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www.elsevier.com/locate/physa

dry granular materials

U. Marini Bettolo Marconia; ∗ , A. Petrib; c , A. Vulpianic

a Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia,

UniversitÂa di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, I-62032, Camerino, Italy

b Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Acustica O.M. Corbino,

c Dipartimento di Fisica, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia, UniversitÂ

a La Sapienza,

Piazzale A. Moro 2, 00185 Roma, Italy

Abstract

In order to clarify the mechanisms which determine the Janssen’s law for the pressure distri-

bution at the bottom of a silo we reconsider the so-called q-model describing an assembly of

granular particles on a lattice, conned between vertical walls. We nd that the expected macro-

scopic behavior with the correct scaling is obtained whenever a mechanism able to transfer the

weight from the interior of the silo to the walls in an ecient way is present, i.e., in mean

eld regime. Deviations from the Janssen law’s found in lattice models are due to the absence

of this ecient mechanism. We investigate the scaling properties of a stick-slip model recently

introduced, and nd that relative
uctuations do not disappear for large systems and are of the

order of average values. Finally we observe that an exponential local weight distribution at the

bottom of the silo is independent of the model considered.
c 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All

rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Granular materials represent a new important and fast growing eld of research

(see e.g. Ref. [1]). Their technological importance is out of question since they enter

in many industrial processes such as compaction, storage, separation, mixing, food

production, pharmaceutical preparations, transport, etc. Granular materials also pose a

∗Corresponding author.

E-mail address: umberto.marini.bettolo@roma1.infn.it (U.M.B. Marconi)

0378-4371/00/$ - see front matter
c 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 3 7 8 - 4 3 7 1 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 6 0 0 - 7

280 U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288

number of interesting problems both to the experimental and to the theoretical physicist

(see e.g. Ref. [2]). One of these points concerns the stress eld in the interior and at

the boundary of an assembly of grains. It is known [3,4] that the complex network of

contacts and frictions gives rise to a highly uneven distribution of values with eects

that are long range. In the present paper we consider the issue of how the pressure of

a column of grains in a silo varies with its height.

Janssen [5] about a century ago predicted that such a quantity should vary according

to the law

P ' Ps [1 − e−h= ] ; (1)

where Ps is a characteristic value, h is the height of the lled fraction of the silo and

is a characteristic length. Both Ps and are proportional to the transverse size of the

silo, L, i.e., Ps ∼ ∼ L. Physically, this means that part of the weight is sustained by

the walls due to the presence of forces tangential to the vertical walls. Because of such

a law hour glasses work, i.e., sand
ows through their orice at a constant rate. To

derive in a phenomenological way Janssen’s law one must consider the force balance

between pressure, gravity and friction with the lateral walls due to the presence of

horizontal stress. For a slab of material of thickness dh one nds

A( dP − g dh) + L dh = 0 ; (2)

where A is the cross-sectional area of the silo, P is the pressure, L is the length of

the perimeter, is a static friction coecient, g the gravitational acceleration and is

the transverse stress tensor. Eliminating in favor of P, through the relation = kP,

Janssen obtained the following dierential equation for P:

dP

= g − P= (3)

dz

with = A=(kL), which has the solution (1). Physically, Janssen’s law means that the

pressure of a column is proportional at most to , since Ps =g, and not to the height

of the stack as in the case of a
uid, i.e., only a fraction =h of the total weight insists

on the bottom of a silo, the remaining part being sustained by the lateral walls. In

the literature this law is often quoted to illustrate the peculiarity of granular materials.

What can a theorist contribute to the problem? We shall discuss lattice models based

upon the idea originally proposed by Coppersmith and coworkers [6], and reconsidered

by various groups with the introduction of walls [7–9]. We shall see how, in order to

obtain the Janssen’s law, one has to introduce a mechanism able to transfer eciently

the weight from the bulk of the silo to the walls. With such a mechanism one has

rather strong
uctuations, i.e., the relative
uctuations do not disappear as the size of

the silo goes to innity.

The present paper is organized as follows: in Section 2 we describe the lattice model

and show that the observation of Janssen’s law is related to the validity of mean eld

results. Since these are not reproduced in numerical simulations, we trace back this

discrepancy to its origin and by means of a slightly more rened approach, we derive

analytically the behavior found numerically.

U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288 281

coworkers, which follow the scaling predicted by Janssen and formulate a simple toy

model able to catch its basic phenomenological scaling features. We also investigate the

scaling properties of pressure uctuations and local weight distribution at the bottom.

Section 4 is devoted to conclusions and discussions of results.

