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Bulk Mineral Analysis

A Client
Mineralogical Report AM_BMA DD/MM/YYYY

Petrolab Ltd | www.petrolab.co.uk C Edwards Offices, Gweal Pawl, Redruth, Cornwall TR15 3AE
tel +44 (0)1209 219 541 email petrolab@petrolab.co.uk Registered in England & Wales · Company No. 4777735
Mineralogical Report A Client

Contents
Report key findings...............................................................................................iii
Introduction...........................................................................................................1
Scope...............................................................................................................1
Samples...........................................................................................................1
Methods of investigation..................................................................................2
Automated mineralogy...................................................................................................2
Ancillary optical microscopy study..................................................................................2
Automated Mineralogy results...............................................................................3
Analysis details................................................................................................3
Classification scheme......................................................................................5
Phase abundance............................................................................................6
Deportment.................................................................................................................... 7
Ancillary optical petrography.................................................................................8
1) Sample Sample 1........................................................................................8
Sample as received.......................................................................................................8
Thin section(s)............................................................................................................... 8
Mineral identification......................................................................................................9
Phase description.......................................................................................................... 9
Sample summary.........................................................................................................10
Photomicrographs........................................................................................................10
5) Sample 5...................................................................................................12
Sample as received.....................................................................................................12
Thin section(s)............................................................................................................. 12
Mineral identification....................................................................................................13
Phase description........................................................................................................ 13
Sample summary.........................................................................................................14
Photomicrographs........................................................................................................14
12) Sample 12...............................................................................................16
Sample as received.....................................................................................................16
Thin section(s)............................................................................................................. 16
Mineral identification....................................................................................................17
Phase description........................................................................................................ 17
Sample summary.........................................................................................................18
Photomicrographs........................................................................................................18
13) Sample 13...............................................................................................20
Sample as received.....................................................................................................20
Thin section(s)............................................................................................................. 20
Mineral identification....................................................................................................21
Phase description........................................................................................................ 21
Sample summary.........................................................................................................22
Photomicrographs........................................................................................................22

List of figures
Figure 1: Phase abundance for the heavy mineral sand samples.................................................................6
Figure 2: Deportment of Ti (% normalised)................................................................................................... 7

Bulk Mineral Analysis Issued by Petrolab Ltd


AM_BMA DD/MM/YYYY i
Mineralogical Report A Client

Petrolab document control


Client A Client

Report title Bulk Mineral Analysis

Analysis required Bulk modal analysis amd ancillary optical petrography

Client reference Quote# or PO# Client contact Client Name

Report ID (version) AM_BMA DD/MM/YYYY Version note Report Initial Issue

Prepared by C Brough PhD CGeol Checked by J Fletcher BSc MSc

Limitations
This report relates only to those samples submitted and specimens examined and to any materials properly
represented by those samples and specimens. This report is issued to the Client named above for the
benefit of the Client for the purposes for which it was prepared. It does not confer or purport to confer on
any third party any benefit or right pursuant to the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999.

Bulk Mineral Analysis Issued by Petrolab Ltd


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Mineralogical Report A Client

Report key findings


Nineteen heavy mineral sand samples were submitted for bulk modal analysis. The main
minerals across the samples were ilmenite, clinopyroxene, plagioclase feldspar, mica group
minerals and some amphibole. Other Ti-bearing minerals in the samples included minor
concentrations of pseudobrookite and titanomagnetite, along with rare amounts of rutile and Ti-
bearing clay minerals. As a proportion of the overall Ti deportment ilmenite contains the vast
majority across 18 of the 19 samples with up to a further 5% of the Ti hosted in pseudobrookite
and titanomagnetite and negligible amounts in rutile and Ti-bearing clay.
One of the samples contained negligible amounts of Ti-bearing minerals (<0.5%) (Sample 12).
However, aside from this sample ilmenite concentrations ranged from 12.9% in the lowest grade
sample to 68.9% in the highest grade sample. In general, 12 of the samples had ilmenite
concentrations between 12.9% and 30% with a further 6 samples containing higher grades than
this.

