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golden ideas Fall 2010

for a progressive california

Featured Policy: Fixing Food Stamps in California


Golden Ideas for a Progressive California
Pacific Regional Publication

National Director In
 the
 fall
 of
 2009
 a
 group
 of
 student
 leaders
 and

progressive
 policy
 thinkers
 came
 together
 at
 the
 Roosevelt

Hilary Doe Western
 Regional
 Retreat
 to
 imagine
 a
 conference
 and

publication
 centered
 around
 the
 problems
 and
 unique
 policy

solution
 to
 the
 most
 convoluted
 issues
 in
 California
 today.

Deputy D irector Months
 later
 “Golden
 Ideas
 for
 a
 Progressive
 California”
 is

Kurston C. Cook launched
 as
 a
 student
 response
 to
 the
 numerous
 policy
 issues

that
plague
California.
The
policy
memos
and
white
papers
in
this

publication
 exemplify
 the
 creativity,
 thoughtfulness,
 and
 the

Pacific Regional Coordinator propensity
 to
 engage
 in
 the
 policy
 making
 process—
Erika K. Solanki characteristics
 not
 often
 associated
 with
 today’s
 college
 aged

population.
 
 An
 overarching
 theme
 of
 the
 pieces
 in
 this

publication
 is
 region
 specific
 solutions
 that
 tap
 into
 the
 unique

Senior Editor geopolitical
 circumstances
 of
 California’s
 vast
 and
 diverse

Amreen Rahman regions.

This
 publication
 could
 not
 have
 been
 launched
 without

the
efforts
of
many
individuals.
I
would
like
to
particularly
thank

Assistant Editor Kevin
 Powers,
 a
 Roosevelt
 Alum
 who
 selflessly
 edited
 policy

Jenna Edzant pieces
 in
 order
 to
 maximize
 legislative
 traction
 and
 relevance.

Kevin
 worked
 closely
with
 the
 Editorial
staff
 in
terms
 of
content

revisions.
 His
 comments
 and
 suggestions
 were
 essential
 to
 the

Content Editor and publication
and
 his
unique
background
as
a
 Roosevelt
alum
and

as
 a
 legislative
 assistant
 to
 Assemblymember
 Marty
 Block

Legislative Adv isor offered
an
insider’s
insight
to
authors,
giving
them
an
idea
of
the

Kevin Powers important
components
of
a
strong
policy
proposal.

We
 would
 also
 like
 to
 thank
 the
 Roosevelt
 Institute

National
 Staff:
 Kurston
 Cook,
 the
 National
 Field
 Director,
 for

The Roosevelt Instit ute | tirelessly
helping
and
advocating
for
the
successful
launch
of
the

Campus Network publication
 and
 conference
 at
 every
 step;
 Tarsi
 Dunlop,
 the

Director
 of
 Operations
 and
 Administration,
 and
 Hilary
 Doe,
 the

455 Massachusetts Ave NW
Director
of
the
Roosevelt
Institute
|
Campus
Network.

Suite 650 Sincerely,

Washington, DC 20001 Amreen
Rahman


 Senior
Editor


Copyright
©
2010
by
the
Roosevelt
Institute.
All
rights
reserved.

The
views
and
opinions
expressed
herein
are
those
of
the
authors.
They
do
not
express
the
views
or
opinions
of
the

Roosevelt
Institute,
its
officers,
or
its
directors.

Ensuring Stable Revenues for California
Ian Magruder, Diane Coppini and Ilana Newman
University of California Berkeley
Message from the Editors
Fixing Food Stamps in California
Rajiv Narayan
University of California Davis

A Comprehensive Plan for Healthcare Infrastructure in California’s


Heartland: Addressing Central Valley Healthcare Needs
Megha Mahida and Amreen Rahman
University of California Los Angeles

Mitigate Southern California Traffic: Coordination, Alternatives


and a Congestion Price System
Erika K. Solanki and Karl Taraporewalla
University of California Los Angeles

Fixing Nutritional Access in Under-Served Urban Centers


Torin Jones, Willis Hon and Ilana Newman
University of California Berkeley
contents

Introducing Competition into California’s Prison Systems


Brent Gaisford
University of California Los Angeles

Combating Student Homelessness: 24-Hour Peer-Run Services


Jenna Edzant, Joelle Gamble and Amreen Rahman
University of California Los Angeles

A Tax Revolution in California


Kunitaka Ueno
University of California San Diego

Implement Rehabilitation Programs to Reduce Prison Overcrowding


Shah-Rukh Paracha
University of California Los Angeles
Ensuring Stable Revenues for California
Ian Magruder, Diane Coppini and Ilana Newman, University of California Berkeley

History the
 reserves
 could
 provide
 funding
 for
 California
 when



the
state
faces
below
average
revenues.


California,
 the
 Golden
 State,
 was
 once
 at
 the
 Recommendation
1:
Expand
the
size
of
the
rainy

forefront
 of
 education,
 innovation,
 and
 technology.
 Not
 day
 reserve
 fund.
 Increase
 the
 size
 of
 the
 Budget

only
is
 California
rich
 with
diversity
and
 creativity,
but
it
 Stabilization
Account
(BSA)
from
the
current
level,
either

has
 also
 been
 consistently
 ranked
 as
 the
 fifth
 or
 sixth
 5%
 of
 state
 revenues
 or
 $8
 billion
 (whichever
 is
 higher)

largest
 economy
 in
 the
 world.
 Up
 to
 2005,
 the
 state
 to
 15%
 of
 revenues.
 This
 increase
 would
 bring
 the
 full

expanded
 services
 and
 spent
 freely;
 however,
 since
 the
 size
 of
the
 BSA
to
an
estimated
$13.8
billion
 in
the
next

energy
 crisis
 and
 the
 dot
 com
 bubble
 burst,
 California
 fiscal
year.2
Once
it
reaches
the
new
capacity,
the
larger

has
 become
 the
 state
 of
 NO:
 no
 funding
 for
 schools,
 no
 BSA
 would
 give
 the
 legislature
 a
 larger
 fund
 of
 reserves

funding
 for
 services,
 no
 funding
 for
 infrastructure.
 to
 draw
 from
 in
 case
 of
 natural
 disasters
 or
 dramatic

Revenues
in
California
fluctuate,
straining
the
budget.
In
 decreases
in
revenue
during
economic
downturns.

times
 of
 low
 and
 immobile
 earnings,
 the
 state
 is
 forced
 Recommendation
 2:
 Ensure
 that
 funds
 can
 be

to
 make
 cuts.
 In
 contrast,
 during
 times
 of
 high
 revenue,
 removed
 when
 necessary
 during
 low
 revenue
 years
 and

the
state
spends
freely.

To
restore
California
as
a
leader,
 establish
 criteria
 for
 what
 circumstances
 warrant

we
 must
 provide
 essential
 services
 for
 our
 residents
 removal
 of
 funds.
 Pass
 a
 law
 that
 allows
 the
 legislature

consistently.
 to
remove
funds
from
the
BSA.
Funds
would
be
removed

only
 for
 emergencies
 –
 such
 as
 fires,
 earthquakes,
 and

In
 March
 of
 2004,
 California
 voters
 approved
 other
natural
disasters
–
or
when
state
revenues
are
not

Proposition
 58,
 establishing
 the
 Budget
 Stabilization
 high
 enough
 to
 match
 state
 spending
 level
 set
 in
 the

Account
 (BSA).
 
 This
 proposition
 requires
 the
 State
 previous
 year,
 adjusted
 for
 population
 and
 inflation

Controller
to
transfer
3%
of
the
estimated
 General
Fund
 changes.
 In
 order
 to
 protect
 reserves
 for
 the
 years
 in

revenues
 from
 the
 General
 Fund
 to
 the
 BSA.
 The
 which
 they
 are
 most
 needed,
 BSA
 funds
 could
 not
 be

legislature
 may
 transfer
 amounts
 in
 excess
 of
 the
 withdrawn
for
any
other
purposes.

specified
 percentage
 to
 the
 BSA.
 In
 addition,
 the
 Recommendation
 3:
 Ensure
 that
 funds
 will
 be

Governor,
by
 executive
 order,
 may
suspend
 the
transfer
 added
 during
 high
 revenue
 years.
 The
 Governor
 will
 be

to
 the
 BSA.
 Subsequently,
 for
 the
 last
 two
 years,
 any
 able
 to
 only
 stop
 the
 BSA
 transfer
 in
 years
 when
 the

money
 transferred
 into
 the
 BSA
 has
 been
 transferred
 state
 does
 not
 have
 enough
 revenues
 to
 pay
 for
 state

back
 into
 the
 General
 Fund.
 
 The
 BSA
 currently
 has
 no
 spending
 equal
 to
 the
 previous
 year’s
 level
 of
 spending,

money.
 California
 has
 another
 special
 fund,
 the
 Special
 adjusted
 for
 population
 and
 inflation.
 This
 limitation

Fund
 for
 Economic
 Uncertainties
 (SFEU).
 Currently,
 any
 would
 ensure
 that
 the
 Governor
 does
 not
 suspend
 the

unexpected
 revenues
 the
 state
 receives
 are
 deposited
 annual
 transfer
 of
 General
 Fund
 money
 into
 the
 BSA
 in

into
the
SFEU.
It
operates
like
the
BSA‐‐transfer
money
in
 times
 when
revenues
outpace
costs,
for
 example
during

from
 the
 general
 fund,
 or
 transfer
 money
 out
 to
 the
 the
 1990’s
 economic
 boom,
 when
 California
 had
 excess

general
fund.
 tax
 revenue
 that
 could
 have
 easily
 been
 shifted
 into
 a

raining
 day
 fund.3
 
 
 In
 short,
 a
 portion
 of
 California

Policy Alternatives
 revenues
should
be
moved
into
a
fund
to
save
for
future

times
of
economic
downturn.


 Given
 that
 both
 of
 California’s
 “rainy
 day”
 

reserve‐funds,
 the
 SEFU
 and
 the
 BSA,
 are
 presently
 at

low
levels
and
unable
 to
serve
 the
state
 when
revenues


 Outcomes & Conclusion
decrease
dramatically,
reform
is
needed.
Since
the
SEFU
 
 The
ultimate
of
goal
of
this
policy
proposal
is
the

is
 a
 smaller
 fund
 primarily
 used
 for
 any
 unexpected
 stabilization
 of
 California’s
 budget
 in
 order
 to
 prevent

revenues
 or
 expenses
 between
 budgets,
 this
 policy
 regressive
 tax
 increases
 and
 drastic
 cuts
 in
 funding
 for

proposal
 focuses
 on
 reforming
 the
 BSA,
 which
 has
 a
 state
 programs
 during
 periods
 of
 low‐revenue.
 
 The

greater
 mandate
 to
 ensure
 the
 financial
 stability
 of
 targets
 of
 recent
 cuts
 in
 state
 funding
 have
 been

California.
 The
 following
 three
 recommendations
 would
 education,
 healthcare,
 social
 services,
 and
 rehabilitative

strengthen
and
expand
the
ability
of
the
reserves
so
that
 and
correctional
facilities.

Diminution
of
these
programs

individually

not
 only
 compromises
 the
 quality
 of
 life
 and
 welfare
 of
 citizens,
 also
 has
 been
 a
 prominent
 victim
 of
 fiscal

vulnerable
 individuals,
 but
 is
 also
 a
 detriment
 to
 the
 volatility.
 
 Recently
 the
 Governor
 vetoed
 $80
 million

well‐being
and
future
prosperity
of
California
as
a
whole.
 from
 the
 2009‐10
 appropriation
 for
 Child
 Welfare


 Services
 Program,
 the
 state
 legislature
 cut
 foster
 care

Education
 programs
 by
 ten
 percent,
 and
 the
 Healthy
 Families


 The
 primary
 victims
 of
 recent
 state
 budget
 Program
 now
 face
 a
 $196
 million
 state
 funding
 shortfall

instability
 have
 been
 students.
 
 According
 to
 the
 official
 for
 2009‐10.5
 
 In
 addition,
 General
 Fund
 support
 for

Legislative
 Analyst
 Office’s
 2009‐10
 California
 Spending
 community
clinic
programs
has
been
cut
by
$35.1
million

Plan,
the
largest
single
group
of
solutions
adopted
during
 and
 payment
 to
 Medical
 public
 safety‐net
 hospitals
 has

the
 budget
 process—totaling
 $14.5
 billion—brought
 been
 reduced
 by
 ten
 percent,
 according
 to
 research
 by

Proposition
 98
 spending
 for
 K‐14
 education
 down
 to
 its
 the
 California
 Budget
 Project.6
 
 Alongside
 the

minimum
 guaranteed
 funding
 level
 under
 the
 State
 preservation
of
corporate
tax
breaks,
the
continued
lack

Constitution
in
both
2008‐09
and
2009‐10.4
 of
 budget
 stabilization
 is
 clearly
 unjust.
 Further

Increases
in
class
sizes,
cancelling
of
summer
and
 undermining
the
state’s
revenue
base
will
lead
to
further

after‐school
 programs,
 and
 laying
 off
 teachers
 are
 cuts
 that
 place
 the
 young,
 the
 sick,
 and
 the
 poor
 at
 the

examples
 of
 the
 damages
 sustained
 by
 the
 state
 bottom
of
California’s
prioritization
hierarchy.

legislature’s
 misguided
 prioritization
 of
 funds.
 
 Recent
 

budget
 cuts
 to
 higher
 education
 call
 into
 question
 the
 Programs

state’s
 commitment
 to
 provide
 its
 residents
 with
 access
 
 Other
programs
that
have
recently
faced
funding

to
 a
 high‐quality,
 affordable
 college
 education.
 In
 the
 cuts
 include
 correctional
 and
 rehabilitative
 facilities,

absence
 of
 funding,
 fewer
 Californians
 have
 the
 public
works
plans,
and
infrastructure
maintenance.
The

opportunity
to
earn
a
college
degree
at
the
state’s
public
 proposed
policies
 would
 increase
the
size
 of
the
 Budget

universities.
 In
 the
 future,
 the
 state
 (and
 global
 Stabilization
 Account,
 which
 would
 result
 in
 prolonged

economy)
 will
 be
 in
 short
 supply
 of
 highly
 skilled
 transfer
 money
 at
 the
 annual
 3%
 rate
 from
 the
 General

workers.


 Fund
into
the
 BSA.

This
presents
the
 trade‐off
of
short‐
Ideally,
 the
 outcome
 of
 the
 proposed
 budget‐ term
 set‐up
 costs
 with
 long‐term
 benefits
 of
 fiscal

stabilization
 policies
 will
 guarantee
 the
 intransience
 of
 stability.
It
will
take
time
for
the
 BSA
to
reach
 expanded

funds
 for
 education
 because
 it
 will
 allow
 revenue
 to
 be
 size,
 and
 the
 cost
 of
 reaching
 the
 target
 size
 will
 be

utilized
for
an
aspect
of
the
state
agenda
that
transcends
 short‐term
 spending
 that
 is
 diverted
 into
 the
 BSA.

present
concerns
in
preparation
for
the
future.
Research
 However,
 when
 revenue
 is
 down
 in
 the
 future,
 cuts
 in

by
the
American
Educational
Research
Association
shows
 crucial
programs
previously
discussed
can
be
avoided
by

a
 correlation
 with
 higher
 reading
 and
 math
 scores
 of
 tapping
 into
 a
 strengthened
 and
 expanded
 Budget

elementary
students
in
states
with
newly
reformed
fiscal
 Stabilization
 Account.
 A
 study
 by
 the
 American

discipline,
 accountability,
 and
 transparency
 policies.

 Educational
 Research
 Association
 shows
 a
 correlation

Prevention
 of
 further
 budget
 cuts
 in
 education
 would
 with
 higher
 reading
 and
 math
 scores
 of
 elementary

benefit
 current
 students
 as
 well
 as
 employees
 students
 in
 states
 with
 newly
 reformed
 fiscal
 discipline,

experiencing
furloughs
and
lay‐offs.
 accountability,
and
transparency
policies.
 
Prevention
of


 further
 budget
 cuts
 in
 education
 would
 benefit
 current

Services
 students
 as
 well
 as
 employees
 experiencing
 furloughs


 The
 sector
 of
 health
 and
 human
 services,
 an
 and
lay‐offs.

essential
 resource
 for
 California’s
 most
 under‐served
 


Sources
1
"Official
Voter
Information
Guide."
California
Secretary
of
State.
http://www.voterguide.sos.ca.gov/propositions/
(accessed
Feb
11,
2010).

2

"California
Forward
2010
Fiscal
Reform
Principals."
California
Forward
Action
Fund.
http://www.cafwd‐action.org/projects/2010‐reform‐p
(accessed
Feb
9,
2010).


"Governor's
Budget
2010‐2011."
State
of
California.
8
Jan
2010.
http://govbud.dof.ca.gov/StateAgencyBudgets/8000/9
(accessed
Feb
17,
2010).

4

McLean,
Hilary.
"State
Schools
Chief
Jack
O'Connell
Highlights
Impact
of
Budget
Cuts
to
Education." California
Department
of
Education
News
Release,
3
Jun
2009,

http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr09/yr09rel86.asp.

5

"Human
Services
and
Childcare."
California
Budget
Project.
16
Nov
2009.
http://www.cbp.org/publications/human_services_lan
(accessed
Feb
13,
2010).

6

Taylor,
Mac.
"2009‐10
California
Spending
Plan."
California's
Legislative
Analyst's
Office.
1
Oct
2009.
http://www.lao.ca.gov/2009/spend_plan/spending_pla

(accessed
Feb
10,
2010).




