International Relations


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International Relations


LETTER OF ACKNOWLEDGEMENT .................................................................5 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................7 HISTORY OF IMPERIALISM..................................................................................7 EARLY EMPIRES...........................................................................................................................7 CLASSICAL ANTIQUITY....................................................................................................................8 MIDDLE AGES ...........................................................................................................................8 COLONIAL EMPIRES ....................................................................................................................10 MODERN PERIOD ......................................................................................................................11 EMPIRE FROM 1945 TO THE PRESENT...............................................................................................14 OVERVIEW.......................................................................................................17 DEFINITIONS FROM SOME OTHER SOURCES.......................................................18 EMPIRE............................................................................................................19 TYPES OF IMPERIALISM....................................................................................20 CULTURAL IMPERIALISM................................................................................................................20 HEGEMONY..............................................................................................................................22 NEW IMPERIALISM......................................................................................................................23 Background....................................................................................................................24 Rise of New Imperialism.................................................................................................25 Theories Of New Imperialism.........................................................................................27 OIL IMPERIALISM..............................................................................................35 Control of oil...................................................................................................................35 Criticism.........................................................................................................................36 SCIENTIFIC IMPERIALISM....................................................................................................36 CRITIQUE OF POWER......................................................................................................37 RELIGION OF INTELLECTUALS.........................................................................................38 MARGINALIZED...............................................................................................................38 IN MEDICINE...................................................................................................................39 ULTRA-IMPERIALISM (HYPER IMPERIALISM).......................................................40 AMERICAN IMPERIALISM ..................................................................................42 IMPERIALISM IN ASIA........................................................................................44 IMPERIALISM IN CHINA.....................................................................................46 QING TERRITORIAL EXPANSION.........................................................................................................46 USING IMPERIALISM TO DESCRIBE QING EXPANSION.................................................................................46 THE PROCESS OF EXPANSION..........................................................................................................47

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54 DEFINITION OF IMPERIALISM IN DIFFERENT DICTIONARIES......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................52 PRE-WORLD WAR II................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................57 POLITICAL DICTIONARY.................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 4 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report .........................................................................56 BUSINESS DICTIONARY................................................................................................................................70 REFERENCES..............49 PENETRATION OF LIST OF TERRITORIES OCCUPIED BY IMPERIAL JAPAN...........................................................................................................56 US MILITARY DICTIONARY...................................................................................................................53 JAPANESE AND CHINESE RESPONSES TO IMPERIALISM...........................56 GEOGRAPHY DICTIONARY...67 IMPERIALISM........................................................................................................................................................................................................68 PUBLICATION HISTORY...................International Relations EUROPEAN CHINA................................................................................................................................................................................58 THE PLACE OF IMPERIALISM IN HISTORY...........................................67 LENINISM.............56 DICTIONARY....69 INDEX................................................52 OVERVIEW.................................52 WORLD WAR II.................................................57 CRITIQUE OF IMPERIALISM............ THE HIGHEST STAGE OF CAPITALISM...............................................................64 VLADIMIR LENIN’S APPROACH.....

SAHIB ALI KHAN CHANNA whose utmost dedication and devotion provided me with the insight to analyze all the situations.International Relations Letter of Acknowledgement I am thankful to Allah Almighty for giving me the capability and strength to complete this Term report on “Imperialism” of the Course. I would also like to thank All the Sources who have cooperated with me and provided me with all the information that I required to complete this report. Prepared By: Irfan Junejo 2008-1-83-9063 5 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report . I express sincere gratitude to our parents for their continuous support throughout the preparation of this report. I would also like to thank my course instructor Dr. “International Relations”. It was due to his guidance and teachings that enabled me to finish this term report.

This report analyzes the various practices of IMPERIALISM followed by the WORLD. Sincerely. Department of International Relations Institute of Business Management Korangi Creek Karachi November 23. Irfan Junejo 6 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report . 2010 Dear Sir.International Relations LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL Dr SAHIB ALI CHANNA Course Instructor. improve my quality of work. It helped me to widen my vision. Here is my term report on IMPERIALISM. which is to be submitted on April 8 . build self-reliance work and it gave a vital experience in order to improve my analytical skills. I hope it is up to your expectations and fulfils all the requirements given by you. I greatly benefited from this report as my term report.

The belief in the desirability of the acquisition of colonies and dependencies. While the term imperialism often refers to a political or geographical domain such as the Ottoman Empire the Russian Empire. and also sometimes monolithic in character. the loosely-organized New Kingdom of Ancient Egypt. centrally-organized empire. and the first.. beliefs. HISTORY OF IMPERIALISM Early empires The imperial concept predates the Roman Empire by millennia. or the extension of a country's influence through trade. etc. these early empires had no effective administrative control of their subject territories. successful. diplomacy. the term can equally be applied to domains of knowledge. comparable to Rome. values and expertise. In the 15th century BC. such as the empires of Christianity or Islam. or the British Empire. etc. multicultural empire was the Persian Achaemenid Empire (550–330 7 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report . was the ancient Near East’s major force upon incorporating Nubia and the ancient city-states of the Levant. the Akkadian Empire of Sargon of Akkad (24th century BC). The ancient world’s earliest.International Relations INTRODUCTION Imperialism is autocratic. was the earliest model of a geographically extensive terrestrial empire. ruled by Thutmose III. was the Assyrian empire (2000–612 BC). Despite their imperial condition.

the term Persian Empire denotes the imperial states established at different historical periods of pre–Islamic and post–Islamic Persia. In the East. said states were not always technically — geographic. e. and India. comprehending Egypt. Central Asia. are denoted as the "Hellenistic Empire".g. military — empires. Western Asia (the Middle East). Middle Ages The Mongol Empire was the largest contiguous empire. Classical Antiquity The Roman Empire was the most extensive Western empire until the early modern period. given the Greek influence. various Celestial Empires arose periodically in China between periods of civil war and foreign conquests. political. the Byzantine Empire. under Alexander the Great. “empire” was exclusively applied to States that considered themselves the heirs and successors of the Roman Empire. these states directly claimed the title of Empire from Rome. then the most extensive. The Holy Roman Empire was not always 8 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report . despite being independent. yet. the Russian Empire. his empire fractured into four. claimed to have exclusively comprehended Christian German principalities. Prior to the Roman Empire the kingdom of Macedonia. And in the Far East. which. the German Holy Roman Empire. and one of Chinas most long lived dynasties. To legitimize their imperium. discrete kingdoms ruled by the Diadochi. was only nominally a discrete imperial state. in the West.International Relations BC). The sacrum Romanum imperium (800–1806). became an empire that spanned from Greece to India. The Han Empire was one of the world’s largest Empires in Antiquity. Greece. For centuries. After Alexander’s death.

nor Roman. emerged reconstituted as the Empire of Austria–Hungary (1867–1918). Dutch. the dynasty became a military. Under Rajaraja Chola I and his son Rajendra Chola I. as it had neither core nor peripheral territories. the Ottonians) to establish central control. with the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire. short-lived empires in Asia Minor: the Empire of Nicaea (1204–1261) and the Empire of Trebizond (1204–1461). thus. In the South India the Dravidian empire the Cholas were at the height of their power continuously from the latter half of the 9th century till the beginning of the 13th centuries. was not multi-ethnic. Polish. after the Fourth Crusade sacked Constantinople. French. while the defeated Byzantine Empire’s descendant’s established two. Provençal. Flemish. during the Napoleonic Wars (1803– 1815). politico-military élite — hence. and Bohemian populations. . nor an empire” is accurate to the degree that it ignores German rule over Italian. the Chola territories stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. During the period 1010–1200. Moreover. Like-wise. Eastern Orthodox imperialism was not reestablished until the coronation. the Austrian Empire (1804-1867). In 1204.International Relations centrally-governed.1300–1918). and the efforts of the eighth-century Holy Roman Emperors (i. in 1682. economic and cultural power in Asia. in 1806. Voltaire’s “.e. Voltaire’s remark that the Holy Roman Empire “was neither holy. conquered most of that region by 1453. In the event. of Peter the Great as Emperor of Russia. having “inherited” the imperium of Central and Western Europe from the losers of said wars. nor an empire” observation applies to its late period. . the Muslim Ottoman Empire (ca. Rajaraja Chola conquered entire South India. smaller. annexed parts of Sri Lanka and 9 |Page IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and was not governed by a central. the crusaders established a Latin Empire (1204–1261) in that city.

In the Old World. Colonial empires The discovery of the New World (the Americas and Australasia) in the 15th century. Mahipala. 10 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . For administrative expediency. discrete colonies were established solely by convenient geography — while ignoring the sometimes extreme cultural differences among the conquered populace(s). An inherent problem of European colonial imperialism was the matter of the arbitrary territorial boundaries of the colonies. Kublai Khan. under Genghis Khan in the thirteenth century. rather than de facto imperial territory and subjects. Genghis Khan's grandson. proved opportune for European countries to launch colonial imperialism like that of the Romans and the Carthaginians. In the event.International Relations occupied the islands of the Maldives. but politically. and economically ineffective in the imperial long-term. Rajendra Chola sent a victorious expedition to North India that touched the river Ganga and defeated the Pala ruler of Pataliputra. was proclaimed emperor. leading to the collapse of the European colonial imperial system in the late-nineteenth century and the earlyand mid-twentieth century. the conquered lands and peoples became de jure subordinates of the empire. For the British Empire. such subjugation elicited “client-state” resentment that the empire unwisely ignored. and established his imperial capital at Beijing. The Mongol Empire. discrete khanates. the empire became fractured into four. colonial imperialism was attempted. was forged as the largest contiguous empire in the world. He also successfully invaded kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago. however. militarily. effective in the short-term control of the subject peoples. wherein. in his reign. affected. and established upon the Canary Islands and Ireland.

divided themselves by culture and religion. et cetera) and re-named their states as “The Empire of . in 1947. another “heir to the Holy Roman Empire” arose in 1871. and the German Empire (1871–1918). In the 19th century. the French emperors Napoleon I and Napoleon III (See: Second Mexican Empire [1864–1867]) each attempted establishing a Western imperial hegemony based in France. most monarchies. respectively. and define the contemporary countries. in 1056. not geography. proclaimed himself “Emperor of Hispania”. became Pakistan (The Islamic Republic of Pakistan). . and began the Reconquista (718–1492) of the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims. scope. and Bangladesh (The People’s Republic of Bangladesh). styled themselves as having greater size. another. usually kingdoms.International Relations this occurred with the populaces of the colony of “India” — the Indian sub-continent — who. Moreover. in Africa. the 11 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . in 1947. which later. (blue) Kaiser. politico-military. because the African Union’s explicit policy is their preservation in avoiding political instability and concomitant war. on partition and independence. in 1971. and power than the territorial. King Ferdinand I of León. they assumed the title of Iberian Union (1580–1640) period. Modern period In time. medieval example is Bulgaria. Emperador. In consequence. ”. said arbitrary imperial borders remain. . despite The Spanish–Portuguese Empire in the that. “Emperor” (or its corresponding Spanish Empire (red). and established the modern countries of India and Pakistan (the geographically-distant states of West Pakistan and East Pakistan). For example. and economic facts allowed. Portuguese Empire translation: Tsar.