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Introduction
Scope
Nineteen samples were supplied by A Client for bulk modal analysis with four samples having
additional optical petrography. They were reported to be heavy mineral sand samples and
Petrolab was requested to characterise the bulk mineral and elemental deportment of the
samples.
This report presents the findings from automated mineral analysis on nineteen pre-milled
mineral sand samples. Each sample was analysed as a single size fraction (as received). Each
sample had an unmilled counterpart and four of these unmilled counterparts were prepared as
thin sections and analysed by optical microscopy. The samples selected for optical petrography
were chosen to cover the range of modal mineralogy concentrations observed within the
automated mineral analysis.

Samples

Sample Number Sample Name Type Date received

1* Sample 1 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY


2 Sample 2 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
3 Sample 3 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
4 Sample 4 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
5* Sample 5 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
6 Sample 6 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
7 Sample 7 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
8 Sample 8 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
9 Sample 9 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
10 Sample 10 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
11 Sample 11 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
12* Sample 12 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
13* Sample 13 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
14 Sample 14 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
15 Sample 15 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
16 Sample 16 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
17 Sample 17 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
18 Sample 18 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY
19 Sample 19 Milled Mineral Sand DD/MM/YYYY

Note on samples:
Sample numbers with an asterisk were also examined by optical microscopy.

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Methods of investigation
Automated mineralogy
Quantitative mineralogical analysis using ZEISS Mineralogic Mining 1 - a product for automated
mineral characterisation based on scanning electron microscopy - was requested.
A polished block was prepared from each of the submitted samples and carbon coated to a
thickness of 10 nm. Each block was analysed using a ZEISS EVO MA 25 scanning electron
microscope (SEM)2 fitted with a Bruker xFlash 6|60 x-ray detector for energy-dispersive X-ray
spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The Mineralogic Mining 1.4 software controlled the SEM and
acquired morphology and X-ray data.
A phase classification scheme was developed using the Mineralogic Mining software.
Delineating grains into different phase classes is achieved by matching criteria that compare the
quantitative measurements of elemental composition, as determined from the ED spectrum, with
standard mineral composition data3. A mineral group name or a general name (after dominant
elements) is used for a class where there is a range in the elemental composition data such that
a specific mineral member cannot be separately identified.
Reporting of phase / mineral data is in terms of weight percent. However, all data acquired is
from 2D sections of 3D particles. Mass values are derived from measurement of particle / grain
areas, with no correction for stereological error, and an assumed phase density. Additional notes
on the chosen Mineralogic mode of analysis are provided in the preamble to each related
section of the automated mineralogy results.

Ancillary optical microscopy study


Four of the nineteen samples were prepared as thin sections for analysis. Sample were
examined as received using a Nikon SMZ-U stereoscopic microscope with fibre optic illuminator.
A polished thin section and polished block were prepared from the sample.
The sections were examined by transmitted and reflected light microscopy using a Nikon
research polarising microscope. Digital photomicrographs were taken using a high resolution
digital camera attached to the trinocular head of the microscope.

1 ZEISS Mineralogic Mining combines a mineral analysis engine with a scanning electron microscope and energy
dispersive spectrometers to provide automated analysis and is manufactured by Carl Zeiss Microscopy Ltd.
2 SEM system located at Petrolab Ltd, Redruth, UK.
3 The identification of a mineral or mineral group is based on a best match with the acquired chemical data and no
additional verification of its presence has been obtained (unless stated otherwise).

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Automated Mineralogy results


Analysis details
Mapping mode was utilised to determine the overall abundance of major / minor phases. This
mode acquires data on a defined pixel spacing, set to take account of the mineral grain size and
texture in combination with the SEM magnification settings. The analyses were for a standard
runtime of between 1.0 and 1.5 hr per sample/fraction.

