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Annual Report July 2007 – June 2008
Page No. Background and History The Traffic Management Act 2004 Structure (Establishment and Management) Off Street Car Parks Car Park Crime in South Gloucestershire 2007/08 Policy Road Safety Targets & Performance Finance Best Practise New Initiatives Conclusion Contacts and Further Information Statistical Tables and Further Information 1 2 3 4 4-5 6 7 8 8-9 9 9 10 11 12 - 19
Parking Enforcement in South Gloucestershire
July 2007 – June 2008
A report on the aims, objectives and achievements of the Parking Services Team of Highways and Transportation section, Planning, Transportation & the Strategic Environment, South Gloucestershire Council
Background and History South Gloucestershire Council received Decriminalised Parking Enforcement status effective from the 2 July 2007. Previously all Parking Enforcement had been carried out by the Police and Community Support Officers of Avon and Somerset Constabulary – Traffic Wardens having ceased to operate in the district in March 2005. Civil Enforcement Officers (Parking Attendants) employed by the Council are authorised to enforce any Parking restriction created by a Traffic Regulation Order raised under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984, the enforcement of other offences, such as “Obstructing the Highway” and any moving traffic violations remaining with the local Police Force. This report identifies the achievements of the first twelve month period, including the transition to working under Part 6 of the Traffic Management Act 2004 made on the 31 March 2008. It is intended that subsequent reports will run annually from April of each year and will be published as soon as figures can be collated. It is intended that this report will place Parking Enforcement in a wider context and begin to show how encouraging greater compliance with Parking Restrictions improves traffic flow, eases congestion, reduces crime on our Off-Street Car Parks and improves road safety, to do this this year's report attempts to set a benchmark from which future years achievements can be assessed. Contact information and where to find further information is given at the end of this report.
The Traffic Management Act 2004 On the 2 July 2007 the Council started using Decriminalised Parking Enforcement powers contained within the Road Traffic Act 1991 and employed Parking Attendants to patrol the streets. On the 31 March 2008 those parts of the Road Traffic Act 1991 that affected parking enforcement ceased to have an effect and were replace by Part 6 of the Traffic Management Act 2008. Parking Enforcement now became Civil Parking Enforcement, and Parking Attendants were re-titled Civil Enforcement Officers or CEOs (although they continue to be identified as employed in Parking Enforcement) and the area covered by the enforcement regime became a Civil Parking Area. Although Parking Attendants became CEOs under the new legislation they continue to be identified as Parking Attendants on their uniform to clearly show that they are employed in parking enforcement in the district.
Structure (Establishment & Management) All Parking Services staff and any staff employed in Parking Enforcement or management are directly employed by South Gloucestershire Council. The Council employs twelve Civil Enforcement Officers lead by two Senior CEOs in two teams running working throughout the day and covering the district seven days a week. The Council also employs a further 4 Case Officers, filling three full time posts supervised by one Senior Case Officer. The Parking Services operates within the Highways and Transportation section of the Planning Transportation and the Strategic Environment Directorate of the Council. The team is managed by the Parking Manager. No bonus payments are made to any staff and the issuing of Penalty Charge Notices for the contravention of parking restrictions is not linked to any award or reward system. Less than 3% of the total road network in the district is subject to a parking restriction with the primary and secondary enforcement area indicated in blue and orange on the district map below. All Primary areas are patrolled daily with Secondary areas being patrolled between 2 to 4 times a week. South Gloucestershire Council works in partnership with the Highways Agency for the enforcement of Trunk Roads in the District.
Patrols in South Gloucestershire
This map is for indicative purposes only and patrols visit other areas on demand or on a random basis.
Off Street Car Parks The Council provides 30 off-street car parks subject to parking regulations. A table detailing the facilities available can be found at the end of this report along with information on maintenance costs etc. South Gloucestershire Council does not charge for any parking in either onstreet parking places or in its off-street car parks. Car Park Crime in South Gloucestershire 2007/08 This report looks at crime in car parks in South Gloucestershire and aims to set a baseline for future comparisons to examine the implications of new legislation. Future versions of this report can be used to compare whether levels of crime in our car parks and urban areas have risen or fallen following the introduction of this new legislation. Table 1 below looks at all car park crime in South Gloucestershire and breaks it down by type of offence. The figures are taken from Avon and Somerset Police and include all crimes where ‘car park’ was recorded as the location of the offence and therefore includes crime in private car parks and car parks not patrolled by South Gloucestershire Councils Civil Enforcement Officers. 30% (131 offences) of all offending in car parks in the area is theft from a motor vehicle, with criminal damage representing 24% (107 offences). There have also been a range of other offences in car parks including theft offences, drugrelated offences and theft of pedal cycles. Table 1: Types of crime occurring in South Gloucestershire car parks in 2007/08.