the Athenian Empire. it governs a territorial. to date. they traditionally originated as powerful monarchies ruled by an hereditary (sometimes self-appointed) emperor. leading. in antiquity. For example. a strong state could establish imperial hegemony with minimal militarism. empires resulted from military conquest. the Roman Empire. while the Brazilian Empire declared itself an empire born of a Portuguese colony in 1822. and. to the looser denotations applicable to any political structure (monarchic or not) meeting the criteria of imperium. and raj. and France has twice transited from being the French Republic to being the French Empire. than their political divorce from the Austrian Empire. whose military action was less a military conquest of the German states. colonial empire (French Guyana. the bequest of Pergamon.International Relations Europeans began applying the conceptual political structure of “empire” to non-European monarchies. realm. Empires accrete to different types of states. rather than conquest. Historically. usually suffices to convince it to negotiate for annexation. Réunion. Having convinced them of its 12 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . the empire synonyms: tsardom. and then to past polities. such as the Manchu Dynasty and the Mughal Empire. to the empire. to the Roman Empire. New Caledonia) and an hegemony in Francophone Africa (Chad. et cetera). thus. Rwanda. Martinique. with the conqueror incorporating the vanquished states to its political union. France remained an overseas empire. and the British Empire developed under elective auspices. whilst nominally a republic. the Unification of Germany as the empire accreted to the Prussian metropole. French Polynesia. by Attalus III. The victim-state’s inability to militarily resist. yet. eventually. reich. and its knowledge of that inability. nevertheless. although.

the empire’s introduction of a common religion amenable to every subject populace also strengthened the imperial political structure. as occurred with the adoption of Christianity under Constantine I. thus. water. In sub-continental Asia. such régimes were denominated “hydraulic empires”. the German states mostly retained the trappings of sovereignty. thus. when — despite the Sikhs having opportunity of capturing the local colony of the British Empire — Tej Singh and Lal singh betrayed their army to the British in 1846. Politically. pace Edward Gibbon. to continue dominating said union of states. In time. core territory of the empire. after the Sikhs defeated the Afghan Empire. Moreover. a German re13 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . To wit. the Sikh Empire (1799–1846) was established in the Punjab. usually. an empire metamorphoses to another form of polity. it was typical for either a monarchy. such government was maintained via control of a natural resource vital to the colonial subjects. the Bernese Empire of conquest ceased existing when its conquered territories were (culturally) incorporated. The Sikh Empire collapsed at Ranjit Singh’s death. it comprised the territory from Kabul to Delhi. by the Maharaja Ranjit Singh. rooted in the original. Usually. either to the Canton of Bern or to other cantons of the Swiss Confederation.International Relations military prowess — and having excluded the Austrians — Prussia dictated the terms of imperial membership to the nominally independent German states joining what initially was a revamped customs union. via Prussian hegemony. and the hegemon empire avoided a protracted war of conquest and consolidation. or an oligarchy. the Holy Roman Empire.

and the Soviet Empire became the Commonwealth of Independent States. Transylvania. The dissolution of the Austro–Hungarian Empire. or it can become a republic with its imperial dominions reduced to a core territory (e. as political science. the concept of Empire is politically valid.g. Czechoslovakia. usually with a coup d’etat (e. for example. while the French Colonial empire metamorphosed to a Francophone commonwealth. Empire from 1945 to the present * Etymology and semantics. Japan. and provinces of Austria.g. nonetheless. An autocratic empire can progress to being a republic. in 1918.e. Moreover. which evolved into hegemonic Imperialism — its theoretical denotations and connotations of 14 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . re-constituted itself as the Austrian Empire — an empire of much different politics and vaster extension. evolved into a loose. Contemporaneously. and. given the disfavour against absolute monarchy and the absence of any government with explicitly imperial policies. yet. Slovenia. Hungary. et al. Federalism). eventually. the Central African Empire in 1979). Bosnia and Herzegovina. Brazil in 1889. Galicia. the term empire might become a linguistic anachronism. 1918–1923). the world’s sole empire. Croatia. is losing semantic cohesion. the military command of Imperium evolved to the political structure of Empire. metamorphosed into various political structures (i. 1918–1919 and the Ottoman Empire. with an heterogeneous population that is 97 per cent ethnic Japanese and a land mass smaller than that of other modern nations. After the Second World War (1939–1945) the British Empire. multi-national Commonwealth of Nations. under Habsburg rule.International Relations constitution of the Roman Empire. Ruthenia. is a constitutional monarchy. is an example of a multi-ethnic superstate devolving to its constituent states: the republics. Weimar Germany. kingdoms.

We’re not imperialistic. its anti-Communist. is controversial in that country. ideological opponents. identifying the USA’s American Empire. Bush Administration Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld having said: “We don’t seek empires. right-wing governments that collapse without US support. by its international behavior. till our population can be sufficiently advanced to gain it from them piece by piece [sic]”. . named it The Evil Empire. awaiting the fall of the Spanish empire: “. the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916). the USSR was denominated imperial. Academically. yet never identified itself as such. the USSR (1922–1991) met the imperium criteria. was governed by a ruling group. noting that.W. Soviet Empire). * Capitalist Empire. in the 1780s. not an hereditary emperor (cf. Stuart Creighton Miller posits that the public’s selfstyled “sense of innocence” about Realpolitik (cf. we never have been” — directly contradicts Thomas Jefferson. In turn. . tacitly contrasting it with The Good Empire of the democratic West. historian Sidney Lens confirms Jefferson. analytic study of cultural and economic hegemony. nevertheless. because it governs via surrogates — domesticallyweak. given its likeness to empires past and its ideologic appeal to the poor peoples of Eurasia. To wit. Vladimir Lenin’s incisive. To wit. from its British imperial independence. American Exceptionalism) impairs popular recognition of US imperial conduct. G. most notably the US President Ronald Reagan and the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. 15 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .International Relations global capitalism as imperialism derive from Imperialism. the US has used every means to dominate other nations. * Communist Empire.[citation needed].

whether or not State action controlling their activities is legitimate lawenforcement or imperial repression remains debated. behavior which the political scientist. in the post–Cold War era. “outside” duality. Jan Zielonka.International Relations * Historically imperial countries — China. and state jurisdictions. 16 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . the re-emergence of classical imperialist practices (the “inside” vs. economic. it established its own currency.g. the international relations determining the world’s balance of power (political. the expanded arming of most countries. Mehmet Akif Okur posits that. and exercised its hegemony in eastern Europe and in Asia. Russia. posits as imperial. the restructured international economy. in his book review of Empire (2000). Spain — whose body politic comprises violent and peaceful political separatist groups. as a west European trade bloc. Indonesia. provincial. Myanmar.g. military) have been altered by the intellectual (political science) trends that perceive the contemporary world’s order via the re-territorrialization of political space. established discrete military forces. because it coerces its neighbor countries to adopt its European economic. Belgium) and commonwealth unions (e. the proliferation of nuclear-weapon capabilities. economic nationalism. modern multi-ethnic states are federations (e. since the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the US. and political structures. the deliberate weakening of international organizations. as a nation and as a civilization. India. These changes constitute the “Age of Nation Empires”. in 1993. Unlike an empire. cf. legal. the Other). * European Empire redux. the Euro. since the European Union began. as imperial usage. the UK) whose democratic political systems share governing power at the federal. and the politics of identity emphasizing a State’s subjective perception of its place in the world. * The Age of Nation Empires as the Order of the World in the twenty-first century. by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri. in 1999.

The word itself is derived from the Latin verb imperare (to command) and the Roman concept of imperium. the Persian Empire. Japan. Greece. while the actual term 'Imperialism' was coined in the sixteenth century. cultural. Latin America. and Germany in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. centered upon a “regional power” State [China. South East Asia). and a basic component to the conquests of Genghis Khan and other warlords.g. Russia. but also economic and/or military dominance and influence. the term "Age of Imperialism" generally refers to the activities of nations such as Britain. the "Scramble for Africa" and the "Open Door Policy" in China. ideologic).e. Although imperialist practices have existed for thousands of years. Imperialism not only describes colonial. territorial policies. Roman Empire. e. Belgium.]). et al. France. reflecting what are now seen as the imperial policies of Portugal. Britain. and the Netherlands in Africa. and military spheres. and the Americas. OVERVIEW Imperialism is found in the ancient histories of the Assyrian Empire. the Aztec empire. Asia. US. India. and regional multi-state power alliances (i. ancient Egypt. Europe. economic. 17 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and the Ottoman Empire (see Ottoman wars in Europe). Spain.International Relations nation-empire denotes the return of geopolitical power from global power blocs to regional power blocs (i. thus nation-empire regionalism claims sovereignty over their respective (regional) political (social.e.

. Regarded also as a doctrine based on the use of deliberate force. we have this from the first paragraph of the article. The following passage. from Wm. derog. imperialism has been subject to moral censure by its critics. Also on the issue of non-military control. 18 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report ." in the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (second edition): . etc. Imperialism (1976) is also informative. or the extension of a country's influence through trade. and thus the term is frequently used in international propaganda as a pejorative for expansionist and aggressive foreign policy. . "Imperialism. it also denotes indirect political or economic control of powerful states over weaker peoples. Roger Louis.International Relations DEFINITIONS FROM SOME OTHER SOURCES Definition 3 in the Shorter Oxford Dictionary (2007) is particularly apropos to our second (attitude) meaning above. and also to the issue of how far non-military and not-overtlyterritorial control can be called imperialism: [Imperialism:] The belief in the desirability of the acquisition of colonies and dependencies. He is discussing an influential theory of 19th century European imperialism by the historians John Gallagher and Ronald Robinson: More specifically. diplomacy. In their view. Usu. Robinson and Gallagher attack the traditional notion that "imperialism" is the formal rule or control by one people or nation over others. Commonly associated with the policy of direct extension of sovereignty and dominion over non-contiguous and often distant overseas territories.

the political usage of “empire” denotes a strong. Politically. the Holy Roman Empire (8th c. and the anæmic Byzantine Empire (15th c. in its Medieval and early-modern forms. the term empire has denoted very different. the extensive Spanish Empire (16th c. 19 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . -." [This last phrase referring to the fact that the British government was often reluctant to entangle itself with formal colonies. regional-. The bulk of British emigration. that was a direct continuation of the Roman Empire. it denotes a large-scale business enterprise (i. quotidian. but. was more a city-state than a territorial empire. an empire is a geographically extensive group of states and peoples (ethnic groups) united and ruled either by a monarch (emperor. controlled either by a person (a political boss) or a group authority (political bosses). territorially-extreme states — at the strong end. A key to the thought of Robinson and Gallagher is the idea of empire "informally if possible and formally if necessary. trade. and capital went to areas outside the formal British Empire.).). that. vernacular usage. centrally-controlled nation-state. at the weak end. in its final century of existence.International Relations historians have been mesmerized by formal empire and maps of the world with regions colored red. or city scale. in the looser.e.Wikipedia. Geopolitically.–19th c. Etymologically.). a transnational corporation) and a political organization of either national-. empress) or an oligarchy. denoting “military command” in Ancient Rome.) and the British Empire (19th c. EMPIRE Empire derives from the Latin word imperium.

farflung overseas empires. or artificially injecting the culture or language of one culture into another.g. TYPES OF IMPERIALISM Cultural Imperialism Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting. hegemonic empire of indirect conquest and control with power (the perception that the emperor can physically enforce his desired goals). Territorial empires (e. (e. Cultural imperialism is the practice of promoting. and British Empire) are intercontinental. because it absorbs military forces to fixed garrisons. while maritime empires or thalassocracies. but avails military forces for further expansion. economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter belongs to a smaller. physical action to compel the emperor’s goals). distinguishing. The term is usually used in a pejorative sense. It is usually the case 20 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .g. The latter provides less tribute and indirect control. yet limits further expansion. formal policy or a general attitude. separating. less important one. or artificially injecting the culture or language of one culture into another. usually in conjunction with a call to reject foreign influence. and (ii) as a coercive. the Median Empire) tended to be contiguous areas.International Relations An imperial political structure is established and maintained two ways: (i) as a territorial empire of direct conquest and control with force (direct. the Mongol Empire. distinguishing. the Athenian. The former provides greater tribute and direct political control. Achaemenid Persian Empire. separating. Cultural imperialism can take the form of an active. It is usually the case that the former belongs to a large.

