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THE DIRT

Fall Issue 2019, Volume 45, Issue 3

VNLA GMHH Volunteer Project page 6

A Bit of VNLA History - Part Two page 8

Gardens that Welcome


1 Birds & Butterflies page 24
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
PRESIDENT Ralph Fitz-Gerald COMMITTEES
Horsford Gardens & Nursery
Ashley Robinson 2111 Greenbush Road BUDGET AND FINANCE
Ashley Robinson Landscape Designer Charlotte, VT 05445 COMMITTEE CHAIR
PO Box 28 802-425-2811 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
Charlotte, VT 05445 field@horsfordnursery.com 802.425.5222
802.922.1924
arobinsonld@gmail.com Marie Limoge INDUSTRY AWARDS COMMITTEE CHAIR
21 Densmore Drive #21 Ashley Robinson, Landscape Designer
VICE-PRESIDENT Essex Junction, VT 05452 802.922.1924
802-272-8744
Hannah Decker limogemp@gmail.com LEGISLATIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR
Fairfax Perennial Farm, Inc. Gabriel Bushey - Crafted Landscapes, LLC
7 Blackberry Hill Road Sarah Salatino 802.233.8551
Fairfax, VT 05454 Full Circle Gardens
802.849.2775 68 Brigham Hill Road MARKETING & EDUCATION
perennialfarm@surfglobal.net Essex, VT 05452 COMMITTEE CHAIR
802-879-1919 Ashley Robinson, Landscape Designer
SECRETARY/TREASURER info@fullcirclegardens.com 802.922.1924

Elise Schadler MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE CO-CHAIRS


Nate Carr
VT Urban & Community Forestry Program Hannah Decker - Fairfax Perennial Farm
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
Department of Forests, Parks & Recreation 802.849.2775
287 Church Hill Road
Program Manager
Charlotte, VT 05445
111 West Street PROGRAM COMMITTEE CO-CHAIRS
802.425.5222
Essex Junction, VT 05452 Sarah Salatino - Full Circle Gardens
nate@churchhilllandscapes.com
802-522-6015 802.879.1919
DIRECTORS elise.schadler@vermont.gov
RESEARCH & AWARDS
Gabriel Bushey EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR COMMITTEE CHAIR
Crafted Landscapes, LLC Marlys Eddy - Vermont Technical College
176 South Maple Street Kristina MacKulin 802.728.1207
Vergennes, VT 05491 VNLA/Green Works
802.233.8551 P.O. Box 92 VERMONT CERTIFIED HORTICULTURIST
info@craftedland.com N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473 COMMITTEE CHAIR
Toll Free: 888.518.6484 Nate Carr - Church Hill Landscapes, Inc.
Marlys Eddy 802.425.5222
Vermont Technical College P: 802.425.5117; F: 802.425.5122
PO Box 500 Kristina@greenworksvermont.org
Randolph Center, VT 05061 www.greenworksvermont.org
802.728.1207
meddy@vtc.edu

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2
PRESIDENT’S LETTER Ashley Robinson, Landscape Designer

inside
this issue
Board of Directors 2

The President’s Letter 3

The Buzz 4
VNLA Summer Meeting
Dear Fellow VNLA Members & Friends, Recap
GMHH Fall Planting Project
I love fall. In fact, it’s my favorite season. I’ve never seen fall as an end. Actually, it’s the
A Bit of VNLA History -
opposite, for me, a beginning of sorts. September Sun, it’s true there’s something about it,
Part Two
warming & subtle. Its intensity is fading, but the light is not, it’s just getting richer.
VNLA Welcomes New
I do a lot of walking. Member
VNLA Summer Twilight
And as you may guess, I also do a lot of thinking, wondering, smiling and yes, worrying. Recap
I say this only to be honest. Truth and authenticity are vital to growth and awareness.
With Deep Sadness
We are a community of doers, and hey it’s a lot harder to DO than talk about doing, so to that I
say, bring it on! I also say thank you. Calendar of Events

Leonard’s Clippings 15
Thanks to the connectivity of community, we have a healthier, happier, fully alive group of
individuals that together makes a world of difference. We also like to go our own way, which is The Lab 18
commendable and something to be celebrated. All this to say, the strong, hardworking, Observations from
passionate individuals, YOU, the VNLA, is a way to celebrate what it means to be part of a bigger UVM Diagnostic Lab
picture. News from the VT Agency of
Ag, Foods & Markets
Connection in an increasingly unconnected world-socially & physically, is what we need and
crave, without even knowing it. It’s the awareness bit that hides. The Idea Factory 23
Tips, Trends, Food for
Seeing truth, being authentic, aware, assumes you know yourself. Knowing yourself, takes a Thought . . .
lifetime (as Van Morrison wrote) but it also takes a community. Which gets me to why I’m even Garden that Welcome Birds
writing about this: communication, community and connectivity, it’s important, it’s why you do and Butterflies
what you do. We need plants but we also need people.
Strictly Business 27
Back to fall, and why it’s not such a fall? Narrowing the Engagement
Gap

It’s the time for reflection. There is a richness to the colors, a fullness to the gardens, a The Plant Lounge 30
refreshing smell to the air, crisp, clear, clean and SO Vermont. The other thing SO Vermont is Plants for Fall Interest in
VNLA. So as you reflect on your season, friends, family and community, remember our little the Garden
community does really BIG work. Thank you all for your focus, contributions, and support for
OUR Vermont. Enjoy!

Until next time,

Cover Photo: by Kristina


MacKulin. October 3 landscape
installation day for the Green
Ashley
Mountain Habitat for Humanity
volunteer project. See the article
on page 6.
3
THE BUZZ
the low down on what’s up!

VNLA Summer Meeting Recap


by Kristina MacKulin
We had a wonderful day of and has been profiled in
regional and national
gathering, learning, eating
publications, including The
and having some good fun at
New York Times. Larry has
the Summer Meeting &
also developed the annual
Trade Show on August 1,
conference, New Directions
2019. The meeting was
in the American
hosted by Hannah and Dana
Landscape, which is series
Decker of Fairfax Perennial
dedicated to advancing the
Farm. August seems like a
art and science of natural
lifetime ago! It always feels
landscape design.
good to close up shop for a
day and gather with
Larry spoke about local
colleagues and friends to
plant communities and
talk about the season, hear
shared design projects
some great speakers, visit
that were modeled on
with vendors and see new
regional ecosystems. He
plants and products.
share practical design,
Everyone was in
restoration and
agreement that it has been
management techniques.
a busy planting/ selling
Larry also spoke about
season in our industry this
combining design
year with one of
with the
the biggest
reproductive
challenges being
abilities of plants
finding quality
as well as the
staff.
ecological
processes in play
It was nice to get
that help to
a break from the
create compelling
extreme heat we
and evolving
had been having
landscapes.
as the day began
This type of
with keynote
“give-and-
speaker Larry
take”
Weaner giving the group of 100+ a presentation
approach
entitled “Finding Your Niche: Establishing an
often results
Ecological Focus for Your Firm.” After a break, Larry
in low
then gave a second presentation entitled “Living in the
maintenance
Liberated Landscape.”
and
compelling
We were pleased to welcome Larry, founder of Larry
landscapes
Weaner Landscape Associates in 1982 . He has gained
that allow plants to perform according to their natural abilities
a national reputation for combining ecological restoration with
and liberates clients from having to cater to their landscapes’
garden design traditions. He has received APLD design awards
every need.

4
After visiting with We ended the
vendors we shared a day with the
delicious lunch “Fairfax
together, thanks to Perennial Farm
Lucky Star Catering! Amazing
We are grateful to Race”! Think of
the following it is the
vendors who made Perennial
the trek and were Olympics for
able to join us for the wholesale
day: Agresource, Inc, growers. The
Cobble Creek Nursery, group broke up into three
Gagne Insurance Agency, teams and a friendly
Horsford Gardens & competition ensued. Let’s
Nursery, Medford just say when everyone
Nurseries, New England found out there was a tub
Kenworth, Isuzu Truck of full of iced-cold local
America, OESCO, Prides brews as prizes, the
Corner Farms, River Walk contest got a little more
Farm, and van Berkum serious!
Nursery.
Tasks included:
After lunch we held our
annual live auction with • potting up 12 hosta
proceeds going toward roots, correctly tagging
funding our horticulture- them and transporting
related educational them to the share area
awards. A shout out to • pulling apart 5 pieces
David Loysen, auctioneer of oki peck (wiggle
and his assistants, John wire), used to hold the
Padua, Dustin Helfrich, plastic on greenhouses
and Gabe Bushey. Thanks • pull an order of 25
to many of our members plants and bring to a
and colleagues who designated table.
donated plants, yummy
pies ,zucchini bread, It was pretty hysterical watching
tools, and more! these three teams go at it and it
Thanks also to those was a truly fun way to end the
who broke out their Summer Meeting. While there
wallets! We raised was one team that came out on
$1,393.00 and we top everyone left with a prize!
are very thankful for
everyones’ The Summer Meeting is a one day
participation! oasis in August from the regular
business day. It is a chance to
Afternoon catch our breath, hear some
presentations wonderful speakers, and enjoy the
included “Beekeeping in the Nursery & Beyond” with Ralph company of our colleagues,
Fitz-Gerald of Horsford’s. Ralph is a passionate bee keeper exhibitors, and friends. Thank you
and shared his experience and knowledge on what it takes to be to all who were able to be there
a beekeeper. Concurrently, Hannah and Dana gave a tour of the with us!
perennial farm and shared the ins and outs of what it takes to
run a wholesale perennial farm in Fairfax, VT. Top two photos were the afternoon
sessions; other photos include the
tasks & teams for the Fairfax
Perennial Farm Amazing Race!