Fixing Food Stamps in California
Rajiv Narayan, University of California Davis

Introduction through
 the
 1970s.
 Where
 one
 million
 individuals
 used



Food
Stamps
in
1966,
the
program’s
benefits
reached
15


 Until
 recently
 known
 as
 the
 Food
 Stamp
 million
 by
 October
 1974.
 This
 tremendous
 expansion

Program,
the
Supplemental
Nutrition
Assistance
Program
 created
cause
for
a
concern
that
continues
to
frame
the

(SNAP)
 functions
 as
 a
 safety
 net
 for
 millions
 of
 families.
 Food
 Stamps
 debate:
 How
 can
 we
 expand
 the
 program

By
 supplementing
 the
 income
 of
 their
 beneficiaries,
 to
 help
 more,
 while
 still
 keeping
 the
 program

SNAP
 improves
 its
 participants’
 access
 to
 a
 healthy,
 accountable?


complete
diet.
Nationally,
the
program
serves
34
million

people
a
month.
3
 million
 Californians
 participate
in
 the
 
 The
 1970s
 saw
 major
 legislative
 updates
 to
 the

program
each
month,
though
3
million
more
are
eligible,
 program;
 national
 standards
 for
 eligibility
 requirements

but
not
participating.1

 were
 implemented,
 funding
 schemes
 were
 adjusted
 to

balance
 the
 responsibility
 between
 states
 and
 the


 This
 paper
 will
 consider
 the
 shortfalls
 of
 the
 federal
 government,
 and
 the
 program
 was
 expanded
 to

Californian
 operation
 through
 an
 analysis
 of
 the
 aid
 every
 state.
 In
 1977,
 the
 program
 was
 overhauled

program’s
 history,
 the
 program’s
 characteristics
 in
 once
 again
 in
 The
 Food
 Stamp
 Act,
 which
 included

California,
 and
 recent
 legislative
 developments
 in
 the
 provisions
 to
 expedite
 access
 and
 tighten
 controls
 on

State
 Assembly.
 It
 will
 then
 aggregate
 the
 key
 policy
 fraud.



pitfalls
 afflicting
 California,
 before
 finally
 appraising

potential
courses
of
action.
 
 While
 legislation
 in
 the
 early
 1980s
 cut
 back

benefits
 and
 limited
 eligibility
 criteria,
 the
 mid‐to‐late

1980s
 saw
 a
 mild
 expansion
 of
 the
 program
 to
 address

History
rising
 domestic
 hunger.
 To
 enhance
 the
 efficiency
 and

effectiveness
 of
 the
 program,
 Electronic
 Transfer


 The
 Supplemental
 Nutrition
 Assistance
 Program

Benefits
 (EBT)
 began
 in
 1988
 (the
 use
 of
 EBT
 cards
 was

began
 as
 a
 series
 of
 iterations
 under
 the
 name
 “Food

universal
 across
 the
 country
 by
 2004).
 EBT
 eliminated

Stamps.”
The
initial
purpose
of
the
program
in
1939
was

the
 need
 for
 coupons,
 alleviating
 the
 concerns
 of
 those

to
 address
 what
 its
 first
 administrator,
 Milo
 Perkins,

who
 felt
 stigmatized
 by
 their
 participation
 in
 the

identified
as
a
great
gorge
–with
agricultural
surpluses
on

program.


one
 side
 and
 underfed,
 unemployed
 urbanites
 on
 the

other.2
 When
 the
 program
 ended
 four
 years
 later
 in
 
 After
 hitting
 a
 peak
 of
 benefiting
 28
 million

1943,
 it
 was
 because
 the
 conditions
 that
 predicated
 its
 individuals
in
1994,
participation
began
to
wane
through

need
no
longer
existed.
As
the
program
found
its
origins
 the
 end
of
the
decade.
While
part
of
this
decline
can
 be

in
 agriculture,
 it
 has
 remained
 under
 the
 administration
 attributed
to
falling
unemployment,
much
of
it
has
gone

of
the
United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.

 unexplained.
 One
 factor
 to
 consider
 is
 1996
 Welfare

Reform,
 which
 brought
 cuts
 and
 limitations
 to
 the


 The
program
reappeared
almost
two
decades
later

program
 by
 removing
 certain
 population
 sub‐groups

with
the
backing
of
several
prominent
senators.
To
fulfill

(adults
 without
 dependents
 and
 legal
 immigrants)
 from

a
 campaign
 promise
 to
 Virginia,
 John
 F.
 Kennedy’s
 first

those
 able
 to
 benefit
 fully
 from
 the
 allotted
 aid.

executive
 order
 implemented
 a
 pilot
 version
 of
 the

However,
 the
 1997
 Balanced
 Budget
 Act
 and
 the
 1998

program
 in
 22
 states.
 The
 more
 modern
 incarnation
 of

Agricultural
 Research,
 Education,
 and
 Extension
 Act

the
program
was
realized
when
Lyndon
Johnson
worked

adjusted
certain
provisions
to
restore
some
of
the
cut
aid

with
 Congress
 to
 formalize
 the
 law
 into
 permanent

and
marginalized
groups.

stature
 in
 1964.
 Notable
 provisions
 inserted
 at
 this

junction
 included
 the
 shared
 responsibilities
 for
 
 As
participation
fell
to
17.2
million
by
FY
2000,
the

administering
 the
 program
 between
 the
 federal
 and
 USDA
 refocused
 on
 facilitating
 access
 to
 the
 program.

state
governments.

 The
major
piece
of
legislation
in
the
early
2000s
for
Food

Stamps
 was
the
2002
Farm
 Bill
(Food
Security
and
 Rural


 Due
 to
 the
 geographic
 expansion
 of
 the
 program,

Investment
 Act
 of
 2002).
 It
 restored
 several
 eligibility

participation
 rapidly
 increased
 from
 the
 late
 1960s

criteria,
 provided
 incentives
 for
 states
 with
 low
 error

inpende



counts
 in
 enrollment
 (and
 disincentives
 for
 states
 with
 
 While
 SNAP
 is
 a
 federal
 program,
 states
 have
 the

repeatedly
 high
 error
 counts),
 awarded
 performance‐
 authority
to
“customize”
their
program
by
use
of
options

means
 by
 which
 states
 could
 simplify
 program
 access,
 afforded
to
them
by
federal
legislation,
most
notably
the

administration,
and
reporting.
 2002
 Farm
 Bill.5
 It
 is
 through
 these
 options
 that
 state

assemblies
 legislate
 the
 administration
 of
 the
 program.


 Figures
 began
 to
 improve
 soon
 thereafter.
 By
 The
 Food
 and
 Nutrition
 Service
 (FNS)
 of
 the
 USDA

2006,
participation
reached
26
million.
Payment
accuracy
 collects
data
on
the
options
exercised
by
each
state.


increased
from
34
percent
in
FY
2000
to
94.12
percent
in

FY
2004.
Owing
to
marked
achievements
in
accuracy,
the
 
 This
 paper
 will
 focus
 on
 these
 options,
 as
 they

USDA
awarded
24
states
a
total
of
$48
million
in
FY
2005.
 represent
 the
 most
 amendable
 aspects
 of
 SNAP
 in

Since
 the
 beginning
 of
 the
 decade,
 49
 states
 have
 California.
A
handful
of
options
are
of
particular
interest,

adopted
 a
 simplified
 reporting
 system
 (with
 California
 and
should
be
held
in
comparison
to
other
states.
In
the

left
over).


 next
 section,
 each
 noted
 option
 is
 expanded
 upon.

California
is
one
of
only
two
states
not
to
take
advantage


 As
 non‐disaster
 participation
 reached
 an
 all‐time
 of
simplified
reporting.

California
is
one
of
16
states
not

high
 of
 29
 million
 people
 per
 month
 in
 2008,
 program
 to
 offer
 expanded
 categorical
 eligibility.
 35
 states
 either

accuracy
 continued
 to
 improve.
 The
 2008
 Farm
 Bill
 have
 or
 are
 working
 on
 electronic
 applications
 –
committed
 $10
 billion
 to
 the
 program
 over
 the
 California
is
not
one
of
them.


subsequent
 10
 years.
 To
 keep
 with
 the
 tide
 of
 other

states,
 the
 USDA
 changed
 the
 name
 of
 the
 program
 to
 Recent Legislation in State Assembly
fight
 stigma.
 It
 is
 now
 formally
 known
 as
 the

Supplemental
Nutrition
Assistance
Program.

 
 Of
 the
 six
 most
 recent
 legislative
 attempts
 to

modify
 a
 SNAP
 option,
 all
 but
 two
 have
 failed.
 In
 the

SNAP in California 2007‐2008
 session,
 Assemblyman
 Jim
 Beall
 Jr.
 was

successful
in
passing
AB
433,
a
bill
that
served
to
change


 The
 California
 Department
 of
 Social
 Services
 the
 name
 of
 the
 program
 to
 SNAP
 and
 expand

(CDSS)
 manages
 the
 program
 statewide.
 Benefits
 are
 categorical
eligibility
to
Medi‐Cal
recipients.6
In
the
2008‐
accorded
 to
 households,
 which
 also
 double
 as
 the
 main
 2009
 session,
 AB
 719
 (introduced
 by
 Assemblywoman

eligibility
 unit.
 Households,
 not
 individuals,
 receive
 Bonnie
 Lowenthal)
 extended
 benefits
 to
 youth
 exiting

benefits.3
 Therefore,
 only
 when
 the
 household’s
 gross
 the
foster
care
system
for
12
months.7


income
 is
 lower
 than
 the
 eligibility
 criteria
 will
 the

household
 receive
 assistance.
 Within
 the
 eligibility
 
 In
the
2008‐2009
session,
AB
1057
(Beall),
AB
1198

criteria
 there
 are
 various
 exemptions
 and
 deductions.
 (Swanson),
AB
643
(Skinner)
all
failed.8
Had
they
passed,

For
 example,
 if
 elderly
 or
 disabled
 persons
 reside
 in
 the
 they
 would
 have
 eliminated
 the
 statewide
 fingerprint

household,
the
gross
income
level
may
be
higher.

If
each
 requirement,
 eliminated
 the
 lifetime
 ban
 on
 convicted

individual
 in
 the
 household
 is
 receiving
 a
 recognized
 drug
 felons
 from
 receiving
 benefits,
 and
 allowed
 county

form
 of
 assistance
 (such
 as
 CalWORKs),
 the
 household
 welfare
 departments
 to
 transfer
 a
 recipient’s
 benefits

becomes
categorically
eligible
and
automatically
qualifies
 from
 one
 county
 to
 another
 (as
 opposed
 to
 requiring
 a

for
benefits.
Unless
they
are
exempt,
all
beneficiaries
are
 second
 application
 process).
 Most
 recently,
 AB
 1642

expected
to
meet
a
work
requirement.

 (Beall)
 has
 met
 its
 end
 in
 the
 2009‐2010
 session.5
 AB

1642
 attempted
 to
 move
 California
 to
 a
 simplified


 Although
 the
 CDSS
 manages
 the
 program
 reporting
system.

statewide,
 County
 Welfare
 Departments
 (CWDs)
 carry

much
 of
 the
 responsibility
 for
 the
 administration
 of
 the
 Key Policy Concerns
program,
 especially
 in
 determining
 household
 eligibility.


The
 USDA
 finances
 all
 the
 benefits
 and
 half
 of
 the
 total
 
 At
 the
 policy
 level,
 two
 major
 concerns
 structure

administration
 costs
 borne
 by
 the
 states.
 The
 remaining
 the
need
for
reform.
One
problem
afflicting
nearly
every

costs
 are
 divided
 among
 the
 state
 and
 local
 state
 is
 the
 program's
 participation
 rate,
 the
 ability
 of

governments,
 with
 the
 total
 split
 being
 50‐35‐15
 by
 the
 SNAP
to
reach
its
intended
population.
An
issue
endemic

federal,
state,
and
local
governments,
respectively.
In
FY
 to
California
is
its
prohibitively
high
administrative
costs.


2009‐2010,
 the
 federal
 government
 contributed
 $602.9

million
 to
 administration;
 the
 State
 contributed
 $418.4
 The
 following
 sections
 will
 consider
 the
 structural

million,
and
the
counties,
$158.9
million.4


 motivation
and
manifestation
of
these
concerns.


 

Performance as a Function of of
 improving
 the
 national
 level
 is
 inherently
 tied
 to

California's
ability
to
improve
its
own
participation
rate.


Participation

 A
 more
 pressing
 concern
 is
 the
 tremendous


 Since
 the
 passage
 of
 the
 1993
 Government
 opportunity
 cost
 California
 incurs
 when
 it
 fails
 to
 fully

Performance
 and
 Results
 Act,
 policymakers
 have
 been
 enroll
 the
 eligible
 population.
 Because
 benefits
 are

compiling
data
on
programs
to
gauge
their
effectiveness.
 financed
 by
 federal
 dollars,
 increasing
 participation
 is

The
 Supplemental
 Nutrition
 Assistance
 Program
 (SNAP)
 tantamount
 to
 bringing
 in
 free
 aid
 to
 the
 state.
 Indeed,

participation
 rates
 command
 the
 most
 attention
 from
 records
from
the
California
Department
of
Social
Services

the
 USDA
 in
 this
 respect.
 Participation
 rates
 track
 the
 indicate
 that
 $469.8
 million
 reached
 the
 3
 million

reach
of
the
program
by
determining
what
proportion
of
 participating
 beneficiaries
 in
 February
 2010.14
 With
 3

the
 eligible
 population
 participates
 in
 the
 program.
 The
 million
more
eligible
not
participating,
the
state
foregoes

USDA
 predicates
 their
 goals
 for
 SNAP
 on
 these
 rates,
 $3.7
 billion
 in
 federal
 benefits
 each
 year.4
 
 When
 a

which
 are
 packaged
 together
 and
 released
 annually.
 In
 potential
 beneficiary
 does
 not
 receive
 the
 intended

2010,
for
 example,
 the
intended
goal
 is
to
reach
68%
of
 federal
 dollars,
 not
 only
 does
 that
 individual
 struggle
 to

the
 eligible
 population
 in
 the
 given
 fiscal
 year.10
 In
 FY
 put
food
on
 the
 table,
but
the
state
loses
as
 well.
Spent

2007
(the
latest
year
for
which
there
is
data),
66%
of
the
 aid
 generates
 revenue
 for
 every
 level
 of
 government.

eligible
 population
 participated
 in
 the
 program.11
 This
 Each
 year,
 estimates
 California
 Food
 Policy
 Advocates,

indicator
 does
 not
 capture
 the
 wide
 variation
 between
 the
 state
 budget
 loses
 a
 potential
 $121
 million
 and

states.
 Indeed,
 17
 states
 display
 participation
 rates
 county
 budgets
 lose
 $32
 million.16
 With
 both
 state
 and

significantly
below
the
national
average.12

 county
 administrations
 in
 a
 constant
 state
 of
 financial

stress,
these
lost
figures
are
not
trivial.



 One
 of
these
states
 is
California,
 which
ranks
50

out
 of
 51
 when
 data
 includes
 the
 District
 of
 Columbia.
 
 Finally,
 the
 state
 loses
 a
 substantial
 amount
 of

Among
 the
 eligible
 population,
 only
 48%
 participated
 in
 economic
 activity.
 To
 the
 benefit
 of
 local
 economic

SNAP.
 While
 some
 states
 have
 made
 progress
 in
 raising
 activity,
SNAP
benefits
(formerly
known
as
Food
Stamps)

their
 participation
 rate
 (Iowa,
 a
 noteworthy
 case,
 must
be
spent
on
food.
Because
the
benefit
is
a
monthly

allowance,
 they
 cannot
 be
 saved
 or
 invested.
 As
 such,

increased
their
rate
from
65%
in
2005
to
70%
in
2006
to

every
 dollar
 of
 spent
 benefits
 generates
 $1.84
 in

74%
in
2007.),
California
has
observed
no
lasting
growth.
 economic
 activity.17
 For
 comparison,
 note
 that
 each

dollar
 of
 federal
 stimulus
 money
 generated
 $1.26
 of

When
 comparing
 participation
 among
 the

economic
 activity.
 Due
 to
 California's
 abysmal

working
poor,
California
ranks
last
at
33%
in
2007,
again

participation
 rate,
 the
 state
 foregoes
 $6.9
 billion
 in

with
 no
 lasting
 growth.13
 The
 disparity
 between

economic
activity
annually.


California
 and
 the
 national
 average
 is
 starker
 for
 the

working
poor.
While
the
state's
participation
rate
is
only

37.5%
 lower
 than
 the
 national
 average
 for
 overall

Barriers to Participation
eligibility,
 its
 participation
 rate
 among
 the
 working
 poor
 Time
Commitment:

is
 70%
 lower
 than
 the
 national
 average.
 Discussed

further
 below
 is
 the
 combination
 of
 institutional
 For
 an
 applicant
 to
 determine
 the
 eligibility
and

obstacles
 that
 explain
 limited
 outreach
 to
 the
 latter
 apply
for
aid,
he
or
she
must
make
at
least
three
trips
to

population
subgroup.

 the
 appropriate
 local
 office.
 Trips
 include
 paperwork

filing,
interviews,
and
 education
on
the
operation
of
the

The Consequences of Low Participation program.
 Studies
 have
 shown
 that
 applicants
 spend,
 on

average,
 five
 hours
 applying
 for
 aid.
 Moreover,
 offices


 Characterizing
the
performance
of
SNAP
through
 that
 manage
 SNAP
 benefits
 have
 held
 traditional,

participation
 rates
 does
 not
 speak
 to
 the
 full
 extent
 of
 weekday
 hours
 of
 operation
 since
 the
 beginning
 of
 the

California's
 significance
 as
 the
 near‐worst
 ranking
 state.
 program.
 For
 an
 applicant
 to
 come
 in
 requires
 taking

Nationally,
SNAP
benefits
34
million
people
a
month.
The
 time
off
from
work
–time
that
is
usually
uncompensated.