Type of offence Theft from a motor vehicle Criminal damage Theft of a motor vehicle Theft offences Violent crime Drugs offences Theft of a pedal cycle Non-domestic burglary Robbery offences Sexual offences Other offences Total Number of offences 131 107 45 43 42 30 9 6 Under 5 Under 5 Under 5 438 Proportion of total 29.9% 24.4% 10.3% 9.8% 9.6% 6.8% 2.1% 1.4% Under 1% Under 1% Under 1% 100.0%
Source: Avon and Somerset Police recorded crime statistics. Table 2 below shows crimes that have happened in car parks in the main population centre of South Gloucestershire, as defined by neighbourhood Police beat. Patchway has had the largest number of crimes in its car parks over the year (88 offences, 20% of all car park crime) with Kingswood second (44 offences, 10% of total). Staple Hill and Chipping Sodbury have both had a small number of offences recorded as occurring in their car parks, with 14 offences (3%) and 7 offences (2%) respectively.
Table 2: Car park crime in the main population areas of South Gloucestershire, 2007/08.
Area Patchway Kingswood Hanham Yate Thornbury Filton Staple Hill Chipping Sodbury Total Number of offences 88 44 37 31 19 18 14 7 258 Proportion of total 20.0% 10.0% 8.4% 7.1% 4.3% 4.1% 3.2% 1.6% 58.8%
Source: Avon and Somerset Police recorded crime statistics. Table 3 below shows four major types of vehicle crime in the main population centres of South Gloucestershire in 2007/08. These figures can be compared with subsequent changes in levels over time to give an idea of changing patterns of vehicle crime in these areas. Criminal damage to a motor vehicle is the most frequent vehicle-related offence in these areas (1056 offences), followed by theft from a motor vehicle (887 offences). Theft of a motor vehicle represents 435 offences whilst vehicle interference represents 145 offences. The largest number of vehicle-related offences have been recorded in Kingswood (515 offences) in 2007/08, followed by Yate (471 offences). The smallest number of vehicle-related offences were recorded in Chipping Sodbury over the year (82 offences). Table 3: Vehicle crime in the main population centres in South Gloucestershire, 2007/08.
Area Kingswood Yate Patchway Filton Hanham Staple Hill Thornbury Chipping Sodbury Total Theft from motor vehicle 180 160 134 113 118 94 74 14 887 Theft of motor vehicle 99 61 62 70 54 49 17 23 435 Damage to motor vehicle 205 228 168 132 79 126 76 42 1056 Vehicle interference 31 22 13 19 37 14 6 3 145 Total 515 471 377 334 288 283 173 82 2523
Source: Avon and Somerset Police recorded crime statistics.
POLICY South Gloucestershire parking policy is lead by the Joint Local Transport Plan (the JLTP), a partnership agreement between South Gloucestershire Council, Bristol City Council, Bath and North East Somerset Council and North Somerset Council, and driven by the shared priorities of improving Congestion, Road Safety, Air Quality and Accessibility. Parking restrictions, and therefore the enforcement of those restrictions, are designed: • • • • • • To improve traffic flow and relieve congestion; To ensure safety for pedestrians, cyclists and vehicles; To improve access to Businesses and our wider community; To ensure a fair use of limited parking spaces; To improve our environment; To encourage, where appropriate, the use of alternative modes of transport.
The JLTP includes a Parking Action Plan Hierarchy setting out guidelines on the imposition of parking restrictions in a range of situations across the district and ensuring a consistency of approach across the wider area. Through the JLTP with our partner Councils of Bristol, Bath and North East Somerset and North Somerset we aim to reduce congestion and make real improvements to road safety, accessibility and air quality throughout our region. Traffic flow through South Gloucestershire is already amongst the highest in the Country and is predicted to grow significantly, by adopting a coordinated approach to traffic management with our neighbours we will best be able to meet the challenge that faces the district. The Council is guided by all possible Best Practise with regard to access for disabled or disadvantaged groups when designing traffic schemes or in providing off-street Car Parking The Council is currently formulating a Policy on the potential introduction and use of residents and other Parking Permit Schemes.