5
Green Mountain Habitat for Humanity
Volunteer Project - Fall Planting!
by Kristina MacKulin
On Thursday, and the VPOC used the
students’ plans as their
October 3, 2019, fifty
guide for the
volunteers gathered
implementation of the
together to participate
final design.
in the VNLA’s second
volunteer landscape/
A huge thank you to
design installation
those three VTC
project on behalf of
students for their work
two families who will
on the site plan. A
be moving into their
huge thank you as well
Green Mountain
to the VPOC
Habitat for Humanity
Committee, who spent
(GMHH) homes
many hours over the
located at 28 Railroad
summer finalizing all
Street in Milton, VT. These
the design details, securing
50 volunteers were VNLA
all the donations of plants,
members, VTC students,
materials, equipment, and
and GMHH volunteers. It
hardscaping. Committee
was quite amazing to see
members include: Ashley
what these this group of
Robinson, Landscape
volunteers completed in
Designer and chair, Pat
just one day and we are
Toporowski and Josh
very GRATEFUL for these
Cohen, Vermont Stone &
fifty volunteers who joined
Horticulture, Gabe Bushey,
us for the day!
Crafted Landscapes, LLC,
Marie Limoge, Landscape
With that said, this
Designer, Terry
project did not happen
Solomon, Livescape,
overnight. The VNLA’s
David Berg, Horsford
Volunteer/Outreach
Gardens & Nursery, and
Project Committee
Silvia Jope, Old World
(VPOC) began meeting
Garden Design.
last winter and worked
in collaboration with
VNLA members and
Vermont Technical
associates certainly
College instructor
stepped up to the plate
Pamelia Smith and
and by the time October
students Isaiah
3 arrived, they had
Carbonneau, Hannah
donated everything
Kilburn, and Austin
needed to make this planting a reality. A huge thank you to
Turco. They met on site in late March with the VPOC
the donors below:
Committee and GMHH Project Manager, Dick Shasteen to
conduct a site analysis. From there, the students’ assignment
American Meadows - wildflower seed
was to use the Milton site to develop key principles related to
Ashley Robinson - landscape design/site management
planting design, historical precedent and context. A final
Champlain Landworks - trucking
presentation of the students’ site plans was given in April, 2019
6
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc. - trucking as providing a full and
Crafted Landscapes, LLC - equipment, site work, stone functional landscape for
diStefano Landscaping, Inc. - stone, shrubs, the two homeowners to
perennials, bark mulch enjoy. This is our
Fairfax Perennials, Inc. - perennials second project in
Full Circle Gardens - perennials collaboration with
Gardener’s Supply Co. - compost bins GMHH and they could
Green Mountain Habitat for Humanity - lumber, tools, not have been more
topsoil thrilled! Landscaping
Horsford Gardens & Nursery - shrubs, trees is an area they do not
Marie Limoge - landscape design/site management have funds for when
River Walk Farm - shrubs, bark mulch they build new
Rocky Dale Gardens - perennials homes. The most
Vermont Stone & Horticulture - landscape they are able to do
design, site work, stone is spread grass seed
Weston Excavating - trucking once a project is
completed.
This landscape project included preparing beds,
stripping sod and spreading topsoil, foundation We are truly
plantings around the entire perimeter of the two humbled and
family home, a front and side yard planting bed grateful to the
edging the sidewalk, excavating for and installing VPOC, VTC
two patios, one for each family, building a divider students, our
between the two patios, seeding a buffer strip donors, members
with wildflower mix, plantings near the and associates who
woodland edge, and installing a stairway made this project a
landing and placing two compost bins. You success in every way.
can view a slideshow of the entire project on One of the
our website: www.greenworksvermont.org. homeowner’s was able
A shout out and thank you to VNLA to join us for the
members who joined us for the planting (in planting day and she
addition to the committee members): Tanya was overjoyed, so very
Retz and staff member from Mama’s Gardens, thankful, and moved to
Caleb from Crafted Landscapes, Macy from tears. Dick Shasteen,
Fairfax Perennials, Linzy Vos from Church Hill GMHH Project Manager
Landscapes, Chris diStefano, his two shared “Again,  I can’t
daughters, and two staff thank the VNLA and
members, Marlys Eddy, VTC folks enough for
Zina Dana and all the VTC their help with this outstanding project. 
students. Everyone was so pleasant to work with
and all worked so hard to achieve the
It is amazing to watch
great results.  VTC students – you
how a group of 50 people
should be so proud – hope you share
transformed this
with your friends on campus”.
landscape in under eights
hours! It is equally Here at the VNLA we will continue to
amazing to see what two seek out these types of projects and
organizations and a group we look forward to our “third”
of volunteers can volunteer project for 2021, yet to be
accomplish, both in determined. We are welcome to any
building affordable new, ideas and/or suggestions.
affordable homes as well
7
A Bit of VNLA History - 1964 - 2005 / Part Two
by Dr. Norman Pellett
In 2005, Dr. Norman Pellett undertook the Department of Agriculture personnel in
the Plant Pest Control Section, later
on urban trees at the Vermont Technical
College with the Department of
task of writing the “History of the Vermont
changed to Plant Industries Division, Agriculture and the Urban & Community
Association of Professional Horticulturists
have provided continual assistance in Forestry Program of the Vermont
(formerly The Vermont Plantsmen’s
organization, planning and education in Department of Forests, Parks and
Association) from 1964 to 2005. We are
the realm of insects and diseases that Recreation.
grateful to Dr. Pellett for recording this
affect plants. Wilfred Kelly was
history for the VNLA. Part One of this VPA Benefits. The VPA offered a health
succeeded by Phil Benedict,
history was printed in the Summer Issue of insurance program for its member firms
entomologist, then Steven Justis, plant
The Dirt. Following is Part Two of that and their employees in the late 1960’s
pathologist who later became marketing
history as we prepare for 2020 and the 56th and 1970’s (exact dates not found). The
specialist, Jon Turmel, entomologist, Ann
year of the VNLA! program was popular and encouraged
Dorrance, plant pathologist and Scott
Pfister, plant pathologist. Department of more businesses to join the
Highlights of the Past cont. Agriculture people have helped with organization. The group policy premiums
promotional programs and pesticide were lower than individual policies. The
The Vermont Department of Executive Secretary collected the
Agriculture/University of Vermont education and certification. More
recently the Department of Agriculture premiums and processed the claims for
Extension. Through the years, the insurance company. The program
representatives of the Vermont has been instrumental in providing
marketing assistance and funds for the ceased when insurance company
Department of Agriculture and the procedures required increased
University of Vermont Extension Service organization.
administration and it became difficult for
(now Extension System) have served as Green Up Day. VPA members the Executive Secretary to manage.
advisors and supporters of the participated in the early years of the
organization. Dr. Harrison Flint, annual GreenUp Day programs by For several years in the early 1980’s the
Extension Ornamental Horticulturist, displaying posters and distributing bags VPA purchased “fall planting kits” which
was instrumental in helping to establish from their places of business. Some included literature that members could
the VPA. Wilfred Kelly, Plant Inspector garden centers, encouraged by the VPA, offer customers to encourage fall
with the Department of Agriculture Plant offered discounts to customers on planting thereby extending the sales
Pest Control Division, was a charter GreenUp Days as part of the promotion. season. The October 29, 1982 edition of
member and active in the early planning. The Potting Bench displayed an
Since the beginning, a succession of VPA Tackles the Issues of the Day. advertisement by Smallwood Nurseries of
Extension Service and Department of Williamstown for butternut trees, 2 -1/2
The Executive Committee (later Board of
Agriculture personnel have been active in to 4 inch caliper, B&B. Occasionally other
Directors) and VPA had been concerned
supporting the organization and ads followed until it became common
about unethical practices in the industry
cooperating in program development and policy to sell ads for the newsletter. The
and peripheral industries from time to
education. Board of Directors on September 2, 1985
time. Dennis Bruckel, as President in
voted to accept advertising for the
Dr. Harrison Flint was Extension 1979-1980, was granted authorization to
newsletter with prices being $3 for up to
Ornamental Horticulturist from 1962 to issue letters of disapproval mailed to
three lines, $5 for 8-1/3 x 3” ads.
1966. Dr. Norman Pellett was Extension general contractors and architectural
Ornamental Horticulturist from 1967 to firms considered to be in violation of Vermont Grown. The VPA started
1980. Dr. Leonard Perry has been standard bidding procedures and promotion of “Vermont Grown” plants in
Extension Greenhouse and Nursery business ethics. 1982-83. Steven Justis, Marketing
Specialist from 1980 to the present. Specialist of the Vermont Department of
These Extension Specialists have The VPA in the 1970’s was concerned Agriculture, supplied growers with plant
attended most Board of Director about the State Forestry Nursery offering tags as part of an agriculture promotion
meetings and seasonal meetings of the tree seedlings to the public for low cost program administered by the
organization. They have organized since they were subsidized by the state. Department. In 2000, the VAPH received
regional cooperative educational Through negotiation with the a one time funding of $10,000 from the
meetings and tours for members and the Department of Forests and Parks the VPA Department of Agriculture to redevelop
general public, given presentations, was able to develop a less antagonistic this program which lapsed in the late
supported flower and garden shows and relationship. In recent times the VAPH 80’s and early 90’s. Growers and
participated in many ways. have co-sponsored annual fall workshops