3
 million
 Californian
 beneficiaries
 comprise
 roughly
 10%
 If
eligible
applicants
are
employed
during
the
traditional

of
the
nation's
total.
The
3
million
more
Californians
that
 workday
hours
to
make
ends
meet,
they
are
less
likely
to

are
 eligible,
 but
 do
 not
 participate,
 are
 weighing
 down
 apply
 for
 benefits.
 Under
 these
 restraints,
 it
 is

the
national
rate.
Due
to
the
size
of
the
state,
any
hope
 conceivable
why
participation
among
the
working
poor
is





substantially
lower
than
overall
participation.
 costs
of
administration
are
borne
equally
by
two
parties,



 the
 state
 and
 federal
 government.
 A
 state
 with
 large

Quarterly
Reporting:
 expenses,
 then,
 is
 not
 only
 a
 burden
 unto
 itself,
 but
 it


 places
fiscal
pressure
on
federal
support
as
well.



 To
remain
enrolled
in
the
program,
beneficiaries

must
 report
 their
 financial
 status
 on
 an
 interval
 
 California
 has
 the
 largest
 caseload
 of
 any
 state,

determined
 by
 the
 state.
 Prior
 to
 2002,
 five
 years
 of
 so
the
costs
of
operation
are
predictably
high.
However,

successive
 legislative
 efforts
 attempted
 to
 loosen
 the
 the
 cost
 is
 not
 well
 correlated
 to
 the
 state
 population.

burden
 on
 monthly
 reporting.
 The
 argument
 then
 was
 When
 administrative
 costs
 are
 adjusted
 and
 measured

that
 monthly
 reporting
 is
 both
 insignificant
 to
 the
 on
 a
 per
 case
 basis,
 California's
 costs
 are
 shown
 to
 be

program's
 efficient
 operation
 and
 time‐consuming
 for
 149%
higher
than
the
national
average.
While
the
nation

the
beneficiary.
Replacing
monthly
reporting
(as
per
bills
 spends,
on
average,
$469
on
 each
participant,
California

AB
 444
 ad
 AB
 692)
 is
 the
 marginally
 less
 austere
 manages
to
spend
 $1169.20
Across
the
nation,
 California

requirement

 spends
 the
 most
 per
 case.
 Without
 population
 to

account
for
a
dramatic
difference
in
costs,
it
is
crucial
to

Fingerprint‐Imaging:

 curb
costs
and
utilize
funds
better.





 California
 joins
 only
 three
 states
 (Arizona,
 New



Barriers to Curbing Costs
York,
 and
 Texas
 being
 the
 others)
 in
 imposing
 a

Statewide
Fingerprint
Imaging
System
(SFIS)
requirement
 Appraisal
of
Costs:


on
 its
 applicants.
 While
 the
 stated
 reason
 for

implementing
 SFIS
 is
 to
 reduce
 fraud
 among
 
 There
 is
 a
 "black
 box"
 on
 state
 SNAP

beneficiaries,
 the
 State
 Auditor
 found
 that
 the
 costs
 of
 expenditures.
 While
 the
 state
 and
 federal
 government

the
system
might
not
cover
its
potential
benefits.18
SFIS,
 share
 the
 administrative
 cost
 of
 the
 program,
 the

which
 is
 maintained
 in
 a
 state‐run
 computer
 database,
 counties
 within
 the
 state
 are
 the
 agents
 who
 actually

costs
 the
 state
 $8
 million
 annually.
 To
 potential
 administer
 the
 burden.
 As
 they
 incur
 the
 first
 round
 of

beneficiaries,
 this
 requirement
 is
 problematic
 on
 many
 costs,
they
send
receipts
to
the
California
Department
of

levels.
Not
only
is
the
eligible
applicant
required
to
come
 Social
 Services,
 which
 then
 reimburses
 them
 for
 their

in
 for
 fingerprint
 imaging,
 but
 everyone
 in
 their
 expenditures.
When
these
receipts
are
sent
in,
however,

household
 must
 submit
 to
 fingerprint
 imaging
 as
 well.
 no
 detail
 is
 given
 as
 to
 how
 and
 where
 the

The
 stigma
 of
 being
 fingerprinted
 then
 becomes
 a
 administration
 costs
 are
 manifest.
 Because
 California

problem
for
both
the
applicant
and
everybody
else
they
 does
not
know
the
composition
of
its
high
administrative

live
 with,
 whether
 or
 not
 they
 eventually
 receive
 costs,
it
can
do
little
to
reform
the
system
presently.



benefits.




Extra
Requirements:


Lack
of
Outreach:



 While
it
is
not
well
known
why
California
spends


 The
 most
 recent
 survey
 data
 collected
 by
 an
 exorbitant
 amount
 per
 case,
 multiple
 analysts

California
 Food
 Policy
 Advocates
 suggests
 that
 the
 stipulate
 that
 costs
 rise
 from
 administering
 the
 ancillary

otherwise
 eligible
 candidates
 lack
 information
 about
 requirements
the
state
imposes.
Not
only
is
it
difficult
for

their
 status
 and
 the
 program
 itself.
 While
 outreach
 is
 a
 eligible
 applicants
 to
 come
 into
 a
 county
 welfare
 office

concern
 that
 ranks
 second
 to
 institutional
 barriers,
 it
 for
 five
 hours
 over
 three
 visits,
 it
 is
 expensive
 for

helps
 explain
 lackluster
 participation
 rates.
 71%
 of
 caseworkers
 to
 handle
 each
 additional
 hour
 of

eligible
persons
have
been
shown
to
lack
the
knowledge
 processing.
 Not
 only
 is
 it
 stigmatizing
 for
 applicants
 to

required
to
obtain
their
benefits.19
 submit
 to
 fingerprint
 imaging,
 SFIS
 costs
 the
 state
 a

substantial
 amount
 of
 dollars
 to
 maintain
 each
 year.

Administering Benefits Quarterly
 Reporting
 increases
 the
 burden
 on

beneficiaries,
 but
 it
 also
 imposes
 an
 extra
 filing
 and


 Another
 source
 of
 program
 variation
 across
 processing
requirement
on
county
caseworkers.

states
 can
 be
 observed
 in
 the
 cost
 of
 administration.
 As

states
 have
 control
 over
 their
 eligibility
 procedures
 (as
 Recommendations
noted
 above)
 and
 the
 systematic
 administration
 of
 the

program,
 states
 control
 the
 costs
 of
 the
 program.
 The
 Standardize
Face‐to‐Face
Interview
Exemptions:




 Federal
 law
 requires
 that
 State
 agencies
 conduct
 requirement
to
semi‐annual
reporting.
Given
federal
law,

at
 least
 one
 interview
 every
 12
 months
 with
 a
 SNAP
 California
 should
 not
 have
 the
 ability
 to
 demand

beneficiary.
 The
 interview
 requirement
 is
 among
 the
 quarterly
 reporting.
 The
 State
 has
 only
 been
 able
 to

most
 involved
 aspects
 of
 the
 application
 process,
 as
 it
 sustain
this
activity
through
a
series
of
waivers
obtained

calls
 for
 a
 prolonged
 physical
 appearance
 and
 from
the
USDA.
Currently,
80
other
groups
in
have
joined

questioning
period.
There
 is
precedence
for
reform.
 The
 California
Food
 Policy
Advocates
 calling
for
the
 USDA
to

State
 of
 California
 grants
 exemptions
 for
 face‐to‐face
 reject
 California’s
 most
 recent
 waiver.23
 Before
 that,

interviews,
 as
 per
 a
 waiver
 granted
 by
 the
 federal
 nearly
 half
 a
 dozen
 pieces
 of
 legislation
 have
 been

government.
 However,
 these
 exemptions
 are
 only
 introduced
 to
 make
 the
 transition
 to
 Simplified

granted
 in
 selected
 regions
 (as
 the
 chart
 above
 Reporting.


indicates).
 AB
 231,
 which
 failed
 passage
 in
 2004,

provides
 a
 model
 for
 realizing
 this
 recommendation.
 Mandate
 Comprehensive
 Budget
 Breakdowns
 for

When
 the
 requirement
 for
 a
 face‐to‐face
 interview
 is
 Counties:


waived,
a
telephone
is
conducted.



 The
first
step
to
reducing
California’s
astronomical

Implement
Electronic
Applications:

 administration
 costs
 is
 to
 break
 open
 the
 “black
 box”

that
 government
 analysts
 have
 alluded
 to.
 Instead
 of


 Though
 not
 all
 aspects
 of
 the
 application
 process
 requiring
 County
 Welfare
 Departments
 only
 to
 submit

can
 be
 streamlined
 electronically,
 most
 forms
 in
 the
 receipts
 of
 SNAP
 expenditures
 to
 the
 State,
 they
 should

program
can
be
filled
and
recorded
electronically.
This
is
 be
 required
 to
 submit
 detailed
 budget
 breakdowns
 of

beneficial
 for
 the
 administration
 of
 the
 program
 in
 at
 their
activity.
This
way,
it
becomes
 easier
for
analysts
to

least
two
ways.
First,
it
cuts
down
on
the
work
required
 see
 exactly
 where
 exorbitant
 costs,
 if
 any,
 are
 coming

by
 the
 County
 Welfare
 Department
 (as
 they
 no
 longer
 from.
 Until
 then,
 SNAP
 administrative
 costs
 are

need
 to
 transcribe
 the
 information
 onto
 a
 computer
 untouchable
to
every
auditing
power.


record).
 Second,
 it
 turns
 every
 internet‐capable

computer
 into
 a
 site
 where
 a
 SNAP
 application
 can
 be
 Conclusion: The Risks to Reform
filled.
 Even
 if
 the
 household
 does
 not
 have
 access
 to
 a

computer
 or
 the
 Internet,
 every
 public
 library
 now
 
 This
 paper
 has
 thus
 far
 covered
 the
 benefits

becomes
 an
 application
 site.
 At
 least
 11
 other
 states
 California
 can
 expect
 to
 incur
 from
 overhauling
 SNAP.

(such
 as
 New
 York,
 Pennsylvania,
 and
 Texas)
 have
 fully
 Every
 discussion
 of
 reform
 should
 also
 include
 the
 risks

implemented
electronic
filing
using
“e‐Signatures”.2 to
reform.
SNAP
is
not
immune
to
the
negative
effects
of

reform.
 The
 problems
 that
 result
 from
 specific
 policy

Eliminate
Fingerprint‐Imaging:

 changes
can
be
grouped
into
two
general
areas:



 
 This
 requirement
 was
 introduced
 due
 to
 Transition
Costs:


concerns
that
SNAP
was
awarding
benefits
to
fraudulent

applicants.
However,
the
Bureau
of
State
Audits
found
in
 
 Every
 element
 of
 reform
 will
 catalyze
 an

January
2003
that
the
State
did
not
determine
the
extent
 expensive
 transition.
 For
 example,
 an
 overhaul
 of
 the

of
 fraud
 before
 implementing
 SFIS
 at
 a
 cost
 of
 $31
 SFIS
could
cost
at
least
$20
million
in
the
short
term.
This

million.
 In
2003,
the
DSS
has
requested
investigations
of
 is
 because
 SFIS
 works
 within
 a
 greater
 system
 of
 social

65
households
suspected
of
multiple‐aid
fraud
in
a
given
 programs.
 Removing
 it
 requires
 restructuring
 the

month,
 compared
 to
 the
 660,000
 households
 receiving
 operation
 of
 several
 social
 programs
 in
 the
 state.

benefits
 then.22
 This
 means
 $8.5
 million
 is
 being
 spent
 Similarly,
 implementing
 electronic
 filing
 necessitates
 a

every
 year
 to
 eliminate
 fraud
 for
 less
 than
 one‐tenth
 of
 system
 for
 processing
 online
 applications.
 Requiring

one
 percent
 of
 households
 receiving
 benefits.
 Since
 the
 CWDs
to
report
their
budget
breakdowns
is
also
likely
to

inception
of
SFIS,
the
DSS
has
never
released
the
amount
 run
 a
 cost,
 as
 it
 requires
 time
 and
 a
 system
 to
 report

of
confirmed
cases
of
fraud.

 these
costs,
as
well
as
time
to
analyze
these
costs.



Transition
to
Simplified
Reporting:
 Increased
Fraud:




 California
 currently
 require
 households
 receiving
 
 A
 high
 barrier
 to
 entry
 is
 maintained
 to
 prevent

benefits
 to
 report
 their
 income
 status
 every
 quarter.
 A
 individuals
from
receiving
 more
funds
than
 they
 may
 be

move
 to
 Simplified
 Reporting
 cuts
 down
 the
 amount
 of
 eligible
 for.
 Reducing
 the
 barriers
 to
 entry
 will
 increase

paperwork
 required
 to
 report
 income,
 and
 changes
 the
 program
 participation,
 but
 it
 is
 likely
 to
 increase

fradulent

fraudulent
 participation
 as
 well.
 This
 is
 because
 more
 recommendations
 will
 reduce
 program
 costs.
 Were
 the

applicants
and
beneficiaries
are
both
harder
to
track
and
 recommendations
 to
 further
 outreach,
 recall
 that

expensive
to
audit.

 expanded
participation
brings
in
revenue
to
the
State
as

well.
 Finally,
 the
 greatest
 benefit
 rests
 with
 the
 people.


 In
either
case,
this
paper
makes
the
argument
that
 Though
 policymakers
 should
 remain
 cognizant
 of
 the

the
 benefits
 outweigh
 the
 costs.
 On
 the
 one
 hand,
 benefits
to
streamlining
a
program,
it
 is
more
important

implementing
 the
 recommendations
 will
 help
 the
 to
remember
 that
a
better
program
helps
 more
families

administration
 of
 the
 program
 run
 smoother.
 Even
 if
 put
 food
 on
 the
 table.
 When
 every
 policy
 has
 been

there
 are
 transitional
 costs,
 the
 medium
 and
 long‐run
 implemented,
 this
 is
 the
 goal
 to
 which
 the
 program

budget
 projections
 predict
 that
 that
 the
 strives
to
realize.



 Sources
1

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Voter
Information
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California
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of
State.
http://www.voterguide.sos.ca.gov/propositions/
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Feb
11,
2010).

2 


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Forward
2010
Fiscal
Reform
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Fund.
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(accessed
Feb
9,
2010).
3

"Official
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(accessed
Feb
11,
2010).

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"California
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Feb
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2010).

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2010.
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Feb
17,
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McLean,
Hilary.
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Jack
O'Connell
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Education
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Release,
3
Jun
2009,

http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr09/yr09rel86.asp.

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2009.
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13,
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Taylor,
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2009.
http://www.lao.ca.gov/2009/spend_plan/spending_pla

(accessed
Feb
10,
2010).

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Alexis
Fernandez,
California
Food
Stamps
Characteristics
Report,
report
(Oakland:
California
Food
Policy
Advocates,
2010),
pg.
1.

10

United
States
of
America.
United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
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About
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http://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/rules/Legislation/about.htm
(accessed
June
10,
2010).

11

Legal
Services
of
Northern
Caliornifa,
and
California
Food
Policy
Advocates.
"1.
Summary
of
basic
eligibility
~
California
Food
Stamp
Guide."
California
Food
Stamp

Guide.
http://www.foodstampguide.org/summary‐of‐basic‐eligibility/
(accessed
June
10,
2010).

12

United
States
of
America.
California
State
Legislature.
Assembly
Committee
on
Human
Services.
Supplemental
Nutrition
Assistance
Program
(SNAP).
January
2009,

pg.
2.


13

United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
Service.
Food
Stamp
Program
State
Options
Report.
By
Program
Development
Division.
Washington,

D.C.,
2006.

14

"CFPA
‐
Nutrition
Legislation
Update
5.29.08."
California
Food
Policy
Advocates.
http://www.cfpa.net/Alerts/5.29.08.html
(accessed
June
10,
2010).

15

Canalis,
John.
"Bill
would
add
foster
children
to
food
stamp
rolls
at
age
18."
Contra
Costa
Times,
June,
2009.

16

United
States
of
America.
California
State
Legislature.
Assembly
Committee
on
Human
Services.
Supplemental
Nutrition
Assistance
Program
(SNAP).
January
2009,

pg.
3

17

"2010
Legislative
Tracking
Page."
California
Food
Policy
Advocates.
http://www.cfpa.net/2010leg/index.html
(accessed
June
10,
2010).

18

Cunnyngham,
Karen
E.,
and
Laura
A.
Castner.
Reaching
Those
in
Need:
State
Supplemental
Nutrition
Assistance
Program
Participation
Rates
in
2007.
Report.

Washington,
D.C.:
United
States
Department
of
Agriculture,
2009,
p.
1.


19

Cunnyngham
and
Castner,
2009,
p.
1.


20

Cunnyngham
and
Castner,
2009,
p.
8.


21

Cunnyngham
and
Castner,
2009,
p.
8.

22

California
Department
of
Social
Services.
Health
and
Human
Services
Agency.
Data
Systems
and
Survey
Design
Bureau.
Food
Stamp
Program
Participation
and

Benefit
Issuance
Report.
2010

23

United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
Service.
Food
Stamp
Program
State
Activity
Report.
Washington,
D.C.,
2006.

24

United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
Service.
Food
Stamp
Program
State
Options
Report.
By
Program
Development
Division.
Washington,

D.C.,
2006,
p.
22.

25

Kruckenberg,
Kami.
Frequently
Asked
Questions:
Save
Money,
Fight
Hunger,
Reduce
Government
Waste:
End
Finger
Imaging.
Report.
Oakland:
California
Food

Policy
Advocates.