The term is usually used in a pejorative sense. economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter belongs to a smaller. Cultural imperialism can take the form of an active. See the Welsh Not. 21 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .International Relations that the former belongs to a large. * The ongoing threat to the Inuit hunting culture in Greenland by environmental groups such as Greenpeace. less important one. * The active suppression of pre-war Yugoslavian cultural practices and common language in Croatia. * The beating of Native Hawaiian children for speaking the Hawaiian language in school during the early territorial period. Some real-world examples that may illustrate various forms of cultural imperialism are: * The forced assimilation of the Ainu of Japan through the slaughter of the deer they depended on for sustenance and cultural survival. usually in conjunction with a call to reject foreign influence. and of the traditional Thule culture in Greenland by encroachment of a cash-based economy. * The forced use of French and Spanish as languages of Catalonia. * The importation of items such as infant formula into nonWesternized societies (see Nestlé boycott). formal policy or a general attitude. * The beating of Scottish and Welsh children for speaking Scottish Gaelic and Welsh instead of English in schools in the early 20th century. * The forced use of French as the language of Occitania.

The political scientist Antonio Gramsci developed the former conceptions to identify the dominance of one social class over the other social classes in a society by means of cultural hegemony. to make its dominance formal — and. rather than with force (direct physical action to compel its political goals). e. without the hegemon’s direct intervention. thus.g. the hegemon (leader) dictates the politics of the subordinate states upon whom it has hegemony via cultural imperialism — the imposition of its way of life. political. the Spanish and the British empires. so. and the united Germany (extant 1871–1945). educational.e. power does not rest in a given person. and then denoted the dominance of one nation over others. its language (as imperial lingua franca) and bureaucracies (social. but in the way things are. any rebellion (social. wherein. francophone). economic. Moreover. i. 22 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . In the field of international relations. governing). armed) is eliminated by the local police and military. suzerainty).International Relations * The use of US culture in marketing and advertising worldwide * Residential schools in Canada designed to assimilate First Nations. Métis and Inuit children into the predominate European cultures of Canada (anglophone. economic. render as abstract its foreign domination of the subordinate state. the imperial state controls the subordinate state with power (the perception that it can enforce its political goals). a hegemony is the type of empire. yet. Hegemony Hegemony (leadership) first denoted the dominance (“leadership”) of a Greek city-state over other city-states. (cf.

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Politically, hegemony is the predominance of one political unit over other units in a political group — a province within a federation (Prussia in the Second Reich), one man in a committee (Napoleon Bonaparte in the Consulate), and one state in a confederation (France in the EU). Sociologically, as cultural hegemony, it denotes and explains the domination and maintenance of power (either by a person or a group), and how the hegemon class “persuades” the subordinated social classes to accept and adopt the imposed external values, i.e. bourgeois hegemony; per Gramsci, the hegemonic Imperial State is a mixture of coercion and hegemony, distinguishable as force and power. To wit, it is the social and political power(s) derived from the populace’s “spontaneous consent” — given because of the intellectual and moral authority that grant leadership to the "subalterns" of the Imperial State — thus, hegemony is exercised through power (coercion and consent), rather than through force (arms). These constitute the cultural hegemony — its agents (the Imperial State’s subalterns) are the press (mass communications media), organized religion, the schools (educational curricula), and the commercialized popular arts (cinema, music, et cetera) — imposed from above, that influence the citizens of the subordinate state to accept the hegemon’s (foreign, external) values, thereby, maintaining the hegemonic status quo, so that the empire can continue.

New Imperialism
New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and, later, Japan and the United States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries; approximately from the Franco-Prussian War to World War I (c. 1870–1914). The
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period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of what has been termed "empire for empire's sake," aggressive competition for overseas territorial acquisitions and the emergence in some colonizing countries of doctrines of racial superiority which purported to explain the unfitness of backward peoples for self-government.

The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the "New" imperialism.

A later usage developed in the early 20th century among Marxists, who saw "imperialism" as the economic and political dominance of "monopolistic finance capital" in the most advanced countries and its acquisition — and enforcement through the state — of control of the means (and hence the returns) of production in less developed regions. They supported it as a necessary phase of human development. Elements of both conceptions are present in the "New imperialism" of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. But along with the adoption of ultra-nationalist and racial supremacist ideologies, the period saw a shift to pre-emptive colonial expansion, fueled by the imposition of tariff barriers aimed at excluding economic rivals from markets.

English writers have sometimes described elements of this period as the "era of empire for empire's sake," "the great adventure," and "the scramble for Africa." During this period,
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the advanced European nations conquered 20% of the Earth's land area (nearly 23,000,000 km²). Africa, Asia and the Pacific Islands, the remaining world regions that had largely been uncolonized by Europeans, became the primary targets of this new phase of imperialist expansion; in the latter two regions, Japan and the United States joined the European powers in the scramble for territory.

Rise of New Imperialism
The Rise of the New Imperialism overlaps with the Pax Britannica period (1815-1870). The American Revolution and the collapse of the Spanish empire in the New World in the early 1810-20s, following the revolutions in the viceroyalties of New Spain, New Granada, Peru and the Rio de la Plata ended the first era of European empire. Especially in the United Kingdom (UK), these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilism, the doctrine of economic competition for finite wealth which had supported earlier imperial expansion. The 1846 repeal of the Corn Laws marked the adoption of free trade by the UK. As the "workshop of the world", the United Kingdom was even supplying a large share of the manufactured goods consumed by such nations as Germany, France, Belgium and the United States. The Pax era also saw the enforced opening of key markets to European, particularly British, commerce. This activity followed the erosion of Pax Britannica, during which British industrial and naval supremacy underpinned an informal empire of free trade and commercial hegemony.

During this period, between the 1815 Congress of Vienna (after the defeat of Napoleonic France) and the end of the Franco-Prussian War (1871), Britain reaped the benefits of being the world's sole modern, industrial power. As the
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leading to the widespread abandonment of free trade among Europe's powers (in Germany from 1879 and in France from 1881). a prolonged period of price deflation punctuated by severe business downturns. The resulting limitation of both domestic markets and export opportunities led government and business leaders in Europe. such as Germany and the United States. adding to the commercial competition of old rivals like France were now the newly industrializing powers.. Economically.International Relations "workshop of the world. to see the solution in sheltered overseas markets united to the home country behind imperial tariff barriers: new overseas colonies would provide export markets 26 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report ." Britain could produce finished goods so efficiently and cheaply that they could usually undersell comparable. the balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna.S. The establishment of nation-states in Germany and Italy resolved territorial issues that had kept potential rivals embroiled in internal affairs at the heart of Europe (to Britain's advantage). The erosion of British hegemony after the Franco-Prussian War was occasioned by changes in the European and world economies and in the continental balance of power following the breakdown of the Concert of Europe. locally manufactured goods in foreign markets. This competition was sharpened by the Long Depression of 1873-1896. all sought ways to challenge Britain's dominance in world trade – the consequence of its early industrialization. which added to pressure on governments to promote home industry. Needing external markets for their manufactured goods. and later the U.

centers on the accumulation of surplus capital during the Second Industrial Revolution.International Relations free of foreign materials. and to a lesser extent in Germany and Britain. while supplying cheap raw The revival of working-class militancy and emergence of socialist parties during the Depression decades led conservative governments to view colonialism as a force for national cohesion in support of the domestic status quo. Also. observed 27 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Both theorists linked the problem of shrinking continental markets driving European capital overseas to an inequitable distribution of wealth in industrial Europe. Hobson. in Italy.A. Theories Of New Imperialism Hobson's accumulation theory The accumulation theory. conceived largely by Karl Kautsky and J. competition. a British liberal writing at the time of the fierce debate on imperialism during the Second Boer War. Hobson. They contended that the wages of workers did not represent enough purchasing power to absorb the vast amount of capital accumulated during the Second Industrial Revolution. then popularized by Lenin. tropical empires in India and Burma were seen as outlets for what was deemed a surplus home population.

In non-industrial regions that lacked both the knowledge and the power to direct the capital flow. however. and more toward the rest of the Commonwealth and Latin America. which apparently gave rise to a misdistribution of purchasing power. and Oceania (5 %) for all industrial powers. in time. though the direction of its investments underwent a striking change. the United States. this investment served to colonize rather than to develop them. Asia (16 %).then often far too poor to consume the goods produced by an industrialized economy. this argument is sound. Thus some have argued that the New Imperialism was caused essentially by a flight of foreign capital. for instance. produce the so- 28 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) which has become a basis for the modern neo-Marxist analysis of imperialism. given the huge impoverished industrial working class . represented the largest share (27 %) of the global zones of investment. Logically. Latin America (19 %). Africa (9 %). Britain. Europe.International Relations the spectacle of what is popularly known as the "Scramble for Africa". destroying native industries and creating dangerous political and economic pressures which would. New Imperialism was one way of capturing new overseas markets. By the eve of World War I. and India. followed by North America (24 %). His so-called accumulation theory suggested that capitalism suffered from under-consumption due to the rise of monopoly capitalism and the resultant concentration of wealth in fewer hands. becoming oriented less toward Europe. His analysis of capital flight and the rise of mammoth cartels later influenced Lenin in his Imperialism. was clearly the chief world investor. and emphasized changes in European social structures and attitudes as well as capital flow (though his emphasis on the latter seems to have been the most influential and provocative). the forerunner of Europe's capitalist powers.