8
consumers were surveyed to determine plants.” He was targeting members such found. The bylaws were sometimes
potential effectiveness of the program (p. as Basin Harbor Resort, Trapp Family printed in the annual report.
5, spring 2000 The Dirt). Lodge or Hildene. In response, Susanne
Two amendments to the bylaws voted in
S. Mandigo, Garden/Grounds Manager of
Awards. In 1982, the VPA offered the November 1993 had significant effect of
Trapp Family Lodge wrote a letter to the
first college student award of $100 to a the length of officer terms. The two new
editor refuting Charlie’s allegations. She
University of Vermont senior student, bylaw changes read: “Members of the
pointed out that the Trapp Family Lodge
Karen Alpert. The award was given to the Board of Director shall be elected for a
provides horticultural services in form of
student who showed the most interest two year term” and “Members of the
plants, supplies, vegetables and
and potential in the field of ornamental Executive Board may only serve one term
education to their clients. By selling
horticulture. This first award was in the same officer position.” The
plants from their greenhouses, providing
presented by VPA member Holly Weir, Executive Board is made up of president,
vegetables from their gardens and giving
Rocky Dale Gardens and Nursery, Bristol vice president and secretary/treasurer.
tours for their customers, they qualify as
at the annual University Awards These changes insured continuity while
members. The Trapp Family Lodge
Ceremony. Starting in 2003, the first ensuring changes in leadership. The
became the site for the 1998 summer
Student Achievement Award was granted bylaws were completely revised at the
meeting.
to Vermont Technical College 2005 Annual Meeting.
horticulture student, Jeremy Tinker. Scholarship Program. The VAPH, for
several years, provided a scholarship to Committees. Officers and Board of
In 1986 VPA instituted an annual the winning team in the state FFA Director members have served as
statewide Landscape Contest offering Nursery/ Landscape Skills Contest. A chairpersons for various committees. The
winners in the Residential and Public $500 scholarship was provided to kinds of committees have changed over
Space categories $400 each. There is no Missisquoi Valley Union High School time, but some have persisted. In many
information about the contest or winners team in 1996 to help defray the expenses cases, the committee chairperson has
in subsequent publications. of competing at the Eastern States been the only committee member while
Exposition held in Springfield, in other cases other members have
As membership grew and meetings were volunteered or been appointed or asked
Massachusetts and at the National FFA
better attended, concurrent sessions by the chairperson to serve. Some
Convention in Kansas City, Missouri.
were scheduled at winter meetings for committee chairpersons have been very
members with diverse interests. With Vermont Certified Horticulturist active while others have accomplished
more funds available for programming, Program. The Vermont Certified little.
featured speakers were sometimes Horticulturist Program was started in
brought in from greater distance. The 1988 by the VAPH. Bill deVos of Executive Committee. The Executive
organization paid substantial fees in Treeworks was one of the first to pass the Committee was the primary governing
addition to transportation and lodging exam. The number of certified body until the name was changed to
for some speakers like Dwight Hughes horticulturists grew to 90 in 1993. Thirty Board of Directors as a bylaw change in
from Cedar Rapids, Iowa in 1992 who new people passed the test in 1994. The the mid-1980’s. The Board of Directors is
spoke at the winter meeting. 2004 yearbook listed 82 active Certified elected by the membership after
Horticulturists. Dr. Leonard Perry, recommendations by the Nominating
The Name Change. The organization Committee. Other committees that have
Extension Greenhouse and Nursery
voted to change the name to Vermont existed over time are: Budget or Finance,
Specialist, administers the tests at
Association of Professional Legislative, Program, Garden Show,
summer and winter meetings. Students
Horticulturists (VAPH) in a close vote at Education, Marketing and Promotion,
can buy manuals adapted from a
their August 24, 1994 meeting. It was The Plantsmen’s Promotion Board,
University of Massachusetts manual to
hoped that the new gender-neutral name Awards, Evaluation and Planning,
prepare for the exams. In 2004, a Junior
would also help foster professionalism Newsletter, Vermont Certified
Certified Horticulturist program was
throughout all areas of the plant- related Horticulturist. Other committees that
proposed for vocational high school
industry in Vermont. have been appointed periodically
students in Vermont.
include: Research, Long Range Planning,
In the Fall, 1997 issue of The Dirt, editor
Bylaws Amendments. The bylaws have and Outreach Programs. The Board of
Charlie Proutt raised the issue of whether
been amended numerous times Directors has infrequently appointed
some members met the VAPH bylaws
including: January, 1967, August, 1971, representatives to the New England
definition of active members. He said the
August, 1976, August, 1977, January, Greenhouse Conference and the New
bylaws define eligible active members as
1979, October, 1983, November, 1993, England Nurserymen’s Association
“being.... professionally engaged in
and February, 2005. Other amendments (NENA).
propagating, growing, selling or servicing
probably occurred but dates were not
floral, ornamental, vegetable or fruit

9
The Legislative Committee. The Vermont. The name of the shows has
Legislative Committee has been a very changed over the years as well as the
active and beneficial committee for the timing. Records were not found for many
members through their activities with of the shows. An annual Flower Show was
the state legislature. In the early 1970’s, held in October, 1967 in Burlington and
committee members Richard Stevens, in November of 1968 in Middlebury. A
Norman Hulbert, Wilfred Kelly and other Flower and Garden Show was held in
members led an extensive lobbying March, 1970 in Middlebury. My
effort. They convinced the legislature recollection is a series of spring flower
that nurseries and greenhouses were shows were held in the Burlington
agricultural enterprises and that plants Municipal Auditorium in the late 60’s
growing in nurseries and greenhouses and early 70’s. Former President Dennis
should not be subject to taxes levied on Bruckel says “It was a bear to get heavy
merchandise. items up the steps into the old
auditorium.” Bruckel also remembers
VAPH List Serv. A VAPH ListServ was that he and student (now VAPH member)
set up by Dr. Leonard Perry in the spring David Keszey, helped set up the garden
of 2000 to aid in communication among show at the Essex Junction ice skating
members. Members interested in being rink for one or more years in the 1970’s.
on the list were asked to send him their The Flower Show and Plant Sale was held
email addresses. in March, 1980 and 1981 at the Armory in
Another Name Change. VAPH Board Berlin.
of Directors in 2000 proposed a name The Lawn and Garden Show. The
change to make the organization more Lawn and Garden Show was held at the
recognizable. The name of Vermont University Mall in South Burlington in
Landscape and Nursery Association March, 1985 through 1993. Andrea
(VLNA), was offered by member Charlie Morgante, John Padua and V. J. Comai
Plonski in the fall 2000 issue of The Dirt. were chairpersons for the show in
Members subsequently voted to retain different years. Exhibitors each made
the name of Vermont Association of their own display, but there was no
Professional Horticulturists. central display until 1993. In that year,
Marketing. The Marketing members organized a central display
Committee under the chairmanship of and conducted seminars for the public
David Boucher of Gardener’s Supply, in a vacant store space. These changes
proposed an ambitious program met with much public acclaim and
(summer issue of The Dirt, 2001). His resulted in plans for a bigger show the
suggestions were to print a brochure next year.
that would list members and explain The Move to the Sheraton. The first
what VCH and Vermont Grown means. Annual Flower Show at the Sheraton
A second part was to create a Hotel and Conference Center in South
newspaper insert promoting VAPH Burlington was in March 1994.
businesses and the VCH program. A Records show that 4,300 people
third part was to have promotions attended that show. The 1995 show
through Vermont Public Radio, April attracted over 5,000 people. In 1997
through June. At the subsequent the name changed to The Vermont
summer meeting the members voted Flower Show. The 2000 show
to print a high quality calendar to attendance was estimated at 6,000
promote the organization (Autumn Flower Shows. The organization has people and the 2001 show was estimated
issue of The Dirt, 2001) which they would held a garden and flower show most at 8,000. The admission fee was raised to
sell or give to their clients. years since the beginning. The shows $10 for 2002 when 7,000 attended and
Unfortunately, members failed to buy the have been the primary funding source for the show broke even.
calendars to distribute and the project the organization. The first organizational The 2003 show had a lower attendance
lost a considerable sum of money. meetings in 1963 and 1964 met at the and lost $19,000 putting a serious strain
autumn Chrysanthemum Shows put on on the organization’s finances. VAPH
by the Commercial Flower Growers of

10
members stepped up to volunteer their diverse group of horticultural which became defunct in the early
labor, donate plants and raise funds for businesses. The number of landscape 1970’s. Arborists have been encouraged
landscaping of the Sheraton Hotel and contractors, nurseries, garden centers to join the organization, but few have.
Conference Center. These efforts resulted and associated businesses has greatly Over the years several arborists have
in a reduction of the Sheraton’s invoice increased over the years and their been active in the organization.
by $21,000, keeping VAPH solvent and personnel are the largest contingent of
it’s reputation intact. Following the 2003 Membership in the organization has
the membership. Florist members have
show, strict controls were put in place always been strongly centered in the
usually been few. Most florist businesses
and an event management company was are small and the owners say they can’t northern half of the state. It has been
hired to handle many of the details for leave their business to attend meetings. especially difficult to attract active
subsequent shows. The 2004 show Greenhouse operators have been active, members in Bennington, Rutland,
attracted 5,300 paid customers and made especially in the first years of the Windham and Windsor counties.
a modest profit. The 2005 Flower Show organization. There are fewer year- Members from those counties have been
was well attended and made a profit of around greenhouse operations in the less likely to attend meetings even when
$13,000. A decision was made to move state in the last twenty years, but the the meetings were held in central or
the show to the Champlain Valley number of bedding plant producers has southern Vermont. The Executive
Exposition site for 2006. increased to serve local clientele. Most of Committee has tried various methods to
these are not members. Vermont encourage active participation, usually
Who are the Members? The without much success.
arborists had a professional organization
organization’s membership represents a

VNLA/Green Works VNLA/Green Works


Welcomes New Member! Summer Twilight Recap
Jane Sorenson
River Berry Farm/Northeast Pollinator Plants
On
191 Goose Pond Road September
Fairfax, VT 05454 17, 2019 Dan
802-849-6853 Goossen,
riverberryfarm@gmail.com Director of
www.riverberryfarm.com Composting
Active Member Operations
for
Category: Greenhouse Retail, Landscape Architect, Chittenden Solid Waste District led an evening tour at the
Nursery Retail, Nursery Wholesale, UVM Adjunct Green Mountain Compost (GMC) facilities in Williston, VT.