Sample Petrolab
Sample Name ZEISS Mineralogic Mining analysis details
Number ID#

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


1 Sample 1 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3563 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7097

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


2 Sample 2 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3135 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7099

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


3 Sample 3 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2438 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7101

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


4 Sample 4 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2570 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7103

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


5 Sample 5 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 1843 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7105

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


6 Sample 6 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2485 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7107

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


7 Sample 7 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2124 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7109

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


8 Sample 8 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2202 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7111

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


9 Sample 9 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2547 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7113

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


10 Sample 10 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2704 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7115

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


11 Sample 11 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2984 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7117

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


12 Sample 12 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3237 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7119

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


13 Sample 13 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3129 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7121

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


14 Sample 14 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3122 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7123

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


15 Sample 15 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3750 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7125

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


16 Sample 16 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 3455 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7127

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


17 Sample 17 2.5 µm map · Mag. X469 · 2120 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7129

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


18 Sample 18 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 1839 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7131

1x30 mm polished block · Liberation Mineral Analysis DD/MM/YY ·


19 Sample 19 2.5 µm map · Mag. x469 · 2821 particles · Min. analysis ~30 μm².
7133

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Mineralogical Report A Client

The investigation findings from automated mineral analysis of the samples begins over-page
and consist of phase classification, bulk mineral analysis and key element deportment.
Note on reported values:
A value of <0.1 indicates the mineral phase or element was detected in the sample/ fraction but
with a value beneath the reporting precision, whereas -- indicates the mineral phase or element
was not detected in that particular sample/ fraction.
Any mineral present with an abundance of less than 0.1% may not be encountered by standard
runtime analysis, whereas minerals present with a true abundance of 0.1% or more are likely to
be encountered.

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Classification scheme
Target mineral SG1 Typical composition / Group minerals

Ilmenite 4.8 FeTiO3

Titanomagnetite 5.1 Fe(Fe,Ti)2O4

Pseudobrookite 4.8 Fe2TiO5

Ti-bearing Mica 3.0 Ti-bearing mica minerals: see notes below

Rutile 4.5 TiO3

Gangue mineral SG Typical Composition / Group Minerals

Pyroxene Group 3.3 Ca(Mg,Fe)Si2O6

Feldspar Group 2.6 (Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si 2O8]

Mica Group Minerals 3.0 Biotite and chlorite but also with some rare sericitic micas

Amphibole 3.0 Ca2(Fe,Mg)4Al(Si7Al)O22(OH)2

Quartz 2.7 SiO2

Fe Oxides 5.2 – 5.3 Haematite (Fe2O3) and Magnetite (FeFe2O4)

Accessory Phases 3.2 – 3.5 Accessory minerals include: see notes below

Notes on classification
• Ti-bearing clay is a general clay phase with a titanium content between 2 & 6 wt%.
• Pyroxene group is primarily clinopyroxene but there is also some small amounts of
orthopyroxene present.
• Feldspar group is primarily calcic plagioclase but there is also some small amounts of
orthoclase present
• Accessory minerals include sphene, pyrite and apatite

1 Typical mineral composition and s.g. data used for calculation of abundance by mass from webmineral.com or as
otherwise estimated.

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Mineralogical Report

Phase abundance
Figure 1: Phase abundance for the heavy mineral sand samples

100%

90%

Accessory Phases 80%


Fe Oxides
Quartz 70%
Amphibole

Mineral weight (%)


Mica Group Minerals 60%
Feldspar Group
Pyroxene Group 50%
Rutile
Ti-bearing Clay 40%
Pseudobrookite
Titanomagnetite 30%
Ilmenite
20%

