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c 


       


   pp p 


 p  p  pp p  p p p p pp p
 p

    ppp  pp p p   p  p p p pp
 pp  pp p  p

 pp p ppp ppp p p

 pp  p p p p

c   pp p p  p p pp  p

  pp!   p   p  p  p p p

  pp"  pp p   p

  pp# pp $p pp%p p

  pp"  p  p p pp p p pp

  pp& p p p p p p

 pp   pp p

    p  p    p p p p p p p p   p

 pp'  p p  pp  p

! pp p ppp p( p

"  pp p p p p

" p p p p p p p

#   ppp p  p p p p p  p p p pp

 !  pp  pp p  p p p p p p

!$ pp&  p p  p p  p  p p p )p p p    p p p
 p

  ppp p p  p p p pp p p p p p
  p    pp  p  p

%  ppp p p  p p p p p p  p    pp  p  p
p p pp

& ! *p p p  p p p  p
c  h 
  


2p     p         p

2p
     p   p    p       p

2p          p   p          p

2p  pp p p

2p  pp  p p

2p       p   p      p        p

2p      p       p

2p          p   p    p      p    p        p

2p        p   p      p  p  p    p     p

2p    pp   p

2p         p      p    p           p      p
2p 


     
2p    p      p    p       p      p       p   p        p        p         p    p       p
2p    p       p       p ! " # p  p ! $ # p   p   p    p      p      p    p      p   p    p   p   p    %  p      p
       p       p   p       p           p & ! p     p    p     p
2p
  p      p    p & p        p         p  p            p    p   p       p         p   p      p p
2p    p     p       p   p         p      p    p    '    p      p       p    p   p   p        p      p   p
       p   p       p            p ( p   p    p       p   p          p         p   p   p    p ! " # p   p
       p      p         p      p      p  p   p          p

         


j
 j 

2p    p      %  p     p      p   p       p    p        p      p    p   p     p   p   p         p    p   p     p   p
  p      %  p '     p   p     p

2p    p        p        p    p        p   p      p   p        p    p   p           p  p       ) p      p   p
        p      p    p     p   p       p  p

2p *     p   p       p   p          p         p    p       p   p         +     p    p       p   p        p

2p ,pp   p

2p -       p      p   p       p         p    p   p    p   p         p       p       p

2p ð       p    p    p       p        p .    p  p         p   p  p          p   p       / p  p     p

2p *       p          p   p     p       p   p     p        p

2p      p          p .      p           p     p          p       p           p   p         p
     /p

2p *        p   p      p   p    p   p      p   p      p

2p 0 pp p pp p

2p      p     p .     p      /  p        p   p      p   p      p   p      p
2p ,      p       1 p       p    p   p .        p   p        / p   p          ) p    p   p       ) p       p         p
         p   p         ) p         p       p

2p *     p   p      p .         p      p         / p   p     p      p        p

2p -       p   p      p   p       p        p   p       p         p         p

2p pp  p  pp    pp

2p 2  p           p    p    3   3      p          p .        p     p          p    p      p   p       p
  p

cpppp p  p   p p

" p" p  pp  p pp p p p  p p p pp p  p p p
p     p  p p p p

c  !  $ !p+   p p p,p-( p


2p       p       p      p & p  p ! p 4 p   p      p   p ! 5 p      p
2p       p        p        p   p       p       p        ! p       p        p        p           p
         p         p        ! p    p         p

       


   p    p     p      p    p       p    p        p        p          p          p         p    p          p
       p

þ 


2p 2     p   p         p       p   p         p          p        p          p     p     p    p     p         p
2p      p   p        p    p      p    p       p   p    p     p
2p
    p   p   p         p          p   p   p    p    p         p     p   p   p      p    p   p   p       p    p
     p      p    p        p      p        p p

2p 2  p        p   p    p     p      p          p      p 2 p & 3   p     p     p  '     p           p & " " " p


 4 p   p      p . & p   p   p           p $ " " p  4 / p


ð " 
'   '
  

2p          p        p        p      p           p     p       p       p    p      p         p     p          p
   p   p        pp

2p    p      p      p          p      p       p    p       p  p   p       p   p    p   p     p      p    p
    