2019 brought big changes for GMC as they have transitioned


to an all wholesale model in an effort to become more
efficient and sustainable. Dan walked us through the
Get Certified in 2020! composting process, from start to finish, and spoke about
what the changes at GMC holds for the future. It is quite the
Don’t delay and
operation!
order your study
The long-term goals of GMC are to manage resources in the
manual today! most environmentally sound, efficient, effective, and
economical manner. With Act 148 going into effect in July,
2020 requiring all Vermonters to compost food waste, GMC/
www.greenworksvermont.org Chittenden Solid Waste District is working toward the
processing of all that extra food waste.
888.518.6484
It was an informative as well as lovely September evening
and we thank Dan and GMC/CSWD for hosting our group!

11
It’s that time of year again! THANK YOU!
RENEW YOUR VNLA 2019 VERMONT FLOWER SHOW SPONSORS

BIOCHAR GREEN IS THE Presenting Sponsors

Membership
NEW TODAY!
BIOCHAR increases plant yields up Bag Sponsors Media Sponsors Vermont Specialty Food/

RENEW your VCH


to 60% while improving soil health Spirits Sponsor
and sequestering carbon.
Add biochar prior to planting trees
Certification
the garden.
TODAY!
or hemp, laying sod, or digging into
Equipment Sponsors
Seminar Sponsors Supporting Sponsors
Sustainably produced using locally
harvested wood chips.
We appreciate your
continued participation
PART OF VERMONT’S
osphorus Innovation Challenge
We will have 10,000 pounds
and support! Contributing Sponsor

of phosphorus enriched biochar


available in July 2019! GREENSBORO BEND, VERMONT

Renew via mail or on the


INTERESTED? CALL DONNA AT 802 4615553 | GreenStateBioChar.com
In-Kind Sponsors
Agway, Essex
Harvest Equipment
Home Depot, West Lebanon, NH
Prescott Galleries at Verde
Mountain
Agway, Middlebury Horsford Gardens & Nursery Price Chopper/Market 32
VNLA website. Amanda Bates
Aquarius Landscape Sprinklers,
Isaac Paquette Property Services
J. Hutchins Excavating
Prides Corner Farm
Red Wagon Plants
Inc. J. Labrecque Land Management River’s Bend Design, LLC
Ashley Robinson, Landscape Judy Zsoldos River Walk Farm
Designer Kathleen Berry Bergeron Robert’s Tree Farm

All renewals are due by 12/31/19 Aubuchon Hardware, Waterbury


CDL USA
Kathleen Caraher-Grant
Lamell Lumber
Rocky Dale Gardens
R.R. Charlebois, Inc.
Center for Technology, Essex Landshapes S & D Landscapes, LLC
Champlain Landworks Libby Davidson Sean Krusch Trucking
Church Hill Landscapes, Inc Linda Ulrich-Verderber Shelburne Athletic Club
Claussen’s Florist & Greenhouse Lyme Country Store Shelburne Farms
Cobble Creek Nursery Marie P. Limoge SJC Garden Services

Participate in the
Crafted Landscapes, LLC Marijke’s Perennial Gardens Plus Stowe Theater Guild
CW Stageworks Masefield Dry Stone Masonry Studio Three Architecture
David Loysen Melita J. Bass, VCH Swenson Granite
diStefano Landscaping, Inc. Millican Nursery The Grass Gauchos, LLC
2019 Industry Awards Distinctive Paint & Interiors
DoubleTree, by Hilton Burlington
Milton CAT
Monique Dewyea
Trader Joe’s
Trowel Trades Supply, Inc.
Essex Equipment Murphy Landscape Design & United Rentals
Program Evergreen Gardens
Fairfax Perennial Farm
Sitework
Nichols Tree Farm
University of Vermont Extension
UVM Extension Master Gardeners
Federated Garden Clubs of North Branch Farm and Gardens UVM Horticulture Club
Vermont Northwestern Medical Center van Berkum Nursery
Full Circle Gardens Northern Nurseries, Inc. Vermont Department of Forest,
Gardener’s Supply Company Northland Job Corps Center Parks & Recreation
Got That Rental Ober Woodworking Vermont Garden Railway Society
Green Feet Gardening Patricia A. Hannaford Career Center Vermont H’Art
Greenhaven Gardens & Nursery Pete’s Pines and Needles Tree Farm Wright Family Farm
Green Mountain Compost
19

Entry Applications available at


www.greenworksvermont.org
Deadline to submit: 12/31/19

12
With Deep Sadness . . .
It is with deep sadness that I love of his life, and became a
U.S. citizen in the 1970s.
share the news of Matthew de
Matthew found his true calling
Wolf’s passing. Matthew was a
within the garden center
true icon in the Vermont
business selling bulbs (Dutch,
horticultural world and will be
of course!) and became known
dearly missed. In 2017
as a perennial "guru" at garden
Matthew received the VNLA’s
centers in Arizona and several
Allen B. Crane Employment
stretching from southern
Acknowledgement Award. The
Connecticut to northern
VNLA presents this award
Vermont. Along the way, he
annually, upon nomination
garnered many state and local
from VNLA members, and is
awards in recognition of his
sponsored by Claussen’s
vast expertise, and he became
Florist & Greenhouse in honor
widely known as “the
of Allen B. Crane, head grower
Dutchman.”
there for over 42 years. Chris
Conant shares, “Allen was a
As a Vermont certified
great friend, wonderful
horticulturist, his knowledge,
colleague and an incredible
charisma and genuine passion
grower”. Allen passed away in
for his work were
2013 after a year-long battle
unsurpassed. With his
with cancer. This award was
infectious smile and an
established in Allen’s honor to
infamous twinkle in his blue
recognize the employees that
eyes, Matthew turned many of
make a difference in the
his faithful customers into
horticultural industry.
expert perennial gardeners. He worked tirelessly until the
age of 89 and retired earlier this year from the Gardener’s
Matthew was a long-time employee at Gardener’s Supply .
Supply Company in Williston. Those who knew him best
On September 22 Gardener’s held a memorial service in
fondly recall his flawless proficiency of botanical Latin
celebration of Matthew’s life.
and his insatiable penchants for reading, keeping up with
current events (and always sharing his opinion), and
Below is a reprint of Matthew’s obituary.
completing intricate jigsaw puzzles.
Matthew J. de Wolf of Colchester, Vt., passed away on July
He is predeceased by his loving wife, Ginger de Wolf; his
3 at the age of 89 of a brief illness, surrounded by his
parents; and all three of his brothers. Matthew leaves
closest friends.
behind his stepdaughter Sharon Perkins and her
husband, Gary, of Glen, N.H.; and his son Dr. Christopher
He was born October 8, 1929, in Rotterdam, the
de Wolf and his wife, Maria, and grandson Oliver of
Netherlands, to Elizabeth (Dietz) de Wolf and Peter de
Geneva, Switzerland, and granddaughter Kaya of
Wolf. He spent his youth living in Nazi-occupied territory
Vancouver, B.C. He will also be deeply missed by his many
and often shared harrowing tales of those years. Matthew
friends, fellow employees and clients who exclusively
emigrated to Canada in his early twenties, where he
sought his horticultural guidance.
earned a degree in horticulture from Guelph University.
He spent several years in Ottawa, Canada, working for the
Donations to the Friends of Matthew de Wolf Scholarship
Experimental Farm and then in the gardens of the
are encouraged (c/o 476-B Ellsworth Rd., East Fairfield,
governor general of Canada. He was also a private
VT 05448) and will assist deserving candidates who are
gardener for many homes in and around Ottawa. In 1966,
pursuing a horticultural certification.
he moved to the United States with his wife, Ginger, the

13
CALENDAR OF EVENTS
December 6, 2019 January 28-29, 2020 February 24, 2020 - February 28, 2020
Ecological Plant Conference at Brooklyn Total Pro Expo & Conference Class: NGICP National Green
Botanic Garden New Jersey Convention Center Infrastructure Certification Program
8:30am - 4:30 pm Edison, NJ 8:30am - 5:00 pm
Brooklyn, NY www.totalproexpo.com Tower Hill Botanic Garden
Boylston, MA
January 9-10, 2020 February 6, 2020
www.ecolandscaping.com
31st Annual Landscape Symposium Urban Tree Symposium: The Future of
New Directions in the American the Urban Forest
February 29, 2020
Landscape Tower Hill Botanic Garden
Perennial Plant Association Mid-Atlantic
Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, PA Boylston, MA
Regional Symposia
www.ndal.org/upcoming-ndal-events/ www.ecolandscaping.com
Towson, MD
January 16-17, 2020 February 13, 2020 www.perennialplant.org
31st Annual Landscape Symposium VNLA Winter Meeting &
New Directions in the American Trade Show July 11-14, 2020
Landscape UVM Davis Center Cultivate ’20
Connecticut College Burlington, VT 05401 Greater Columbus Convention Center
New London, CT Columbus, OH
www.ndal.org/upcoming-ndal-events/ February 22, 2020 www.cultivateevent.org
Class: Seeing is Believing: A Visual
January 8-10, 2020 Garden Design Workshop August 3-6, 2020
MANTS 10:30am - 3pm Perennial Plant Association National
Baltimore Convention Ctr. Garden in the Woods Symposium
Baltimore, MD 21201 Framingham, MA 01701 Lancaster, PA
www.mants.com www.ecolandscaping.com www.perennialplant.org

Cobble Creek Nursery, LLC

W e grow a diverse selection of


B&B trees and shrubs at our
nursery in Monkton, Vermont. We
offer shade trees, ornamental trees,
flowering shrubs and dwarf conifers.
At Cobble Creek Nursery we are known
for quality Vermont Grown plants,
exceptional service and extensive
woody plant knowledge. Stop by for
a visit or give John a call for more
information.