Road Safety Parking restrictions, and therefore the enforcement of those restrictions, are intended to reduce congestion, improve traffic flow and discourage or eliminate instances of dangerous parking where the visibility of other road users or pedestrians is adversely effected. Regular patrols in our on and off-street parking areas will also help to maintain a safe environment in our communities and attract visitors to local facilities. It is intended that over time a clear and improving trend will be shown to result from our Enforcement activities. Tables indicating our current achievements are given at the end of this report along with information on the number of assaults experienced by Civil Enforcement Officers and Parking Attendants enforcing parking restrictions on behalf of the Council. Parking Attendants are frequently subjected to verbal abuse and intimidation while on patrol, often requiring Police action or support. Parking Services has a very good working relationship with local Police stations, individual officers and Police Community Support Officers. In the twelve month period that South Gloucestershire Council has employed a team of 12 Officers to enforce parking restrictions in the district there have been 24 cases of verbal of physical assault during which the Parking Attendant or Civil Enforcement Officer has had to call for support, resulting in three Police Fixed Penalty Notices being issued and one Police Caution. A list of the locations of these assaults is given at the end of this report.
Targets & Performance The Council took parking enforcement powers on the 2 July 2007 and patrols commenced on that day. As part of the gradual and well publicised introduction of the new regime only warning notices were issued by Parking Attendants until the 25th of the month when the first Penalty Charge Notice was issued at 08:00 in Kingswood. Over the period July to the end of March and the introduction of Civil Parking Enforcement a total of 6174 PCNs issued of which 78% were paid (within a national range of 40% to 84% reported by the Parking Benchmarking Initiative 2007) 88% being paid at the reduced rate (see tables at the end of the report for a detailed breakdown). The first warrants were issued to Bailiffs in April 2008 with 5.41% of issue being passed to bailiffs to date. Early indications suggest an average collection rate of between 5% and 15% of PCNs passed for debt collection. Legislation allows for two levels of Representations (appeals) against the issue of a PCN to be heard by the Council with a third appeal heard by an independent Tribunal – the Traffic Penalty Tribunal. Appeals or Representations to the Council over the period run at 23% of issue (within a national range of 3% to 49% of issue nationally – PBI 2007) with 43% of appeals being allowed and the PCN cancelled. Appeals to the Traffic Penalty Tribunal (formerly the National Parking Adjudication Service or NPAS) accounted for 0.54% of issue against a national range of 0% to 15% of issue (Parking Benchmark Initiative - PBI). Of these 42% were allowed by the Adjudicator or not contested by the Council (because the appellant supplied, late, previously unseen evidence) compared to a national average of 42% (from National Parking Adjudication Service Annual Report for 2005). All challenges and representations made to the Council against the issue of a PCN were responded to within 10 working days. Over the period June 2007 to May 2008 inclusive Civil Enforcement Officers issued an average of 0.80 PCNs per hour patrolled against a PBI range of 1.1 to 0.24 per hour. Finance The financial predictions for the introduction of parking enforcement in South Gloucestershire suggested a breakeven point at year three after introduction and we remain committed to meeting that target. The end of the first financial period for the year 2007/08 saw an operational deficit of £190,688.72 and this shortfall was financed entirely from existing Highways and Transportation budgets.