10%

0%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Sample Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Phase SG
% % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % % %
Ilmenite 4.8 21.2 26.0 22.8 12.9 68.9 51.7 42.5 60.7 23.5 13.0 26.0 0.1 44.5 21.0 25.8 22.4 41.4 26.5 14.2
Titanomagnetite 5.1 1.5 1.8 1.0 0.7 5.2 2.1 1.7 2.2 1.1 1.6 4.7 <0.1 2.2 2.5 2.4 1.6 2.8 1.6 1.0
Pseudobrookite 4.8 0.4 1.0 1.2 0.7 4.4 2.4 2.9 4.4 1.9 0.7 1.3 <0.1 2.8 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.1 2.3 0.3
Ti-bearing Clay 3.0 0.2 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.9 0.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 1.2 1.1 1.4 0.6 0.4 0.2
Rutile 4.5 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Pyroxene Group 3.3 56.0 50.0 56.9 57.2 18.7 32.6 42.0 27.9 51.0 48.1 50.3 4.0 39.2 41.0 40.4 41.0 40.1 54.3 56.6
Feldspar Group 2.6 9.3 7.4 5.0 6.9 0.5 2.9 1.8 0.9 5.0 10.9 6.5 44.7 2.1 10.3 10.1 10.7 3.0 1.8 5.0
Mica Group Minerals 3 5.3 5.2 5.3 7.6 0.8 3.3 3.6 1.1 6.6 9.9 4.3 20.5 3.3 10.0 8.0 9.7 4.2 6.6 10.5
Amphibole 3.0 4.3 5.7 5.1 11.4 0.6 3.2 3.0 1.5 8.1 11.4 4.5 0.6 2.6 9.3 7.8 8.6 4.9 4.8 9.9
Quartz 2.7 1.0 1.9 1.7 1.9 0.4 0.8 1.0 0.6 1.4 3.0 1.6 29.3 1.3 2.5 2.2 2.3 1.2 1.4 1.8
Fe Oxides 5.2 - 5.3 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 <0.1 0.2 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 <0.1 1.5 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1
Accessory Phases 3.2 - 3.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.4

Remarks:
Excluding sample 12 the Ilmenite concentrations vary from 12.9% (sample 4) to 68.9% (sample 5). Titanomagnetite and pseudobrookite (and very rarely rutile and Ti-bearing clay) were also observed as Ti-bearing phases.

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Mineralogical Report

Deportment
Figure 2: Deportment of Ti (% normalised)

100%

90%
Fe Oxides
Quartz 80%
Feldspar Group

Weight distributon (%)


70%
Accessory Phases
Mica Group Minerals 60%
Amphibole
Pyroxene Group 50%
Ti-bearing Clay
40%
Rutile
Pseudobrookite 30%
Titanomagnetite
Ilmenite 20%

10%

0%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Sample Number

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Phase SG
% %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti % %Ti
Ilmenite 4.8 92.1 6.6 86.7 8.1 86.7 7.1 81.2 3.9 92.7 21.6 89.8 16.0 86.2 13.1 90.0 18.6 80.0 7.2 79.6 4.0 87.5 8.2 25.2 <0.1 90.6 13.8 84.4 6.5 85.7 7.8 83.7 6.9 88.2 12.3 84.3 8.3 85.1 4.1
Titanomagnetite 5.1 1.2 <0.1 1.3 0.1 0.8 <0.1 0.9 <0.1 1.7 0.4 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.7 0.1 0.7 <0.1 1.8 <0.1 3.0 0.3 1.1 <0.1 0.7 0.1 2.3 0.2 2.1 0.2 1.1 <0.1 1.2 0.2 1.2 0.1 1.2 <0.1
Pseudobrookite 4.8 1.1 <0.1 2.1 0.2 2.8 0.2 2.9 0.1 3.0 0.7 2.5 0.4 3.5 0.5 4.0 0.8 4.1 0.4 2.6 0.1 2.3 0.2 0.2 <0.1 3.2 0.5 3.4 0.3 3.0 0.3 3.6 0.3 1.4 0.2 4.1 0.4 1.0 <0.1
Rutile 4.5 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.0 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 3.3 0.2 0.1 <0.1 44.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Ti-bearing Clay 3.0 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 0.4 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 9.8 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.5 <0.1 0.4 <0.1 0.6 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1
Pyroxene Group 3.3 3.9 0.3 7.0 0.7 6.9 0.6 8.9 0.4 2.0 0.5 5.1 0.9 7.6 1.2 4.5 0.9 9.6 0.9 5.6 0.3 4.9 0.5 1.2 <0.1 4.1 0.6 4.3 0.3 4.6 0.4 5.4 0.4 6.3 0.9 7.8 0.8 7.9 0.4
Amphibole 3.0 0.7 <0.1 1.7 0.2 1.3 0.1 3.3 0.2 0.1 <0.1 0.7 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.3 <0.1 2.9 0.3 3.5 0.2 1.0 <0.1 0.9 <0.1 0.5 <0.1 2.3 0.2 2.0 0.2 2.5 0.2 1.2 0.2 1.0 <0.1 2.0 <0.1
Mica Group Minerals 3 0.5 <0.1 0.8 <0.1 1.1 <0.1 1.8 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.7 0.1 0.9 0.1 0.3 <0.1 2.0 0.2 2.4 0.1 0.8 <0.1 5.7 <0.1 0.7 0.1 2.4 0.2 2.0 0.2 2.7 0.2 1.1 0.2 1.2 0.1 1.8 <0.1
Accessory Phases 3.2 - 3.5 0.3 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.4 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 0.4 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.2 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 0.6 <0.1
Feldspar Group 2.56 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 7.9 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Quartz 2.7 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 0.3 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 3.7 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Fe Oxides 5.2 - 5.3 -- -- <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 -- -- -- <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 -- -- <0.1 <0.1 -- -- <0.1 <0.1 -- -- <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 -- -- <0.1 <0.1 -- --
Total -- 100.0 7.2 100.0 9.3 100.0 8.2 100.0 4.9 100.0 23.3 100.0 17.8 100.0 15.2 100.0 20.6 100.0 9.0 100.0 5.1 100.0 9.4 100.0 0.1 100.0 15.2 100.0 7.7 100.0 9.1 100.0 8.3 100.0 13.9 100.0 9.8 100.0 4.8