26 Mark

"Re:
California
SNAP
Waiver
Extention
Request."
California
Food
Policy
Advocates,
George
Manalo‐LeClair
to
Janey
Thornton.
July
31,
2009
 
Shimada,
Tia.
Lost

Dollars,
Empty
Plates:
The
Impact
of
Food
Stamp
Participation
on
State
and
Local
Economies.
Report.
Oakland:
California
Food
Policy
Advocates,
2009,
p.
3.

27

Shimada.
Lost
Dollars,
Empty
Plates,
2009,
p.
3.

28

Shimada.
Lost
Dollars,
Empty
Plates,
2009,
p.
2.

29

California
State
Auditor.
Bureau
of
State
Audits.
Statewide
Fingerprint
Imaging
System:
The
State
Must
Weigh
Factors
Other
Than
Need
and
Cost‐Effectiveness

When
Determining
Future
Funding
for
the
System.
By
Elaine
M.
Howle.
Sacramento,
2003.

30

Knocking
Down
Barriers
to
Food
Assistance:
A
Short
Progress
Report
for
California.
Report.
Oakland:
California
Food
Policy
Advocates,
2004,
p.5.

31

United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
Service.
Food
Stamp
Program
State
Activity
Report.
Washington,
D.C.,
2006.

32

United
States
Department
of
Agriculture.
Food
and
Nutrition
Service.
Food
Stamp
Program
State
Options
Report.
By
Program
Development
Division.
Washington,

D.C.,
2006,
p.
22.

33

Kruckenberg,
Kami.
Frequently
Asked
Questions:
Save
Money,
Fight
Hunger,
Reduce
Government
Waste:
End
Finger
Imaging.
Report.
Oakland:
California
Food

Policy
Advocates.

34

"Re:
California
SNAP
Waiver
Extention
Request."
California
Food
Policy
Advocates,
George
Manalo‐LeClair
to
Janey
Thornton.
July
31,
2009

A Comprehensive Plan for Health Care Infrastructure in California’s Heartland:
Addressing the Health Care Needs of the Central Valley
Megha Mahida and Amreen Rahman, University of California Los Angeles

In
order
to
accommodate
the
growing
need
for
primary,
preventative
care
for
rural
underprivileged
members
of

the
Central
Valley,
a
comprehensive
health
care
system
must
be
established
through
the
restructuring
of
safety

net
 hospitals,
 institution
 of
 sustainably
 funded
 clinics,
 expansion
 of
 employed
 community
 health
 workers,
 and

creation
of
a
system
of
telemedicine
.


History These
 include
 community
 health
 centers,
 clinics,
 public



hospitals,
 and
 private
 safety
 net
 designated
 hospitals.


 Safety
 net
 health
 systems
 provide
 Out
 of
 all
 of
 these
 providers,
 the
 only
 institutions
 to

comprehensive
coverage
for
uninsured,
low
income,
and
 receive
funding
from
the
federal
level
under
the
auspices

disadvantaged
 populations.
 Thus,
 their
 institution
 in
 the
 of
being
a
"rural
federally
qualified
clinic"
are
community

Central
 Valley
 can
 well
 address
 the
 needs
 of
 the
 health
 centers.
 Thus,
 many
 health
 care
 systems
 bear

population
 which
 is
 largely
 rural,
 uninsured,
 and
 suffers
 disproportionate
 costs
 of
 the
 uninsured.
 Furthermore,

from
 a
 higher
 rate
 of
 chronic
 diseases.
 Currently
 the
 individuals
 who
 are
 insured
 through
 Medi‐Cal
 are

health
 system
 in
 place
 largely
 includes
 community
 funneled
 into
 these
 safety
 net
 providers,
 leading
 to

hospitals
 and
 clinics.
 It
 suffers
 from
 overcrowding
 in
 overburdened
 hospitals
 and
 clinics
 that
 simply
 do
 not

emergency
 rooms
 as
 a
 result
 of
 the
 greatly
 uninsured
 have
 the
 resources
 to
 accommodate
 and
 adequately

population
 which
relies
on
 the
ER
for
primary
care.
This
 treat
 the
 large
 number
 of
 patients.
 Many
 healthcare

characteristic
 of
 the
 population
 is
 also
 related
 to
 the
 systems
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 are
 funded
 through

shortage
 of
 healthcare
 workers
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 Medicare.
 However,
 Medicare
 pays
 hospitals
 in
 the

region.
The
number
of
current
federal
healthcare
centers
 Valley
 56‐75%
 of
 average
 national
 rates.4
 This
 level
 of

in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 is
 206
 out
 of
 961
 total
 healthcare
 payment
is
not
only
inadequate
to
meet
the
needs
of
the

centers
 in
 California.
 This
 assessment
 refers
 to
 the
 Central
 Valley
 and
 its
 large
 uninsured
 and
 underserved

Central
 Valley
 as
 a
 region
 spanning
 42,000
 miles
 down
 population,
 but
 also
 forces
 hospitals
 to
 decrease
 the

California,
 and
 is
 indicative
 of
 the
 Central
 Valley’s
 vast
 array
 of
 services
 offered.
 The
 Central
 Valley
 has
 in
 fact

size
 and
 fragmented
 system
 of
 strained
 access
 to
 one
 of
 the
 lowest
 Medicare
 fee‐for
 service

healthcare.2
 The
 system
 of
 healthcare
 funding
 provided
 reimbursements
 in
 the
 country.5
 With
 the
 population
 in

on
a
local,
state,
and
national
 level
in
 the
Central
Valley
 the
Valley
expected
to
grow
significantly
in
the
next
few

is
 inadequate
 for
 providing
 coverage
 for
 the
 over
 years,
 coupled
 with
 a
 large
 aging
 population,
 the
 fragile

846,000
Central
Valley
residents;
it
is
furthermore
unable
 state
of
safety
net
hospitals
is
sure
to
be
exacerbated
in

to
sustain
proficient
levels
of
healthcare
workers
needed
 the
coming
years
if
no
actions
are
taken.

to
operate
effective
programs
of
preventative
care.3
This
 

current
system
is
inefficient
in
its
reliance
on
emergency
 Due
 to
 several
 factors,
 including
 but
 not
 limited
 to
 a

room
 care
 to
 address
 the
 chronic
 illnesses
 and
 primary
 large
population
and
the
nomadic
nature
of
some
of
the

care
 needs
 of
 the
 rural
 and
 uninsured
 residents
 of
 the
 patients,
care
at
hospitals
in
the
 Central
Valley
focus
 on

Central
Valley.
The
lack
of
widely
accessible
primary
care
 acute
 care
 and
 ignore
 the
 chronic
 diseases
 that

is
 not
 cost‐effective.
 As
 a
 result,
 more
 government
 exacerbate
 the
 health
 of
 individuals
 living
 in
 the
 Valley.

funding
goes
into
acute
care,
involving
the
complications
 One
indicator
of
chronic
diseases
is
the
rate
of
obesity.
A

that
 result
 when
 preventable
 primary
 care
 illnesses
 go
 study
by
the
 Central
Valley
Health
 Policy
 Institute
found

untreated.
 that
 the
 percentage
 of overweight
 and
 obese
 adults,

adolescents,
 and
 seniors
 were
 significantly
 higher
 than

Analysis the
 state
 average
 across
 the
 board.6
 Other
 chronic

diseases,
 primarily
 diabetes
 and
 asthma,
 also
 affect
 a
 i

In order to adequately address the health care crisis large
 proportion
 of
 Central
 Valley
 residents.
 The
 2005

in
 the
 Central
 Valley,
 a
 bottom
 up
 approach
 must
 be
 California
 Health
 Interview
 Survey
reported
 that
 the

taken
 to
 rectify
 every
 level
 of
 health
 care.
 The
 main
 Valley
 had
 higher
 rates
 of
 individuals
 with
 asthma

providers
of
health
care
to
individuals
who
are
uninsured
 receiving
 emergency
 care
 than
 all
 other
 regions
 in

or
 insured
 through
 Medi‐Cal
 are
 safety‐net
 providers.
 California.7
 In
 fact,
 in
 an
 analysis
 of
 indicators
 of
 health

indepdent



status:
 adult
 obesity,
 adult
 tobacco
 use,
 motor
 vehicle
 Often
 the
 rural
 parts
 of
 California
 are
 ignored
 because

deaths,
 air
 quality,
 flu
 shots
 for
 elders,
 and
 access
 to
 they
simply
to
not
have
the
constituency
or
the
lobbyist

prenatal
care,
the
Valley
scored
far
below
the
 California
 groups
 to
 further
 their
 cause.
 The
 Central
 Valley

average.8
 There
 are
 more
 factors
 that
 exacerbate
 accounts
for
a
significant
proportion
of
 California's
 GDP.

healthcare
in
the
Valley.
 By
in
 large
 is
poorer
than
most
 If
 Central
 Valley
 residents
 are
 not
 able
 to
 access

other
regions
in
the
state.
50%
of
the
region
has
incomes
 adequate
 healthcare,
 the
 productivity
 of
 workers
 will

under
200%
of
the
federal
poverty
line,
in
contrast
to
the
 drastically
decrease,
especially
when
taking
into
account

state
 average
 of
 34%.9
 The
 Valley
 also
 has
 higher
 the
chronic
nature
of
many
of
the
ailments
of
the
Valley

unemployment
rates
than
those
of
two‐thirds
of
outside
 residents.
Thus
the
health
of
the
region
is
directly
related

California
 counties.
 Also
 there
 has
 recently
 been
 a
 large
 to
economic
costs.


influx
 of
 new
 residents
 into
 the
 Valley.
 According
 to
 

estimates,
 by
 2050
 six
 counties
 from
 the
 Central
 Valley
 Preventative
care
must
be
as
much
of
a
priority
as
acute

will
 be
 among
 the
 fastest
 growing
 countries
 in
 care.
 Currently,
 the
 Valley's
 emergency
 rooms
 are

California.10
 flooded
with
cases
from
individuals
with
chronic
diseases

Audience and Stakeholders like
 asthma
 and
 diabetes,
 whose
 conditions
 have
 been

exacerbated
due
to
the
lack
of
primary
and
preventative


 County
 officials
 would
 be
 interested
 in
 care.
 In
 order
 to
 reform
 this,
 all
 safety
 net
 providers

implementing
 a
 system
 of
 safety
 net
 hospitals
 which
 ought
to
be
funded
to
facilitate
this
refocusing
of
care
to

would
 take
 advantage
 of
 already
 existing
 infrastructure
 the
 preventative
 side.
 Specifically
 these
 funds
 ought
 to

and
would
involve
increasing
the
employment
of
primary
 be
 allocated
 in
 order
 to
 increase
 outreach
 and

care
 community
 health
 workers
 and
 tech
 companies.
 educational
 programs
 that
 help
 manage
 chronic

Creating
 a
 comprehensive
 safety
 net
 hospital
 system
 diseases.13
This
type
of
outreach
is
particularly
key
when

focused
 on
 fulfilling
 the
 uninsured
 and
 underprivileged
 taking
 into
 account
 the
 socioeconomic
 status
 of
 the

community's
 basic
 medical
 needs
 would
 necessitate
 patients
who
go
to
safety
net
clinics.

more
 healthcare
 as
 well
 as
 telemedicine,
 which
 would
 

specifically
 target
 the
 populations
 with
 no
 direct
 access
 Another
 step
 that
 must
 be
 taken
 to
 address
 the
 health

to
hospitals.
It
is
to
the
financial
benefit
of
the
California
 care
 situation
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 is
 the
 huge
 shortage

State
 Assembly
 and
 California
 tax
 payers
 to
 support
 the
 of
health
professionals.
The
Central
Valley
has
the
lowest

institution
 of
 a
 system
 of
 safety
 net
 hospitals
 in
 the
 number
of
primary
care
and
specialty
doctors
compared

Central
 Valley.
 The
 system's
 change
 in
 focus
 from
 to
 every
 other
 region
 in
 the
 state.
 Furthermore,
 the

providing
 acute
 care
 to
 primary
 care
 for
 uninsured,
 region
lacks
mid
level
health
care
providers
as
well,
such

vulnerable
residents
of
the
region,
will
in
the
long
run,
be
 as
 nurses,
 nurse’s
 assistants,
 and
 physician’s
 assistants.

more
 cost‐effective
 and
 sustainable.
 Perhaps,
 most
 The
 root
 cause
 of
 this
 shortage
 is
 a
 coupling
 of
 the
 low

critical
 is
 the
 increased
 access
 to
 healthcare
 for
 those
 reimbursement
 rates
 due
 to
 the
 primarily
 uninsured

who
 currently
 fall
 into
 the
 gaps
 of
 federal
 funding
 population,
 and
 the
 fact
 that
 these
 professionals

programs,
 which
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 includes
 many
 generally
 find
 the
 Central
 Valley
 undesirable.
 In
 fact,

immigrants
and
farm
workers.

 many
residents
that
are
recruited
to
do
their
residencies

in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 often
 are
 not
 interested
 in

Next Steps community
health
clinics
and
soon
leave
the
Valley
after

In
 order
 to
 address
 the
 disproportionate
 funds
 that
 their
residency
ends.14 In
order
to
tackle
the
shortage
of

safety
 hospitals
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 receive
 in
 health
 care
 workers,
 there
 have
 to
 be
 both
 long
 term

proportion
 to
 the
 levels
 of
 uninsured
 and
 Medical
 and
 short
 term
 approaches.
 A
 short
 term
 approach
 to

patients,
 the
guidelines
for
funding
should
be
reformed.
 solve
the
gap
of
health
care
providers
would
be
to
make

There
 should
 be
 an
 increase
 of
 funds
 to national
 per
 nurses
 and
 physicians assistants
 more
 autonomous,
capita
 levels.11
 In
 order
 to
 make
 this
 level
 of
 funding
 which
 would
 increase
 the
 patient
 load
 that
 clinics
 could

sustainable,
 a
 new
 methodology
 ought
 to
 be
 developed
 accommodate.
 Long
 term
 strategies
 would
 include

in
 order
 to
 account
 for
 the
 diverse
 geography
 of
 the
 creating
 incentives
 for
 doctors
 ‐
 both
 primary
 and

Central
 Valley
 which
 includes
 a
 mix
 of
 both
 urban
 and
 specialty
care
‐
to
live
and
practice
in
the
Central
Valley.

rural
 areas.12
 Furthermore,
 in
 upcoming
 allocations
 of
 Potential
 incentives
 that
 could
 facilitate
 an
 influx
 of

the
 budget
 for
 healthcare,
 the
 growing
 needs
 of
 the
 medical
 professionals
 would
 include
 subsidizing
 the
 gap

Central
 Valley
 in
 healthcare
 ought
 to
 be
highlighted.
 in
 reimbursement.15
 Also,
 a
 large
 number
 of
 residencies

in
the
Central
Valley
go
to
foreign
educated
doctors
who
often
 soon
 leave
 the
 Central
 Valley.
 Increasing
 the
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley,
 often
 times
 it
 is
 not
 logistically

number
 of
 residencies
 and
 including
 a
 requirement
 for
 possible
 for
 many
 residents
 to
 access
 clinics
 and

clinic
 hours
 and
 a
 number
 of
 years
 of
 practicing
 in
 the
 hospitals
that
are
far
removed
from
their
residence,
or
to

Central
Valley
would
help
meet
the
needs
of
the
Central
 follow
up
on
visits
in
a
timely
fashion.
Furthermore,
two‐
Valley
in
the
short
term.
 But
in
order
for
 true
long
term
 thirds
 of
 Central
 Valley
 residents
 have
 computers
 and

sustainable
 retention
 of
 medical
 professionals
 in
 the
 approximately
 60%
 have
 access
 to
 the
 internet.
 In
 the

Central
 Valley,
 there
 must
 be
 a
 medical
 school
 in
 order
 past
 there
 have
 been
 several
 initiatives
 to
 establish

to
 act
 as
 a
 hub
 for
 providing
 health
 care
 professionals
 telehealth
 programs
 in
 the
 Central
 Valley.
 California

interested
in
rural
health
and
practicing
in
the
Valley.
UC
 passed
the
Telemedicine
Development
Act
of
1996
which

Merced
 is
 the
 most
 viable
 option
 for
 such
 a
 medical
 reimbursed
 the
 establishment
 of
 telemedicine
 services.

school.
 Given
 the
 number
 of
 California
 applicants
 that
 There
have
been
a
few
successful
telemedicine
programs

are
 turned
 away
 from
 schools
 focused
 on
 primary
 care

 in
 the
 Central
 Valley
 that
 are
 key
 indicators
 for
 the

(UC
Irvine,
UC
Davis),
there
is
a
huge
demand
for
a
new
 potential
success
of
a
cohesive
more
up
to
date
network.