South Gloucestershire Council does not charge for any of its Off Street parking facilities nor does it make any charge for On Street parking at any location. Similarly no paid-for Permits, Waivers or exemptions are issued or available in the District. Best Practise All Civil Enforcement Officers and back office Case Officers working for South Gloucestershire have gained a City and Guilds qualification in Parking Enforcement as well as ongoing attendance at a wide range of related training initiatives. South Gloucestershire Council’s Parking Services works closely with national Parking and Traffic Enforcement forums ensuring that the District benefits from the Best Practise found across the country and at the same time maintaining a modern, consistent and dynamic approach to parking enforcement with South Gloucestershire contributing to the national debate on improved standards and practises. New Initiatives From the 31 March 2008 the Traffic Management Act 2004 (the TMA) introduced the concept of Higher and Lower Penalty Charges so as to make the Penalties for contraventions more clearly reflect the seriousness of the act. All PCN issue after the 31st is broken down accordingly in the tables at the end of this report. The TMA introduced two new contraventions, parking across dropped curbs and parking more than 50cm from the curb that can be enforced without the need to raise a Traffic Regulation Order. Because the legal position surrounding the signing of these restrictions is unclear South Gloucestershire Council has not considered how to enforce the restrictions yet and is delaying any introduction in the district until the legal position is clarified. CEOs can now issue Penalty Charge Notices through the post where a driver either threatens them or drives away without accepting the issued PCN. This change closes a loophole allowing a small number of offenders to escape without penalty for their anti-social behaviour. Postal PCNs can also be issued from evidence gained from CCTV. South Gloucestershire Council is considering the introduction of mobile cameras to be used in priority areas such as the front of schools etc where uniform patrols have not proved to be effective.
Conclusion The introduction of Decriminalised, now referred to as Civil Parking Enforcement, in South Gloucestershire has allowed the Council to ensure that parking restrictions created by the Council in consultation with local communities are effective and fit for purpose. From feedback received form the public it is already clear that Parking Services are providing a valuable enforcement tool in dealing with the anti-social behaviour of inconsiderate and dangerous parking. Performance figures are already falling within the top two quartiles of benchmarked national data and early finance figures suggest that the Service will become self sufficient within the projected timescales and will not be a long term drain on Public funds.
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Contacts and Further Information Parking Services can be contacted: • • • • On the internet By email Telephone In writing www.southglos.gov.uk/parklegally firstname.lastname@example.org 01454 86 8000 Parking Services The Civic Centre The High St Kingswood South Gloucestershire BS15 9TR
Further information on topics covered by this report on the Council web site, local Libraries and Council Offices and at: The Joint Local Transport Plan www.southglos.gov.uk/NR/exeres/f8078834-2241-4c9c-9164-70bd80bd4f70 The British Parking Association Please note that the BPA is not set up to deal with individual complaints from the public. British Parking Association Stuart House 41-43 Perrymount Road Haywards Heath West Sussex RH16 3BN http://www.britishparking.co.uk/ E-mail: Tel: Fax: email@example.com 01444 447 300 01444 454 105
The Traffic Penalty Tribunal and “PATROL” http://www.patrol-uk
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Statistical Tables and Further Information Car Parks in South Gloucestershire
Station Rd/Filton Ave Link Rd/Church View Gloucester Rd North/Filton Rd Abbeywood
Filton 12 31 58 + 1 motorcycle 45 + 1 motorcycle Hanham
3 4 2
2 hours 2 hours 12 hours 12 hours
Abbots Road Laburnham Rd
11 43 + 2 parent/child Kingswood
24 hours 2 hours
Bank Road Boultons Road Cecil Road South Road
24 + 1 motorcycle 50 + 1 motorcycle 53 + 1 motorcycle 13 + 1 motorcycle Mangotsfield 20 short stay + 13 long stay Patchway 31 87 + 7 staff Staple Hill
3 3 3 3
2 hours 12 hours 2 hours 2 hours
St. James Street
2 hours and 12 hours
Coniston Road The Parade
2 hours 12 hours
Byron Place Haynes Lane Page Road L/S* Pages Road S/S*
49 26 35 27 Chipping Sodbury
3 3 3 3
2 hours 2 hours 12 hours 2 hours
St Mary Street Castle Court S/S* Castle Court L/S* Rock St L/S and S/S* Park Rd
85 78 + 10 Natwest 174 347 13 Winterbourne
2 hours 2 hours 12 hours
2 hours and 12 hours 12 hours
32 short stay + 17 long stay Warmley
2 hours and 12 hours
Longs Drive Cranleigh Court Rd Kennedy Way Abbotswood
12 21 71 38
3 2 4 3
2 hours 12 hours 12 hours 12 hours
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Methods of Payment over Period June ’07 to June ‘08
Cash Cheque Credit Card Postal Order
15.56% 26.31% 57.39% 0.73%
Issue, Appeals and Finances
2007/08 Number Percent 6174 4777 77.37% 4196 87.84% 556 13.25% 3.33% 159 1394 22.58% 597 42.83% 26 0.54% 15 57.69% 8 30.77% 3 11.54% £ 41,415.00 23.69% £133,369.75 76.31% £174,784.75 £173,933.30 £316,941.24 -£142,156.49 -£143,007.94 2008/09 (April &May) Number Percent 2212 1459 65.96% 1398 95.82% 60 4.29% 1 0.07% 296 13.40% 117 39.62% 0.00%
PCNs Issued PCNs Paid
Informal/Formal Representations Appeals to the Traffic Penalty Tribunal
Total Total Within discount period At full rate With additional Charge Total Number cancelled Total Won Lost Not contested Total Income ( on street) Total Income (off street) Total Income (1) Total Income (2) Total Expense Balance (1) Balance (2)
£ 11,150.00 £ 35,050.00 £ 46,200.00 £ 41,051.49 £ 72,878.85 -£ 26,678.85 -£ 31,827.36
Notes: 1. 2. 3. Income and Balance figures denoted as (1) refer to income against issue in the month. Income and Balance figures demoted as (2) refer to actual income in the month. Since the introduction of Civil Parking Enforcement on 31 March 2008 51.18% of PCNs have been issued for Higher contraventions and 48.82% for lower.
