7-5 Engineering Drawings, Diagrams and Standards.

Syllabus
• Drawing types and diagrams, their symbols, dimensions, tolerances and projections; • Identifying title block information; • Microfilm, microfiche and computerised presentations; • Specification 100 of the Air Transport Association (ATA) • of America; • Aeronautical and other applicable standards including ISO, AN, MS, NAS and MIL; • Wiring diagrams and schematic diagrams.

Aircraft Manuals
• An aircraft may have any / all of the following manuals:
– Flight Manual – Maintenance Planning Manual (MRB) – Maintenance Manual – IPC – Wiring Diagrams – Structural Repair Manuals – Component Maintenance Manuals – Manual of Service Bulletins

ATA 100 . HYDRAULICS could be in chapter 15 of the De Haviland manual but it was in chapter 9 of the Vicker’s manual • An example of this is the Fouga manuals in the hangar.• ATA = Air Transport Association of America • Prior to the introduction of ATA 100 the presentation of technical data in the manufacturer’s manuals was not laid out to any standardised format. • Consequently.

ATA 100 • Chapters 1 to 19 General • Airframe Systems – 20 to 49 • Powerplant – 70 to 89 • General – 90 to 100 • Airframe Structures – 50 to 59 • Propellers / Rotors – 60 to 69 .

Mooring.ATA 100 Chapters • • 04 Airworthiness Limitations • 05 Time Limits-Maintenance Checks 06 Dimensions and Areas 07 Lifting and Shoring 08 Leveling and Weighing 09 Towing and Taxiing 10 Parking. Storage and Return to Service 11 Placards and marking 12 Servicing 20 Standard practices-Airframe 21 Air conditioning 22 Auto flight 23 Communications 24 Electrical power 25 Equipment/Furnishing 26 Fire protection 27 Flight controls 28 Fuel 29 Hydraulic Power 30 Ice and Rain Protection 31 Indicating/Recording system 32 Landing Gear 33 Lights 34 Navigation 35 Oxygen 36 Pneumatic 38 Water/waste 44 Cabin system 46 Information Systems 49 Airborne Auxiliary Power .

• 51 Standard practices and structure 52 Doors 53 Fuselage 54 Nacelle/pylons 55 Stabilizers 56 Windows 57 Wings • 60 STANDARD PRACTICES PROPELLER / ROTOR 61 PROPELLERS / PROPULSORS 62 MAIN ROTOR(S) 63 MAIN ROTOR DRIVE(S) 64 TAIL ROTOR 65 TAIL ROTOR DRIVE 66 ROTOR BLADE AND TAIL PYLON FOLDING 67 ROTORS FLIGHT CONTROL .

• 70 Standard Practices-engines 71 Power plant 72 Engine • 73 Engine Fuel and control • 74 Ignition 75 Bleed 76 Engine controls 77 Engine indicating 78 Exhaust 79 Oil 80 Starting • 81 TURBINES (RECIPROCATING ENGINES) 82 WATER INJECTION 83 ACCESSORY GEAR BOXES (ENGINE DRIVEN) 84 PROPULSION AUGMENTATION ATA 100 91 Charts 92 Electrical and Electronic common installation .

Chapter (Engine Fuel and Control) – 10 Section (Distribution) – 41 Subject (HP Fuel Pump) – 73-10-41 .Sections and Subjects • Each chapter is divided into sections and subjects: • Example – Chapter 73 Section 10 = Distribution – Subject 41 may deal with Fuel Pumps • Composition – 73 .

.Cleaning and Painting 801.Removal and installation • 501.Approved Repairs.Maintenance Practices 301.Troubleshooting 201.Servicing 401.Inspection Checks 701.ATA 100 Page Blocks • 1-general discription and operation 101.Adjustment and test 601.

Example • The inspection procedure for the HP Fuel Pump would be on page: – 73-10-41-601 • The procedure to remove the HP Fuel Pump would be on page: – 73-10-41-401 .

ATA iSpec 2200 .

It was originally introduced to the European community by the Association Européenne des Constructeurs de Matériel Aérospatial (AECMA). representing the aerospace industry. utilising a Common Source Database. .ATA S1000D • S1000D is an international specification for technical publications.

S1000D • By definition: S1000D is an international specification for the procurement and production of technical publications. . While this definition appears to restrict its use to technical publications. it has been found through application that the principles of the specification can also be applied to nontechnical publications.

s-techent.com/ATA100.htm .Reference • http://www.

Media • Paper – Permanent in White Paper – Amendments in Yellow Paper • Microfiche • CD .