UC
medical
school.
Aside
from
health
care
professionals,
 The
 Central
 California
 Teleophthalmology
 Network
 used

with
 MD/DO
 degrees,
 there
 is
 a
 huge
 need
 for
 public
 high
 tech
 cameras
 to
 send
 images
 of
 retinas
 of
 patients

health
workers
to
facilitate
community
health
education
 to
specialists
in
order
to
diagnose
retinopathy.
The
Kings

and
outreach
programs.
In
order
to
increase
the
number
 View
 Behavioral
 Health
 centered
 in
 Fresno,
 provided

of
 public
 health
 professionals,
 similar
 education
 mental
 health
 services
 to
 rural
 parts
 of
 the
 Valley.16
 A

programs
and
incentives
should
be
established
to
attract
 telehealth
network
would
not
be
fiscally
irresponsible
as

and
train
community
health
care
workers.

 the
FCC
is
currently
in
launching
an
initiative
to
increase


 telehealth.
 It
 recently
 granted
 $145
 million
 to
 16

Telehealth
 has
 expanded
 to
 include
 a
 wide
 range
 of telehealth
 projects
 and
 has
 extended
 the
 deadline
 to

health
 care
 services
 from
 as
 simple
 and
 straightforward
 apply
 for
 funding
 for
 a
 year.
 Furthermore,
 the
 FCC
 is

as
planning
appointments
and
refilling
medications,
to
as
 increasing
 broadband
 access
 to
 rural
 parts
 of
 America,

complex
 as
 diagnosis
 of
 retinopathy.
 The
 Central
 Valley
 which
would
solve
for
the
barrier
of
slow
internet
which

serves
 to
 benefit
 immensely
 from
 a
 cohesive
 and
 has
prevented
the
adoption
of
telehealth
in
the
past.17
efficient
telehealth
network.
Due
to
the
vast
rural
areas


Sources
1

 
“Federally
Qualified
Health
Centers
and
State
Policy,”
California
Healthcare
Foundation
(2009)

<http://www.chcf.org/documents/policy/FederallyQualifiedHealthCentersAndStatePolicy.pdf>

2

Central
Valley
Political
Report
(2010)
http://centralvalleypac.com/centralvalleypr/Default.aspx


3

“Central
Valley
Health
Reform,”
Health
Access
(September
17,
2009).
www.health‐access.org/.../Central%20Valley%20Health%20Reform%209‐17‐09.pdf

4

Capitman,
John
A.,

and
Deborah
G.
Riordan.
“Growing
a
Healthier
San
Joaquin
Valley:
Recommendations
for
improving
the
Public
Heath
and
Healthcare

Infrastructure,”
Central
Valley
Health
Policy
Institute.
(January
2007)http://www.csufresno.edu/ccchhs/documents/CVHPI_recomend0107.pdf
 


 
 

5

Ibid

6
“Central
California:
Regional
Obesity
Prevention
Program,”
California
Center
for
Human
and
Health
Services
(August
31,
2010).

http://www.csufresno.edu/ccchhs/institutes_programs/CCROPP/publications/CCROPP_onepager8press_cropped.pdf












































































































7

Capitman,
John
A.,

and
Deborah
G.
Riordan.
“Growing
a
Healthier
San
Joaquin
Valley:
Recommendations
for
improving
the
Public
Heath
and
Healthcare

Infrastructure,”
Central
Valley
Health
Policy
Institute.
(January
2007)
http://www.calendow.org/uploadedFiles/health_reform_2007.pdf












































































8

Ibid











































































































 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Ibid 

10

Ibid
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

11

“Health
Promoting
Schools”
Central
California
Center
for
Health
and
Human
Services
(2010).
http://www.csufresno.edu/ccchhs/documents/HPSReport‐
FinalCopy.pdf

12

Ibid
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

13 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Ibid 

14 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Ibid 

15 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 


Ibid
16

Rahman,
Mohammad
A.,
Kudzai
Nyandoro.
“Telemedicine
in
the
San
Joaquin
Valley:
Opportunities
and
Barriers
in
Adoption,”
Central
Valley
Health
Policy
Institute.

(December
2009).
http://www.csufresno.edu/ccchhs/institutes_programs/CVHPI/publications/Telemedicine_Barriers_in_SJV.pdf
 
 


 

17

“FCC
Emphasizes
Telemedicine
in
Preview
of
U.S.
Broadband
Plan,”
iHealth
Beat:
Reporting
Technology’s
Impact
on
Health
Care
(February
22,
2010).



http://www.ihealthbeat.org/articles/2010/2/22/fcc‐emphasizes‐telemedicine‐in‐preview‐of‐us‐broadband‐plan.aspx?topic=telehealth

Mitigate Southern California Traffic: Coordination, Alternatives
and a Congestion Price System
Karl Taraporewalla and Erika K. Solanki, University of California Los Angeles

In order to adequately address the convoluted socio-economic issue of traffic congestion, policymakers must
consider the unique geo-political aspects of the greater Los Angeles area. By systematically addressing
coordination, enhancing public transportation alternatives, and gradually implementing a congestion pricing
system on all Southern California freeways, policymakers will implement a long-term, comprehensive solution to
traffic alleviation.

History Transportation
 Authority
 to
 better
 serve
 lower‐income




residents
 that
 are
 adversely
 affected
 by
 inadequate


 Residents
 in
 major
 cities
 are
 becoming
 public
 transportation
 systems;
 and
 (3)
 with
 overall

increasingly
 irritated
 by
 traffic
 and
 congestion
 as
 daily
 enhanced
 public
 transportation
 alternatives
 available,

commutes
 increase.
 Negative
 externalities
 such
 as
 air
 implement
 a
 congestion
 pricing
 strategy
 gradually
 on

pollution
are
more
apparent,
and
public
alternatives
 are
 Southern
California
freeways
to
curb
traffic.

being
 developed
 and
 improved
 too
 slowly.
 According
 to
 
 The
governor
can
initiate
coordination
efforts
by

the
 RAND
 Corporation
 California
 Traffic
 Congestion
 establishing
 an
 interagency
 task
 force
 that
 fosters

Statistics
 database,
 since
 1982
 Southern
 California
 cooperation
 and
 collaboration
 among
 regional
 transit

freeways
 have
 consistently
 ranked
 first
 in
 annual
 providers.
 Successful
 implementation
 of
 coordination

congestion
costs.
 mechanisms
 will
 increase
 transportation
 availability
 and


 Strong
 gubernatorial
 leadership
 is
 critical
 to
 access
 to
 jobs,
 enhance
 transit
 system
 and
 service

assisting
 participants
 in
 overcoming
 barriers
 to
 achieve
 quality,
 improve
 cost
 effectiveness,
 and
 eliminate

coordination.
In
order
to
garner
support
for
coordination
 duplicative
efforts.


efforts,
 Maryland
 officials
 organized
 a
 series
 of
 forums
 
 The
 Los
 Angeles
 County
 Metropolitan

on
 transportation
 to
 introduce
 the
 concept
 of
 Transportation
 Authority
 should
 increase
 the
 reach
 and

coordination,
 view
 the
 proposed
 process,
 and
 facilitate
 frequency
 of
 its
 limited
 bus
 lines,
 including
 the
 Metro

discussion
 among
 stakeholders.
 Furthermore,
 New
 Rapid
and
Metro
Express
services.
Although
the
passage

Jersey’s
 Governor
 established
an
interagency
 task
force,
 of
 Measure
 R
 and
 the
 expansion
 of
 the
 subway
 system

New
 Jersey’s
 Intergovernmental
 Transportation
 Work
 into
 West
 Los
 Angeles
 will
 eventually
 provide
 a
 public

Group,
 which
 provides
 a
 roundtable
 platform
 for
 alternative
 and
 mitigate
 congestion,
 the
 completion
 of

stakeholders
to
cooperate
and
collaborate.2
 such
large
scale
projects
interrupt
current
transportation


 Multiple
studies
have
proven
that
limited
access
 routes,
involve
long‐term
construction,
and
require
large

to
 reliable
 transportation
 serves
 as
 a
 barrier
 to
 gaining
 funding
 grants.
 The
 expansion
 of
 bus
 routes
 and
 an

and
 maintaining
 employment.
 In
 response,
 in
 1998
 increase
 in
 the
 number
 of
 time‐efficient
 buses
 in

Congress
 authorized
 the
 Transportation
 Equity
 Act
 for
 operation
are
logistically
feasible
recommendations
that

the
 21st
 Century
 (TEA‐21),
 a
 federal
 transportation
 will
 provide
 immediate
 relief
 to
 commuters
 and

funding
bill
that
promotes
local
transportation
initiatives,
 relatively
minimal
costs.


which
 connect
 low‐income
 citizens
 to
 employment.
 
 It
 is
 critical
 for
 policymakers
 to
 institute

Under
 TEA‐21,
 Congress
 approved
 the
 Job
 Access
 and
 coordination
 mechanisms
 and
 expand
 limited
 bus
 lines

Reverse
 Commute
 (JARC)
 program
 to
 fund
 new
 to
 enhance
 access
 to
 affordable
 and
 reliable

transportation
services
and
the
improvement
of
 existing
 transportation
 alternatives
 before
 using
 congestion

services.3

 pricing
 as
 a
 fair
 and
 equitable
 method
 of
 pricing
 traffic.


 In
 order
 to
 meet
 comprehensive
 transportation
 As
 currently
 proposed,
 the
 carpool
 lanes
 along
 14
 miles

needs
in
Southern
California,
the
state
legislature
should
 of
 the
 10
 freeway
 and
 11
 miles
 of
 the
 110
 freeway
 will

primarily
 advocate
 for
 three
 initiatives
 in
 the
 following
 be
converted
from
high
occupancy
vehicle
(HOV)
lanes
to

order:
 (1)
 increase
 the
 overall
 coordination
 of
 public
 high
 occupancy
 toll
 (HOT)
 lanes.
 Those
 that
 choose
 to

transportation
 systems
 within
 the
 region;
 (2)
 increase
 use
 the
 HOT
 lanes
 will
 be
 subject
 to
 fees
 of
 $0.25
 to

the
reach
and
frequency
of
the
 Metro
transit
buses
that
 $1.40
per
mile.
Each
driver
that
might
potentially
utilize

are
 operated
 by
 the
 Los
 Angeles
 County
 Metropolitan
 HOT
 lanes
 must
 purchase
 a
 pass
 and
 place
 it
 in
 their

indepent
vehicle.

Electronic
monitoring
devices
installed
along
the
 alternatives
 are
 already
 in
 place,
 permitting

HOT
 lanes
 will
 detect
 when
 a
 car
 is
 utilizing
 the
 HOT
 congestion
pricing
as
an
equitable
method
of
pricing

lanes,
 identify
 its
 pass,
 and
 charge
 the
 driver
 traffic.


proportional
to
usage.4

 


 Analysis

 Key Facts

 Sustainable
coordination
is
critical
to
perpetually

• According
 to
 the
 RAND
 Corporation
 California
 Traffic
 enhance
 transportation
 services.
 Transportation

Congestion
 Statistics
 database,
 Los
 Angeles
 area
 coordination
 addresses
 multiple
 needs
 and
 goals
 with

commuters
 in
 2006
 spent
 approximately
 39
 hours
 limited
 resources
 by
 consolidating
 services
 and

waiting
 in
 congested
 freeways.
 The
 same
 study
 found
 effectively
 minimizing
 costs.
 The
 creation
 of
 formal

that
 annual
 congestion
 costs
 increased
 from
 $1.69
 coordination
 mechanisms
 will
 allow
 the
 Governor
 to

million
in
1982
to
$10.16
million
in
2006.
7
 provide
 more
 effective
 transportation
 solutions
 to

• Although
the
U.S.
Department
of
Transportation
(DOT)
 further
 mitigate
 negative
 externalities
 from
 inadequate

largely
 funds
 state
 and
 local
 public
 transportation
 public
 transit
 systems.
 Greater
 coordination
 coupled

services,
 various
 other
 federal
 departments
 also
 with
 an
 expansion
 of
 a
 reliable
 bus
 system
 will
 increase

provide
 transportation
 funding
 through
 41
 different
 the
 ability
 of
 lower‐income
 residents
 to
 obtain
 and

programs,
 resulting
 in
 an
 overall
 lack
 of
 coordination
 maintain
 employment.
 Improving
 the
 quality,
 reliability,

among
 regional
 public
 transit
 programs,
 and
 access,
and
frequency
of
the
Metro
bus
lines
will
provide

fragmented
and
duplicative
transportation
services.

 an
attractive
alternative
to
driving
private
vehicles.


• Several
 studies
 suggest
 that
 welfare
 recipients
 and
 

low‐income
 residents
 face
 several
 barriers
 to

Next Steps
employment,
 with
 adequate
 and
 reliable
 access
 to

transportation
at
the
forefront.8

 
 The
 ability
 of
 officials
 to
 price
 traffic
 as
 a

• According
 to
 a
 study
 sponsored
 by
 the
 Urban
 Mass
 commodity
to
further
mitigate
the
negative
externalities

Transit
 Administration,
 the
 cost‐effectiveness
 of
 a
 bus
 of
traffic
is
contingent
upon
the
ability
of
policymakers
to

system
 to
 provide
 efficient
 transit
 is
 far
 greater
 than
 establish
 a
 well‐developed,
 accessible
 and
 affordable

heavy
 or
 light
 rail
 transit
 systems
 in
 medium
 and
 low
 alternative.

density
cities.9
 
 There
are
many
ways
that
the
implementation
of


 an
 interagency
 task
 force
 as
 well
 as
 the
 further

Talking Points development
 of
 rapid
 bus
 lines
 can
 be
 funded
 to
 be

more
 budget
 neutral
 and
 lower
 the
 burden
 on
 the
 tax

• The
 National
 Governor’s
 Association
 Center
 for
 Best
 payers
 of
 Los
 Angeles.
 The
 Federal
 Transit
 Authority

Practices
has
dubbed
coordination
a
highly
 effective
 (FTA)
 has
 developed
 a
 “New
 Starts”
 program
 used
 to

tool
that
enhances
transportation
services
at
little
or
 help
fund
transit
projects
that
meet
certain
criteria.
Since

no
additional
costs.
 the
 New
 Starts
 program
 is
 funded
 by
 the
 FTA
 Section

• The
Metro
Express
offers
reduced‐stop
service
along
 5309
grant
program,
expansion
of
the
rapid
bus
lines
and

the
 extensive
 Los
 Angeles
 freeway
 system.
 Since
 implementation
 of
 the
 interagency
 task
 force
 can
 be

many
 lower‐income
 residents
 live
 in
 neighborhoods
 funded
in
part
by
this
federal
grant.
In
January
2010
the

distant
from
employment
opportunities
and
without
 New
 Starts
 program
 shifted
 their
 policy
 to
 fund
 those

regular
access
to
reliable
forms
of
transportation,
an
 projects
 that
 would
 reduce
 cost
 and
 time
 of
 daily

increase
 in
 quality,
 reliability,
 access,
 and
 frequency
 commutes
 while
 focusing
 on
 issues
 such
 as
 economic

of
Metro
Express
buses
are
especially
necessary.
 development
 opportunities
 and
 the
 environment.5

• London,
 Singapore,
 Stockholm,
 and
 New
 York
 City
 According
 to
 Sections
 5309
 and
 5318
 of
 the
 program,

have
 all
 successfully
 instituted
 congestion
 pricing
 eligible
 projects
 include
 those
 that
 “include
 the

systems
 that
 have
 reduced
 traffic
 congestion
 and
 purchasing
 of
 buses
 for
 fleet
 and
 service
 expansion”

generated
 substantial
 revenue.
 In
 these
 cities
 there
 along
with
other
related
equipment
and
facilities.6

is
 relatively
 elastic
 demand
 for
 transportation
 
 The
 proposals
 made
 in
 this
 paper
 can
 go
 a
 long

services
since
convenient
and
affordable
mass
transit
 way
 to
 meeting
 and
 implementing
 the
 criteria
 that
 are

necessary
 to
 receive
 funding
 from
 the
 New
 Starts

program,
 and
 all
 in
 all
 will
 result
 in
 less
 of
 a
 financial

burden
 on
 the
 residents
 of
 Los
 Angeles,
 and
 a
 budget

neutral
solution
for
the
state
of
California.



program,
 and
 all
 in
 all
 will
 result
 in
 less
 of
 a
 financial

burden
 on
 the
 residents
 of
 Los
 Angeles,
 and
 a
 budget

neutral
solution
for
the
state
of
California.



Sources
1

RAND
California
Traffic
Congestion
Statistics."
RAND
California:
Comprehensive
California
and
U.S.
Statistics
on
Economics,
Demographics,
Education,
Health,

Environment,
Community
and
Government
Finance.
Web.
08
Nov.
2010.
<http://ca.rand.org/stats/community/trafficcongestion.html>.

2

"Improving
Public
Transportation
Services
through
Effective
Statewide
Coordination."
NGA.
2002.
Web.
8
Nov.
2010.

<http://www.nga.org/cda/files/011503IMPROVINGTRANS.PDF>.

3

Blumenberg
E.
On
the
way
to
work:
Welfare
participants
and
barriers
to
employment
(2002)
Economic
Development
Quarterly,
16
(4),
pp.
314‐325.

4

Weikel,
Dan.
"L.A.
County
Considers
Congestion
Pricing
for
110
and
10
Freeways
‐
Los
Angeles
Times."
The
Los
Angeles
Times.
09
June
2009.
Web.
08
Nov.
2010.

<http://articles.latimes.com/2009/jun/09/local/me‐tollway9>.

5

"New
Starts
Policy
Shift:
January
2010."
Federal
Transit
Administration.
Jan.
2010.
Web.
08
Nov.
2010.

<http://www.fta.dot.gov/planning/newstarts/planning_environment_11045.html>.

6

"Bus
and
Bus
Facilities
(5309,
5318)."
Federal
Transit
Administration.
Web.
08
Nov.
2010.
<http://www.fta.dot.gov/funding/grants/grants_financing_3557.html>.

7

RAND
California
Traffic
Congestion
Statistics."
RAND
California:
Comprehensive
California
and
U.S.
Statistics
on
Economics,
Demographics,
Education,
Health,

Environment,
Community
and
Government
Finance.
Web.
08
Nov.
2010.
<http://ca.rand.org/stats/community/trafficcongestion.html>.

8

Ibid

9

Kain,
J.
F.
(1988),
Choosing
the
wrong
technology:
Or
how
to
spend
billions
and
reduce
transit
use.
Journal
of
Advanced
Transportation,
21:
197–213.

http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/123245949/abstract

Fixing Nutritional Access in Under-Served Urban Centers
Torin Jones Willis Hon and Ilana Newman, University of California Berkeley

Local
governments
with
underserved
urban
centers
can
utilize
established
community‐based
organizations
to

address
issues
of
food
security
and
accessibility
to
nutrition.