◦

Consider a two-dimensional square lattice tilted at 45 with respect to the horizontal

axis and laterally bounded by two impenetrable walls, 2L nodes apart (see Fig. 1). The

nodes are labelled by the indices i and n, the horizontal and vertical lattice coordinates,

respectively. Although not necessary, we shall take for simplicity that i assumes only

even values for n even, and odd values for n odd (see Fig. 1). Each node is occupied

by a grain of weight v and there are L grains on each row. The total load w(i; n)

on a given grain (i; n), resulting from its own weight plus the weight stemming from

the grains located above, is transmitted downwards to the neighbors below located at

(i + 1; n + 1) and (i − 1; n + 1). The irregular arrangement due to the deposition process

is mimicked by assuming that the load w(i; n) is distributed, according to a stochastic

rule [6], between the neighbors below in fractions qL and qR , with the condition that

the total force is conserved, i.e., qL + qR = 1 for each site. The variables qL and qR are

extracted from a uniform random distribution in the unit interval. On the other hand,

qL (1; n) and qR (2L; n) do not transfer their load to any site, and this accounts for the

frictional force opposite to gravity exerted by the walls on the particles belonging to

the columns i = 0 and 2L. Hence, the force w(i; n) experienced by a grain (i; n) is

given by the relation

(4)

Fig. 1. Schematic view of the lattice model considered in the paper. Each site in the bulk lies on two sites

of the layer below. Sites at the boundary also exert a pressure on the wall.

282 U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288

It is clear that since a non-vanishing fraction of the total load of each plane is sustained

by the walls the vertical force transmitted downwards will not increase indenitely, but

asymptotically settles to a nite value.

In order to derive a rst result for the vertical force we consider a crude approxi-

mation, by taking the link variables q to be all identical to their average qM = 1=2 − c,

with c = 1=L, the load fraction transmitted to the wall. In this case it is possible to nd

a solution

1

w(i; n) = v (1 − (1 − c)n+1 ) (5)

c

for every i. In other words for n large enough the load on a single grain is v=c = vL.

The above solution also denes a characteristic length = −1=ln(1 − c) ' 1=c = L.

The argument above reveals two features:

(a) the existence of a typical saturation depth, , proportional to the width of the

silo L;

(b) the pressure on the bottom of the stack, i.e., the total vertical force divided by

the width, is proportional to the width,

L

1X

Ps = lim w(i; n) = vL :

n→∞ L

i=0

These properties are in agreement with the predictions of Janssen’s law, which in fact

is derived under the assumption of a perfectly homogeneous medium.

On the other hand, a numerical study of Eq. (4) reveals that such a behavior is

compatible only with the choice Ps ∼ L2 and c ∼ 1=L2 . Where is the source of such a

discrepancy? The reason can be traced back if one reexamines Eq. (4) and considers

the exact boundary conditions, assuming otherwise qL = qR = 12 . In this case for every

value of i and n → ∞ we have

w(i; n) = (L − 1)v + i(L − i)v : (6)

2

One sees that the average pressure Ps on the bottom is proportional to L because

L

1X v L3 2 L

Ps = lim w(i; n) = +L − −1 :

n→∞ L L 6 6

i=1

A simple calculation also shows that the typical saturation depth, , is proportional to

the square of the width of the silo in agreement with the full numerical calculation, but

at odds with Janssen’s prediction. Such a feature was recently reported by Peralta-Fabi

et al. [8] and by Vazquez et al. [9] and does not depend on the details for the variables

qL and qR . The reason of the failure of the model to reproduce Janssen’s law is that

the friction acts in a way that is not ecient enough. In other words, in spite of

the fact that the average value of the links is qM = 12 − 1=L as in the crude model,

for Eq. (4) the result changes drastically because, due to the boundary conditions the

average prole becomes highly non-uniform (it displays an inverted parabola shape as

shown by Fig. (2)). Most of the weight is supported by the grains in the bulk, where

the prole is of order vL2 , whereas near the walls it is only of order L. Thus the

U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288 283

Fig. 2. Collapse of the pressure distribution at bottom in the slip and nonslip model. While in the latter case

the pressure goes to zero at the walls, this is not the case in the slip model. For the slip case wN = wi =L.

In the nonslip case there is a further factor 1=L in ordinate, wN = wi =L2 , according to the scaling found.

Results for other values of the slip parameter R dierent from zero reproduces the same behavior shown in

the gure for R = 0:5.

which the prole were uniform and this fact renders the friction less eective. That

this is in fact at the origin of the dierent scaling can be easily veried by numerically

performing the process of Eq. (4), with the prescription that at each step the positions

of the grains of the (n − 1)th plane are shued before to compute the weight of the

nth plane. In this way, the correlations that generate the parabolic prole are destroyed,

the average pressure prole becomes at and the scaling properties of the Janssen law

are fully recovered.

