects) to update the original data source.

The DataSet has many XML characteristics, including the ability to produce
and consume XML data and XML schemas. XML schemas can be used to
describe schemas interchanged via WebServices. In fact, a DataSet with a
schema can actually be compiled for type safety and statement completion.

DataAdapters (OLEDB/SQL)

The DataAdapter object works as a bridge between the DataSet and the
source data. Using the provider-specific SqlDataAdapter (along with its
associated SqlCommand and SqlConnection) can increase overall
performance when working with a Microsoft SQL Server databases. For
other OLE DB-supported databases, you would use the OleDbDataAdapter
object and its associated OleDbCommand and OleDbConnection objects.

The DataAdapter object uses commands to update the data source after
changes have been made to the DataSet. Using the Fill method of the
DataAdapter calls the SELECT command; using the Update method calls
the INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE command for each changed row. You
can explicitly set these commands in order to control the statements used at
runtime to resolve changes, including the use of stored procedures. For ad-
hoc scenarios, a CommandBuilder object can generate these at run-time
based upon a select statement. However, this run-time generation requires an
extra round-trip to the server in order to gather required metadata, so
explicitly providing the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE commands at
design time will result in better run-time performance.

1. ADO.NET is the next evolution of ADO for the .Net


Framework.
2. ADO.NET was created with n-Tier, statelessness and XML in
the forefront. Two new objects, the DataSet and DataAdapter, are
provided for these scenarios.
3. ADO.NET can be used to get data from a stream, or to store
data in a cache for updates.
4. There is a lot more information about ADO.NET in the
documentation.
5. Remember, you can execute a command directly against the
database in order to do inserts, updates, and deletes. You don't need
to first put data into a DataSet in order to insert, update, or delete it.
6. Also, you can use a DataSet to bind to the data, move through
the data, and navigate data relationships

SQL SERVER

DATABASE

A database management, or DBMS, gives the user access to their data


and helps them transform the data into information. Such database
management systems include dBase, paradox, IMS, SQL Server and SQL
Server. These systems allow users to create, update and extract information
from their database.

A database is a structured collection of data. Data refers to the


characteristics of people, things and events. SQL Server stores each data
item in its own fields. In SQL Server, the fields relating to a particular
person, thing or event are bundled together to form a single complete unit of
data, called a record (it can also be referred to as raw or an occurrence).
Each record is made up of a number of fields. No two fields in a record can
have the same field name.

During an SQL Server Database design project, the analysis of your


business needs identifies all the fields or attributes of interest. If your
business needs change over time, you define any additional fields or change
the definition of existing fields.
SQL Server Tables
SQL Server stores records relating to each other in a table. Different
tables are created for the various groups of information. Related tables are
grouped together to form a database.

Primary Key
Every table in SQL Server has a field or a combination of fields that
uniquely identifies each record in the table. The Unique identifier is called
the Primary Key, or simply the Key. The primary key provides the means to
distinguish one record from all other in a table. It allows the user and the
database system to identify, locate and refer to one particular record in the
database.

Relational Database
Sometimes all the information of interest to a business operation can
be stored in one table. SQL Server makes it very easy to link the data in
multiple tables. Matching an employee to the department in which they work
is one example. This is what makes SQL Server a relational database
management system, or RDBMS. It stores data in two or more tables and
enables you to define relationships between the table and enables you to
define relationships between the tables.

Foreign Key
When a field is one table matches the primary key of another field is
referred to as a foreign key. A foreign key is a field or a group of fields in
one table whose values match those of the primary key of another table.
Referential Integrity
Not only does SQL Server allow you to link multiple tables, it also
maintains consistency between them. Ensuring that the data among related
tables is correctly matched is referred to as maintaining referential integrity.

Data Abstraction
A major purpose of a database system is to provide users with an
abstract view of the data. This system hides certain details of how the data
is stored and maintained. Data abstraction is divided into three levels.

Physical level: This is the lowest level of abstraction at which one describes
how the data are actually stored.

Conceptual Level: At this level of database abstraction all the attributed and
what data are actually stored is described and entries and relationship among
them.

View level: This is the highest level of abstraction at which one describes
only part of the database.
Advantages of RDBMS

• Redundancy can be avoided


• Inconsistency can be eliminated
• Data can be Shared
• Standards can be enforced
• Security restrictions ca be applied
• Integrity can be maintained
• Conflicting requirements can be balanced
• Data independence can be achieved.

Disadvantages of DBMS

A significant disadvantage of the DBMS system is cost. In addition to


the cost of purchasing of developing the software, the hardware has to be
upgraded to allow for the extensive programs and the workspace required for
their execution and storage. While centralization reduces duplication, the
lack of duplication requires that the database be adequately backed up so
that in case of failure the data can be recovered.