Key Facts West
 Oakland
 can
 utilize
 existing
 organizations


 like
The
People’s
Grocery
and
Mandela
Food
Cooperative

• Chronically
 malnourished
 children
 lack
 the
 to
 organize
 food
 distribution
 and
 nutritional
 education

nutrients
 needed
 for
 proper
 health
 and
 for
the
residents
of
West
Oakland.
The
People’s
Grocery

development.
 runs
 a
 community
 supported
 agriculture
 program
 called

the
 Grub
 Box
 program
 (People's
 Grocery
 n.d.).
 The

• West
Oakland
has
long
been
under‐served
in

program
provides
affordable
boxes
of
fresh,
organic
and

grocery
retail.

 locally‐grown
produce
which
feeds
a
family
of
four
for
a

• The
 community
 depends
 on
 the
 more
 than
 week.
 Similarly,
 Mandela
 Foods
 Cooperative
 is

40
 convenience
 stores
 to
 provide
 food,
 attempting
 to
 provide
 a
 full‐service
 grocery
 store
 and

resulting
 in
 malnutrition
 and
 constant
 food
 nutritional
 education
 center
 in
 West
 Oakland.
 Both

insecurity.
 organizations
aim
to
satisfy
immediate
fresh
food
needs,

• These
 convenience
 stores
 provide
 poor
 provide
 nutritional
 education,
 and
 alleviate

quality
 preprocessed
 foodstuffs
 for
 prices
 unemployment
 in
 West
 Oakland
 (Mandela
 Foods
 n.d.).

that
are
30%‐100%
more
than
supermarkets.
 Malnutrition
 and
 food
 insecurity
 are
 underlying

• Poor
 nutrition
 and
 eating
 habits
 are
 problems
 that
 the
 City
 of
 Oakland
 must
 address
 if
 they

want
 to
 begin
 to
 tackle
 other
 more
 prominent
 citywide

reinforced
 at
 a
 young
 stage
 leading
 to

issues.
 The
 city
 can
 accomplish
 this
 with
 an
 active

lifelong
nutrition
issues.

campaign
utilizing
the
help
of
the
existing
local
NGOs.

• The
City
of
Oakland
has
the
ability
to
take
an
 

active
 role
 to
 reinforce
 proper
 eating
 habits

and
provide
fresh
food
for
this
under‐served
 Analysis
community.
 A
variety
of
trade‐offs
exist
in
choosing
to
leave
the
task

History of
 confronting
 the
 epidemic
 of
 food
 insecurity
 in
 West

Oakland
 to
 a
 multitude
 of
 non‐profit
 organizations
 and


 Children
 can
 become
 malnourished
 for
 reasons
 cooperatives
 with
 little
 federal
 funding
 support.
 
 This

that
 have
 nothing
 to
 do
 with
 hunger.
 This
 malnutrition
 includes
 the
 difficulty
 experienced
 by
 researchers
 to

arises
 from
 a
 lack
 of
 food
 that
 provides
 the
 right
 obtain
 information
 about
 food
 insecurity
 as
 well
 as
 the

nutrients,
 vitamins,
 and
 minerals.
 Many
 inner‐city
 and
 existing
 responsive
 initiatives
 spread
 across
 multitudes

low‐income
 communities
 in
 California
 suffer
 from
 of
 disjointed
 organizations.
 
 In
 addition,
 the
 market

malnutrition
 and
 undernourishment.
 Federal
 food
 system
 fails
 to
 internalize
 the
 detrimental
 externalities

assistance
 programs
 currently
 employed
 have
 low
 associated
 with
 food
 insecurity,
 including
 high
 costs
 of

participation
rates
and
do
not
address
issues
in
regard
to
 health
care
and
emergency
food
distribution.

the
 retail
 landscape
 of
 West
 Oakland.
 However,

community‐based
 solutions
 for
 addressing
 chronic
 In
 recognizing
 the
 current
 economic
 situation
 of

malnutrition
 are
 extremely
 viable.
 The
 community
 of
 California
 and
 local
 governments,
 utilizing
 and
 assisting

West
Oakland
in
the
California
Bay
Area
is
an
example
of
 these
 community‐based
 organizations
 in
 providing
 food

an
 underserved
 community
 that
 could
 greatly
 benefit
 and
 knowledge
 is
 a
 practical
 way
 to
 address
 the
 issue.

from
 the
 implementation
 of
 a
 nutrition
 program
 The
 City
 of
 Oakland
 could
 save
 both
 money
 and

involving
 the
 local
 government
 utilizing
 and
 assisting
 manpower
 by
 working
 with
 existing
 programs
 like

community
 based
 organizations
 in
 providing
 food
 and
 People’s
 Grocery
 and
 the
 Mandela
 Food
 Cooperative

knowledge
(Said
2009).
The
West
Oakland
community
is
 which
 already
 have
 respectable
 reputations
 and
 name

currently
underserved
by
retail
grocery
stores,
leading
to
 recognition
in
the
local
community.
 Barriers
that
remain

chronic
 malnutrition
 and
 food
 insecurity
 among
 its
 for
these
organizations
include
resident
apathy
or
simply

residents
(People's
Grocery
n.d.).

 not
 knowing
 they
 exist.
 Using
city
 events
 that
showcase

good
 eating
 habits,
 city
 officials
 can
 guide
 residents
 to

woww

these
 organizations
 and
 assist
 them
 with
 utilizing
 their
 underserved
neighborhoods
would
enable
food
retailers,

services.
The
city
government
can
also
utilize
city‐owned
 exempt
 from
 Oakland
 business
 taxes,
 to
 provide

spaces
such
parks
and
buildings
to
facilitate
the
activities
 nutritious
 foods.
 
 This
 alternative
 differs
 from

of
the
community
based
organizations.
 contracting
private
 companies
because
 it
allows
 existing

establishments
 to
 maintain
 their
 autonomy
 and
 remain

Organizing
 a
 new
 farmers’
 market
 in
 West
 Oakland
 is
 in
 West
 Oakland,
 facilitating
 their
 own
 “corner
 store

another
 alternative
 for
 the
 city
 to
 consider,
 but
 the
 conversions”
 and
 shifting
 from
 tobacco
 and
 liquor
 sales

current
 financial
 reality
 of
 the
 city
 would
 hamper
 its
 to
 fresh
 foods.4
 
 By
 utilizing
 the
 substantial
 presence
 of

success.
 Due
 to
 transportation
 costs
 and
 the
 small
 already
 existing
 food
 retail
 stores
 as
 well
 as
 newly

volume
 of
 produce
 sold,
 farmers
 may
 have
 to
 charge
 implemented
 policies
 that
 support
 economic

high
 prices
 in
 order
 to
 meet
 operating
 costs.
 For
 the
 development,
 local
 establishments
 can
 be
 transformed,

market
 to
 have
 a
 noticeable
 benefit
 for
 low‐income
 without
 high
 start
 up
 costs,
 to
 address
 the
 nutritional

families,
organizers
must
be
able
to
offer
the
produce
at
 needs
of
the
historically
underserved
community.5
These

low
cost.

 stores
 are
 already
 been
 integrated
 into
 the
 community,


 are
 centrally
 located,
 and
 are
 accessible
 to
 residents

Private
 for‐profit
 suppliers
 can
 be
 contracted
 by
 the
 both
by
walking
and
public
transportation.



government
 to
 enable
 development
 of
 commercial
 

supermarkets
 and
 grocery
 stores,
 improving
 the
 retail
 Collaboration
 between
 large
 supermarkets
 and
 corner

landscape
and
theoretically,
producing
output
efficiently
 stores
 is
 an
 option
 to
 increase
 political
 feasibility,
 in

so
that
society
gains.

Installment
of
large
national
chain
 which
either
an
independent
or
chain
store
acts
as
a
core

grocery
stores
would
provide
jobs
as
 well
as
respond
to
 supporter
 of
 a
 network
 of
 small
 satellite
 stores
 carrying

the
problem
of
inaccess
by
low‐income
residents
of
West
 the
supermarket’s
name
or
brand
or
logo
in
areas
where

Oakland
 to
 appropriate
 food
 retail
 establishments.

 it
 would
 be
 infeasible
 to
 install
 spacious,
 full‐service

Contracting
 for‐profits
 as
 a
 policy
 to
 combat
 food
 sites.
 The
 larger
 market
 would
 be
 responsible
 for
 the

insecurity
 would
 be
 inefficient,
 however,
 due
 to
 the
 purchase,
 storage,
 delivery,
 and
 re‐sell
 of
 products
 to

extremely
 high
 costs
 of
 implementation
 including
 start‐ local
corner
stores.

up
 capital,
 gross
 revenue
 potential,
 and
 the
 percentage
 The
City
of
 Oakland
 needs
to
utilize
the
 established
and

of
 gross
 revenue
 required
 to
 maintain
 operations.2
 reputable
community
based
organizations
to
address
the

Corporate
tax
deductions
and
credits
can
be
awarded
to
 issues
 of
 malnutrition
 in
 its
 long
 underserved
 West

companies
 so
 that
 they
 face
 lower
 costs
 to
 engage
 in
 Oakland
 community.
 Working
 with
 these
 organizations

activity
that
supports
the
objectives
of
the
community,
in
 provides
 an
 attractive
 and
 effective
 way
 to
 tackle
 the

this
case
food
security.

This
entails
the
creation
of
“Food
 issue
 in
 light
 of
 the
 city’s
 current
 financial
 situation.
 
 In

Retail
 Enterprise
 Zones”
 as
 an
 expansion
 of
 the
 newly
 addition,
 “corner
 store
 conversions”
 exemplify
 a
 policy

introduced
 Enterprise
 Zone
 Tax
 Incentives,
 whereby
 alternative
 that
 requires
 little
 investment
 of
 federal

“food
 retailers
 that
 provide
 nutritious
 foods
 in
 these
 funds
 yet
 reaps
 gains
 associated
 with
 reducing
 food

neighborhoods
 are
 exempt
 from
 Oakland
 business
 insecurity
 and
 nutrition‐related
 diseases
 among

taxes”3.
 
 The
 development
 of
 “food
 enterprise
 zones”
 in
 inhabitants
of
California.


Sources


1

Andrews,
Margaret.
"Food
Stamp
Program
Access
Study."
Economic
Research
Service.
United
States
Department
of
Agriculture,
May
2004.
Web.
April
28
2010.

<http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/efan03013/>.

2

White,
Dustin.
"Food
Security
in
Oakland,
CA:
Creating
Access
to
Healthy
Food."
University
of
California,
Berkeley,
2003.
Web.
April
12
2010.

<http://landscape.ced.berkeley.edu>.

3

Unger,
Serena,
and
Heather
Wooten.
"A
Food
Systems
Assessment
for
Oakland,
CA:
Toward
a
Sustainable
Food
Plan."
Oakland
Mayor’s
Office
of
Sustainability.

University
of
California,
Berkeley,
Department
of
City
and
Regional
Planning,
May
24
2006.
Web.
April
12
2010.
<http://oaklandfoodsystem.pbworks.com/>.

4

Farfan‐Rameriz,
Lucrecia.
1998.
“Cultivating
Health:
A
West
Oakland
Food
Security
Planning
Project:
A
Profile
of
West
Oakland
Neighborhoods–Part
I.”


Unpublished
Work.

5

“Neighborhood
Groceries:

New
Access
to
Healthy
Food
in
Low‐Income
Communities.”

California
Food
Policy
Advocates.

January
2003.
January
2006.



<http://www.cfpa.net/Grocery.PDF>.




Introducing Competition into California’s Prison Systems
Brent Gaisford, University of California Los Angeles

History 
 The
 city
 of
 Indianapolis
 is
 an
 excellent
 example



of
the
success
of
competition
between
public
and
private

States
 across
 the
 country
 face
 rising
 costs
 for
 entities
for
public
contracts
and
services.
Under
Stephen

their
corrections
and
rehabilitation
efforts,
most
notably
 Goldsmith,
Mayor
of
Indianapolis
from
1992‐2000,
more

in
 California,
 where
 the
 prisons
 are
 currently
 operating
 than
 75
 government
 services
 were
 opened
 up
 to

at
190%
of
capacity
and
the
prison
system
absorbs
more
 competition
from
the
private
sector.8

Over
the
course
of

than
 $8
 billion
 of
 state
 money
 every
 year.
 The
 prison
 this
 period,
 "The
 city’s
 budget
 fell
 by
 7
 percent
 and
 its

systems
budget
has
swollen
from
3%
of
the
general
fund
 work
 force—not
 including
 police
 officers
 and
 fire

30
 years
 ago
 to
 11%
 today.2
 
 However,
 the
 extremely
 fighters—shrank
 by
 more
 than
 40
 percent.
 At
 the
 same

high
costs
of
the
prison
system
are
not
making
for
better
 time,
the
city
invested
more
than
$750
million
in
streets

treatment
or
rehabilitation,
as
California
faces
one
of
the
 and
 parks,
 slightly
 reduced
 taxes,
 and
 maintained
 its

highest
 recidivism
 rates
 in
 the
 country,
 with
 27.4%
 of
 unemployment
rate
below
3
percent".
 9
Not
only
did
the

California's
 parolees
 re‐incarcerated,
 compared
 to
 the
 city
see
costs
fall,
there
were
also
quality
increases
which

national
average
of
15.5%.3
California's
prison
healthcare
 accompanied
 the
 introduction
 of
 competition.

system
was
ruled
unconstitutionally
negligent
by
a
panel
 Furthermore,
 Indianapolis
 created
 a
 unique
 system
 for

of
 federal
 judges
 in
 2006,
 and
 the
 state's
 prison
 rewarding
 its
 best
 performing
 public
 services.
 Those

healthcare
 system
 has
 been
 under
 federal
 receivership
 public
 agencies
 that
 were
 able
 to
 complete
 contracts

since
 then.4
 
 The
 state
 faces
 crises
 of
 both
 cost
 and
 below
 their
 bid
 were
 rewarded
 with
 25%
 of
 those

quality
 of
 the
 prison
 system,
 and
 a
 solution
 is
 needed
 savings
 in
 the
 form
 of
 employee
 bonuses,
 providing
 yet

that
will
address
both
problems.
 another
 incentive
 for
 public
 sector
 employees
 to


 increase
 their
 productivity.
 However,
 not
 all
 of


 Many
 states
 have
 turned
 to
 private
 prisons
 as
 Indianapolis's
 attempts
 at
 introducing
 competition

the
 solution
 to
 their
 cost
 problems,
 and
 California
 is
 worked
 well,
 suggesting
 a
 need
 for
 transparency
 in
 the

likely
to
do
the
same.
However,
the
current
pay
structure
 bidding
 process
 for
 new
 contracts
 and
 an
 oversight

for
 companies
 who
 operate
 private
 prisons
 encourages
 committee
 independent
 from
 both
 the
 public
 bidders

worse
 conditions
 for
 the
 prisoners.
 They
 are
 paid
 on
 a
 and
 the
 private
 sector.
 Fortunately,
 the
 Office
 of
 the

fixed
yearly
contract
regardless
of
the
care
they
provide,
 Inspector
 General
 in
 California
 is
 already
 very

and
 thus
 these
 companies
 are
 driven
 to
 provide
 the
 independent
from
the
Department
of
Corrections,
and
a

cheapest
 facilities
 and
 care
 possible
 for
 the
 inmates
 in
 level
 playing
 field
 for
 bidders
 could
 be
 created
 from

order
 to
 maximize
 their
 profits.
 Additionally,
 numerous
 studying
cases
like
those
in
Indianapolis
in
order
to
bring

scholarly
 articles
 have
 been
 published
 on
 the
 difference
 California
similar
cost
savings
and
quality
increases.

between
 public
 and
 private
 prisons,
 and
 they
 almost

invariably
 conclude
 that
 private
 prisons
 do
 not
 Analysis
outperform
 public
 prisons
 on
 quality
 of
 care
 or
 cost
 to

the
state.5
However,
there
are
some
notable
exceptions
 There
 are
 two
 ways
 to
 introduce
 competition:

where
 private
 prisons
 have
 proven
 to
 be
 both
 less
 rewarding
 the
 best
 prisons
 or
 punishing
 the
 worst.

expensive
and
of
higher
quality
than
public
prisons.6
The
 Rewarding
 the
 best
 prisons
 does
 not
 create
 any
 incentive

journal
 articles
 which
 found
 private
 prisons
 to
 be
 for
 the
 worst
 performing
 prisons
to
improve
 because
 their

superior
 concluded
 that
 these
 particular
 private
 prisons
 initial
 huge
 disadvantage
 makes
 catching
 up
 with
 best

were
 outperforming
 their
 counterparts
 because
 they
 prisons
 prohibitively
 expensive
 and
 not
 worth
 the
 risk
 of

existed
 in
 a
 state
 of
 competition
 with
 other
 prisons,
 not
winning
the
prize.
Alternatively,
by
punishing
the
worst

whether
 public
 or
 private.
 Additionally,
 competition
 performing
 prisons,
 you
 create
 an
 incentive
 for
 the
 worst

within
the
prison
system
also
encourages
less
expensive,
 facilities,
 and
 thus
 those
 that
 most
 need
 improvement.