Remarks:
Excluding sample 12 ilmenite is the main host for titanium by a considerable margin. Titanomagnetite and pseudobrookite contain between 1% & 2% of the overall Ti with rutile and Ti-bearing clay making up another ~0.1% each. There is
some Ti recorded as hosted with clinopyroxene though this is most likely to be caused by partial mixed spectra resulting from analysis across the boundary between ilmenite and pyroxene. On that basis the overall Ti-grade ranges from 4.9%
(sample 4) to 23.3% (sample 5).

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Ancillary optical petrography

1) Sample 1
Sample as received
Sample Sample 1

Petrolab ID Date received Type · condition · properties

#7097 DD/MM/YYYY Metallurgical test · 55 g

A Sample 1

Photograph of sample as received


(scale in cm).

Image A
Nikon D7000 digital camera
Daylight balanced oblique light

Thin section(s)

B Sample 1

Low magnification view of sample thin


section.

Image B
Epson scanner
White cold cathode light

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Mineralogical Report A Client

Mineral identification
Sample 1

Phase Formula ≈ s.g. Abundance1


Ilmenite FeTiO3 4.7 Major
Pyroxene group Ca(Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)2O6 3.4 Major+
Feldspar group (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)2Si2O8 2.6 Minor
Undifferentiated crystalline clay/ mica
Mica/clays 2.5 Minor
minerals
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe)2(Mg,Fe)5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)
Amphibole group 3.2 Minor
(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Quartz SiO2 2.7 Trace
Fe oxides FeO(OH) & Fe2O3 3.8 Trace
Accessory minerals Accessory minerals 4.0 Trace

Phase description
Sample 1

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Ilmenite 80 mm 750 mm 350 mm Anhedral

Ilmenite forms generally well liberated particles but with occasional


Description associations with pyroxene and plagioclase. It is a major mineral within this
sample though not as dominant as clinopyroxene.

Pyroxene group 80 mm 700 mm 250 mm Anhedral

Clinopyroxene is the predominant pyroxene present and constitutes over half


of the analysed minerals. It is generally unaltered to moderately altered with
Description the occasional formation of mica-group minerals (biotite and chlorite), along
with amphibole as breakdown products. There are occasional binary particles
in close association with plagioclase and / or ilmenite.

Feldspar group 80 mm 600 mm 250 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main feldspar present is calcic plagioclase and it tends to form binary
associations with clinopyroxene. There are rare examples of orthoclase and
Description
occasional liberated feldspar grains. There is also some rare alteration to
sericitic mica.

Mica/clays 10 mm 300 mm 100 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main micaceous phases present within this sample are biotite and chlorite
forming as alteration products of pyroxene. There is also some slight alteration
Description
of the feldspar grains and the likely formation of sericitic mica as the
immediate alteration phase.

Amphibole group 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Amphibole is a rare phase forming as alteration products around the pyroxene


Description
minerals. It is generally very fine-grained.