and Jules Ferry. such as the hapless modernizer Khedive Ismail Pasha." Dependency Theory. Some have criticized J. this observation might detract from the proimperialist arguments of Léopold II. arguing it does not explain why less developed nations with little surplus capital. Second. He concluded that finance was manipulating events to its own profit.International Relations called "north/south divide. particularly for Britain. but Hobson argued against imperialism from a slightly different standpoint. Hobson's analysis of overaccumulation and under-consumption. Since the "Scramble for Africa" was the predominant feature of New Imperialism and formal empire. opponents of Hobson's accumulation theory often point to frequent cases when military and bureaucratic costs of occupation exceeded financial returns. any such statistics only obscure the fact that African formal control of tropical Africa had strategic implications in an era of feasible inter-capitalist competition. In Africa (exclusive of South Africa) the amount of capital investment by Europeans was relatively small before and after the 1880s. and Latin America. such as Italy. Opponents of his accumulation theory also point to many instances in which foreign rulers needed and requested Western capital. Francesco Crispi. participated in colonial expansion. but often against broader national interests. First. devised largely by Latin American academics. and the companies involved in tropical African commerce exerted limited political influence. which was under intense economic and thus political pressure to secure lucrative markets such as India. China. 29 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . which were in fact. Nor does it fully explain the expansionism of the great powers of the next century — the United States and Russia. draws on this inference. net borrowers of foreign capital.A.

like Kautsky in the 1900s. This Marxist 30 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Since then. or of a group by another. Moreover.was also shared by Rosa Luxemburg and then by liberal philosopher Hannah order to find new markets and resources. Marxist theories of imperialism. using the Hegelian dialectic. While Karl Marx never published a theory of imperialism. unite!"). rather than the more formal political and/or military relationships.which he also called "imperialism" . representing the last and highest stage of capitalism. he predicted the phenomenon of monopoly capitalism in The Poverty of Philosophy (1847).one of the foundations of Leninism as a whole . Imperialism thus consists not necessarily in the direct control of one country by another.International Relations Lenin's theory of monopoly capitalism Lenin. Lenin's theory has been extended by Marxist scholars to be a synonym of capitalistic international trade and banking. focus on the economic relations between countries (and within countries. however. as outlined below). he referred to colonialism in Das Kapital as an aspect of the prehistory of the capitalist mode of production. Lenin defined imperialism as "the highest stage of capitalism" (the subtitle of his outline). forcing nations and corporations to compete themselves increasingly for control over resources and markets all over the world. or related theories such as dependency theory. In various articles he also analyzed British colonial rule in Ireland and India. This theory of necessary expansion of capitalism outside the boundaries of nation-states . the era in which monopoly finance capital becomes dominant. argued that capitalism necessarily induced monopoly capitalism . but in the economic exploitation of one region by another. hence the slogan "Workers of the world.

At the same time the monopolies. syndicates and trusts.not as understood in liberal economics. which manipulate thousands of millions. Monopoly is the transition from capitalism to a higher system.International Relations usage contrasts with a popular conception of 'imperialism'. intense antagonisms. and carrying concentration of production and capital to the point where out of it has grown and is growing monopoly: cartels. and merging with them. the capital of a dozen or so banks. replacing largescale by still larger-scale industry. as directly controlled vast colonial or neocolonial empires. but exist above it and alongside it. monopoly is the exact opposite of free competition. creating largescale industry and forcing out small industry. In Marx's theory only living labor or variable capital creates profit in the 31 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . but we have seen the latter being transformed into monopoly before our eyes. Lenin saw monopoly capital as plagued by the law of the tendency of profit to fall. do not eliminate the latter. frictions and conflicts. and of commodity production generally. which have grown out of free competition. and thereby give rise to a number of very acute. but in terms of de facto power over their enormous markets .while the "free competition" remains the domain of increasingly localized and/or niche markets: Free competition is the basic feature of capitalism. [Following Marx's value theory. as the ratio of constant capital to variable capital increases. Lenin held that imperialism was a stage of capitalist development with five simultaneous features as outlined below: 1) Concentration of production and capital has led to the creation of national and multinational monopolies .

However.] 2) Industrial capital as the dominant form of capital has been replaced by finance capital (repeating the main points of Rudolf Hilferding's magnum opus. Some 32 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . which claimed to follow Leninism. and the formation of international cartels. This super exploitation of poorer countries allows the advanced capitalist industrial nations to keep at least some of their own workers content.International Relations form of surplus-value. it asserted its dominance over the countries of Eastern Europe. in which the export of finance capital by the advanced capitalist industrial nations to their colonial possessions enables them to exploit those colonies for their resources and investment opportunities. by providing them with slightly higher living standards. As the ratio of surplus value to the sum of constant and variable capital falls. proclaimed itself the foremost enemy of imperialism and supported many independence movements throughout the Third World. so does the rate of profit on invested capital. at the same time. Finance Capital). 3) The export of the aforementioned finance capital is emphasized over the export of goods (even though the latter would continue to exist). with the industrial capitalists being ever more reliant on finance capital (provided by financial institutions). The Soviet Union. 4) The economic division of the world by multinational enterprises. and 5) The political division of the world by the great powers.

while Cliff claims it happened in the 1940s with Stalin's policies. claim that the Soviet Union was imperialist. According to Wallenstein.) seeking to become core countries.International Relations Marxists." newly industrialized states. etc. The Maoists claim that this happened after Khrushchev's seizure of power in 1956. Harry Magdoff's Age of Imperialism is a 1954 discussion of Marxism and imperialism.. Wallenstein’s conception of imperialism as a part of a general. France. the major tools of "semiperipheral. "Mercantilism became the major tool of (newly industrializing. Italy. gradual extension of capital investment from the "centre" of the industrial countries to an overseas "periphery" coincides with Hobson's. including Maoists and those to the left of the Trotskyite tradition. leading 33 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Belgium.e. such as Germany. seeking to usurp Britain's position at the "core" of the global capitalist system." Wallenstein hence perceives formal empire as performing a function "analogous to that of the mercantilist drives of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in England and France. World Systems theory World-Systems theorist Immanuel Wallenstein addresses these counterarguments without degrading Hobson's underlying inferences. such as Tony Cliff. Germany. increasingly competitive) semi-peripheral countries (i. Globalization is generally viewed as the latest incarnation of imperialism among Marxists. The expansion of the Industrial Revolution thus contributed to the emergence of an era of aggressive national rivalry." Protectionism and formal empire were characteristics of this era of neo-mercantilism.

Hobson's theory is thus useful in explaining the role of over-accumulation in overseas economic and colonial expansionism while Wallenstein perhaps better explains the dynamic of inter-capitalist geopolitical competition. Joseph Chamberlain thus argued that formal imperialism was necessary for Britain because of the relative decline of the British share of the world's export trade and the quick rise of German. notes that Britain. Porter. in fact.. The interpretations of recent scholarship Benjamin Disraeli and Queen Victoria In this sense." He contends that "a kind of vicious circle had been set up. and French economic competition." Unlike J. American. with domestic industry lagging because capital was going elsewhere because industry was lagging. however. Queen helped to obscure this fact.International Relations to the late nineteenth century scramble for Africa and formal empire. now felt the less favorable effects of being the first to modernize. Symbolic overtures.A. such as Queen Victoria's grandiose title "Empress of India". and not of strength. however. contemporary imperial historian Bernard Porter argues that formal imperialism for Britain was a symptom and an effect of its relative decline in the world.. Hobson. "Struck with outmoded physical plants and outmoded forms of business organization. who links under-consumption to a misdistribution of purchasing power. Porter argues that "the best thing that Britain could have done to correct [its balance 34 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . celebrated during the second Benjamin Disraeli and Victoria premiership of Benjamin Disraeli in the 1870s.

but contest Hobson's conspiratorial overtones and "reductionisms. OIL IMPERIALISM Oil imperialism theories assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics." As mentioned. contemporary historians. argue that oil imperialism was a major driving force behind these conflicts. they often acted as repositories of the surplus capital accumulated by a monopolistic system and they were therefore the prime movers in the drive for imperial expansion." Nevertheless. Cain. oil imperialism theorists generally tend to assert that control of petroleum reserves has played an overriding role in international politics since World War I. P. Hopkins. such as Bernard Porter. Most critics (and some supporters) of the Gulf War and the 2003 invasion of Iraq.International Relations of payments] would have been to make her export industry more competitive —improve her methods of manufacturing and marketing in order to sell more abroad. and A. Some theories hold that access to oil defined 20th century empires and was the key to the ascendance of the United States as the world's sole superpower and explain how an undeveloped country like Russia was able to 35 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . their problem being to find fields for the investment of capital. do not downplay the influence of financial interests of "the city" either.J.G. Control of oil While economists and historians agree that access to and control of the access of others to important resources has throughout history been a factor in warfare and in diplomacy.

such as "the tendency to push a good scientific idea far beyond the domain in which it was originally introduced. Powell when addressing the Commonwealth Club of Canada on 8 September 1920. oil is not an expensive commodity in the market. Though he defined imperialism as "the sense of arbitrary and capricious domination over the bodies and souls of men." In modern parlance. and that it has historically been the leading oil producer in the world. the United States would be unlikely to predicate its foreign policy on the acquisition of oil with such an undue focus. even relative to its consumption rate. however. They point out that. SCIENTIFIC IMPERIALISM Scientific imperialism is a term that appears to have been coined by Dr. Criticism Critics of oil imperialism theories suggest that because the United States is the third largest oil producer. and often far beyond the domain in which it can provide much illumination. scientific imperialism refers to situations in which critics charge that science seems to act imperiously. Ellis T. Petrodollar theory states that the recent wars in Iraq are partly motivated by the desire to keep the US dollar as the international currency. Against Scientific Imperialism. 2006) Scientific imperialism can thus describe an attitude towards knowledge in which the beliefs and methods 36 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report ." (John Dupré.International Relations industrialize so quickly (see Economy of the Soviet Union)." yet he used the term "scientific imperialism" to mean "the subjection of all the developed and undeveloped powers of the earth to the mind of man.

and even judges persist in the grip of this notion." and periodically express a desire to "dethrone science from an imperialistic stance over philosophy and theology. viewing this ambition as methodologically unjustified and ethically undesirable." Scientific imperialism is also apparent in "those who believe that the study of politics can and should be modeled on the natural sciences. their hubris and their imperialism. and those who have dissented. that successful scientific theories are true or approximately true models of the world. knee-jerk agnostics. but of the key that will open doors to the understanding of ever wider areas of human behavior." and its pejorative use arguably reflects the frustration felt by some with "the limitations of reductive scientism (scientific imperialism). those of all other disciplines." In its more extreme forms." CRITIQUE OF POWER It has also been defined as the "pursuit of power through the pursuit of knowledge. a position defended most forcibly in the United States. many thinkers." in their desire to extend the methods and ideology of science 37 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and to take precedence over.International Relations of science are assumed to be superior to. Even though philosophers of science over the past few decades have gutted many of the claims of this scientific imperialism.. critics of science even question whether we should "automatically assume .. "Devotees of these approaches are inclined to claim that they are in possession not just of one useful perspective on human behavior." Such extreme critics also claim that maybe scientists harbor "unreal expectations and mistaken assumptions." And "the myth that science is the model of truth and rationality still grips the mind of much of our popular and scientific culture.