3. A reÿned model

As discussed above the discrepancy between Janssen’s law and the numerical results

of Peralta-Fabi et al. model in the presence of the boundary conditions is due to the

fact that the pressure prole along a plane is highly non-uniform (Fig. 2). On the other

hand, the way in which friction with the walls is introduced does not seem to be very

unrealistic. A possible way out is to introduce a new ingredient into the model. In

essence if one imagines a mechanism which renders less likely the appearance of large

gradients in the horizontal weight prole, the asymptotic pressure will have the correct

284 U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288

scaling. We have seen in the previous subsection that the crude choice of boundary

conditions, in spite of being ad hoc, achieved this goal. A more rened recipe has

been proposed by Bouchaud and coworkers in their slip model [7]: basically, when the

prole slope exceeds a certain threshold, the load is transmitted towards the direction

where the slope decreases. Such a mechanism renders the weight prole less steep

and transfers the load towards the walls in a more ecient way. This is obtained by

including the possibility that a strain when acting on a grain may induce a slip of such

a grain, with the consequent loss of contact with one of the neighbors below, in such

a way that its load is transmitted only to the neighbors in the same direction of the

strain. In more detail the model by Bouchaud and Claudin is represented by Eq. (4)

together with

w− − w+

qR (i; n) = 1 − qL (i; n) = 0 if ¿Rc (7)

w(i; n)

and

w+ − w−

qL (i; n) = 1 − qR (i; n) = 0 if ¿Rc ; (8)

w(i; n)

where w ± =qR(L) (i ± 1; n − 1)w(i ± 1; n − 1). This non-linear mechanism achieves the

goal of transferring in an ecient, i.e., essentially ballistic way, the weight from the

bulk to the walls of the container.

In the simple model q’s are completely stochastic variables, and this leads to a set

of aleatory paths along which a fraction of the weight of each grain eventually reaches

the boundaries. Since, the container is of size L and the typical number of planes

needed for this to happen is proportional to its square, one has ˙ L2 for the scaling

of the characteristic vertical length. On the other hand, if a preferential direction is

introduced, like in the rened model, the weight transfer becomes ballistic and ˙ L,

like in Janssen’s law. In fact this kind of mechanism was originally introduced by

Bouchaud and coworkers, by assuming that the principal axis of the stress tensor in

an assembly of grain is, in general, tilted with respect to the vertical axis. This leads

in the continuum case from an equation of the diusive type for the stress propagation

to a wave-like equation [10].

Since the slip model reproduces quite well the Janssens scaling we nd interesting

to comment here on some properties not investigated previously. Fig. 3 displays the

PL

total load of the plane n; hWn i=L2 versus n=L, where Wn = i=1 w(i; n). Averages are

taken over many realizations of the random links q, for dierent values of the slip

parameter Rc . The rather striking data collapse implies the validity of Janssen’s law.

It is worth noting that the curve displays regular oscillations not smeared out by the

averaging process. Similar force modulations are present also in the continuum of

Ref. [10], described by a wave equation for the stress propagation, remarking the

analogy between this latter and the stick-slip model. Let us notice a relevant feature of

the
uctuations of Wn . At variance with standard cases in which the relative
uctuations

disappear for large systems L → ∞, we observe from Fig. 4 that for large n:

hWn2 i hWn i2

− ∼ O(1) :

L4 L4

U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288 285

Fig. 3. Collapse of the plane weight in the stick-slip model according to the Jansssen’s predictions. Analo-

gously to the model of Ref. [10] one observes force modulations.

In other words, in this model
uctuations are of the order of average values. In addition

it can be seen that, due to the logarithmic tails in the upper part of the pressure

distribution, typical values dier by nearly a factor two from average ones, although

they follow the same scaling with respect to L.

We have also investigated the local weight (i.e., on each site) distribution at the

bottom. As pointed out by Coppersmith and coworkers [6] this is characterized exper-

imentally by a long exponential tail, a behavior that is well reproduced by a lattice

model introduced by the same authors, the q model. However, in its originary formula-

tion the model is innite, with periodic boundary conditions in the horizontal direction.

It is in some sense remarkable that also in the conned versions considered here the

distribution still has long exponential tails. Fig. 5 shows that this feature is particularly

pronounced in the simple model, whilst in the stick-slip model there is a smaller tail

with a large number of sites supporting a very low weight.