One sheet is often part of a larger set. each sheet is stored in an envelope and placed upright in a file cabinet. . usually 4” x 6”.Microfiche • Microfiche is a sheet of film or plastic.

Microfiche Reader • Insert the microfiche sheet between the glass plates in a microfiche reader to view the image through a lens. .

You wind it on a microfilm reader in order to view it through a lens. Each reel is usually stored in a box. .Microfilm • Microfilm is 16 mm or 35 mm wide positive or negative film on a reel.

CD Version .

AMPI .

AMPI Chapter 5 .

IPC .

Wiring Diagram .

Maintenance Manual .

Aeronautical Standards .

Aeronautical Standards Standard AN BS EN MIL Description An American Army / Navy standard that is used for many small parts on aircraft. A US military standard common to all the US services and used widely for the specification of oils.g. Has over 17000 standards. Field number 49 is of importance in aviation as it relates to “Aircraft and space vehicle engineering”. shape of head and material) National Aerospace Standard (UK Based) International Standards Organisation. Tends to be found on older aircraft e. AN5-5 Bolt British Standards European Military. fuels on civil aircraft. MS NAS ISO . May be written as MIL-SPEC or MIL-STD Military Standard (American) Example MS20470 AD 5-12 denotes a rivet (size.

Air transport.50 • 49.025 Materials for aerospace construction • 49.035 Components for aerospace construction Tyres for aircraft. flight dynamics.020 Aircraft and space vehicles in general Including aircraft performance. etc. see 21.ISO Standards • 49. see 03.060 49.220.160.20 . see 83.030 Fasteners for aerospace construction Fasteners for general use.

Engineering Drawings • Types of Drawings – Working / Production Drawing • Detail Drawings • Installation Drawings • Assembly Drawings – Sectional Drawings – Block Diagrams – Logic Flow Charts – Schematic Diagram – Exploded View .

Detail Drawing • A detail drawing supplies all the information required to construct a part. including all dimensions. materials and type of finish. .

Assembly Drawing • After individual parts are fabricated. they are assembled into various sub-assemblies with the aid of an assembly drawing. • The assembly drawing depicts the relationship between two or more parts. .

Installation Drawing . This type of drawing shows the general arrangement or position of parts with respect to an aircraft and provides the information needed to install them.• All sub-assemblies are brought together in an installation drawing.

Sectional Drawings • When it is necessary to show the internal construction or shape of a part a sectional drawing is used. – The removed section. . – The complete section – The half section. • There are four types of Sectional Drawing: – The revolved section.

Sectional Drawings .

• This consists of individual blocks that represent several components. Block Diagrams . block diagrams enhance this process. • Since most of the maintenance needed on complex systems consists of identifying a malfunctioning subassembly and replacing it.

Logic Flowcharts • A logic flowchart represents the mechanical. . electrical or electronic action of a system without expressing construction or engineering information.

Schematic Diagrams
• A schematic diagram is used to illustrate a principle of operation and therefore does not show parts as they actually appear or function.

Pictorial Diagrams
• Pilot’s handbooks and some training manuals often use pictorial diagrams of electrical and hydraulic systems. • In pictorial diagrams, pictures of components are used instead of the conventional symbols found in schematic diagrams.

Exploded View
• Often used in Illustrated parts catalogues. • All parts are typically in their relative positions and expanded outward. Each part is identified by both is physical appearance or by its name or by a reference number that is coded to the parts list.

.Drawing Information • The information that the engineer adds to the drawing form is located in five general areas: – Indexing Pane – Revision Block – Title Block – Picture or Drawing Area – Additional Information.

Title Block • A title block is generally printed in the lower right hand corner of every aircraft drawing. It contains the information necessary to manufacture the illustrated part. C. • It should contain – – – – – – – Title of Drawing Size (E.G A. B. D) Drawing Number Scale Page or Sheet Number Signatures Application or Section Number .

5 x 11 inches B = 11 x 17 inches C = 17 x 22 inches D = 22 x 34 inches E = 34 x 44 inches R = 36 x 42 inches • Example: – Wing Rib-Sta.111. aft cargo compartment .9 Lining instl-left sidewall.Title Block • Title – To establish the concept of the item. – What is it used for? – Where is it used? – What does it do? • Size – – – – – – A = 8.

Title Block • Drawing Number – A drawing number or part number is assigned to each drawing. The part carries the number through-out its entire life. • Scale – The scale indicates the size of the drawing. .

this space on the title block is used for the page number of the book. • The draftsman. as with wiring diagrams.Title Block • Page or Sheet – When drawings are assembled into a book. • The person who released the drawing. • The person who checked the drawing. . • The designer • The person who approved the design. • Signatures – For the people responsible for all aspects of the part.