and perhaps a fundamentalist belief that science alone stands supreme over all other modes of inquiry. In the science belief system. can be made scientifically . and of being fairly or unfairly labeled as New Agers or religious romantics. If it acts monopolistically then science does indeed seem rigid. critics argue that those who have a tight adherence to the core dogmas of science attract the greatest credibility. ruthless and intolerant. In this it may resemble cultural imperialism. But it is also in the nature of models that these extended applications are dangerous." Science appears most imperialistic when it seeks domination over other disciplines and the subordination of 'non-believers.has become.' or those it perceives as being insufficiently educated in scientific matters. such as to religions and the humanities. RELIGION OF INTELLECTUALS Scientific imperialism. MARGINALIZED Advocates of this critical position may describe themselves as marginalized and see their ideas described by scientists as irrational. the religion of the intellectuals. respect and reverence. as a rather rigid and intolerant form of intellectual monotheism. in principle." for it seems to reflect "a natural tendency. "the idea that all decisions. to attempt to apply it to as many problems as possible. It can thus involve some zealotry.International Relations into regions of human investigation for which its methods might be unsuited. It is further argued that scientists extol the exclusive virtues of the scientific paradigm over other modes 38 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . in effect. when one has a successful scientific model.

unless these issues are amply discussed and fairly resolved.. then it is clear that. as well as indigenous societies are increasingly reluctant to permit such research. medicinal plant research runs the risk of serving ethically questionable purposes." Another example lies in the alleged misappropriation of indigenous drugs in poor countries by drug companies in the developed world: "Ethno pharmacology involves a series of sociopolitical.. at various levels.... Many governments. "the scientific community has a responsibility to ensure that all scientific research is conducted ethically. economic and ethical dilemmas." 39 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . the world and human behavior. IN MEDICINE Another meaning of this term is shown when it is claimed that "poor people in developing countries are being exploited in research for the benefit of patients in the developed world.frequently host country scientists." In such an example.research efforts are (often) perceived as scientific imperialism. scientists are accused of stealing plant materials and appropriating traditional plant knowledge for financial profit and/or professional advancement. It seems a paternalistic attitude that scientists alone belong to an elite class of people who deal with matters of greatest importance..International Relations of interpreting Nature. and may belittle the intellectual powers of the average citizen.. visiting scientists. and informants disagree..historically neither native population nor host countries have shared to a significant extent the financial benefits from any drug that reaches the market.

as a result of a tendency of industry to expand out of proportion to agriculture. However. imperialism also required capitalist states to introduce protectionist measures and to defend their empires militarily. In Kautsky's view. Kautsky noted that before the War. is a potential phase of capitalism described by Karl Kautsky. exports had dropped. and that if happened. the only one way in which capitalists would be able to maintain the basic system. would be for the wealthiest nations to form a "cartel". 40 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . He believed that this was the ultimate cause of World War I. economic stagnation would worsen. and that a peaceful capitalism was possible. He described the current phase of capitalism as imperialism. In Marxist theory.International Relations ULTRA-IMPERIALISM (HYPER IMPERIALISM) Ultra-imperialism. while avoiding this stagnation. in order to maintain their export markets and their systems of super exploitation. Kautsky elucidated his theory in the September 1914 issue of Karl Kautsky Die Neue Zeit. agreeing to limit their competition and renounce their arms race. imperialism consists of capitalist states super exploiting labor in agrarian regions in order to increase both the imperialist nation's productivity and their market. or occasionally hyper imperialism. while industrial accumulation had continued. in the same manner as which banks had co-operated. he postulated that war and militarism were not essential features of capitalism. In doing so. He pointed out that growing nationalism in the more industrially advanced colonies would necessitate a continuation of the arms race after the War.

In practice. He asks." Lenin developed Bukharin's theories of imperialism and his own arguments formed the core of his work Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. and the division of colonies and spheres of influence for finance capital on the other?" Some Marxists have pointed out similarities between the cooperation between the capitalist states during the Cold War and ultra-imperialism.International Relations Lenin disagreed with Kautsky's approach. He wrote that Kautsky's theory supposed "the rule of finance capital lessens the unevenness and contradictions inherent in the world economy. it is a very unequal but multifarious system. under the prevailing system." He gives examples of disparities in the international economy and discusses how they would develop even under a system of ultra-imperialism. with political independence for the ex-colonies. whereas in reality it increases them. but that "rather than being a sharply polarized world of industrial states on one side. Martin Thomas of Workers Liberty claims that this "since the collapse of the Stalinist bloc in 1989-91. with the industrial states joining together to keep the agrarian states un-industrial by force. In an introduction to Nikolai Bukharin's Imperialism and World Economy. however. agrarian states on the other. he conceded that "in the abstract one can think of such a phase. written in 1916. that 'ultra-imperialism' has extended to cover almost the whole globe". "what means other than war could there be under capitalism to overcome the disparity between the development of productive forces and the accumulation of capital on the one side. he who denies the sharp tasks of to-day in the name of dreams about soft tasks of the future becomes an opportunist. rapidly-permuting new international 41 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .

and many poorer states exporting mostly manufactured goods. Imperialism greatly benefited the United States in the early 1900’s. A strong advocator of imperialism was Teddy Roosevelt. America gained land. If a country can develop into part of the United States then it is possible to override those tariffs. whatever similar forms may have existed during the Cold War. AMERICAN IMPERIALISM Imperialism is defined as extending one countries ideals and values over another nation. since its end." Other commentators have pointed to similarities between Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri's theory of Empire and Kautsky's theory. and economic development occurred. America has importation laws that state there is a fee that must be paid while sending something into America. 42 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and that the nature of capitalism makes it impossible for capitalists to make conscious decisions to avoid behavior if in the short term it proves beneficial. Imperialism acted upon less developed countries in order to make them successful and able to thrive. Imperialism morally benefited both countries’ in that free trade became possible. Opponents of the theory of ultra-imperialism argue that. although the authors themselves claim their theory is founded in Leninism. Free trade is trade between nations or countries without a protective tariff.International Relations divisions of labor. inter-capitalist competition has tended to increase. When annexing a country it becomes possible to have this.

large fees had to be paid in order to ship it. Having more land meant having more room for immigrants. but because of the import tariff. it was evident that both countries would benefit from Hawaii’s natural resources. It stopped tension within countries by promoting freedom and independence. It gave America more territory to instill democratic views and values. Also a major benefit of annexation was the Panama Canal. or for new opportunities. instead of having to go all the way around Latin America. It became a situation in which both countries would benefit.International Relations The sugar industry was overwhelming in Hawaii. Helping poorer countries develop economically would in turn benefit the United States. for it made a speedy process of transportation. This giant canal made it possible for ships to sail through the country. Annexation of nations helped to add to that expansion in which people strived for. Expansion is a major part of America’s history. With America gaining land and free trade between once foreign nations countries were 43 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Annexation of countries made it possible for America to instate ideas of democracy. Combining the nations was an intelligent and beneficiary action taken by President McKinley. America could now greatly benefit from the resource that once seemed inaccessible. but morally sound. America was prospering. Economic Development of Latin American Countries was limited. The United States made canal benefited many countries if not all. Hawaii’s main exporter. Granting independence and freedom would cure domestic unrest. People always wanted to discover new land or expand on what they already had. which with the annexation of a nation would cause them to receive that money back in some other form. Overall annexation and imperialism cannot be seen as morally wrong. Samuel Dole made millions of dollars when the tariff was waived because of the annexation. Domestic unrest causes a lack in growth for a country. It quickened jobs and tasks that needed to be completed in Latin America. When the annexation of Hawaii occurred. Businesses being able to expand meant more profit and income for the business owner. America advocates for freedom in many aspects.

with the rise of the rival Dutch East India Company. and the early thrust of European political power. European and Asian economies were slowly becoming integrated through the rise of new global trade routes. the Portuguese established a monopoly over trade between Asia and Europe by managing to prevent rival powers from using the water routes between Europe and the Indian Ocean. However. In the sixteenth century. and the lucrative Japan trade from the Portuguese. Countries in the early 1900’s needed guidance and support from larger more developed nations.International Relations coming out with more benefits than drawbacks. however. Ceylon. commerce. Dutch forces first established independent bases in the East (most significantly Batavia. some southern Indian ports. Later. which is exactly what America helped to do. the English and the French established settlements in India and established a trade with 44 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Portuguese influence in Asia was gradually eclipsed. the heavily fortified headquarters of the Dutch East India Company) and then between 1640 and 1660 wrestled Malacca. IMPERIALISM IN ASIA Imperialism in Asia traces its roots back to the late fifteenth century with a series of voyages that sought a sea passage to India in the hope of establishing direct trade between Europe and Asia in spices. and culture in Asia gave rise to a growing trade in lucrative commodities—a key development in the rise of today's modern world free market economy. Before 1500 European economies were largely self-sufficient. Within the next century. only supplemented by minor trade with Asia and Africa.

In the same period. World War I and World War II were played out as struggles among several key imperial powers—conflicts involving the European powers along with Russia and the 45 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and the Netherlands — the established colonial powers in Asia — added to their empires vast expanses of territory in the Middle East. Following the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763. following the Spanish-American War in 1898. the Empire of Japan. the United Kingdom. following the Meiji Restoration. Eastern Europe. Between the 1870s and the beginning of World War I in 1914. and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa. and (with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India) the European stake in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts necessary to protect trade. following the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871. Tsarist Russia. however. and especially in Asia. In Asia. France. dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials. demand for oriental goods remained the driving force behind European imperialism. the Indian Subcontinent. and the United States. Before the Industrial Revolution in the mid-to-late nineteenth century. Industrialization.International Relations China and their own acquisitions would gradually surpass those of the Dutch. This scramble coincided with a new era in global colonial expansion known as "the New Imperialism. and South East Asia. the Americas. quickly emerged as new imperial powers in East Asia and in the Pacific Ocean area." which saw a shift in focus from trade and indirect rule to formal colonial control of vast overseas territories ruled as political extensions of their mother countries. the British eliminated French influence in India and established the British East India Company as the most important political force on the Indian Subcontinent. the German Empire.

Paradoxically Chinese nationalists. have loosened European and North American influence in Asia. Using imperialism to describe Qing expansion The process by which this occurred has been portrayed in current Chinese nationalist historiography as a process of national unification. and South East Asia. South Asia. however.International Relations rising American and Japanese powers. The Qing expanded into Taiwan. generating speculation today about the possible re-emergence of China and Japan as regional powers. During the Han and Tang dynasties it was known as "protectorate of the west". decolonization was intercepted by the Cold War. 46 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . However. along with the collapse of the Soviet Union. and Yuan periods. IMPERIALISM IN CHINA Qing territorial expansion During the eighteenth century. the Qing Dynasty government expanded its western borders to include areas such as Xinjiang and Tibet[citation needed] that had historically been under direct Chinese control during the Han. possessed the resources to withstand the strains of both world wars and maintain their direct rule in Asia. None of the colonial powers. financial. Although nationalist movements throughout the colonial world led to the political independence of nearly all of the Asia's remaining colonies. Tang. and military system in which the great powers compete to extend their influence. the Middle East. and East Asia remained embedded in a world economic. the rapid postwar economic development of the East Asian Tigers and the People's Republic of China. The name Xinjiang itself is Chinese for new territory.