FEATURES OF SQL SERVER (RDBMS)

SQL SERVER is one of the leading database management systems


(DBMS) because it is the only Database that meets the uncompromising
requirements of today’s most demanding information systems. From
complex decision support systems (DSS) to the most rigorous online
transaction processing (OLTP) application, even application that require
simultaneous DSS and OLTP access to the same critical data, SQL Server
leads the industry in both performance and capability

SQL SERVER is a truly portable, distributed, and open DBMS that delivers
unmatched performance, continuous operation and support for every
database.

SQL SERVER RDBMS is high performance fault tolerant DBMS which is


specially designed for online transactions processing and for handling large
database application.

SQL SERVER with transactions processing option offers two features which
contribute to very high level of transaction processing throughput, which are

• The row level lock manager

Enterprise wide Data Sharing


The unrivaled portability and connectivity of the SQL SERVER
DBMS enables all the systems in the organization to be linked into a
singular, integrated computing resource.

Portability
SQL SERVER is fully portable to more than 80 distinct hardware and
operating systems platforms, including UNIX, MSDOS, OS/2, Macintosh
and dozens of proprietary platforms. This portability gives complete
freedom to choose the database sever platform that meets the system
requirements.

Open Systems
SQL SERVER offers a leading implementation of industry –standard
SQL. SQL Server’s open architecture integrates SQL SERVER and non –
SQL SERVER DBMS with industries most comprehensive collection of
tools, application, and third party software products SQL Server’s Open
architecture provides transparent access to data from other relational
database and even non-relational database.

Module Description:

A) Employee Creation
In the Hierarchical Organization Information System each employee
is created with their corresponding department, designation and
section details.

b)Department entry/department hierarchy


In this module, Master Data for the departments can be created
employees refer this data .Sub departments Can be identified .Some of
The departments will have Different Sections
Each Department having Department heads, so department
employees should reported to the department head he may be
subordinate to his superior Department he shall report to him. Some of
departments having sections so section employees shall be reported to
the section in charge he shall report to the department head.
From this Departments, subdepartments the Department hierarchy
shall be created.

c) Process details
This following process will be done to get the desired results.
• Employee hierarchy can be created using Employers and their
superior’s information.
• Department Hierarchy can be created using the departmental
interdependencies.
• Employees can be transferred from one department to another
based on different criteria provided by the HR manager.
• Employee retention can be processed depending their
performance.
6. TESTING AND IMPLEMENTATION

6.1 SYSTEM TESTING

Testing Methodologies

Testing is generally done at two levels - Testing of individual


modules and testing of the entire system (System testing). During systems
testing, the system is used experimentally to ensure that the software does
not fail, i.e., that it will run according to its specifications and in the way
users expect. Special test data are input for processing, and the results
examined. A limited number of uses may be allowed to use the system so
analysis can see whether they use it in unforeseen ways. It is preferable to
discover any surprise before the organization implements the system and
depends on it.

Testing is done throughout systems development at various stages (not


just at the end). It is always a good practice to test the system at many
different levels at various intervals, that is, sub systems, program modules as
work progresses and finally the system as a whole. If this is not done, then
the poorly tested system can fail after installation. As you may already have
gathered, testing is very tedious and time-consuming job. For a test to be
successful the tester, should try and make the program fail. The tester maybe
an analyst, programmer, or specialist trained in software testing. One should
try and find areas in which the program can fail. Each test case is designed
with the intent of finding errors in the way the system will process it.
Through testing of programs do not guarantee the reliability of systems. It is
assure that the system runs error free.
Unit Testing

This involves the tests carried out on modules programs, which make
up a system. This is also called as a Program Testing. The units in a system
are the modules and routines that are assembled and integrated to perform a
specific function. In a large system, many modules at different levels are
needed. Unit testing focuses on the modules, independently of one another,
to locate errors. The programs should be tested for correctness of logic
applied and should detect errors in coding.

For example in the OBSE system, feeding the system with all
combinations of data should test all the calculations. Valid and invalid data
should be created and the programs should be made to process the data to
catch errors. In the OBSE system, the Employee no: consists of three digits,
so during testing one should ensure that the programs do not accept anything
other than a three-digit code for the employee no. Another e.g. for valid and
invalid data check is that, in case three digit no is entered during the entry of
transaction, and that number does not exit in the master file, or if the
number entered is an exit case, then the programs should not allow the entry
of such cases. All dates that are entered should be validated. No program
should accept invalidates. The checks that are needed to be incorporated are:
in the month of Feb the date cannot be more than 29. For the months having
days one should not be allowed to enter 31. All conditions present in the
program should be tested. Before proceeding one must make sure that all the
programs are working independently.