Quartz 80 mm 300 mm 140 mm Anhedral

Quartz is a rare phase occasionally observed. Where present it is usually fully


Description
liberated.

1 Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

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Sample 1

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Fe oxides 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Fe oxides, particularly haematite, are rarely present associated with


Description
clinopyroxene and plagioclase. They are generally very fine-grained.

Accessory minerals 10 50 25 Anhedral

Accessory phases include apatite, pyrite and sphene. They are very rare and
Description
fine-grained within the sample.

Sample summary
Sample 1

• This a heavy mineral sand with nearly 20% ilmenite. The main gangue phase is clinopyroxene (~55%),
with substantial minor contributions of feldspar. From the SEM analysis there is roughly 1.5%
titanomagnetite and 0.5% pseudobrookite present. The ilmenite shows a high degree of liberation
throughout, with only occasional associations with pyroxene and feldspar.

Photomicrographs

C Sample 1

Photomicrograph showing grains of


clinopyroxene (cpx), plagiocalse
cpx (plag) and opaque ilmenite (ilm).
Despite the coarse-grained nature of
the particles the ilmenite has good
liberation.

Image C
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Cross polarised transmitted light
plag x50

ilm

cpx

500 µm

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D Sample 1

Photomicrograph illustrating the highly


bireflectant ilmenite (ilm) showing
good liberation in general but also
occassionally seen locked with
gangue.

Image D
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x50

ilm
ilm

500 µm

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5) Sample 5
Sample as received
Sample 5

Petrolab ID Date received Type · condition · properties

#7105 DD/MM/YYYY Metallurgical test · 110 g

A Sample 5

Photograph of sample as received


(scale in cm).

Image A
Nikon D7000 digital camera
Daylight balanced oblique light

Thin section(s)

B Sample 5

Low magnification view of sample thin


section.

Image B
Epson scanner
White cold cathode light

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Mineral identification
Sample 5

Phase Formula ≈ s.g. Abundance1


Ilmenite FeTiO3 4.72 Major+
Pyroxene group Ca(Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)2O6 3.40 Major
Undifferentiated crystalline clay/ mica
Mica/clays 2.50 Trace
minerals
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe)2(Mg,Fe)5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)
Amphibole group 3.20 Trace
(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Feldspar group (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)2Si2O8 2.59 Trace
Quartz SiO2 2.65 Trace
Accessory minerals Accessory minerals 4.00 Trace

Phase description
Sample 5

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Ilmenite 80 mm 750 mm 350 mm Anhedral

This is a high grade sample with nearly 70% Ilmenite. It forms generally well
Description liberated particles though there are occasional associations with pyroxene and
plagioclase.

Pyroxene group 80 mm 700 mm 250 mm Anhedral

Clinopyroxene is the main gangue phase present and constitutes roughly 20%
of the analysed minerals. It is generally unaltered to moderately altered with
Description the occasional formation of mica-group minerals (biotite and chlorite), along
with amphibole as breakdown products. There are occasional binary particles
in close association with plagioclase and / or ilmenite.

Mica/clays 10 mm 100 mm 50 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main micaceous phases present within this sample are biotite and chlorite
forming as alteration products of pyroxene. There is also some slight alteration
Description
of the feldspar grains and the likely formation of sericitic mica as the
immediate alteration phase.

Amphibole group 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Amphibole is a rare phase forming as alteration products around the pyroxene


Description
minerals. It is generally very fine-grained.

Feldspar group 80 mm 600 mm 250 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main feldspar present is calcic plagioclase and it tends to form binary
Description associations with clinopyroxene. Owing to the substantial ilmenite it is only a
minor phase within this sample.

Quartz 50 mm 250 mm 100 mm Anhedral

Quartz is a rare phase occasionally observed. Where present it is usually fully


Description
liberated.

Accessory minerals 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Accessory phases include apatite and sphene. They are very rare and fine-
Description
grained within the sample.

1 Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

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Sample summary
Sample 5

• This a very high-grade heavy mineral sand with nearly 70% ilmenite. The main gangue phase is
clinopyroxene (~20%). From the SEM analysis there is also roughly 5% titanomagnetite and 4%
pseudobrookite present. The ilmenite shows a high degree of liberation throughout, with only occasional
associations with pyroxene.