The technological change was advances in the cannon and artillery which negated the military advantage that the people of the Steppe had with their cavalry (although cannons and firearms were used in China centuries beforehand to combat similar threats. Other alternative readings of history particularly by Tibetan. Also some Western studies of the Qing dynasty have used the concept of colonialism as a framework to describe the expansion of the Qing into neighboring areas such as Taiwan. The Manchus-Jurchens (originally from the 47 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Qing actions in Central Asia were aided by the preference of most local rulers (particularly in Tibet) for the relative light touch of Manchu control over the heavy-handedness of Russia or the British. The use of the term colonialism or imperialism to describe or not describe Qing territory expansion is highly controversial as it serves to either legitimize or delegitimize claims of current governments to rule these territories. but not when it came to ruling outlying regions. The process of expansion The ability of Qing China to project power into Central Asia came about because of two changes.International Relations particularly those of the nineteenth century. Xinjiang. from 1642. The social change was that under the Qing dynasty. one social and one technological. also regarded Qing expansion as imperialist and colonial when it came the Qing rule of Han Chinese areas. and Taiwanese advocates of independence have portrayed Qing expansion as Chinese imperialism which is not fundamentally different from European imperialism. see Technology of Song Dynasty). China came under the control of the Manchus who organized their military forces around cavalry which was more suited for power projection than traditional Chinese infantry.

but tribute gathering. The Tang Dynasty established control over the Tarim Basin region as well. in securing maritime trade routes that ran from South East Asia into the Indian Ocean. and the Tarim Basin of Central Asia. The Song Dynasty (960-1279). There were exceptions to this. The Mongol-lead Yuan Dynasty (12791368) made attempts to invade Japan after securing the Korean peninsula. numerous southern Chinese emigrants settled in areas of Southeast Asia outside Chinese political control. China most of the time had little ambitions to conquer or establish colonies. especially in 48 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .International Relations southern region of current-day Manchuria and the northern region of the Korean Peninsula) ruled China with the support of some people from Mongolia. Rather. Yet even when the Chinese had established their first standing navy in the 12th century (under the Southern Song). The later Tang Dynasty (618-907) aided the Korean Silla Kingdom in defeating their two Korean rivals. yet both of these military ventures failed (see Mongol Invasions of Japan). reinvading Annam (northern Vietnam) and attacking Champa (southern Vietnam). fighting wars with the new Tibetan Empire and stripping them of their colonies in Central Asia (which was abandoned after the An Lushan Rebellion). yet became shortchanged when they discovered Silla was not about to allow the Tang to reclaim Goguryeo's territory (as it had been under the Chinese Han Dynasty centuries before). The short-lived Sui Dynasty (581-618 AD) had high imperial aims. and when they had the world's strongest and biggest naval fleet during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). their aim was not colonization. which failed (see Goguryeo-Sui Wars). Chinese immigrated overseas to areas outside the control of their government. Tibet and Xinjiang. while they also attempted to conquer Korea. northern Korea. to this day their descendants remain economic elite. Korea. The Manchu ruling family was a supporter of Tibetan Buddhism and so many of the ruling groups were linked by religion. For instance. such as the ancient Han Dynasty (202 BC-220 AD) establishing control over northern Vietnam. had established fortified trade bases in the Philippines.

By 1800. European penetration of China The 16th century brought many Jesuit missionaries to China. with Queen Victoria (UK). During the eighteenth century. Marianne (France). science. and Russian imperialism. samurai (Japan) stabbing merchants were confined to Guangzhou into a plate with Chine ("China" in French) and the Portuguese colony of Macau. who established missions where Western science was introduced.International Relations Malaysia and Singapore. Japanese. and a China in increasing numbers. In 1839. European traders were increasingly irritated by what they saw as the relatively high customs duties they had to pay and by the attempts to curb the growing import trade in opium. and in 1842. However. such as Matteo Ricci. Early in the nineteenth century. agreed to the provisions of the Treaty of Nanjing. and now forced to the terms of the 1858 Treaty of Tientsin. William II (Germany). The Chinese were again defeated. The treaty opened 49 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . serious internal weaknesses developed in the Manchu empire that left China vulnerable to Western. history. including Shanghai and Guangzhou. the Second Opium War broke out. and where Europeans gathered knowledge of A shocked mandarin in Chinese society. and certain ports. merchants from Western Europe came to Nicholas II (Russia). China was defeated. However. China found itself fighting the First Opium War with Britain. culture. and Manchu robe in the back. as written on it they had been since the 16th century. and to a fair extent also in Indonesia and the Philippines. its importation was forbidden by the imperial government. In 1856. was opened to British trade and residence. Hong Kong was ceded to Britain. the opium trade continued to boom.

Russia obtained access to Dairen and Port Arthur and the right to build a railroad across Manchuria. much of China was divided up into 50 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . At this time.International Relations new ports to trade and allowed foreigners to travel in the interior. resulting in humiliating defeat for the Chinese. The United States and Russia later obtained the same prerogatives in separate treaties. Germany demanded and was given a set of exclusive mining and railroad rights in Shandong province. and the right to station foreign warships in Chinese waters. In 1897. a Westerner had the right to be tried in a court under the laws of his own country). China was forced to recognize effective Japanese rule of Korea and Taiwan. The United Kingdom and France also received a number of concessions. The rise of Japan since the Meiji Restoration as an imperial power led to further subjugation of China. In a dispute over China's longstanding claim of suzerainty in Korea. customs regulation. Several provisions of these treaties caused long-standing bitterness and humiliation among the Chinese: extraterritoriality (meaning that in a dispute with a Chinese person. Toward the end of the nineteenth century. war broke out between China and Japan. By the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895). thereby achieving complete domination over a large portion of northwestern China. China's defeat at the hands of Japan was another trigger for future aggressive actions by Western powers. Christians gained the right to propagate their religion —another means of Western penetration. China appeared on the way to territorial dismemberment and economic vassalage —the fate of India’s rulers that played out much earlier.

and the Huang He (Hwang-Ho) valley. In any event. the United Kingdom dominated Weihaiwei and the Yangtze Valley. several powers agreed to the U. grew alarmed at the possibility of its businessmen being excluded from Chinese markets. In the event that the Qing government totally collapsed. Russia dominated the Liaodong Peninsula and Manchuria. while Russia 51 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . plundered and burned the Old Summer Palace to the ground for the second time (the first time being in 1860. Secretary of State John Hay asked the major powers to agree to a policy of equal trading privileges. following the Second Opium War). and France dominated the Guangzhou Bay and several other southern provinces. The erosion of Chinese sovereignty contributed to a spectacular anti-foreign outbreak in June 1900. In 1899. British and French forces looted.International Relations "spheres of influence": Germany dominated Jiaozuo (Kiaochow) Bay. provoking a rare display of unity among the powers.S.-backed scheme. giving rise to the "Open Door" policy. whose troops landed at Tianjin and marched on the capital. it was in the European powers' interest to have a weak but independent Chinese government. The privileges of the Europeans in China were guaranteed in the form of treaties with the Qing government. as a form of threat to force the Qing empire to give in to their demands. China continued to be divided up into these spheres until the United States. denoting freedom of commercial access and non-annexation of Chinese territory. which had no sphere of influence. German forces were particularly severe in exacting revenge for the killing of their ambassador. each power risked losing the privileges that it already had negotiated. In 1900. Shandong. when the "Boxers" (properly the society of the "righteous and harmonious fists") attacked European legations in Beijing.

and some 3000 small surrounding islands) was renounced by Japan in the Surrender after World War II and the Treaty of San Francisco. see Japan-United States relations for details. there are still a number of disputed territories with Russia. Shikoku. A number of territories occupied by the United States after 1945 has been returned to Japan. Overview This is a list of regions occupied or annexed by the Empire of Japan until 1945. LIST OF TERRITORIES OCCUPIED BY IMPERIAL JAPAN The following locations represent the maximum extent of Japanese control of lands in the Pacific during the peak of its empire in World War II. In 2005. Kyūshū. the People's Republic of China and Taiwan.International Relations tightened its hold on Manchuria in the northeast until its crushing defeat by Japan in the war of 1904-1905. Pre-World War II 52 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Control over all territories except the Japanese mainland (Hokkaidō. Honshū. South Korea. Although extra-territorial jurisdiction was abandoned by the United Kingdom and the United States in 1943. foreign political control of parts of China only finally ended with the incorporation of Hong Kong and the small Portuguese territory of Macau into the People's Republic of China in 1997 and 1999 respectively. See foreign relations of Japan for details.

formerly of German Empire * Russian Far East. Shandong .1918-1927 Japanese and Western anticommunist intervention period * Japanese Antarctic territory World War II * Several regions in mainland China * Portuguese Timor * Macau * Hong Kong * French Indochina * Thailand * Burma * British New Guinea * Philippines * Malaya 53 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .International Relations * Korea * Formosa (later known as Taiwan) * Sakhalin * Manchuria * Kwantung * South Pacific Mandate. Baikal area and Kamchatka .

They both took separate paths when dealing with this threat. The decisions Japan made allowed it to become an imperial power. while China’s decisions led the country to collapse and fall into the hands of the imperialists. 54 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . and only one of them proved to be successful.International Relations * Andaman and Nicobar Islands (British India) * Straits Settlements (Singapore) * Sarawak * Brunei * British North Borneo * Nauru * Dutch East Indies * Guam * Imphal (India) * Wake Island * Gilbert and Ellice Islands * Christmas island * Attu and Kiska (Alaska) JAPANESE AND CHINESE RESPONSES TO IMPERIALISM The Japanese and Chinese responses to imperialism were different when Japan and China both faced the threat of European imperialism in the late 19th century.

China buckled under the force of Europe and was divided into Spheres of influence. Empress Cixi. however. most people simply pretended to strive towards this. Japan and China started to shift their foreign affairs. and further. and failed to fight off the British opium invasion. and goods. the effects of Japanese and Chinese plans were strongly felt. China had secluded itself from proper trade. By the time China 55 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . the Chinese leader. while China was weak and had to rely on Europe for protection. They built factories. Japan vowed to become industrial superior in order to protect itself from colonization. while China continued this policy for many years. Once the imperial powers had been present for a while. and toured western Dynasty countries to learn the ways of the west.International Relations At first. The two countries had followed their own systems for centuries and they were not interested in change. A resource hungry Japan was easily able to overrun the Chinese in combat to capture prime territory (Korea). China would only trade for silver and Japan greatly restricted western imports. while at the same time made no forward advancement. felt funds would be better spent on a luxurious palace rather than the military. Japan quickly realized the need for change. China decided it would be best to adopt just a few western technologies. While the Japanese were busy building a great navy. As time progressed. Technological progress was not made in China. and secretly diverted military funds otherwise used for gunpowder and ammunitions. Japan was an independent power that had enough might to defeat even the large Russian Empire. both Japan and China were very wary of the west and its technology and culture. Japan had built itself a booming economy and a powerful military. Flag of the Qing schools.

while the Chinese were reduced to poverty. illiteracy. Japan. and foreign control. Marxists assert that the United States engages in imperialism because powerful U. who embraced westernization. the outcome was already in the books. Japan started open trade and industrialization early and succeeded. The results of these two separate policies were clear. Businesses need to protect their foreign markets. DEFINITION OF DICTIONARIES Dictionary IMPERIALISM IN DIFFERENT The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations. ended up as an imperial power. 56 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . US Military Dictionary A policy of extending a country's power and influence through diplomacy or military force: the struggle against Western imperialism.International Relations realized its mistake. Business Dictionary Policy of systematic domination and exploitation of a country by another country or an empire. and Qing China was finished.S. while China got off to a late “reactive rather than proactive” start and failed and fuelled revolution.

not the economic interests of nation or class. seeking to offset the declining tendency of the rate of profit. It is the monopoly stage of capitalism. Luxemburg. Schumpeter (1919) defined imperialism as the non-rational and objectless disposition on the part of a state to unlimited forcible expansion. during the late nineteenth century. Many writers construed imperialism in terms of their understanding of the motivating forces. Hobson. the clearest examples. and especially Lenin focused on economic factors. the rational pursuit of new markets and sources of raw materials. This control may be political. which usually require military force and the institution of a colonial administration. Bukharin. especially the ‘scramble for Africa. its consequences. that imperialism is an economic necessity of the industrialized capitalist economies. and indicates a degree of dependence in the subordinate nation. are all disputed. economic. in Imperialism: the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1917). by exporting capital. The so-called new imperialism was the imposition of colonial rule by European countries. Lenin argued. or both. Imperialism is rooted in the psychology of rulers and the effects of surviving pre-capitalist social structures. but imperialism can exist without the creation of formal colonies. Alternative accounts view imperialism as: an outgrowth of 57 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Many writers take the word as a synonym for colonialism. Political Dictionary Domination or control by one country or group of people over others.International Relations Geography Dictionary The control of one or a number of countries by a dominant nation. The precise nature and the causes of imperialism. and therefore the period which exemplifies it best. Among these.