System Testing

When unit tests are satisfactorily concluded, the system, as a complete


entity must be tested. At this stage, end users and operators become actively
involved in testing. While testing one should also test to find discrepancies
between the system and its original objective, current specifications and
systems documentation.
For example, one module may expect the data item for employee
number to be numeric field, while other modules expect it to be a character
data item. The system itself may not report this error, but the output may
show unexpected results. A record maybe created and stored in one module,
using the employee number as a numeric field. If this is later sought on
retrieval with the expectation that it will be a character field, the field will
not be recognized and the message requested record not found would not be
displayed.

System testing must also verify that file sizes are adequate and their
indexes have been built properly. Sorting and rendering procedures assumed
to be present in lower level modules must be tested at the systems level to
see that they in fact exist and achieve the results modules expect.

Output Testing
After performing the validation testing, the next step is output testing
of the proposed system, since no system could be useful if it does not
produce the required output in the specified format. The outputs generated or
displayed by the system under consideration are tested by asking the users
about the format required by them. Hence the output format is considered in
2 ways – one is on screen and another in printed format.

Validation Checking

Validation checks are performed on the following fields.

Text Field

The text field can contain only the number of characters lesser than or
equal to its size. The text fields are alphanumeric in some tables and
alphabetic in other tables. Incorrect entry always flashes and error message.

Numeric Field

The numeric field can contain only numbers from 0 to 9. An entry of


any character flashes an error messages. The individual modules are checked
for accuracy and what it has to perform. Each module is subjected to test
run along with sample data. The individually tested modules are integrated
into a single system. Testing involves executing the real data information is
used in the program the existence of any program defect is inferred from the
output. The testing should be planned so that all the requirements are
individually tested.

A successful test is one that gives out the defects for the inappropriate
data and produces and output revealing the errors in the system.
6.2 IMPLEMENTATION

Implementation Procedures

After proper testing and validation, the question arises whether the
system can be implemented or not. Implementation includes all those
activities that take place to convert from old system to new. The new system
may be totally new replacing an existing manual or automated system, or it
may be a major modification to an existing system. In other case, proper
implementation is essential to provide a reliable system to meet organization
requirements.

User Training

A well-designed system, if not operated and used properly could fail.


Training the users is important, as if not done well enough could prevent the
successful implementation of an information system. Through the systems
development life cycle the user has been involved. By this stage the analyst
should possess an accurate idea of the users they need to be trained. They
must know what their roles will be, how they can use the system and what
the system will do and will not do. Both system operators and users need
training. During their training, they need to be given a trouble-shooting list
that identifies possible problems and identifies remedies for the problem.
They should be advised of the common mal functions that may arise and
how to solve them.

Operational Documentation
Once the implementation plan is decided, it is essential that the user of
the system is made familiar and comfortable with the environment.
Education involves right atmosphere & motivating the user. A
documentation providing the whole operations of the system is being
developed. The system is developed in such a way that the user can work
with it in a well consistent way. The system is developed user friendly so
that the user can work the system from the tips given in the application
itself. Useful tips and guidance is given inside the application itself to help
the user. Users have to be made aware that what can be achieved with the
new system and how it increases the performance of the system. The user of
the system should be given a general idea of the system before he uses the
system.
System Maintenance

A system should be created whose design is comprehensive and


farsighted enough to serve current and projected user for several years to
come. Part of the analyst’s expertise should be in projecting what those
needs might be in building flexibility and adaptability into the system.

PROJECT TESTING

1) COMPILATION TEST:
• It was a good idea to do our stress testing early on, because it gave us
time to fix some of the unexpected deadlocks and stability problems
that only occurred when components were exposed to very high
transaction volumes.

2) EXECUTION TEST:

• This program was successfully loaded and executed. Because of


good programming there was no execution error.

3) OUTPUT TEST:

• The successful output screens are placed in the output screens


section.
7. CONCLUSION

• The project has been appreciated by all the users in the organization.
• It is easy to use, since it uses the GUI provided in the user dialog.
• User friendly screens are provided.
• The usage of software increases the efficiency, decreases the effort.
• It has been efficiently employed as a Site management mechanism.
• It has been thoroughly tested and implemented.
8. BIBLIOGRAPHY

SOFTWARE ENGINEERING By Roger.S. Pressman

SQL FOR PROFESSIONALS By Jain

VISUAL BASIC.NET Black Book By Evangeleous Petereous

ASP.Net Professional By Wrox Publications

MSDN 2002 By Microsoft

Websites:

www.a1vbcode.com

www.google.com
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