Photomicrographs

C Sample 5

plag Photomicrograph of high grade


sample showing abundant opaque
ilmenite (ilm) with some composites
and well liberated examples of
clinopyroxene (cpx) and plagioclase
(plag). The ilmenite generally shows
good liberation even at this particle
size.

cpx Image C
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Plane polarised transmitted light
ilm
ilm x50

500 µm

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D Sample 5

Photomicrograph showing brightly


reflectant ilmenite (ilm). Generally the
ilmenite shows very good liberation
though there are some grains that are
binary or composites with
clinopyroxene and plagioclase.

Image D
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
ilm x50

ilm

500 µm

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12) Sample 12
Sample as received
Sample 12

Petrolab ID Date received Type · condition · properties

#7119 DD/MM/YYYY Metallurgical test · 83 g

A Sample 12

Photograph of sample as received


(scale in cm).

Image A
Nikon D7000 digital camera
Daylight balanced oblique light

Thin section(s)

B Sample 12

Low magnification view of sample thin


section.

Image B
Epson scanner
White cold cathode light

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Mineral identification
Sample 12

Phase Formula ≈ s.g. Abundance1


Ilmenite FeTiO3 4.72 Trace
Feldspar group (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)2Si2O8 2.59 Major
Undifferentiated crystalline clay/ mica
Mica/clays 2.50 Major
minerals
Quartz SiO2 2.65 Major
Pyroxene group Ca(Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)2O6 3.40 Minor
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe)2(Mg,Fe)5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)
Amphibole group 3.20 Trace
(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Accessory minerals Accessory minerals 4.00 Trace
Fe oxides FeO(OH) & Fe2O3 3.80 Trace

Phase description
Sample 12

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Ilmenite 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Ilmenite is a very rare phase within this sample and is only present as the odd
Description
detrital grain.

Feldspar group 80 mm 600 mm 250 mm Anhedral to subhedral

Feldspar is the dominant mineral in the sample and makes up nearly 45% of
the particles. The main feldspar present is calcic plagioclase. It is usually
Description
present as subhedral and coarse- to medium-grained. It shows a high degree
of liberation. Alteration of the feldspar is generally minor.

Mica/clays 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main micaceous phases present within this sample are fine-grained Fe-
bearing clays in mudstone and siltstone fragments. These are usually
Description
associated with small quartz grains. These are sedimentary in nature and a
few fragments contain organic carbon.

Quartz 80 mm 600 mm 250 mm Anhedral

Quartz is a very common phase. It is often coarse- to medium-grained but may


Description
also be present in siltstone or mudstone type particle fragments.

Pyroxene group 40 mm 200 mm 100 mm Anhedral

Pyroxene is a minor and fine-grained phase within the sample. It shows a


Description
minor to moderate degree of alteration.

Amphibole group 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Amphibole is a very rare phase within the sample. It is generally very fine-
Description
grained.

Accessory minerals 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Accessory phases include apatite, pyrite and sphene. They are very rare and
Description
fine-grained within the sample.

1 Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

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Sample 12

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Fe oxides 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Fe oxides, particularly haematite, are rarely present associated with quartz


Description
and plagioclase. They are generally very fine-grained.

Sample summary
Sample 12

• This a very low-grade mineral sand with <0.5% ilmenite. The main gangue phases are feldspar (~45%),
quartz (~30%) and clay minerals (~20%). The clay and quartz often form very fine-grained associations as
siltstone and mudstone fragments.

Photomicrographs

C Sample 12

Photomicrograph showing particles of


qtz plagioclase (plag) and quartz (qtz)
alongside composite mudstone
particles containing abundant clay
(cly) material.

cly Image C
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Plane polarised transmitted light
x50

plag

500 µm

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D Sample 12

Photomicrograph showing very few


cly highly bireflectant grains and of those
only the presence of haematite (hem).
The clay-rich (cly) mudstone
fragments are apparent as are some
plagioclase (plag).