“General” enthusiasm over the prospects of imperialism. an application of social Darwinism to struggles between races. personal adventurism. furious defense of it and painting it in the brightest colors—such are the signs of the times. on the other hand. but also the very small capitalists and small masters.International Relations popular nationalism. we mean the attitude of the different classes of society towards imperialist policy in connection with their general ideology. so-called. Imperialist ideology also penetrates the working class. that is. which pacifies the working class (notably in Britain). a civilizing mission. The leaders of the presentday. “Social-Democratic” Party of Germany are justly called “social-imperialists”. The latter implies that socialist states too were prone to be imperialistic. socialists in words and imperialists in deeds. The enormous dimensions of finance capital concentrated in a few hands and creating an extraordinarily dense and widespread network of relationships and connections which subordinates not only the small and medium. and as simply one dimension of international rivalry for power and prestige. in the broad sense of the term. No Chinese wall separates it from the other classes. Hobson noted the existence in Britain of “Fabian imperialists” who belonged to the opportunist Fabian Society. on the one hand. CRITIQUE OF IMPERIALISM By the critique of imperialism. and the increasingly intense struggle waged against other national state groups of financiers for the division of the world and domination over other countries. a device to underwrite the welfare state. cause the propertied classes to go over entirely to the side of imperialism. but as early as 1902. 58 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .

commenting on an English report of a conference held on June 28-30. an open struggle against imperialism would be hopeless. therefore [!!]. the bourgeois representative of an oppressing nation 59 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . in colonies other than those belonging to Germany. 1910. One of them. strive to push specific and secondary details into the forefront and do their very best to distract attention from essentials by means of absolutely ridiculous schemes for “reform”.” Since the reform of the basis of imperialism is a deception. of course. Africa and Europe who are under foreign rule. unless. that an international tribunal should supervise the fulfillment of treaties concluded between the great powers and weak peoples. such as police supervision of the trusts or banks. Further than the expression of these pious wishes they do not go. perhaps. Here is an example. The German imperialists attempt. of representatives of various subject nations and races. since the bourgeois representatives of the oppressed nations goes no “further” forward. etc. writes as follows in appraising the speeches delivered at this conference: “We are told that we must fight imperialism. they obscure its complete. We see no trace of understanding of the fact that imperialism is inseparably bound up with capitalism in its present form and that. of peoples of Asia. in the Dutch East Indies. the fight were to be confined to protests against certain of its especially abhorrent excesses. particularly. the movement in Natal (South Africa). etc. in the magazine Archives of World Economy. domination and its deep-going roots.International Relations Bourgeois scholars and publicists usually come out in defense of imperialism in a somewhat veiled form. that the ruling states should recognize the right of subject peoples to independence. Cynical and frank imperialists who are bold enough to admit the absurdity of the idea of reforming the fundamental characteristics of imperialism are a rarer phenomenon. They note the unrest and the protest movements in India. a “pious wish”. to follow the national emancipation movements in the colonies.

. towards allaying these antagonisms. “The urge of capital to expand . a petty-bourgeois-democratic opposition to imperialism arose at the beginning of the twentieth century in nearly all imperialist countries. He takes the statistics of the British export and import trade with Egypt for 1872 and 1912. Here is a sample of Kautsky’s economic criticism of imperialism.International Relations goes “further” backward. and this is precisely where Kautsky and the broad international Kautskian trend deserted Marxism. which is really reactionary in its economic basis. are fundamental questions in the critique of imperialism.” This argument of Kautsky’s. That is also “logic”! The questions as to whether it is possible to reform the basis of imperialism. to servility towards imperialism under cover of the claim to be “scientific”. or backward. but became merged with it in practice. it seems that this export and import trade has grown more slowly than British foreign trade as a whole. whether to go forward to the further intensification and deepening of the antagonisms which it engenders. From this Kautsky concludes that “we have no reason to suppose that without military occupation the growth of British trade with Egypt would have been less. can be best promoted. constitutes the basis of Kautskian critique of imperialism. Spectator. Mr. and that is why we must deal with it in 60 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . which is repeated in every key by his Russian armor-bearer (and Russian shielder of the socialchauvinists). Since the specific political features of imperialism are reaction everywhere and increased national oppression due to the oppression of the financial oligarchy and the elimination of free competition. simply as a result of the mere operation of economic factors”. not by the violent methods of imperialism. Kautsky not only did not trouble to oppose. but by peaceful democracy. was not only unable to oppose this pettybourgeois reformist opposition..

Lansburgh.0 143 Brazil 48.0 32.2 322. and borrow money from it.5 92 To countries financially independent of Germany Great Britain 651.International Relations greater detail.7 147.8 451. We will begin with a quotation from Hilferding.7 84. and (2) with countries which are financially independent. He obtained the following results: EXPORT TRADE OF GERMANY (000.2 437. chosen at random.8 40. and one single colony with the other countries. whose criticism of imperialism is as pettybourgeois as Kautsky’s. It is interesting to note that even the bourgeois economist.4 53 France 210.2 70. he examined the export trade of an imperialist country: (1) with countries which are financially dependent upon it. and notably in April 1915. has declared to have been “unanimously adopted by all socialist theoreticians”. He did not compare one single country. whose conclusions Kautsky on many occasions.0 114 Total 234. A.8 73 Argentina 60.9 108 Belgium 137.7 363 61 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .8 47 Portugal 19.8 997.8 135 Switzerland 177.5 205 Dutch 8.2 64.3 64.4 401.1 127 Australia 21. nevertheless got closer to a more scientific study of trade statistics.5 73 Chile 28.000 marks) To countries Per financially cent 1889 1908 dependent on increas Germany e Rumania 48.

“The political patrol clashes take place on the financial field. (2) the African period (approximately 1885-1902): that of the struggle against France for the partition of Africa (the “Fashoda incident” of 1898 which brought her within a hair’s breadth of war with France). (3) the second Asiatic period (alliance with Japan against Russia). in showing how French finance capital operating in Italy was preparing the way for a political alliance of these countries. they prove that he is wrong. Riesser. than exports to the countries which are financially independent. (I emphasize the “if”. (3) the present era of “commercial imperialism”. for the exports to countries financially dependent on Germany have grown more rapidly. if only slightly. 87 6 4 Lansburgh did not draw conclusions and therefore.International Relations East Indies Total 1. between all the European capitalists over Chinese loans. Another writer divides the history of Great Britain’s “world policy” since 1870 into four periods: (1) the first Asiatic period (that of the struggle against Russia’s advance in Central Asia towards India). (2) the constitutional movement. and how a conflict was developing between Germany and Great Britain over Persia.264. Hill. in his A History of the Diplomacy in the International Development of Europe refers in his preface to the following periods in the recent history of diplomacy: (1) the era of revolution. strangely enough.206. failed to observe that if the figures prove anything at all. and (4) the “European” period.” wrote the banker. 2. for Lansburgh’s figures are far from complete. in 1905. Behold the living reality of peaceful “ultra-imperialist” alliances in their in severable connection with ordinary imperialist conflicts! 62 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . chiefly anti-German.) An American writer. etc.

Hilferding rightly notes the connection between imperialism and the intensification of national oppression. but also in the old. “the capital imported into them intensifies antagonisms and excites against the intruders the constantly growing resistance of the peoples who are awakening to national consciousness. not for freedom. The old social relations become completely revolutionized. Particularly intensified become the yoke of national oppression and the striving for annexations. this resistance can easily develop into dangerous measures against foreign capital.” he writes. “In the newly opened-up countries. Whatever the political system. i. the age-long agrarian isolation of ‘nations without history’ is destroyed and they are drawn into the capitalist whirlpool. Imperialism is the epoch of finance capital and of monopolies. which introduce everywhere the striving for domination. the violation of national independence (for annexation is nothing but the violation of the right of nations to self-determination). Capitalism itself gradually provides the subjugated with the means and resources for their emancipation and they set out to achieve the goal which once seemed highest to the European nations: the creation of a united national state as a means to economic and cultural freedom. and. leaves its traces in this writer’s criticism of the political features of imperialism..International Relations Kautsky’s obscuring of the deepest contradictions of imperialism. which inevitably boils down to painting imperialism in bright colors. This movement for national independence threatens European capital in its most valuable and most promising fields of exploitation. consequently.e. and European capital can maintain its domination only by continually increasing its military forces. also to increasing resistance.” To this must be added that it is not only in newly opened-up countries. the result of these tendencies is everywhere reaction and an extreme intensification of antagonisms in this field. that imperialism is leading to annexation. While objecting to 63 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . to increased national oppression.