Revision Block • Most aircraft drawings have a revision block in the upper right hand corner. . • Prior to making a part you should check the revision block to verify you have the latest revision.

• Drawing Change Notice (DCN) – Is a record of changes which have already been made to the drawing. • Drawing Departure Authorisation (DDA) – Used to authorise the shop to vary from the requirements of the drwg .Revisions • Advance Drawing Change Notice (ADCN) – Used to give advance notification that the drawing will be changed in the near future.

• Aircraft drawings are usually 36 to 42 inches wide and several feet long. hence it is often difficult to find detailed views without a system of location. • A 12 inch grid is used. • Section C-7 for example would be used to identify a part of the drawing Zones .

.Methods of Illustration • • • • Orthographic Projection Auxiliary Drawings Isometric Drawings Oblique Drawings.

.Orthographic Projection • In orthographic projection there are six possible views from which an object can be drawn. • The most common views in aircraft drawings are top. front and right side.

. it is sometimes necessary to see a view that is not at a 90 degree angle to the face of an object.Auxiliary Drawings • Although an orthographic drawing can represent up to 6 different views.

Isometric Drawing • This is a projection of a 3D object on 2D paper. • With this type of drawing the objected is rotated so that 3 sides are visible .

.Oblique Drawing • An oblique drawing is an isometric drawing with one object face parallel to the drawing plane. • The depth axis of the oblique is typically any convenient angle and most often 30 degrees.

• These are not generally used in aircraft drawings .Perspective Drawings • These are used when you need to see an object similar to the way the human eye sees it.

which are the max differences between the extreme allowable dimensions. • Tolerances. between two extension lines. • Dimensions are placed in the break of a dimension line. the dimensions are placed outside the dimension line arrows. if the lines are too close together. because the paper shrinks or stretches in use. may be shown with the dimension. • Some tolerances are shown for the entire drawing and are indicated by the way the dimension is written . or.Dimensions and Tolerances • Dimensions should never be scaled from an aircraft drawing.

Dimensions and Tolerances .

Dimensions and Tolerances .

Dimensions and Tolerances .

• With reference to the following figure. what is the finished diameter of the two holes in this part? • How is the • Finished dia • Achieved? Example Ans = ½ “ and Reamer .

Example What is the vertical distance from the top of the fitting and the bottom of the lowest 15/64” hole. Answer = 2.367” .

.Aircraft Location Systems • Frame Numbers – The hoop frames on an aircraft are numbered sequentially. • Panel Numbers – Panels may be numbered odd and even numbers indicating left or right side of the aircraft and may be in allocated blocks i. 200 series upper wing surface or 600 series the flight deck panels.e. usually beginning at the front bulkhead.

.5. WL 85. Butt line 45 left adjacent to frame 22.Example • An accurate location for a dent could be: • Stn 473.

Zonal .

Station Systems .

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corresponding to production receives a section number.Section Numbers (A319/320/321) • Each major part of the aircraft. The fuselage section base number is 10 • The fuselage is divided into various sections for manufacturing reasons. .

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Section Numbers (A319/320/321) • The general wing section base number is 20. • The general tail plane section base number is 30 .

• The station / frame numbers shown correspond to the section boundaries. .A320 Structural Breakdown and Zoning • The station number is the distance in centimeters of a cross section from a reference point.

STA350/FR1 STA2136/FR35 STA561/RIB11 Z=0 .

Zonal System • The zonal location system (specified in ATA 100) relies on giving each zone on the aircraft an identification number. The string / frame station system relies on numbering all the frames and all the stringers .

Zonal Inspection Program • • • • • • • • 100 to 199 Lower Half Fuselage 200 to 299 Upper Half Fuselage 300 to 399 Tail Section 400 to 499 Pylon and Nacelle 500 to 599 Port Wing 600 to 699 Stb Wing 700 to 799 Landing Gear 800 to 899 Doors .

Zonal System Boeing 777 .

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starting from the reference axis. – A = 1st – B=2nd . • The first letter indicates which access door or panel it is.Zone Numbers A320 • Access doors and panels are identified by the number of the zone in which the panel is located followed by a two letter suffix which locates it within the zone.

Zone Numbers A320 • The second letter indicates the access door or panel location. – T = Top surface – B = Bottom Surface – Z = Internal – F = Floor Panel – W = Side wall Panel – C = Ceiling panel .

534AB 534BB .

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