John Padua
991 Tyler Bridge Road, Bristol, VT 05443
phone/fax: 802-453-3889 / e-mail: cobcreek@gmavt.net

14
LEONARD’S CLIPPINGS!
by Dr. Leonard Perry, UVM Horticulture Professor Emeritus

We had a great one-day my keeping to course


maximums after an out-of-
bus tour September 16 to
control spring with student
the Montreal Botanical
numbers.)
Gardens and Chinese
lanterns display, a
The latest UVM annual
collaboration of myself and
report highlighted some
your association. We had
changes at UVM in
great interest, filling TWO
students from 2012 to 2019:
buses again as last year,
graduate school enrollments
with over 100 attendees.
increased by 15%,
Read and see photos in the
international students
separate article.
increased to over 900,
summer school enrollments
Each semester I give a
increased by 9%, and there
snapshot of the PSS
were a record number of
department focus and
applicants (over 25,000)
student interest, gleaned
with a 44% increase in
from courses (with faculty
online enrollment.
instructor and numbers of
Above: Montreal Botanical Garden Tour - September 16; photo courtesy of
students). Here’s what is VNLA member and tour co-leader Andrea Luchini, Hildene. Groundbreaking occurred
offered this fall, one of the
Below: UVM’s new Multi-Purpose Center broke ground this spring. after spring semester on
more diverse and larger
UVM’s new multipurpose
lineups I can recall: Home
facility (i.e. athletics). The
and Garden Horticulture
Multi-Purpose Center
(Starrett, 127), Introduction
project will bring
to Ecological Agriculture
substantial changes to the
(Izzo, 88), Living
55-year-old Patrick-
Landscapes (White, 19),
Forbush-Gutterson Athletic
Soils in Society (Gorres, 4),
Complex, located at 97
Tractor Safety (DeSantis,
Spear Street in Burlington. 
13), Entomology and Pest
Project highlights will
Management (Chen, 22),
include the construction of
Weed Ecology and
the new Tarrant Center,
Management (Bosworth,
which will be home to
20), Woody Landscape
UVM’s men’s and women’s
Plants (Starrett, 14),
basketball programs, as well
Landscape Design
as host a variety of
Fundamentals (Hurley, 20),
academic, social, cultural,
Forage and Pasture
several graduate level courses such as and entertainment
Management (Bosworth, 12),
the Professional Skills Colloquium programming.  There will also be a
Permaculture (White, 16),
(Neher) and Quantitative Thinking in major renovation of historic Gutterson
Fundamentals of Soil Science (Gorres,
Life Sciences (Merrill). And, of Fieldhouse, and the creation of a
76), Landscape Design for Pollinators
course, there are my usual online three-story shared space between that
(Sorensen, 14), Crop Domestication
offerings Indoor Plants (18), Garden facility and the Tarrant Center.  This
and Ecology (Bishop von Wettberg, 8),
Flowers (26), Flowers and Foliage part of the facility will feature
Introduction to Hemp Production
(23), and Home Fruit Growing (49 in spacious concourses with restrooms
(Lewins, 46), Advanced Agroecology
two sections). (This fall numbers are and concessions, simplified
(Mendez, 23), Soil Morphology
not as excessive in my courses, due to circulation, and a well-appointed
(Waterman, 9). In addition, there are

15
Victory Club room with spectacular “The restoration of trees remains for each of the over 3000 babies born
views into both Gutterson and the among the most effective strategies in the city each year
Tarrant Center. for climate change mitigation. We (www.thebulletin.be), and Ethiopia
mapped the global potential tree broke a world record on July 20 this
Beyond the improvements for varsity coverage to show that 4.4 billion year by planting over 353 million trees
athletes, teams, and fans, the Multi- hectares of canopy cover could exist in 12 hours (www.nytimes.com on
Purpose Center will become the hub under the current climate. Excluding 7.30.19).
for recreation, wellness, and fitness existing trees and agricultural and
for the entire UVM campus thanks to urban areas, we found that there is
dramatic upgrades and a five-fold room for an extra 0.9 billion hectares
increase in the space dedicated for of canopy cover, which could store 205
health, wellness, and recreational use.   gigatonnes of carbon in areas that
Enhancements will also include study would naturally support woodlands
areas and lounges that will support and forests....Our results highlight the
the academic and social objectives of opportunity of climate change
the Department of Athletics and the mitigation through global tree
other University units that use the restoration but also the urgent need
facility. for action.”

A $4 million gift from UVM alumnus Lead scientist of this study, Prof. Tom
Chuck Davis (Class of 1972) and his Crowther at the Swiss university ETH
wife Marna allowed the UVM Zürich, pointed out that we can make
Foundation to meet—and exceed—the a change and not have to wait for
initial fundraising goals stipulated by politicians to act and scientists to
the University of Vermont Board of come up with solutions. “Individuals GROWING FOR OVER 40 YEARS
Trustees.  In recognition of their could make a tangible impact by Phone (207) 499-2994 • Fax (207) 499-2912
sales@piersonnurseries.com • www.piersonnurseries.com
generosity, the Multi-Purpose growing trees themselves, donating to Mailing Address: Physical Address:
Center’s Recreation and Wellness forest restoration organizations and 24 Buzzell Road 291 Waterhouse Road
Dayton ME 04005
Biddeford ME 04005
Center will be named in honor of avoiding irresponsible companies.”
CARRYING A FULL LINE OF B&B AND CONTAINER
Chuck’s mother, Phyllis “Phiddy” PLANTS READY TO BE DELIVERED TO YOU
Davis (Class of 1945).   In the past, Crowther and his NATIVE PLANTS FERNS & GRASSES
colleagues estimated there are about 3 SHADE TREES PERENNIALS
FLOWERING SHRUBS WETLAND PLANTS
The Multi-Purpose Center project is trillion trees on earth, and with this EVERGREENS BROADLEAFS
being funded through a combination study the current researchers estimate
of private philanthropic gifts and there is room for over one trillion Check our website for our
most recent availability
other institutional sources.  To date, more. And a global youth group (password: pni2019)
the UVM Foundation and Department (www.plant-for-the-planet.org) has Or contact our office if you
of Athletics have raised over $32 this as one of its goals with its Trillion would like to receive our
weekly availability emails
million in commitments for the Tree Campaign
project—more than has been raised for (www.trilliontreecampaign.org).
any capital project in UVM’s history.  Check it out, and perhaps children you
Got some money, like this project? know may want to get involved with
Then learn more about how you can them, and work with you and our
support the Multi-Purpose Center industry to help plant more trees or
project—including about just to support this effort.
opportunities to name spaces within
the Center—at https://tinyurl.com/ You can find several other reviews of The oldest and largest nursery
in the Northeast Kingdom!
yxs57fka. this topic and more facts by searching
online. Some examples of steps B & B Apple Trees For Sale!
In case you need another reason to globally being taken are that Ireland
sell and plant more trees for clients, 2”-3” caliper
plans to plant 440 million trees by New cultivars and heirloom
here’s an article from Science 2040 (www.irishtimes.com), Milan varieties available
magazine on July 5 Italy plans to plant 3 million new trees
(science.sciencemag.org/content/ by 2030 (AP news), the city of Brussels Route 14 * Craftsbury, VT
802-586-2856
365/6448/76). Belgium has pledged to plant a tree lapointnursery@gmail.com

16
Greetings from Gardener’s Supply
Brian: “It really is about the personal relationships with our customers. Everything else is secondary.”
That’s been Brian’s motto over his 31 years in the wholesale industry. A Vermont Certified Horticulturalist,
Brian has in-depth knowledge of industry trends, plants, pricing, pest and disease identification and has a
keen sense for finding the plants you need for your projects. Brianm@gardeners.com

Chris: Responsible and committed, sharp with numbers and analysis, Chris is ready and attentive to your
questions and requests. A veteran with 11 years at Gardener’s Supply, he will be your primary contact for
e-mail communication, taking plant requests, writing up plant quotes, and will be the coordinator of our
new delivery program. Chrisr@gardeners.com

Lezlee: Lezlee Sprenger returns this year at the forefront of our sales office. A master gardener with
over 12 years of industry experience in garden and floral design, Lezlee owned her own landscape
company and has been a commercial customer of ours for years. Don’t hesitate to talk to her about plant
combinations, design and color, and installation specifics. Lezlees@gardeners.com

Commercial Division
Spring/Summer Commercial Hours
Weekdays 7:00am–6:00pm, Sat. 8:00am–6:00pm, Sun. 9:00am–5:00pm

472 Marshall Avenue, Wiliston, VT


802-658-2433 • wholesale@gardeners.com

tempfile_10932930.indd 1 17 4/1/19 10:13 AM


THE LAB
putting it under the lens . . .

Observations from the UVM Plant Diagnostic Lab


by Ann Hazelrigg, Phd.

Oak wilt, a lethal disease caused by the fungal pathogen group can die within a few weeks to six months of becoming
infected.
Ceratocystis fagacearum, has been identified in several
locations in New York. New Hampshire and Vermont nurseries, The fungus spreads from oak tree to oak tree by root grafts, by
landscapers and gardeners should be on the lookout for beetles feeding on sap (nitidulids) at open wounds or by oak
symptoms of this destructive and fast-moving disease. https:// bark beetles feeding on leaves of healthy trees. Root-grafted
www.dec.ny.gov/docs/lands_forests_pdf/owfactsheet2.pdf oak trees usually die within 1-6 years after the first oak is
infected and can expand rapidly, moving up to 50 feet each
year. Once inside the tree, the oak wilt fungus grows in the
xylem (water conducting cells) of the tree, plugging up the
vascular system and impeding the flow of water and nutrients
to the crown of the tree. The leaves turn brown at the tips, with

The disease was first noted in Wisconsin in 1914 and has


become well established through Texas and the Midwest,
killing thousands of oaks. In 2008, the disease was identified in
Glenville, NY, less than 50 miles from the Vermont border.
Although the infected trees were quickly destroyed, new
infections were detected five years later in the same location
and within a few miles of the original site. The disease has also
been found in several towns on Long Island, in Brooklyn and in
Suffolk County, NY.