. for monopoly that grows out of the soil of free competition. or principal manifestations of 64 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . is the transition from the capitalist system to a higher socioeconomic order. Let us suppose that Japanese condemns the annexation of the Philippines by the Americans. he presents his objections in a form that is most acceptable and least offensive to the opportunists. While objecting to annexations. We must take special note of the four principal types of monopoly. and not because he himself has a desire to annex the Philippines? And shall we not be constrained to admit that the “fight” the Japanese is waging against annexations can be regarded as being sincere and politically honest only if he fights against the annexation of Korea by Japan. for instance. viz. In order to appraise this “mental aberration” of Kautsky’s I shall take the following example. the impossibility of unity with the opportunists in the epoch of imperialism. THE PLACE OF IMPERIALISM IN HISTORY We have seen that in its economic essence imperialism is monopoly capitalism. He addresses himself to a German audience. yet he obscures the most topical and important point. and precisely out of free competition. as well as his economic and political critique of imperialism. are permeated through and through with a spirit. and urges freedom for Korea to secede from Japan? Kautsky’s theoretical analysis of imperialism. Kautsky leaves in the shade a question that has become particularly urgent. absolutely irreconcilable with Marxism.International Relations the intensification of political reaction by imperialism. of obscuring and glossing over the fundamental contradictions of imperialism and with a striving to preserve at all costs the crumbling unity with opportunism in the European working-class movement. The question is: will many believe that he does so because he has a horror of annexations as such. This in itself determines its place in history. the annexation of AlsaceLorraine by Germany.

and has sharpened the antagonism between cartelized and non-cartelized industry.International Relations monopoly capitalism. monopolies have stimulated the seizure of the most important sources of raw materials. At the beginning of the twentieth century. syndicates. Great Britain. Secondly. monopolies had acquired complete supremacy in the advanced countries. Thirdly. namely. only a little later. cartels. which are characteristic of the epoch we are examining. and have concentrated in their hands the control of thousands upon thousands of millions which form the greater part of the capital and income of entire countries. revealed the same basic phenomenon. the birth of monopoly out of the concentration of production. The monopoly of the most important sources of raw materials has enormously increased the power of big capital. monopoly has sprung from the banks. and although the first steps towards the formation of the cartels were taken by countries enjoying the protection of high tariffs (Germany. The banks have developed from modest middleman enterprises into the monopolists of finance capital. and trusts. Firstly. which throws a close network of dependence relationships over all the economic and political institutions of present-day bourgeois society without exception—such is the most striking manifestation of this monopoly. This refers to the monopolist capitalist associations. We have seen the important part these play in present-day economic life. monopoly arose out of the concentration of production at a very high stage. especially for the basic and most highly cartelized industries in capitalist society: the coal and iron industries. 65 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . with her system of free trade. Some three to five of the biggest banks in each of the foremost capitalist countries have achieved the “personal link-up” between industrial and bank capital. America). A financial oligarchy.

for spheres of influence. . there was inevitably ushered in the era of monopoly possession of colonies and. for spheres for profitable deals. monopoly has grown out of colonial policy. A central committee of management. that will be done by a certain public institution. finance capital has added the struggle for the sources of raw materials. To the numerous “old” motives of colonial policy. When the colonies of the European powers. . Then the forecast of that genius Saint-Simon will be fulfilled: ‘The present anarchy of production. comprised only one-tenth of the territory of Africa(as was the case in 1876). independent of each other and ignorant of man’s economic needs. when the whole world had been divided up. concessions.) If we imagine the development of those tendencies we have noted carried to their logical conclusion we will have: the money capital of the nation united in the banks. the banks themselves combined into cartels. for instance. ministers. of particularly intense struggle for the division and the red vision of the world.International Relations Fourthly. the investment capital of the nation cast in the shape of securities. magnates of industry and renters is here conveniently forgotten. (The “interlocking” of bankers.. But when nine-tenths of Africa had been seized (by 1900). i. consequently. must make way for organization in production. exclaims: “Once the supreme management of the German banks has been entrusted to the hands of a dozen persons. The enthusiastic admirer of German imperialism. colonial policy was able to develop—by methods other than those of monopoly—by the “free grabbing” of territories. for the export of capital. so to speak. which corresponds to the fact that economic relations are developing without uniform regulation.e. their activity is even today more significant for the public good than that of the majority of the Ministers of State.. economic territory in general. being able to 66 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . monopoly profits and so on. SchulzeGaevernitz. Production will no longer be directed by isolated manufacturers.

the political and economic philosophy based on the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. since the establishment of the 67 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Institutions already exist which have assumed as part of their functions a certain organization of economic labor. Leninism had become the dominant branch of Marxism. will put the means of production into suitable hands. scientific analysis to Saint-Simon’s guesswork. and above all will take care that there be constant harmony between production and consumption.’ We are still a long way from the fulfillment of Saint-Simon’s forecast.” A crushing “refutation” of Marx indeed. but we are on the way towards it: Marxism. Leninism builds upon and elaborates the ideas of Marxism. but guess-work all the same. but different only in form. the banks. The term "Leninism" came into widespread use only after Lenin ended his active participation in the Soviet government due to a series of incapacitating strokes shortly before his death.International Relations survey the large field of social economy from a more elevated point of view. which retreats a step from Marx’s precise. and serves as a philosophical basis for the ideology of Soviet communism. Vladmir Lenin Grigory Zinoviev popularized the term at the fifth congress of the Communist International. the guess-work of a genius. VLADIMIR LENIN’S APPROACH Leninism Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by the Bolshevik communist leader Vladimir Lenin. different from what Marx imagined. will regulate it for the benefit of the whole of society.

the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) by Vladimir Lenin is a classic Marxist theoretical treatise on the relationship between capitalism and imperialism. in the last stage of capitalism. capitalists are able to bribe lab our leaders and the upper stratum of the labor aristocracy in the home country thus avoiding the risk of worker revolt there. Stalin and Trotsky were associates of Lenin who became the leaders of the two major political and theoretical factions that developed in the Soviet Union after Lenin's death. According to Lenin as a result of the super-profits generated by this colonial exploitation. In this work Lenin identifies the merging of banks and industrial cartels as giving rise to finance capital.International Relations Soviet Union. According to Lenin. associated with Leon Trotsky. and of which colonialism is one feature (Bowles 2007). This leads to the division of the world between international monopolist firms and to European states colonizing large parts of the world in support of their businesses. one relying on the rise of monopolies and on the export of capital (rather than goods). Leninism's direct theoretical descendants are Stalinism. and claim that only their own interpretation is the continuation of Leninism. Imperialism. and Trotskyism. In his preface to the French and German editions (1920) Lenin indicates that it is with the "thousand million people" of the colonies and semi-colonies that the revolt 68 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . The new proletarians are thus the exploited workers of the third world. Proponents of each theory (including Stalin and Trotsky themselves) deny that the other is a "real" Leninist theory. Imperialism is thus an advanced stage of capitalism. capital is exported. in order to generate greater profits than the home market can offer. associated with Joseph Stalin. the Highest Stage of Capitalism Imperialism.

first published in the "Communist International" No 18. where he himself had seized the revolutionary initiative in the October Revolution that the revolution would spread to the advanced capitalist states (Read 2005: 116-26). Lenin derived much of his analysis from. Karl Kautsky himself. ironically. Lenin saw Russia as a subsidiary.I. (V.International Relations against the capitalist system is to begin rather than in the advanced western societies as these are the weak links of the chain of global capitalist control. Hobson's Imperialism: A Study (1902) and Austrian Marxist Rudolf Hilferding's Finance Capital (Das Finanzkapital. Lenin 2000). 69 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Petrograd in mid 1917. Lenin prophesized that it was from these countries. Lenin 2000: 37-8). 1921 (V. as well as from English economist John which imperial capitalist competition was exemplified by the clash between the German Empire and its allies and the AngloFrench bloc. Publication history Imperialism. It was first published by Zhzn i. Lenin wrote a new Preface for the French and German editions. Vienna: 1910) but applied it to the new situation of World War I . and from backward Russia. dated July 6th 1920.I. less socially advanced ally of the latter advanced capitalist countries. In the post war edition Lenin pointed to the punitive treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Versailles as proving his thesis about the economic motivation of the warring powers (Read 2005: 11626). the Highest Stage of Capitalism was written by Lenin in Zürich between January and June 1916. Znaniye Publishers.

52. 29.International Relations INDEX A Africa · 11. 44. 28. 14. 56 Christianity · 7. 35. 36. 17. 68. 8. 57. 30. 69. 28. 46. 42. 8. 54. 11. 61. 40. 16. 28. 50. 69 Holy Roman Empire · 8. 55 H Hegemony · 22 Hobson · 27. 71. 30. 17. 69. 68. 60 Q Qing · 46. 36 Constantinople · 9 N Napoleon · 11. 46 Commonwealth · 14. 63. 24. 30. 41. 27. 33. 69 Mongol Empire · 8. 55. 27. 42. 53. 72 India · 8. 49. 65 Attalus · 12 Karl Kautsky · 27. 23 E Egypt · 7. 47. 71. 44. 28. 50. 20. 57. 13. 17 D Dravidian · 9 P Pakistan · 11 Pergamon · 12 Prussia · 13. 41. 63. 34. 16. 9. 27. 42. 40. 47. 9. 51 R Rome · 7. 58. 28. 59. 10. 31. 36. 45. 26. 23. 34. 40. 34. 33. 18. 67. 29. 66 Alexander · 8 America · 17. 14. 56 G Genghis Khan · 10. 57. 25. 17 Guangzhou · 49. 20 C Capitalist · 15 China · 8. 9. 28. 59. 13 Cold War · 16. 57. 62 Islam · 7 T Tej Singh · 13 The Japan · 54 Tsar · 11 K V Vienna · 25. 30. 54. 29. 11. 60. 69 70 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . 42. 44. 17. 62. 48. 62 Lenin · 15. 7. 19 Roosevelt · 42 Russian Empire · 7. 41. 17. 29. 45. 23 O Oil imperialism · 35 Ottoman · 7. 68 I Imperialism · 5. 72 B Bangladesh · 11 Benjamin Disraeli · 34 Bush · 15 M Marxist · 28. 45. 45. 12. 68. 64 King Ferdinand I of León · 11 L Lal singh · 13 Lansburgh · 61. 46. 41. 51. 29. 69 Kautsky · 30. 17. 51. 29. 19 S Sargon · 7 Sikh · 13 Soviet Union · 32.

John. Baltimore. International Publishers. Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction. Manchester. London: Lawrence and Wishart TOMLINSON. 1997 • Imperialism. the Highest Stage of Capitalism. New Delhi: LeftWord Books • Christopher Read (2005) Lenin. The Johns Hopkins University Press. the Highest Stage of Capitalism (1916) • Paul Bowles (2007) Capitalism. 1842-1953. 2000 • State. Pearson: London • Vladimir Lenin (1948) Imperialism.International Relations REFERENCES • V I Lenin. with Introduction by Prabat Patnaik. New York. New Frontiers: Imperialism's New Communities in East Asia. 1991 • Vladimir Lenin (2000) Imperialism. Imperialism and Capitalism by Joseph Schumpeter 71 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report . Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism. the Highest Stage of Capitalism. Manchester University Press. London: Routledge • Robert Bickers/Christian Henriot.

Leninism. Duke University Press. all descriptions of Rothkopf's points and his quotes are from this article • Marcel Liebman. and Steve Davies. Culture and Imperialism. David. "Empire: Public Goods and Bads" (Jan 2007) • The 19th Century : The New Imperialism • Marxism and the New Imperialism by Alex Callinicos. and Mike Haynes 72 | P a g e IMPERIALISM – Term Report .International Relations • Edward Said." Foreign Affairs. Volume 107. The Merlin Press. 1998 • Rothkopf. Christopher J. John Rees. Vintage Books. 1996 • Coyne. Leninism Under Lenin. Summer 1997. 1981 • Neil Harding. 1980 • Roy Medvedev. Verso Books. pp. Chris Harman. 38-53. "In Praise of Cultural Imperialism. Leninism and Western Socialism.

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