Using
a
 system
 which
punishes
 a
poorly
performing
 prison

better
care
at
public
prisons.7
Thus
private
prisons
can
be

with
 reduced
 funding
 is
 a
 sure
 way
 to
 make
 the
 prison

an
 integral
 part
 of
 a
 state's
 prison
 system
 when
 they

worse,
 not
 better,
 so
 a
 different
 incentive
 system
 is

exist
in
a
state
of
competition.

required.
 If
 instead
 the
 worst
 performing
 prisons
 are


punished
 by
 turning
 over
 operational
 control
 to
 the

indpendent
lowest
 bidder
 at
 an
 open
 auction
 for
 that
 prison
 Next Steps
contract,
 whether
 the
 winner
 is
 the
 state
 or
 a
 private

corporation,
 a
 system
 is
 created
 with
 a
 very
 strong
 Creating
 a
 comprehensive
 rating
 system
 is
 the
 largest

incentive
for
 worst
performing
prisons
 to
 get
out
of
 the
 obstacle
 to
 this
 program
 However,
 the
 California
 Office

bottom
 of
 the
 distribution.
 For
 a
 public
 prison,
 the
 of
the
Inspector
General
is
currently
engaged
in
creating

warden
and
all
the
employees
are
strongly
motivated
to
 just
 such
 a
 rating
 system.
 Additional
 political
 pressure

improve
 conditions
 to
 keep
 their
 jobs
 and
 reputation
 from
the
Governor's
office
or
the
state
legislature
would

untarnished,
 whereas
 private
 prison
 companies
 would
 likely
 speed
 this
 process.
 Any
 idea
 which
 incorporates

be
 motivated
 by
 the
 desire
 to
 keep
 that
 contract,
 and
 any
 possibility
 of
 privatizing
 prisons
 will
 no
 doubt
 face

hence
 their
 profits.
 In
 order
 to
 create
 competition
 stiff
 opposition
 from
 the
 California
 Correctional
 Peace

among
 prisons
 to
 decrease
 costs
 and
 simultaneously
 Officers
 Association
 (CCPOA),
 which
 is
 probably
 the

increase
 quality,
 all
 of
 the
 state's
 prisons
 would
 be
 strongest
 union
 in
 the
 state.
 This
 proposition
 does

ranked
 against
 each
 other
 based
 on
 cost
 and
 quality.
 require
 legislation
 and
 hence
 the
 cooperation
 of
 both

Then,
 those
 prisons
 that
 perform
 worst
 in
 either
 the
state
assembly
and
the
senate.
Fortunately,
this
is
an

category
 will
 see
 the
 right
 to
 operate
 their
 prison
 idea
 which
 can
 exist
 alongside
 all
 of
 the
 current

auctioned
 off
 to
 the
 lowest
 bidder.
 This
 will
 keep
 the
 suggestions
for
easing
California's
prison
woes,
including

minimum
 quality
of
care
 within
 the
prison
system
rising
 early
 releases,
 reductions
 in
 parole,
 reduction
 of

for
years
to
come
without
costly
additional
standards
or
 mandatory
 sentencing
 laws,
 and
 increased
 use
 of
 low

inspections,
while
simultaneously
decreasing
costs
to
the
 cost
out
of
state
private
prisons.
 However,
regardless
of

state.
 the
 progress
 or
 legislation
 made
 in
 any
 of
 these
 areas,

introducing
 competition
 into
 the
 state's
 prison
 system

will
still
undoubtedly
result
in
significant
cost
savings
and

rising
standards
of
care.




 Sources


1


Zagger,
Zach.
"California
files
new
plan
to
reduce
prison
overcrowding."
Jurist.
University
of
Pittsburgh
School
of
Law,
13
Nov.
2009.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.


<http://jurist.law.pitt.edu/paperchase/2009/11/california‐files‐new‐plan‐to‐reduce.php>.

2

Goldmacher,
Shane,
and
Larry
Gordon.
"Governor's
call
for
giving
colleges
priority
over
prisons
faces
hard
political
tests."
Los
Angeles
Times,
7
Jan.
2010.
Web.
1


Feb.
2010.
<http://articles.latimes.com/2010/jan/07/local/la‐me‐education‐prison7‐2010jan07?pg=3>.


3

United
States.
Office
of
Justice
Programs.
Bureau
of
Justice
Statistics.
Probation
and
Parole
in
the
United
States,
2007
Statistical
Tables.
By
Tom
Bonczar,
Matthew


Cooper,
and
Lauren
Glaze.
2
Apr.
2009.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.
<http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=1650>.

4


Faryon,
Joanne.
"Soaring
Costs
For
California’s
Failing
Prison
System."
Interview
by
Gloria
Penner.
KPBS.
8
Jan.
2010.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.



<http://www.kpbs.org/news/2010/jan/08/overcrowded‐and‐expensive‐governor‐addresses‐calif/>.


5

Pratt,
Travis
C.,
and
Jeff
Maahs.
"Are
private
prisons
more
cost‐effective
than
public
prisons?
A
meta‐analysis
of
evaluation
research
studies."
Crime
and

Delinquency
45.3
(1999):
358‐71.
Economic
Policy
Institute.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.
<http://archive.epinet.org/real_media/010111/materials/TravisPratt.pdf>.

6 


United
States.
General
Accounting
Office.
Private
and
Public
Prisons.
16
Aug.
1996.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.
<http://www.gao.gov/archive/1996/gg96158.pdf>.


7

Archambeault,
William
G.,
and
Donald
R.
Deis.
"Cost
Effectiveness
Comparisons
of
Private
Versus
Public
Prisons
in
Louisiana:
A
Comprehensive
Analysis
of
Allen,


Avoyelles,
and
Winn
Correctional
Centers."
Journal
of
the
Oklahoma
Criminal
Justice
Research
Consortium
4
(1997).
Department
of
Corrections
of
Oklahoma.
Web.
1

Feb.
2010.
<http://www.doc.state.ok.us/offenders/ocjrc/97_98/cost%20effectiveness%20comparisons.pdf>.

8

Blumstein,
James
F.,
Cohen,
Mark
A.
and
Seth,
Suman,
Do
Government
Agencies
Respond
to
Market
Pressures?
Evidence
from
Private
Prisons
(December
2007).

Next
Steps

Vanderbilt
Law
and
Economics
Research
Paper
No.
03‐16;
Vanderbilt
Public
Law
Research
Paper
No.
03‐05.
Available
at
SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=441007


9

Tabarrok,
Alexander
T.
"Private
Prisons
Have
Public
Benefits."
The
Independent
Institute.
2010.
Web.
1
Feb.
2010.

<http://www.independent.org/newsroom/article.asp?id=1411>.

 California
 legislative
 should
 reform
 the
 allocation
 of

10
dollars
 used
 in
 the
 prison


Leeson,
Peter.
"What
Indianapolis
Can
Teach
Michigan."
Editorial.
Mackinac
Center
for
Public
Policy
8
Sept.
1998.
Web.

 system
 to
 implement
 more

30
Apr.
2010.

<http://www.mackinac.org/article.aspx?ID=653>.

11 funds
 to
 the
 expansion
 of
 rehabilitation
 programs.


Chang,
Hai‐Chiao.
MANAGED
COMPETITION
IN
INDIANAPOLIS:
THE
CASE
OF
INDIANAPOLIS
FLEET
SERVICES.
Government
Innovators
Network.
Ash
Center
for

Rehabilitation
 programs
 should
 be
 put
 in
 that
 fit
 the

Democratic
Governance
and
Innovation
at
Harvard
Kennedyhttp://www.innovations.harvard.edu/cache/documents/11043.pdf
School,
6
Dec.
2005.
Web.
30
Apr.

2010.
<http://www.innovations.harvard.edu/cache/documents/11043.pdf>.
 needs
 of
 individuals
 that
 will
 most
 likely
 reduce
 the
 risk

of
 re‐entry
 due
 to
 criminal
 charges.
 Reducing
 re‐entry

statistics
 of
 inmates
 will
 cause
 shrinkage
 in
 the

overcrowdings
of
the
prisons
across
California.

Combating Student Homelessness: 24-Hour Peer-Run Services
Jenna Edzant, Joelle Gamble and Amreen Rahman, University of California Los Angeles

Universities
should
insure
that
there
is
at
least
one
secure,
on‐campus
building
open
24‐hours
a
day,
seven
days
a

week,
to
provide
homeless/needy
students
with
shelter.
Due
to
a
lack
of
data
on
student
homelessness,
the
UC

Regents
should
prioritize
the
issue
by
initiating
a
cross‐system
survey
collecting
data
from
all
UC
campuses.



Key Facts past
few
 years,
actions
have
been
taken
 to
alleviate
 the


 strain
that
tuition
places
on
students.
The
2009
American

• Many
 signs
 can
 alert
 universities
 of
 homeless
 Opportunity
Tax
Credit
added
course
materials
to
the
list


 students,
including:
a
lack
of
continuity
in
education,
 of
 qualifying
 claims
 for
 parents
 and
 students.
 The

poor
 health
 and
 hygiene,
 or
 multiple
 bags/large
 Student
 Aid
and
Fiscal
 Responsibility
Act
(SAFRA),
 which

quantities
of
belongings
to
carry
on
person.6

 was
signed
into
 law
along
 with
health
care
legislation
in

• "For
the
2009‐2010
school
year
and
future
years.
The
 early
 2010,
 significantly
 increased
 the
 amount
 of
 Pell

College
 Cost
 Reduction
 and
 Access
 Act
 of
 2007
 (P.L.
 Grant
 awards.
 SAFRA
 converts
 student
 lending
 from

110‐84)
 expanded
 the
 definition
 of
 “independent
 taxpayer
 subsidized
 lenders
 to
 the
 more
 cost‐effective

student”
 to
 include:
 (1)
 unaccompanied
 homeless
 Direct
 Loan
 Program,
 which
 lends
 money
 directly
 from

youth;
 (2)
 youth
 who
 are
 in
 foster
 care
 at
 any
 time
 the
government.2

after
 the
age
of
13
or
 older,
and;
(3)
 youth
who
are
 Despite
 efforts
 to
 create
 affordable
 higher

emancipated
minors
or
are
 in
 legal
guardianships
as
 education,
students
are
still
suffering
from
the
effects
of

determined
 by
 an
 appropriate
 court
 in
 the
 the
financial
crisis.
In
2010,
California’s
Governor,
Arnold

individual's
state
of
residence."7

 Schwarzenegger
 proposed
 to
 phase
 out
 the
 Cal
 Grants

• In
 a
 survey
 study

 conducted
 by
 the
 California
 program,
 which
 many
 California
 students
 had
 relied
 on

Research
 Bureau
 on
 homeless
 youth
 in
 California,
 to
 pay
 for
 school.
 Both
 the
 UCs
 and
 CSUs
 have
 also

24%
of
those
interviewed
at
the
time
were
attending
 established
 fee
 increases
 while
 drastically
 cutting

either
high
school
or
college.8 
 enrollment.3

At
 UCLA,
 some
 students
 resort
 to
 sleeping
 in

Talking Points
 libraries,
 showering
 in
 gym
 facilities
 and
 carrying
 their

personal
 belongs
 with
 them
 to
 class.
 These
 are
 not

• Due
 to
 the
 lack
 of
 statistically
 based
 studies
 on
 isolated
 incidents.
 Fortunately,
 UCLA
 has
 a
 24‐hour

student
 homelessness,
 universities
 primarily
 rely
 on
 campus
 library.
 Otherwise,
 many
 students
 would
 have

anecdotal
 information.
 In
 order
 to
 quantify
 the
 no
shelter
at
night.



problem,
 universities
 can
 initiate
 an
 identification
 Analysis
process
 of
 at
 risk
 students
 through
 psychological

services,
 financial
 aid,
 counseling
 and
 other
 student
 
 The
 majority
 of
 college
 campuses
 across
 the

services.

 country
 feature
 at
 least
 one
 facility
 designed
 as
 a

• Students
 may
 be
 considered
 homeless
 for
 several
 "student
recreational
center"
that
provides
services
such

different
reasons:
unexpected
evictions,
family
crises
 as
 study
 rooms
 and
 access
 to
 computers,
 lounges,

or
 a
 lack
 of
 a
 nighttime
 residence
 due
 to
 long‐ athletic
 facilities,
 locker
 rooms,
 program
 offices,
 and

standing
financial
issues.5
 common
areas.

Needy
students
frequent
such
buildings

• Providing
 students
 in
 need
 with
 a
 dependable
 for
shelter,
hygienic
uses,
or
simply
a
 comfortable
place

nighttime
shelter,
via
a
24‐hour
on‐campus
location,
 to
 rest.4
 These
 buildings
 become
 the
 primary
 resource

is
the
first‐step
universities
can
take
towards
curbing
 for
a
university’s
homeless
student
population.


the
 spread
 of
 homelessness
 throughout
 their
 

student
bodies.

History 
Next Steps
With
 higher
 education
 comes
 a
 considerable
 
 Schools
 should
 guarantee
 at
 least
 one
 secure

financial
 burden
 as
 the
 price
 of
 attending
 college
 building
open
at
all
times
to
provide
shelter
for
homeless

increases
annually,
and
sometimes,
bi‐annually.
Over
the
 students.

 This
 may
 be
 at
 a
 library
 or
 a
 student
 union.


indepent

These
buildings
should
have
open
and
secure
restrooms,
 identify
 homeless
 students
 and
 provide
 them
 with

shower
 facilities
 and
 washers
 and
 dryers.
 To
 minimize
 information
 concerning
 available
 facilities.
 They
 would

costs,
 these
 washers
 and
 dryers
 could
 be
 renovated
 or
 organize
 food
 drives
 to
 collect
 meal
 plan
 vouchers
 from

second‐hand
sets
from
other
residence
halls.


 the
 students,
 as
 well
 as,
 collect
 donations
 from
 their


 Collecting
 data
 on
 the
 severity
 of
 student
 neighboring
 community.
 These
 groups
 could
 also
 hold

homelessness
 is
 key
 to
 implementing
 this
 idea.
 The
 UC
 fundraisers
with
alumni
to
request
monetary
donations.

Regents
 can
 be
 the
 driving
 force
 for
 this
 policy
 by

initiating
 a
 cross‐system
 survey
 to
 collect
 data
 from

various
campuses.
Working
in
conjunction
with
UCSA
will
 Audience
ensure
that
this
can
be
accomplished
as
UCSA
 will
likely


 Getting
 students
 involved
 and
 educated
 about

have
 the
 desire
 and
 institutional
 capacity
 to
 collect
 the

student
homelessness
would
be
the
driving
force
behind

data.
 Once
 the
 data
 is
 collected,
 both
 the
 state

the
 movement.
 An
 established
 and
 interested
 group
 of

legislature
and
UC
Regents
can
work
in
conjunction
with

students
 would
 be
 able
 to
 reach
 out
 to
 university

one
 another
 to
 ensure
 that
 the
 UC
 system
 has
 the

officials
in
relevant
departments
such
as
student
services

budget
capacity
and
resources
to
adequately
address
the

or
 housing.
 The
 next
 level
 of
 stakeholders
 involves
 the

prevalence
of
student
homelessness.

university
 board
 of
 trustees,
 or
 in
 the
 case
 of
 the


 Universities
 and
 colleges
 should
 utilize
 already

University
 of
 California
 system:
 the
 UC
 Regents.
 Finally

existing
services
when
enacting
this
plan,
such
as
student

on
 the
 national
 level,
 involving
 local
 representatives
 of

run
security
forces.
Funding
 can
come
from
any
 existing

the
 issue
 would
 be
 ideal
 in
 order
 to
 gain
 recognition
 of

funding
 for
 student
 welfare
 services.
 Many
 schools

the
 growing
 homeless
 student
 population.
 Finally,

already
have
buildings
open
24‐hours
but
do
not
provide

partnering
the
above
stakeholders
with
local
non‐profits

showers
 or
 washers/dryers
 or
 food
 closets.
 Centralizing

interested
 in
 homelessness
 and
 social
 services
 would

these
facilities
is
key
to
the
project’s
success.













substantially
help
foster
a
sustainable
solution.


 If
 funding
 allows,
 universities
 should
 institute
 a

student‐led
 organization
 to
 provide
 services
 that
 could
 



Sources



1
Paik,
Neil.
"Revised
federal
aid
application
released."
The
Daily
Bruin,
January
27,
2010:
1,4.


 

2
"Student
Aid
and
Fiscal
Responsibility
Act
(updated
3.18.10)
|
EdLabor
Journal
|
Committee
on
Education
and
Labor."
Committee
on
Education
and
Labor
.
N.p.,
n.d.

Web.
27
Jan.
2010.
 

3

Bader,
Eleanor
J.
2009.
"Homeless
on
Campus
|
The
Progressive."
The
Progressive
|
Peace
and
social
justice
since
1909.
N.p.,
n.d.
Web.
30
Jan.
2010.

<http://www.progressive.org/node/718>


 

4

Ibid

5

Bernstein,
Nell,
and
Lisa
Foster.
"Voices
from
the
street:
A
survey
of
homeless
youth
by
their
peers."
California
State
Research
Library
1
(2008):
1‐133.
Web.

<http://www.library.ca.gov/crb/

6

Ibid

7

“Helptin
Unaccompanied
Homeless
Youth
Access
Financial
Aid.”
NAEHCY.
<http://www.naehcy.org/dl/uy_higher_ed.doc>

8

Ibid

A Tax Revolution in California
Kunitaka Ueno, University of California San Diego

Implementing
 a
 value‐added
 tax
 (VAT)
 and
 removing
 the
 corporate
 income
 tax
 would
 attract
 business
 to

California,
solve
their
budget
crisis,
and
generate
sustainable
economic
growth.


High
 corporate
 income
 taxes
 and
 heavy
 regulations
 are
 causing
 a
 massive
 business
 exodus
 from
 California.
 In
 every

month
 of
 2009,
 Nevada
 –
 a
 state
 with
 no
 corporate
 tax
 and
 less
 red
 tape
 –
 received
 over
 a
 hundred
 inquiries
 from

companies
in
California
about
plans
to
move
to
Las
Vegas.5
The
Milken
Institute,
a
think‐tank
in
Santa
Monica,
reported

that
 California
 is
 steadily
 losing
 its
 manufacturing
 industry
 to
 les
 tax
 heavy
 states
 such
 as
 Arizona,
 North
 Carolina,

Georgia
 and
 Texas.
 The
 departure
 of
 firms
 and
 capital
 has
 destabilized
 tax
 revenues
 and
 has
 undercut
 California’s

economic
performance.