 
 
2p  #               p         p   p      p   p  p        p       p  p   p      p   p     p    p   p
& " " " p       p     p   p       p  p   p        p   p       p        p    p    p   p   p      p p

2p  p  ppp  #     È ÈÈ  p


ã 
2p 6        p   p   p    p     p          p   p   p      %  p      p  p      p    p        p
 p
2p       p      p        p   p °   $   % &  p
p

      
p

Table 43-5 Renal Function Tests


Test Purpose Normal Values
Renal Concentration Testsp p

p  
p p
 
p  
pp
 p
p


p p
 
pp
p

p 

p !"p#$$%p p
  
p  
pp 
p p#$p
 pp p p
 p
p
 p
p p


pp
 p p
 p
p
p p

p

24-Hour Urine Testp p


p &

pp *pp
 p   
p +$$,!pp
pp Age Male Female
 pp
'
pp p -- -
 pp !p %.p !%p
 p p p
p !%p - ,
p %p -p

ppp
 p(p %p , ."
 pp !!p p
)
p
p
p
  p .p .- .%


p
p .p .p

 p

pp .,p . -
 pp p p
p
p (p
pp ,-p  
 pp !p p
p

 erum Testsp p


p *p .p$+p0p
  p 
 p  $+1p
p p

p

pp
p
pp
 p p

 p
/p p

 p   p p
p
 p
(pp
 
pp
)
p p

p  p
p p


pp
 p

p  pp ,-p$+p



p )pp p 6

p7.p 8p-p
0 p 
pp $+p
p p
p

p p
pp
23451p 
p p

 p
'
p  p
p
p
 p
p

 p
p
( p
p p
 p
p

349
9  
p

p  
p

p 

p:p
  
p
p
ppp
   p
p p
p p p
(
pp
  
p34p
p
p
pp(
p

p p
p
p

ð 
]  !  !    '     
2  p 3   p     p   p   p        p   p        p        p    p        p . 7 8 / p   p   p          p  p         p   p   +   p
      p    p        p   p   p        p    p  p       p       p     p            p


4      # 
2p    p             p   p        p      p    p       p
2p 2            p    p                    p       p                  p               (   p
p ) p pp  ppp
2p p  p
 
  
)p p  p  p pp  pp p
 

'       # 


2p    p  p p  p p p p 
p
c #   #     *     +  
2p        p         p .   / p     p    p       p         p        p . 9 ( / p    p          p     '    p   p
      p       p     3        p    p   p   p      p   p   p      p    p       p   p . p p p
2p     p  p       p            p        p                p     p      p          p      p   p       p   p
      p       p        p    p    p      p            p pp
2p  p   p     p   p          p . ( : / p        '   p      p     p   p     p   p   p        p  p       p       +     p

p
v    
2p 0      p     p    p     p  p       p    p    p      p      p        p      p      p    p      p    p       p
p p  p      p
2p     p  p            p  p       p        p       p   p        p
2p 
  
  # 
2p -  p p  p p   p
2p
   p p  p   p  p  p p   p      p  p
  p   p    p   p
2p  p   p  p p  p   p    p  p p   p
p  p p  p  p p p p   p  p  p
p
       # #    
2p   p   p pp  p  
p p  p  p
2p  p  p pp p  p  p p   p p pp  p p p p
 p
2p  p pp  p
2p   p pp p
2p p ppp p p ppp
2p p p  p  p p pp    &#'("
(pp p  p p

 
#  &  

2p p      p       p           p    p         p 3   p         p   p   p      p   p      p      p      p '        p
    p      p  p     p   p  p      p  p      p  p      p    p   p   p      

]   ' # 


2p 8     p   p   p      p   p     p  p     p         p    p       p   p    p   p       p        p
2p  p p;p p<ppp p  p
2p p 2 p (:p     p   p          p
2p p 2 p      p        p   p        p    p     p    p          p   p   p         p        p
2p (  p  p       p      p   p  p   p           p   p      p   p       p  p       p   p    p     p   p      p
.  p      p   p       p     p      / p     p   p       p   p     p        p    p       p   
     

   
          

 
 

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