Image D
hem cly Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Plane polarised reflected light
x50
plag

500 µm

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13) Sample 13
Sample as received
Sample 13

Petrolab ID Date received Type · condition · properties

#7121 DD/MM/YYYY Metallurgical test · 80 g

A Sample 13

Photograph of sample as received


(scale in cm).

Image A
Nikon D7000 digital camera
Daylight balanced oblique light

Thin section(s)

B Sample 13

Low magnification view of sample thin


section.

Image B
Epson scanner
White cold cathode light

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Mineral identification
Sample 13

Phase Formula ≈ s.g. Abundance1


Ilmenite FeTiO3 4.72 Major
Pyroxene group Ca(Mg,Fe)(Si,Al)2O6 3.40 Major
Feldspar group (Ca,Na)(Al,Si)2Si2O8 2.59 Major
Undifferentiated crystalline clay/ mica
Mica/clays 2.50 Major
minerals
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe)2(Mg,Fe)5((Si,Al,Ti)8O22)
Amphibole group 3.20 Minor
(OH,F,Cl,O)2
Quartz SiO2 2.65 Minor
Fe oxides FeO(OH) & Fe2O3 3.80 Trace
Accessory minerals Accessory minerals 4.00 Trace

Phase description
Sample 13

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Ilmenite 80 mm 750 mm 350 mm Anhedral

Ilmenite is a major mineral in this sample and forms nearly 45% of the sample
Description mass. Ilmenite forms generally well liberated particles but with occasional
associations with pyroxene.

Pyroxene group 80 mm 700 mm 250 mm Anhedral

Clinopyroxene is the predominant pyroxene present and constitutes nearly


40% of the sample mass. It is generally unaltered to moderately altered with
Description the occasional formation of mica-group minerals (biotite and chlorite), along
with amphibole as breakdown products. There are occasional binary particles
in close association with ilmenite.

Feldspar group 80 mm 600 mm 250 mm Anhedral to subhedral

Feldspar is a minor phase and the main feldspar present is calcic plagioclase.
It tends to form binary associations with clinopyroxene. There are rare
Description
examples of liberated feldspar grains. There is also some rare alteration to
sericitic mica.

Mica/clays 10 mm 300 mm 100 mm Anhedral to subhedral

The main micaceous phases present within this sample are biotite and chlorite
forming as alteration products of pyroxene. There is also some slight alteration
Description
of the feldspar grains and the likely formation of sericitic mica as the
immediate alteration phase.

Amphibole group 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Amphibole is a rare phase forming as alteration products around the pyroxene


Description
minerals. It is generally very fine-grained.

Quartz 80 mm 300 mm 140 mm Anhedral

Quartz is a rare phase occasionally observed. Where present it is usually fully


Description
liberated.

1 Visual estimate of abundance is approximate: Trace < 2% · Minor > 2% < 10% · Major > 10% · Major+ > 50%.

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Sample 13

Mineral / Phase Grain size ( min | max | typical ) Prominent grain type

Fe oxides 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Fe oxides, particularly haematite, are rarely present associated with


Description
clinopyroxene and plagioclase. They are generally very fine-grained.

Accessory minerals 10 mm 50 mm 25 mm Anhedral

Accessory phases include apatite, pyrite and sphene. They are very rare and
Description
fine-grained within the sample.

Sample summary
Sample 13

• This a high-grade heavy mineral sand with nearly 45% ilmenite. The main gangue phase is clinopyroxene
(~40%). From the SEM analysis there is also roughly 2% titanomagnetite and 2% pseudobrookite present.
The ilmenite shows a high degree of liberation throughout, with only occasional associations with
pyroxene.

Photomicrographs

C Sample 13

Photomicrograph showing plagioclase


(plag) and clinopyroxene (cpx)
dominant particles along with
abundant opaque (ilmenite).

plag Image C
ilm
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
Cross polarised transmitted light
x50

cpx

ilm

500 µm

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D Sample 13

Photomicrograph showing highly


bireflectant ilmenite (ilm). In general
the ilmenite shows high degrees of
liberation though there are some
ilm binary associations.

Image D
Nikon Microphot-FXA petrological
microscope
ilm Plane polarised reflected light
x50

500 µm

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