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Car Park Maintenance for Financial Year 2007/08
DESCRIPTION Administrative & Support Staff Transport etc. General Repairs Grounds Maintenance Buildings Maintenance Electricity Rent Rates (Non Domestic) Water Charges Security Systems Equipment Maintenance Surface maintenance Income Balance COST £30,793.08 £8,765.04 £11,498.08 £40.00 £1,454.88 £112.50 £85,870.16 £468.00 £9,438.67 £922.00 £332.74 £23,554.91 £126,140.24
Income includes all enforcement income received in the year 2007/08 from Excess Charge Notices issued under the Road Traffic Regulation Act 1984 prior to Decriminalised Enforcement Powers taking effect. This includes payments collected from Notices issued in the previous twelve month period.
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Penalty Charge Notices Issued By Category by Town Between 02/06/2007 and 31/05/2008
Post CPE (31st March 2008) On Street
Almondsbury Issued Notices: 0 Bradley Stoke Issued Notices: 1 Bromley Heath Issued Notices: 0 Cadbury Heath Issued Notices: 0 Charfield Issued Notices: 1 Chipping Sodbury Issued Notices: 92 Cribbs Causeway Issued Notices: 0 Downend Issued Notices: 180 Emerson's Green Issued Notices: 0 Filton Issued Notices: 131 Frampton Cotterell Issued Notices: 0 Frenchay Issued Notices: 208 Hambrook Issued Notices: 0 Hanham Issued Notices: 54 Harry Stoke Issued Notices: 3 Kingswood Issued Notices: 448 Mangotsfield Issued Notices: 17
Prior to CPE (up to 30th March 2008) On Street
Almondsbury Issued Notices: 3 Alveston Issued Notices: 2 Aust Issued Notices: 1 Bradley Stoke Issued Notices: 8 Charfield Issued Notices: 2 Chipping Sodbury Issued Notices: 136 Cribbs Causeway Issued Notices: 3 Downend Issued Notices: 484 Emerson's Green Issued Notices: 0 Filton Issued Notices: 251 Frenchay Issued Notices: 251 Hanham Issued Notices: 214 Harry Stoke Issued Notices: 14 Kingswood Issued Notices: 1,788 Mangotsfield Issued Notices: 59 Marshfield Issued Notices: 7 Mayshill Issued Notices: 1
Chipping Sodbury Issued Notices: 21 Filton Issued Notices: 13 Hanham Issued Notices: 17 Kingswood Issued Notices: 178 Mangotsfield Issued Notices: 2 Patchway Issued Notices: 4 Staple Hill Issued Notices: 81 Thornbury Issued Notices: 185 Winterbourne Issued Notices: 3 Yate Issued Notices: 136
Chipping Sodbury Issued Notices: 35 Filton Issued Notices: 29 Hanham Issued Notices: 30 Kingswood Issued Notices: 447 Longwell Green Issued Notices: 1 Mangotsfield Issued Notices: 16 Patchway Issued Notices: 29 Staple Hill Issued Notices: 266 Thornbury Issued Notices: 463 Warmley Issued Notices: 1 Winterbourne Issued Notices: 6 Yate Issued Notices: 274
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Post CPE (31st March 2008) On Street
Marshfield Issued Notices: 4 Mayshill Issued Notices: 0 Olveston Issued Notices: 0 Patchway Issued Notices: 58 Severn Beach Issued Notices: 3 Staple Hill Issued Notices: 139 Stoke Gifford Issued Notices: 9 Thornbury Issued Notices: 234 Tormarton Issued Notices: 0 Warmley Issued Notices: 2 Winterbourne Issued Notices: 18 Yate Issued Notices: 8
Prior to CPE (up to 30th March 2008) On Street
North Common Issued Notices: 2 Patchway Issued Notices: 173 Severn Beach Issued Notices: 5 Staple Hill Issued Notices: 623 Stoke Gifford Issued Notices: 1 Thornbury Issued Notices: 469 Warmley Issued Notices: 1 Winterbourne Issued Notices: 25 Yate Issued Notices: 52