Oak wilt is fatal for all oaks in the red oak group. According to
Dr. Leonard Perry, Horticulture Professor Emeritus from UVM,
hardy common examples in this group are the scarlet oak
(coccinea), shingle oak (imbricaria), pin oak (palustris), northern
red oak  (rubra), shumard oak (shumardii) and the black oak
(velutina). White oaks are less vulnerable but are not immune.
Above: Foliar symptoms of oak wilt in red oak, Utah State
Hardy and common examples in this group include the true
University. www.bugwood.org
white oak (alba), swamp white oak (bicolor), bur oak
Below: Dying oak wilt infected tree. William M. Cesla,
(macrocarpa), chinkapin oak (muhlenbergii) and the English oak Forest Health Management International,
(robur). When infected, the white oak group typically takes www.bugwood.org.
several years to succumb to the disease whereas the red oak

18
the base usually remaining green. Leaves may wilt, curl and
drop and death can occur within a few weeks of infection.

The year following infection, gray to black spore mats of the


fungus grow under the bark of the trees (primarily red oak),
causing the bark to crack, exposing the mat. The fruity scent of
the fungus attracts sap beetles, which can then carry the
spores of the pathogen to healthy trees. Oak wilt can be also be
spread through movement of firewood.

Oaks should not be pruned in the spring or summer when the


fungal mats and beetles may be present. To prevent root grafts,
trenching can be used to sever roots of individual or groups of
trees, but the main control of the disease at this point is
removing infected trees. In the future, if the disease becomes
more prevalent systemic fungicides may become warranted.

If you see any suspect trees, please contact the UVM Plant
Diagnostic Clinic https://www.uvm.edu/extension/pdc, VAAFM
or VT Forest and Parks.

References include http://nyis.info/invasive_species/oak-wilt/


https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/oak_wilt_disease_1

Fungus Mat growing on the wood for an infected


oak tree. T.W. Bretz, USDA Forest Service,
www.bugwood.org.

field@horsfordnursery.com

19
News from the VT Agency of Ag, Foods & Markets
by Judy Rosovsky, VT State Entomologist
In April of 2019 the Plant Industry and Vector Management The hemp program has some new faces. Bob Shipman will be
programs moved from our office and lab space in Berlin VT to the Hemp Program Compliance Specialist helping to set up the
the new Vermont Agricultural and Environmental Lab (VAEL) in Cannabis Quality Control Program, including certification of
Randolph Center, just below the playing fields of Vermont laboratories that conduct testing, establishing thresholds for
Technical College. Our address there is 163 Administrative contaminants and developing a risk based analysis for
Drive, Randolph Center, VT, 05061. The building is locked, so if contaminant testing, protocols and procedures for reporting
you want to drop off samples or just come by to say hello and results. And Mike DiTomasso will be the Hemp Program’s
see the new facility, be sure to call ahead to make sure that you Agricultural Resource Management Specialist focusing on
can get in. Our phone numbers are listed on the main doors to outreach, inspection, enforcement and registration. 
both floors. Stop by and see the new facility.
Vector Management:
Personnel:
Eastern Equine Encephalitis (EEE) is a potentially deadly virus
Some personnel changes have and has been found in the states surrounding us (MA, NH, NY),
taken place; including the but has not been found in the 2019 mosquito survey in VT. And
retirement of state apiarist David out of over 2900 mosquito pools in VT, only 4 were found to be
Tremblay. A new position has positive for West Nile Virus. It is still important to protect
been created by the legislature, yourselves against mosquito and tick bites; make it a habit and
called the Pollinator Health you’ll avoid the diseases that mosquitoes and ticks carry. For
Specialist. The person filling this more details on EEE, please see https://www.cdc.gov/
position is charged with creating easternequineencephalitis/tech/factsheet.html.
a comprehensive strategy to
Pests and Diseases:
improve the health of Vermont’s
pollinators, guiding the state Forest tent caterpillar numbers
Addison County Forester Chris
apiarist program, and providing Olson and Forest Entomologist have dramatically dropped,
education and outreach to Trish Hanson examine an EAB confirming that the recent
relevant audiences. We have infested tree in Bristol, VT. outbreak is at an end. And
hired Brooke Decker to fill this despite lower winter mortality
position. Brooke has been an apiary inspector for the last three rates of only 70%, hemlock
summers and is a member of the Vermont Beekeepers woolly adelgid is still confined
Association, and we welcome her to this important new to a relatively limited
position. geographic area in southern
Vermont.
And my beloved colleague and friend Trish Hanson, the Forest
Entomologist for the Agency of Natural Resources Department Emerald ash borer (EAB) has
of Forests, Parks and Recreation has retired. Trish has a long been found in several new
history of positive and pleasant interaction with VAAFM locations: in addition to Ash tree with characteristic EAB
Entomologists, and while I deeply regret her absence, I wish her infestations in central Vermont, serpentine larval galleries,
well in her new endeavors. Grand Isle County, and epicormic sprouting and D-
Bennington County, EAB has been shaped exit holes.
Hemp:
found in Derby Line in Orleans County and in Bristol in
Things have been moving and shaking in the hemp world. The Addison County. The Federal program that oversees Federal
Agency issued over 900 grower registrations and over 200 pests, U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal Plant Health
processor registrations so far in 2019. During the 2019 Inspection Service (USDA APHIS), is still considering
legislative session amendments were made to the Title 6, deregulating EAB. As such it is no longer paying for contractors
Chapter 34, https://legislature.vermont.gov/statutes/chapter/ to hang up the purple boxes that are used to monitor EAB.
06/034), which are summarized here: https://
This summer VAAFM, in conjunction with the local USDA
legislature.vermont.gov/Documents/2020/Docs/ACTS/ACT044/
APHIS office, UVM Extension and ANR’s FPR, coordinated
ACT044%20Act%20Summary.pdf
20
volunteers to hang purple traps. Adults were found in Derby (1) pet care products used for preventing, destroying,
Line, near the known existing infestation, and in Alburgh, repelling, or mitigating fleas, mites, ticks, heartworms,
further north of the known infestation in South Hero. Thanks or other insects or organisms;
to all participants in this sticky effort.
(2) personal care products used for preventing,
Trace Forwards: destroying, repelling, or mitigating lice or bedbugs;

When nursery stock is found (3) indoor pest control products used for preventing,
to be infested with Federally destroying, repelling, or mitigating insects indoors; or
regulated pests or diseases, a
(4) treated article seed
procedure known as a trace
forward is conducted. To comply with this new state law, the Agency has reviewed
Nurseries records from the and reclassified neonicotinoid-containing products. Any
source nursery are examined, product that does not meet the exemptions above that contains
and the nurseries that received thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, acetamiprid, imidacloprid or
potentially infested plants are clothianidin are now restricted use and applications can only
notified. This summer two be made by certified applicators. Sales of products in Vermont
trace forwards were initiated are also restricted to certified applicators and records of
for Chrysanthemum white rust applications must be made by Class A dealers. Agency staff has
(CWR). Some of the plants sent notified pesticide registrants of the re-classification and will
to Vermont did have symptoms begin inspecting marketplaces to assist with compliance with
of this disease. In its early the new law.
stages it looks like a pinhead-
sized, inconspicuous blister, If you have any questions about any of the information in this
but in its later stages there is article, please contact Judy. Rosovsky@vermont.gov.
nothing subtle about it.
Recipient nurseries were
notified and inspected. Three Things to know about Van Berkum Nursery
1) We are passionate about what we grow, from New England
addition to the CWR, we had a Woodlanders to Wicked Ruggeds.
trace forward of boxwood 2) We specialize in healthy NH grown perennials, personal service,
Above: Chrysanthemum white and extensive plant knowledge.
blight, caused by the fungus rust infected chrysanthemum. 3) We have friends in low places. (ribbit).
Calonectria pseudonaviculata. Below: Boxwood with Volutella
Boxwood plants located near leaf blight.
known infested plants were
shipped to two nurseries in
southern VT; those nurseries were notified of the shipment and
advised to have the plants tested. Boxwood is susceptible to
various diseases, and thanks to Ann Hazelrigg, Volutella leaf
blight was diagnosed on some plants in a VT nursery. This
disease can be treated by cutting back the affected vegetation
and applying a general fungicide. Boxwood can be attacked by a
psyllid leaf miner that causes the terminal leaves to curl, and
there is a boxwood tree moth that has been causing
consternation in Canada. If you are not sure what is affecting
your plants, you can always ask Ann or myself for assistance.

Reclassification of Neonicotinoid-containing
Pesticide Products:

In accordance with Act 35 of the 2019 Vermont legislature, the


Agency of Agriculture has been required to classify
neonicotinoid-containing pesticides as state-restricted use in Van Berkum Nursery • 4 James Road Deerfield, NH 03037
Vermont, unless they are: LLC
(603) 463-7663 Fax 7326 • salesdesk@vanberkumnursery.com
www.vanberkumnursery.com

21
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THE IDEA FACTORY
tips & trends, food for thought…

Nursery/Greenhouse Tip!

Use flashing tape when putting together pieces of


ground fabric. The rubbery tape adheres easily and
instantly bonds the seams together! It’s weather
proof (will probably out last the fabric) and allows no
wind to get underneath!

Use it to fix rips, tears or around post and poles to


prevent weeds from growing !