Moreover,
 California’s
 heavy
 reliance
 on
 personal
 and
 corporate
 income
 taxes
 is
 becoming
 the
 source
 of
 notorious

revenue
 volatility.
 In
 each
 recession,
 Sacramento
 suffers
 a
 sharp
 decline
 in
 its
 tax
 revenue
 –
 falling
 more
 than
 24%

during
 the
 dotcom
 bust
 and
 over
 20%
 in
 the
 current
 recession.6
 Collecting
 taxes
 from
 sources
 that
 experience

pronounced
fluctuations
leaves
the
state
penniless
in
times
of
recession



To
solve
the
current
situation,
California
needs
to
two
things
at
once–
reduce
the
corporate
tax
and
introduce
the
value‐
added
tax
(VAT).
By
reducing
the
corporate
tax,
California
will
attract
business
investment
and
create
job
opportunities.

By
implementing
a
value‐added
tax
(VAT),
the
state
can
ensure
more
stable
tax
base
and
end
the
fiscal
calamity.



 Key Facts History



 • An
 Anti‐Business
State:
Chief
 Executive
has
ranked
 
 Texas
 is
 a
 case
 in
 point.
 While
 California
 is

California
 the
 worst
 state
 to
 conduct
 business
 for
 suffering
from
a
fiscal
hole,
Texas
–
a
state
that
levies
no

the
past
four
years.1
 personal
income
tax
–
is
running
a
budget
surplus.
Texas

is
becoming
a
magnet
of
America’s
biggest
corporations,

• Census
 Bureau
 indicates
 that
 California
 has
 been

hosting
more
Fortune
500
companies
than
any
other
US

witnessing
 a
 “tax
 flight”
 phenomenon,
 with

state.7
 With
 the
 steady
 inflow
 of
 investment
 and

consistent
 emigration
 of
 over
 100,000
 residents

employment,
Texas’s
jobless
rate
of
7.1%
is
three
points

each
year.2

below
 the
 national
 average
 when
 California’s
 is
 three

• Volatile
 Revenue:
 California’s
 income
 tax
 revenue
 points
higher.8
Texas
illustrates
that
low
taxes
and
a
pro‐
fell
24%
during
the
dotcom
bust,
increased
20%
in
 business
 climate
 lure
 both
 investment
 and
 job

the
following
recovery,
and
have
fallen
 more
 than
 opportunities.

20%
in
the
current
recession.3

Analysis
Talking Points
While
both
VATs
play
a
similar
role
in
generating

• California
needs
to
end
its
reliance
on
income
taxes
 revenue,
 they
 differ
 in
 their
 approach.
 Unlike
 existing

to
stop
the
business
exodus
and
revenue
volatility.
 sales
taxes
on
final
purchased
goods,
a
VAT
is
charged
on

goods
 and
 services
 at
 each
 stage
 of
 production.

• A
 value‐added
 tax
 (VAT)
 would
 embrace
 the

Consequently,
 a
 VAT
 is
 embedded
 in
 the
 prices
 and

stability
 of
 the
 existing
 sales
 tax
 while
 generating

inconspicuous
to
the
consumers.

the
 additional
 revenue
 necessary
 to
 offset
 the

elimination
of
corporate
income
tax.

 VATs
 will
 modernize
 the
 sales
 tax
 by
 expanding

the
 tax
 base.
 Unlike
 income
 and
 corporate
 taxes,
 the

• Records
 show
 that
 states
 with
 strong
 records
 of

economic
freedom
–
North
Carolina,
Delaware,
and

sales
tax
has
been
a
stable
source
of
revenue.
However,

Texas
 –
 have
 attracted
 business
 investment
 and
 the
 current
 sales
 tax
 system
 is
 outdated
 because
 it
 is

have
 maintained
 a
 budget
 surplus
 in
 this
 only
 imposed
 on
 tangible
 goods.
 California
 is
 a

recession.4
 independently

predominantly
 service‐based
 economy.
 The
 Tax
 Next Steps
Foundation
estimated
that
even
without
the
8.25%
sales

tax,
a
2.77%
VAT
can
raise
approximately
$28
billion
per
 Governor
 Arnold
 Schwarzenegger
 has
 organized

year.9
 By
 placing
 most
 services
 under
 the
 tax
 base,
 a
bipartisan
commission
to
remedy
California’s
economic

Sacramento
could
end
the
recurrent
fiscal
crises.
 issues.12
 The
 commission
 has
 already
 proposed
 some

variants
 of
 VAT
 on
 the
 table,
 but
 they
 are
 likely
 to
 be

Consequently,
 the
 VAT
 would
 make
 California
 dismissed
in
the
early
process.
To
gain
a
popular
support

more
 business‐friendly
 and
 generate
 sufficient
 revenue
 for
 tax
 reform,
 it
 is
 critical
 to
 fix
 the
 stagnant
 economy

to
 remove
 corporate
 taxes.
 Numerous
 studies
 illustrate
 and
 employment.
 The
 next
 step
 is
 to
 reduce
 the

the
 economic
 benefits
 of
 low
 taxes
 and
 pro‐business
 corporate
 tax.
 Reducing
 corporate
 tax
 sends
 a
 clear

climate.
 The
 Fraser
 Institute,
 a
 Canadian
 think‐tank,
 message
 to
 the
 employers
 –
 it
 shows
 California’s

reported
that
states
with
low
taxes
and
business‐friendly
 commitment
to
become
more
business‐friendly.
This
will

legal
 systems
 had
 an
 annual
 growth
 rate
 that
 was
 20
 attract
 businesses
 and
 create
 job
 opportunities
 for

percent
 higher
 than
 the
 national
 average
 from
 1981
 to
 California.
 By
 boosting
 the
 economy
 and
 employment,

2005.10
 In
 contrast,
 states
 with
 higher
 taxes
 and
 more
 the
state
will
have
a
better
chance
of
gaining
the
popular

intrusive
regulations
 experienced
an
annual
growth
that
 mandate
necessary
to
achieve
a
greater
tax
reform.


was
10
percent
below
the
US
average.11



Sources
1 


“Emigration
from
California:
Go
east
or
north,
young
man”
August
27,
2009.
Economist:
1‐2
(accessed
January
14,
2010).

2

“California
v.
Texas:
America’s
future.”
July
12,
2009.
Economist
1‐2
(accessed
January
14,
2010).

3 


Cohen,
Micah
and
Kiran
Sheffrin.
July
27,
2009.
“Finding
Stable
Ground:
California
Reform
Commission
Puts
Tax
Overhaul
on
Table”
Tax
Foundation

http://www.taxfoundation.org/publications/show/24928.html
(accessed
January
23,
2010).

4 


Dowd,
Alan
W.
and
Amela
Karabegovic.
August
7,
2008.
“The
Path
to
Prosperity”
The
Journal
of
the
American
Enterprise
Institute.

http://www.american.com/archive/2008/july‐07‐08/the‐path‐to‐prosperity
(accessed
January
20,
2010).

5

“Emigration
from
California:
Go
east
or
north,
young
man”
(accessed
January
14,
2010).


6

Cohen,
Micah
and
Kiran
Sheffrin.


7

“California
v.
Texas:
America’s
future.”
(accessed
January
14,
2010).
 

8

“California
v.
Texas:
America’s
future.”
(accessed
January
14,
2010).

9

Cohen,
Micah
and
Kiran
Sheffrin.
 

10

Dowd,
Alan
W.
and
Amela
Karabegovic.
August
7,
2008.
“The
Path
to
Prosperity”
The
Journal
of
the
American
Enterprise
Institute.

http://www.american.com/archive/2008/july‐07‐08/the‐path‐to‐prosperity
(accessed
January
20,
2010).

11

Dowd,
Alan
W.
and
Amela
Karabegovic.

 Next
Steps

12

“California
Tax
Reform
Proposal
Would
Put
State
Back
on
Stable
Ground”
Tax
Foundation
(July
28,
2009).
http://www.taxfoundation.org/news/show/24933.html

(accessed
January
24,
2010).
 California
 legislative
 should
 reform
 the
 allocation
 of

dollars
 used
 in
 the
 prison
 system
 to
 implement
 more

funds
 to
 the
 expansion
 of
 rehabilitation
 programs.

Rehabilitation
 programs
 should
 be
 put
 in
 that
 fit
 the

needs
 of
 individuals
 that
 will
 most
 likely
 reduce
 the
 risk

of
 re‐entry
 due
 to
 criminal
 charges.
 Reducing
 re‐entry

statistics
 of
 inmates
 will
 cause
 shrinkage
 in
 the

overcrowdings
of
the
prisons
across
California.

Implement Rehabilitation Programs to Reduce Prison Overcrowding
Shah-Rukh Paracha, University of California Los Angeles

In
order
to
reduce
overcrowding
in
the
prison
system,
Congress
should
implement
more
rehabilitation
programs

that
fit
individual
needs
that
will
reduce
the
amount
of
re‐entry
for
former
inmates.


California,
 along
 with
 most
 other
 states,
 is
 faced
 with
 the
 problem
 of
 overcrowding
 jails.
 At
 the
 root
 of
 the
 problem,

overcrowding
 is
 caused
 by
 the
 inefficiency
 of
 our
 current
 system
 in
 rehabilitating
 individuals
 to
 integrate
 back
 into

society.
 Current
 debates
 ask
 whether
 jails
 are
 in
 place
 to
 rehabilitate
 an
 individual
 or
 to
 punish
 them.
 The
 current

system
in
place
has
 taken
the
 ideology
 of
punishment
for
 imprisonment.
 According
to
Frances
Crooks,
Director
of
the

Howard
League
for
Penal
Reform,
“[people]
must
recognize
that
[punishment]
is
simply
revenge
and
it
is
not
going
to
be

effective;
it
will
not
stop
the
pattern
of
behavior
when
people
come
out.”
Many
of
the
people
in
jail
need
treatment
in

order
to
effectively
integrate
in
society.
Over
90%
of
inmates
can
be
diagnosed
of
suffering
from
a
mental
disorder.
Over

40%
of
women
in
jail
have
attempted
suicide
prior
to
incarnation.2
Designing
special
programs
to
fit
people’s
needs
the

first
they
are
incarcerated
can
dramatically
reduce
re‐entry
into
jails;
thus,
lighting
the
burden
put
on
to
the
state
paying

for
the
re‐entry
and
housing
of
these
people.



 Key Facts Analysis


• Over
 90%
 of
 inmates
 can
 be
 diagnosed
 of
 
 Overcrowding
 in
 prisons
 have
 become

suffering
from
a
mental
disorder
and
over
40%
of
 commonplace
 in
 California.
 The
 past
 forty
 years
 have

women
 in
 jail
 have
 attempted
 suicide
 prior
 to
 been
 marked
 with
 prisoners
 situated
 in
 deteriorating

incarnation.
 facilities
 usually
 cramped
 into
 a
 room
 with
 five
 or
 more

inmates.
Overcrowding
of
these
prisons
leads
to
faltered

• It
 is
 estimated
that
over
$40,000
a
 year
is
spent
 rehabilitation
 of
 inmates
 due
 to
 a
 failure
 of
 adequate

per
inmate.
 attention
 needed
 for
 the
 person
 to
 heal.4
 A
 feedback

loop
 mechanism
 is
 driven
 into
 this
 system
 as

Talking Points inadequately
 treated
 inmates
 are
 released
 back
 into

society
 and
 soon
 return
 back
 to
 jail
 which
 adds
 to
 the

• California
 jails
 are
 marked
 with
 overcrowding
 problem
 of
 overcrowding
 itself.
 More
 than
 one
 half
 of

and
 federal
 courts
 have
 demanded
 that
 prisoners
 released
 tend
 to
 end
 up
 back
 behind
 bars

California
 state
 legislature
 do
 something
 about
 within
three
years.
The
state
has
failed
to
help
prisoners

it.
 in
jail
turn
away
from
a
life
of
crime.
This
will
take
effort

• The
 current
 system
 creates
 inefficiency
 because
 in
 tracking
 and
 reforming
 the
 lives
 of
 prisoners
 both

of
its
high
re‐entry
rates;
the
burden
of
which
 is
 when
 they
 are
 in
 jail
 and
 released.
 The
 cost
 of
 keeping

taken
on
by
California
taxpayers.
 these
 people
 imprisoned
 is
 expensive.
 It
 is
 estimated

that
over
$40,000
a
year
is
spent
per
inmate.5
In
the
end

• For
 society,
 prison
 time
 is
 most
 successfully
 the
state
is
the
biggest
loser
due
to
the
reentry
of
former

spent
 when
 we
 attempt
 to
 rehabilitate
 an
 inmates
due
to
the
inefficiency
created.
The
inmate
 will

individual
rather
than
punish
an
individual.
 once
again
take
up
time
 in
court
to
be
prosecuted,
 may

request
 for
 the
 state
 to
 provide
 a
 lawyer,
 and
 the
 state

History will
 take
 another
 shot
 at
 rehabilitating
 the
 criminal,
 all

adding
to
the
burden
put
on
to
the
state
budget.
In
order


 In
 order
 to
 meet
 fiscal
 needs,
 California
 has
 to
 reduce
 these
 costs
 put
 on
 to
 the
 state,
 it
 would
 only

reduced
 the
 funds
 given
 to
 rehabilitation
 programs
 and
 make
 sense
 to
 implement
 a
 program
 that
 would

have
released
 inmates
early.
 In
order
to
meet
pressures
 correctly
“heal”
the
inmate
the
first
time
around.

given
 by
 federal
 courts,
 California
 is
 releasing
 inmates.

Officials
 are
 planning
 to
 reduce
 more
 than
 40%
 of
 the
 
 Rehabilitation
programs
in
jail
are
key
to
guiding

budget
 given
 to
 rehabilitation
 programs.3
 This
 will
 an
 inmate
 away
 from
 a
 life
 of
 crime.
 In
 light
 of
 the

inevitably
 lead
 to
 more
 of
 the
 current
 inmates
 re‐ current
 state
 budget
 crisis,
 California
 has
 released

entering
 jails
 upon
 their
 release
 causing
 the
 prisoners
 they
 have
 deemed
 at
 being
a
 low‐level
 risk
 of

overcrowding
of
jails
to
get
worse.
 intepdent

re‐entry.6
 Despite
 this,
 some
 people
 whom
 have
 been
 maximum‐security
 prison
 not
 only
 reduced
 violence

released
 have
 already
 ended
 up
 back
 in
 jail.
 Many
 of
 within
 the
 prison,
 but
 also
 reduced
 the
 rate
 of
 re‐entry

these
 people
 re‐enter
 because
 they
 have
 been
 released
 by
 30‐35%
 for
 participating
 individuals
 compared
 to

back
 into
 society
 to
 early
 and
 without
 any
 proper
 other
groups
studied.9


vocational
 training
 or
 other
 types
 of
 rehabilitation

programs.
 Being
 thrown
 out
 into
 the
 real
 world,
 many
 Next Steps
ex‐cons
do
not
hold
any
skill
sets
that
will
allow
them
to

obtain
 cash
 legally.
 Not
 being
 able
 to
 pay
 their
 bills,
 
 California
legislative
should
reform
the
allocation

many
 ex‐cons
 are
 forced
 to
 turn
 back
 to
 a
 life
 of
 crime
 of
dollars
used
 in
the
prison
system
 to
 implement
 more

and
 eventually
 lead
 them
 right
 back
 into
 jail.7
 Studies
 funds
 to
 the
 expansion
 of
 rehabilitation
 programs.

have
 shown
 that
 in
 order
 for
 rehabilitation
 to
 be
 Rehabilitation
 programs
 should
 be
 put
 in
 that
 fit
 the

successful,
 programs
 must
 be
 put
 into
 place
 that
 needs
 of
 individuals
 that
 will
 most
 likely
 reduce
 the
 risk

addresses
the
inmate’s
needs
and
motivate
him
or
her
to
 of
 re‐entry
 due
 to
 criminal
 charges.
 Reducing
 re‐entry

make
a
change.8
A
five‐year
Harvard
study
revealed
that
 statistics
 of
 inmates
 will
 cause
 shrinkage
 in
 the

implementing
 Transcendental
 Meditation
 into
 a
 overcrowding
of
the
prisons
across
California.


Sources
1

House
of
Commons
Home
Affairs
Committee,
Rehabilitation
of
Prisoners:
First
Report
of
Session
2004‐05
Volume
II,

2005

2

Rothfeld,
Michael.
“As
rehab
programs
are
cut,
prisons
do
less
to
keep
inmates
from
returning.”
http://articles.latimes.com/2009/oct/17/local/me‐rehab17

(accessed
March
3,
2010).

3

Singer,
Richard.
“Prison
Conditions:
An
Unconstitutional
Roadblock
to
Rehabilitation.”
pg
372‐375

4

Davie,
Fred.
“The
Second
Chance
Act.”
http://www.alternet.org/rights/81512/
(accessed
February
15,
2010).

5

Blankstein,
Andrew.
“More
than
1,500
California
Jail
Inmates
Are
Released
Early.”
http://articles.latimes.com/2010/feb/11/local/la‐me‐early‐release11‐2010feb11/2

(accessed
March
23,
2010).

6

Tahmincioglu,
Eve.
“Unable
to
Get
Jobs,
Freed
Inmates
Return
to
Jail.”
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/35263313//
(accessed
April
10,
2010).

7

Murray,
Iain.
“Making
Rehabilitation
Work.”

8

Natural
Law
Party.
Crime
and
Rehabilitation.
http://www.natural‐law.org/platform/crime.html#notes16
(accessed
April
02,
2010).

www.rooseveltcamp usnetwork.org