From Fig. 4, reporting the data collapse of the probability distribution function of

Wn for dierent values of L; p(Wn =L2 ) against Wn =L2 , we can argue that due to the slip

mechanism the grains organize themselves in domains of size proportional to . This

fact suggests a statistical description of the silos in terms of the following toy model;

a vertical tube of radius L containing irregular blocks of linear size proportional to L,

since the domains scale with . Thus, by denoting with Wn the total load on plane

n; Mn its mass and x n the fraction of weight transmitted to the plane n + 1 one obtains

286 U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288

Fig. 4. Linear-log plot of the rescaled bottom pressure distribution in the slip model, the statistics is obtained

with 1000 realizations. wN is dened like in Fig. 2: in the nonslip model curves are Gaussian and, like for

other quantities, scaling has an additional factor proportional to L.

Fig. 5. Local weight distribution on the sites at the bottom. The long exponential tail observed in the nonslip

model is much shorter in the stick–slip model, where there is a large number of sites supporting low weights.

U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288 287

Fig. 6. Statistical distribution of plane weights in the toy model Eq. (9). It does not depend qualitatively on

the probability distribution of X and is similar to the one of the slip model.

Wn+1 = Mn + x n Wn : (9)

2

The mass Mn = O( ) and x n are random variables extracted according to probability

distributions h(Mn ) and g(x n ), respectively. According to this picture Mn is on the av-

erage proportional to L2 . Thus, the vertical distances are measured in units of ∼ L.

The probability distribution function P(W ) can be obtained in terms of an integral

equation involving the functions h(M ) and g(x) using a rather general approach origi-

nally introduced by Schmidt [11] and Dyson [12]. To the best of our knowledge there

is not a general method to solve analytically the above equation. On the other hand,

a numerical treatment is very simple, and the obtained average statistical properties

are rather similar to those of the slip model. Fig. 6 shows that the probability density

distribution of Wn when n → ∞ has the same qualitative shape as the stick-slip model.

This does not depend on the distribution of the random variable x.

We have shown that the addition of walls to the simple model introduced by Cop-

persmith et al. is not sucient to reproduce the Janssen’s law. On the contrary, an

ecient mechanism to transfer the weight from the bulk of the silo to the walls is a

288 U.M.B. Marconi et al. / Physica A 280 (2000) 279–288

necessary ingredient for determining the known phenomenological scaling, which corre-

spond to a mean eld regime. A possible way to introduce such an ecient mechanism

is through the stick-slip model proposed by Bouchaud and coworkers. In this model

long-range correlations in the stress propagation paths are introduced and lead to a bal-

listic weight transfer, i.e., the horizontal and the vertical tranfer typical lengths exhibit

the same scaling with L. This results in unloading regions of the grain assembly closer

to the silo’s axis as compared with what happens in the presence of completely random

weight transfers. In the latter case the pressure on grains close to the walls goes to

zero, whereas it is proportional to L in the former. Cross-over form diusive to bal-

listic regime in lattice models constitutes the discrete analog of considering hyperbolic

equations instead of elliptic equations for stress propagation in continuous media. The

stick–slip model possesses the same scaling properties as the mean eld, but one has

very large, non gaussian, relative
uctuations that do not vanish as the transverse size

of the silo increases. Exponential tails for the distribution of local weights at the bot-

tom are observed independently of the weight tranfer mechanism and of the observed

scaling. However, tails are short in the stick–slip model, where most of sites sustain

little loads.

References

[1] H.J. Herrmann, J.P. Hovi, J.P. Luding (Eds.), Physics of Dry Granular Media, NATO ASI, Dordrecht

(Netherlands) 1997.

[2] R.P. Behringer, J.T. Jenkins (Eds.), Powder and grains, Rotterdam (Netherlands), 1997.

[3] A. Drescher, G. de Josselin de Jong, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 20 (1972) 337.

[4] Brian Miller, Corey O’Hern, R.P. Behringer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 (1996) 3110, and references therein.

[5] H.A. Janssen, Z. Ver. Dt. Ing. 39 (1895) 1045.

[6] S.N. Coppersmith, C.-H. Liu, S. Majumdar, O. Narayan, T.A. Witten, Phys. Rev. E 53 (1996) 4673.

[7] P. Claudin, J.P. Bouchaud, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78 (1997) 231.

[8] R. Peralta-Fabi, C. Malaga, R. Rechtman, Europhys. Lett. 45 (1999) 76.

[9] A. Vazquez, J. Marin-Antuna, O. Sotolongo-Costa, preprint cond-mat=9903282.

[10] J.-P. Bouchaud, M.E. Cates, P. Claudin, J. Phys. (France) I 5 (1995) 639.

[11] H. Schmidt, Phys. Rev. 105 (1957) 425.

[12] F.J. Dyson, Phys. Rev. 92 (1953) 1331.

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