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Notices Issued By Category by Contravention - Off Street Between 02/06/2007 and 31/05/2008
Off Street Car Parks
2 3 4 80 81 83 82 85 86 87 89 9 90 91 95
Overstaying the time limit Unauthorised Parking Parking out of bay Exceeded maximum stay Parked in restricted area Parked without clear display Parked after expiry No valid permit displayed Parked beyond markings No disabled badge shown Exceeds max weight/height Prohibited Vehicle Re-parked in the same place Wrong Class of Vehicle Incorrect Parking
23 4 6 657 115 2 1 1 806 582 2 1 1 34 1
Notices Issued By Category by Contravention - On Street Between 02/06/2007 and 31/05/2008
On Street Parking Code Description PCNs Issued 1 Parked on Yellow lines 2,873 2 Loading or unloading 62 4 Parked on penalty time 1 5 Parked after Expiry Time 5 22 Re-parked 186 23 Incorrect Vehicle 38 24 Parked Outside Bay 210 25 Loading Bay No Loading 183 30 Free Parking Bay 1,781 40 Disabled Bay - No Badge 127 42 Police Parking Bay 35 45 Parked on Cab Rank 112 47 Parked on Bus Stop 438 48 Outside School in Term 3 70 Parked in a loading area 1 90 Re-parked within 1 hour. 5 99 Pedestrian crossing 13
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Accidents in South Gloucestershire in 2007 (Excl Motorway & Trunk roads)
The Chase 109 Frome Vale 100 Kings Forest 93 Southern Brooks 163 Severn Vale 68
All accidents Vehicle manoeuvre = parked Hit objects in carriageway = parked vehicle Pedestrian casualty crossing from nearside masked by parked or stationary vehicle Pedestrian casualty crossing from offside masked by parked or stationary vehicle Pedestrian casualty standing in carriageway masked by parked or stationary vehicle Contributory factor - ' vision affected by stationary or parked vehicle(s)' (701) Contributory factor ‘pedestrian crossing road masked by stationary or parked vehicle' (801)
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Locations of Serious Verbal and Physical Assaults to Parking Attendants
Date of Incident 09/07/2007 03/08/2007 03/08/2007 11/08/2007 11/08/2007 15/08/2007 16/08/2007 21/08/2007 25/09/2007 28/09/2007 08/11/2007 02/11/2007 22/11/2007 28/11/2007 06/12/2007 12/12/2007 11/02/2008 25/02/2008 02/03/2008 15/04/2008 22/04/2008 28/04/2008 01/05/2008 28/05/2008 Location Mangotsfield High Street, Staple Hill Cecil Road, Kingswood Yate Leisure Centre C/Park Cranleigh Court Road, Yate Kimberley Road, Kingswood Page Road, Staple Hill St John Street, Thornbury Station Road C/Park, Filton Alma Road, Kingswood Broad Street, Staple Hill South Road, Kingswood Kimberley Road, Kingswood High Street, Staple Hill Kimberley Road, Kingswood High Street, Thornbury Regent Street Church Road, Filton Buckingham Gardens, Downend Broad Street, Staple Hill Page Road, Staple Hill Page Road, Staple Hill Kimberley Road, Kingswood Castle Street, Thornbury Incident Type Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Obscenities Physical Physical Verbal/Threats Verbal/Threats Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Threats Physical Verbal/Threats Physical Verbal/Threats Physical Verbal/Threats Physical Verbal/Threats Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Obscenities Verbal/Threats Verbal/Threats Verbal/Obscenities
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