Dana Decker

Fairfax Perennial Farm

Check it Out! The Perennial Plant Association


has chosen the
The Best Performers and Favorites from
Cornell University’s 2019 Plant Trials - 2020 Perennial Plant of the Year!
courtesy of Greenhouse Grower:
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Aralia cordata ‘Sun King’

VT Urban & Community Forestry 2020


Emerald Ash Borer Management
Grants. Deadline to apply 1/17/20
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The Vermont Small Business


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help manage and market your business. A unique plant for shade gardens, this golden
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Hosta and other shade loving plants.

23
Gardens that Welcome Birds and Butterflies
By: Judith Irven, VCH; Photographs: Dick Conrad

A Designer’s Notebook already set out on their epic journeys to Throughout the winter other birds come
Central America. And in early October and go. Last December we watched in
the final Monarchs departed on their amazement as an emboldened flock of
This column in The Dirt is a place where
we can share landscape design ideas that
prodigious odyssey to winter in central wild turkeys landed in the ‘Donald
work for us and for our clients.
Mexico. Wyman’ crabapple tree near the house
and proceeded to devour the remaining
People love the flowers they grow in Fall is when I see various sparrows and
warblers foraging on the ripening seeds
fruit.
their gardens—an ever-changing palette
Then, somewhere around
from spring to fall—and by
the Spring Equinox our bird
contrast, the stark beauty of
mix changes, as sparrows
winter.
and other small birds arrive
But birds and butterflies and scratch through the
bring a special and mulch beneath the shrubs in
ephemeral magic to any search of a succulent insect
garden— they are like the meal.
icing on the cake The
In early May I rehang the
opportunity to observe these
hummingbird feeders for the
winged visitors as the
summer; this past May the
seasons come and go can be
first hummingbird appeared
an endless source of
on May 7. And by the third
pleasure and wonder, both
week of May the garden
for ourselves as well as for
becomes alive with Tiger
our clients. Indeed my
Swallowtail butterflies—
clients often specifically
perfectly timed for them to
request a garden that will be
The mixed border in Judith’s garden contains many pollinator’ friendly feast on the emerging
‘bird and butterfly friendly’.
flowers as well as Rosa glauca (a great source of rose hips for the birds). flowers of both Syringa
Here some of the seasonal meyeri and Syringa patula
highlights in my Goshen of grasses and perennials, including a ‘Miss Kim’.
garden which could be replicated in huge stand of Molinia caerulea and the Soon they are joined by many others—
gardens everywhere: spent flowers of Heliopsis helianthoides including Painted Ladies, Monarchs,
The waning weeks of summer have been outside our kitchen window. White Admirals, Mourning Cloaks—
pure delight, as butterflies and Around the middle of November (once it which also remain in the garden
hummingbirds savored those last mellow is consistently cold and I am convinced throughout the summer, visiting the
days of the season. that the big bear, who lives in the forest many different perennials to feed on the
It was early September as I watched a near here, should be hibernating) I fill my nectar.
lone Monarch butterfly surrounded by a bird feeders with sunflower seed. And And it is also fun to watch the different
consort of ‘Painted Ladies’ all feasting on within five minutes the first chickadees nesting patterns of the various birds. For
a large patch of Sedum ‘Autumn Joy’ of the season arrive! Chickadees are the past three years, a pair of catbirds has
Sedum, while nearby half a dozen regular visitors at our feeders all winter made use of the dense trio of Syringa
Monarchs fluttered above the tall stands long, often joined by house finch, siskin, patula ‘Miss Kim’ as a safe spot to raise
of Vernonia noveboracensis (New York goldfinch and the occasional grosbeaks. their brood. While, all summer long, a
ironweed) and Eutrochium purpureum Also each year in early November I can song sparrow—perching atop the
(Joe Pye Weed). Meanwhile count on a host of robins and cedar Chamaecyparis pisifera ‘Boulevard'—kept
hummingbirds zipped all around, also waxwings discovering the succulent fruit watch over his growing family in a nearby
seeking nectar from the late summer on the six female Ilex verticillata ‘Winter group of spireas.
flowers. Red’ shrubs that edge the corner of our Meanwhile the acrobatic phoebes, who
By the third week of September—when driveway. A single male—‘Southern tuck their nests under the eaves of our
the Fall Equinox signaled the official end Gentleman’—is all it takes to pollinate barn, delighted us as they dart down and
of summer— the hummingbirds had these six females. capture their insect prey in mid-air.

24
Every year, I watch in awe and delight as evolve relatively slowly, most often these
these and many other small miracles will be native plants that have been here
unfold before my eyes. for hundreds of years.
Supporting Wildlife in our Gardens Hence, for many birds and butterflies,
native plants form the bottom tier of the
Beyond passively enjoying these winged
food chain. And including a good mix in
visitors, we can strive to make our
our designs—both perennials and woody
gardens truly hospitable habitats that
plants—will indirectly contribute to the
will encourage birds and butterflies not
food supply of many kinds of butterflies
only to visit but also to stay awhile.
and birds. His book provides extensive
If everyone does this, taken together lists of plants that support different
our gardens can make a vital insects and birds.
contribution to the larger environment.
2) Plant Trees and Shrubs that will
Today, as human development
Produce Fruit or Nuts.
relentlessly expands—everything from
housing and roads to farming—it Especially in the colder months, fruit and
fragments our wild places, making it nuts are another important food source
harder and harder for all kinds of for many birds. And there are literally
wildlife to find places where they can dozens of shrubs and trees that can
successfully reproduce and flourish in Northeastern gardens
maintain their species. By which are also excellent food
creating a network of wildlife- sources for birds.
friendly gardens, people can Check out the excellent book:
actively help these beautiful ‘Trees, Shrubs and Vines for
creatures propagate and Attracting Birds’ by Richard
flourish. DeGraaff which gives a detailed
And, more and more, my clients description of over a hundred
are asking for gardens that will species, including several of my
attract both birds and personal favorites such as
butterflies, as well as bees. Here Amelanchier sp, Malus sp, Ilex
is some of the advice I offer verticillata, Sorbus americana, and
them: two native species of viburnum—
the Viburnum nudum var:
1) Grow Native Plants.
cassinoides and Viburnum opulus var.
Back in 2007, Douglas Tallamy, Trilobum—plus several kinds of roses.
professor of Entomology and
3) Adopt Bird and Butterfly
Wildlife Ecology at the University
Friendly Gardening Practices.
of Delaware first published his
landmark book ‘Bringing Nature Finally here are six simple things I
Home,’ which was based primarily advise my clients to do to make their
on his own extensive research. gardens more appealing to birds and
Tallamy was also the keynote butterflies:
speaker at our 2014 VNLA winter ✦Avoid the use of chemical
meeting. insecticides and herbicides as many
In this eminently readable book he have environmental consequences
Top: The native Viburnum nudum var: cassinoides is
starts by describing how, for many that go far beyond their intended
a very attractive shrub that each fall provides a rich
birds, a major component in their diet source of berries for the birds. targets. I am still mindful of Rachel
comes from caterpillars and other Carson’s ground-breaking book
insects. Center: Rosa glauca is a great source of rose hips for ‘Silent Spring’, first published in
the birds. 1962, that documented the adverse
In turn, the individual insect species,
environmental effects caused by the
which of course includes butterflies, Bottom: A single Monarch surrounded by a consort of
indiscriminate use of pesticides.
lay their eggs on very specific plants Painted Lady butterflies feasting on Sedum ‘Autumn
Joy'. While the pesticide mix available
that their emerging caterpillars have
today is different, the concerns for
evolved to eat. And, because insects
the wider environment still remain.

25
✦ Even in winter many flowering perennials and ornamental
grasses are a source of viable seeds. Wait until spring before
cutting them back so that they can contribute to the food
supply for birds that winter in our region.
✦ Don’t be afraid to leave the garden a bit messy, especially in
winter! Butterflies as well as other insects often overwinter
in garden debris and dead leaves. And, once the ground
warms in springtime, returning sparrows and other small
birds enjoy scratching in last year’s detritus in search of
insects to eat.
✦ Lawns take both time and energy to mow and upkeep, while
they contribute very little to the overall environment. So, if
my client has a large lawn, I will suggest they let part of it
revert to meadow, mowing this area just once or twice a
season. In a year or two it will be full of beneficial wild
flowers and grasses. And—for the lawn they do mow
regularly—I suggest they raise their mower blade to 3
inches or higher. Not only will this result in healthier
greener grass, but the lawn will also support small
amphibians, insects and worms that also contribute to the
food chain.
✦ Birds need safe cover, both for nesting and also to avoid
predators. When planting shrubs, rather than dotting them Above: A Painted Lady butterfly atop the Sedum’ Autumn
around singly, mass them together in irregular groups of Joy'. Below: Tiger Swallowtail butterflies arrive in Judith's
garden just as  the Syringa meyeri lilac begins blooming in
three or five.
late May.
✦ We all know about the need to support the many kinds of
pollinators— especially the different species of wild bees
that in many cases are nearing extinction. As they visit our
flowers bees and butterflies (as well as hummingbirds) are
looking for nectar, and then, in so doing, they also
distribute pollen to adjacent flowers. Thus planting flowers
identified as ‘pollinator-friendly’ will bring both bees and
butterflies to your garden. Check the informative website of
UVM’s Jane Sorenson at http://www.riverberryfarm.com/
pollinator-plants-at-river-berry-farm/ for charts of
pollinator-friendly garden flowers by height, color and
bloom-time.
Plant it and They Will Come
By deliberately including plants that provide food for birds and
butterflies in our designs and then following beneficial
gardening practices, we can all create gardens, both for
ourselves and for our clients, that will entice both birds and
butterflies to visit and then encourage them to stay.
And in so doing we will be help create a network of gardens that
collectively make a critical contribution our wider ecosystem.
Together Judith Irven and her husband, Dick Conrad, nurture a
large garden in Goshen, VT. Judith is a landscape designer and VT
Certified Horticulturist. She also teaches Sustainable Home
Landscaping for the UVM Master Gardener Program. She writes
about her VT gardening life at www.northcountryreflections.com.
You can reach Judith at judithirven@gmail.com.

26
STRICTLY BUSINESS
no kidding …

Narrowing the Engagement Gap


by Jacki Hart

I have developed a new worked well for his


company… but didn’t
engagement tool – and
seem to fit my estate
want to share it with you. I
maintenance contract
mentioned it in a recent
market.
business summit  - and you
could have heard a pin
I tried many different
drop. So I know I’m on to
ways of ‘profit
something.
sharing’ – and
thankfully never
As many of you know, I
wandered into the
spend a lot of my time
abyss of giving shares
working with leadership
of my company to
teams, business owners
employees as
and other business
motivation.
coaches – all focused on on stage (yes, it was a LONG time ago,
improving team engagement. pre-dating PowerPoint – lol). Charles was So, taking all of the potential bonus
running through a complicated, systems and calculations into account,
I also listen. I listen to frustrated intricately calculated production bonus how can we as employers use money to
employers, supervisors and managers. I system. I tried it. And it failed to motivate a younger generation who
listen to frustrated employees, youth and motivate my team in the way it was doesn’t value money over company
students. I also listen to frustrated supposed to. I also sat transfixed in years culture and how they feel working for
unemployed (but employable) young afterwards, watching JPL (Jean Paul you?
adults looking for an appealing job. Lamarche) do the same, with different
So, I took a step back this past summer, math and logic – and a more trendy tool I think I’ve found a key part of the
and did a lot of thinking. I spent a lot of – a huge rolling dry erase board. I tried answer. Knowing what I do about the
time researching and collaborating with his system also. And it worked. That is ‘millennial mindset’, and the upcoming
other engagement experts and working until I realized that a few of my staff Generation Z – after a huge amount of
on developing new programs aimed at were actually counting on the ‘bonus’ as research over the past several years – the
helping to solve this engagement gap a part of their annual reported income in under30’s in your company are looking
problem. order to get a loan. Not much of a for different things than just money.
motivator when a bonus is an expected They don’t aspire to material things the
Amid my musings, I’ve developed a right…. There was nothing wrong with way their parents or grand parents did.
brand-new idea – and I want to share it the solid math of JPL’s bonus system – They aspire to being valued. While cash
with you here – hoping for some the problem was the sense of entitlement is nice, if they’re paid a living wage, it’s
feedback from my readers... a bonus created. revered not nearly as much as belonging,
being appreciated, being a part of
To Pay a Bonus or Not to Pay a Bonus: Many of us have watched and learned something bigger than themselves.
from Mark Bradley of TBG on how he Contribution is the name of the
Many have asked this question. Myself handled developing a brilliant engagement game. Intrinsic
included. Many times over when I was productivity bonus system, that saw his contribution.
running my own landscape company. I foremen, office staff and production staff
recall sitting in a huge ball room at all contributing to earning bonuses at the Skipping back to the paying bonus
Congress many years ago, watching end of each year – crew by crew. It question – here’s what I think will work
Charles VanderKooi using a flip chart up
27
much better: My newest business policy on what happens if they don’t use career in the Green Industry spanning 35
management tool to share is : My Career it all up. Can they roll it into the next years. Jacki is one of Canada’s first women
Development Fund©. Here’s how it works: year? Do they get a pay out if they leave? to hold the North American Green Industry
Every employee has a ‘career dream’ (I’d suggest ‘no’). certificate for business management
intake meeting with HR/business owner. excellence. Jacki also manages the
Learn what they aspire to. While many are My idea is to take money you were already Prosperity Program and Peer to Peer
wafting along, without career aspirations, going to spend, and invest it in your Network for Landscape Ontario.
most are able to tell you what they’d like people – whether it’s for business related
to learn about. Understand where they’re skills improvement or not. Show them Jacki writes for other trade magazines and
starting from. Make a connection with the you care. Show them their aspirations are will be a regular contributor to our business
skills/knowledge needed to pursue their important to you. Know that few will column. CBH is a consulting firm that
own interests. Set a ‘budget’ which is likely stay for more than several years “passionately believes that entrepreneurial
actually the money you’d otherwise have (yep, that’s the current stats) – and be ok success depends on sustained forward
spent on a bonus – whether it’s using a with that. Invest in your staff intrinsically momentum - across all areas of business -
signing bonus for joining the team, a – like never before – and I’m convinced both the visible and the invisible. To learn
referral bonus for bringing in a new that you’ll reap the rewards with more about CBH visit
employee, a production bonus, profit developing a team who stays longer, and www.consultingbyhart.com.
sharing etc – and ‘deposit’ it into their where the back door is softly closed.
career development fund. Set parameters
for how the money can be spent ie post About the Author: Jacki Hart is president
secondary classes, fitness classes, special of Consulting by Hart in Ontario, Canada.
interest, industry training, certification, She is an entrepreneur, advisor, business
apprenticeship expenses etc. Also set a consultant, and workshop facilitator with a

28
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THE PLANT LOUNGE
wiry stems, hairy leaves and bodacious blooms. . .

Plants for Fall Interest in the Garden


by Marie Limoge, Landscape Designer
When many of us think of the Heptacodium miconioides or
Seven-Son Flower is a deciduous
late Summer/Fall garden, we
small tree. It reaches heights of
think of the same few
perennials, shrubs and trees, 15-20’ tall and spreads of 8-12’
such as the plants listed below. wide. This tree thrives in full to
part sun in zones 5-8. Small
Rudbeckia- with their brilliant white flowers emerge in clusters
golden petals and beautiful black of seven in late September. After
center cones that persist long the flowers drop all their petals,
after the flower has faded. the sepals remain and turn a
bright pink color, making this
Sedums- such as Autumn Joy or
tree really stand out into
Neon, that have clear pink flowers which
October. The beautiful tan exfoliating bark
don’t show up until many of the other
gives this tree some winter interest as well.
plants in the garden have long since
stopped flowering. Hamamelis virginiana or Witchhazel is a
deciduous woody shrub that blooms in
Asters- a mostly problem free perennial
September – November, depending on the
that returns year after year; with their
year. This plant has tiny, bright yellow
bright purples and pinks showing up in the
flowers that emerge at the same time as it’s
landscape from late August until October.
fruit. There are many medicinal uses for
Rhus aromatic / Fragrant Grow-lo Sumac- astringents made from the bark and leaves
this plant is now commonly used for of this plant, including skincare and treating
stabilizing banks and has beautiful fall color, insect bites and poison ivy. This Witchhazel
as well as being drought tolerant and deer grows from 15 – 20 feet tall with a similar
resistant. spread and grows well in zones 3 – 8. The
American colonists used the bendable
Hydrangea paniculata- This plant truly shines branches of this shrub when dowsing for
during autumn. The clear white flowers slowly water.
become pinker and pinker as the days get
shorter. You can’t drive by a cemetery here in Callicarpa americana or Beautyberry is a very
Vermont without noticing them. unique shrub. The lovely purple berries at
emerge in the late fall, make this plant stand
And let us not forget the countless varieties of out in the garden. The berries are non-toxic
Acer, Fraxinus and Gleditsia and the rainbow and will attract birds. They also persist into
of colors they turn this time of year. winter, giving us all a bit of color to enjoy in
While these tried and true show stoppers are the otherwise snowy landscape. Beautyberry
always a delight this time of year, there are shrubs typically grow to four to five tall and
many other plants that shine in their own wide and does best in zones 5 – 8. They like
way; whether it’s a bright colored berry, the full to partial shade and moist soils. This
change in foliage color, or the very late season shrub is also quite resistant to diseases and
bloom, these plants can extend fall interest in Top: Heptacodium. pests. The flowers of the Beautyberry only
your landscape. Middle: Hamamelis. bloom on new wood, so the shrub is typically
Bottom: Callicarpa. pruned in the late winter. Here in VT you can

30
treat this shrub like you would yellows and oranges and it
an Annabelle Hydrangea, and isvery striking.
prune them down to several
Nipponanthemum nipponicum
inches from the ground in the
or Montauk Daisy / Nippon
fall. They will grow back and
Daisy is a hardy shrub like
be just as beautiful the next
perennial in zones 5 – 9. The
year.
flowers appear in longer
Platycodon grandiflorus or stalks that protrude from the
Balloon Flower blooms from coarsely serrated thick leaves
June into September that give this plant a very
depending on the year. This dense looking form. They
perennial grows best in full to bloom in the very late
part sun and likes moist, well summer and into the fall with
drained soils. Deadheading white daisy flowers. This
the spent flowers will help to perennial can reach heights
prolong the bloom time into of 1.5 – 3’ tall and does best
the fall. This plant may need in full sun. Montauk Daisies
to be staked if the flowers make great cut flowers. This
become too heavy. While plant is great for a back of the
Left: Platycodon. Right: Nipponanthemum
Balloon Flowers are not garden plant, as it often loses
commonly considered a fall leaves at the bottom of the
interest perennial, I love the contrast of the foliage color and plant and will benefit from having shorter plants in front of it.
the remaining deep purple blooms. The foliage turns to vibrant

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A Professional Association for
Green Works’ mission is to support and strengthen the
Growers, Retailers, Garden Centers, Nurserymen
horticulture industry
and Women, Landscapeof Vermont by Contractors,
Designers and creating greater
awareness of the benefits
Landscape of landscaping
Architects, Maintenance Experts,and promoting
Arborists, Turf Specialists, Industry Representatives,
PO Box 92, N. Ferrisburgh, VT 05473 the professional services and products of our members.
P: 802.425.5117 | F: 802.425.5122 Allied Trades People, Students, and Educators.
E: kristina@greenworksvermont.org
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www.greenworksvermont.org