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From Legal Information to Knowledge
“A bar on advertising for advocates in India under Advocates Act,1961 and Bar Council of India

After the Second World War the International Economic Order which emerged, encouraged Free
Trade in goods. India was a founder signatory to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT) since 1947, which led to the formation of WTO, on 1stJanuary 1995.[1] This has led to a
whole wide debate in India over the stringent laws governing code of ethics and morality of
Legal Professionals on one hand and the WTO laws on the other hand. This has come in due to
the phenomenon of globalization developing world over. This debate revolves around major
issues pertaining to the objectives of legal profession, consumerism, social justice, Indian
commitment to WTO regime, competition law etc. Some professionals argue that the shift in
trade nature of legal services shall hamper ‘professional ethics’ and concept of ‘justice to all’.
[2] Some others say that the regulations imposed on the legal services sector are anti-competitive
and contrary to the goals and purpose of competition policy and Competition Act, 2002.[3]
At the heart of this controversy lies the issue of legal advertising. The lawyers in India are
barred from advertising their profession considering the profession to be a noble one and such
advertising to be derogatory to that profession.[4] Advertisements are a forum for establishing
the utility of goods and services. They generate awareness in public regarding the availability of
different brands of products/services, thereby, providing them with vast array of options to
choose from and keeping them fully informed. Further, it enhances and encourages competition
in the relevant market by providing a forum for launching of new products. Advertising is
considered as a necessary part of modern market economies, provided that it conforms to moral

standards based upon integral human development and the common good, which are “the most
efficient instrument for utilizing resources and effectively responding to needs” of a socio-
economic kind.[5] To cope up with the WTO laws and norms and looking at the current trend
which has subjected legal profession to trade laws, it has become inevitable to allow the legal
professionals to advertise and to rethink about the policy of law in India. People think whether
this kind of ban based on age old norms is viable in this modern era. The debate of the hour in
the Indian legal world is on why the profession should have very strict curbs on promoting its
services stemming from laws that originate from British thinking when the country from where it
originates has itself done away with the curbs?[6]
In the view of the above background, I would like to discuss the laws banning the advertising
for legal professionals in India and their implications, considering the position of such laws in
other developed countries owing to the WTO norms and globalization and the need to do away
with such age old laws.

The Bar Council of India. The sign-board or name- plate or stationery should not indicate that he is or has been President or Member of a Bar Council or of any Association or that he has been associated with any person or organisation or with any particular cause or matter or that he specialises in any particular type of worker or that he has been a Judge or an Advocate General. Rule 36 reads as under: “An advocate shall not solicit work or advertise. either directly or indirectly. personal communications. 1961. pursuant to its functions mentioned under Section 7(1)(b)[9]of the Advocates Act read with its powers to make rules under Section 49(1)(c)[10] has framed Rule 36 of the Bar Council of India Rules under Section IV(Duty to Colleagues) of Chapter II(Standards of Professional Conduct and Etiquette) of Part IV(Rules Governing Advocates). There is a complete ban on advertising for lawyers in India. The Bar Council of India is the central institution for supervising and monitoring the growth and development of legal services and the functioning of advocates and related firms and corporations in India. His sign- board or name-plate should be of a reasonable size.[7] This act under the section 4 forms a Bar Council of India to regulate all the legal professionals and legal education in India.” . furnishing or inspiring newspaper comments or producing his photographs to be published in connection with cases in which he has been engaged or concerned. interviews not warranted by personal relations. it has enacted the Bar Council of India Rules which are binding on all the legal professionals in India. advertising for lawyers in India is still in their dreams.CHAPTER I: The Law on Legal Advertising in India After taking into account the recommendations of the Law Commission on the subject of Reform of Judicial Administration relating to the Bar and to legal education and to implement the recommendations of the All India Bar Committee made in 1953. touts. advertisements.[8] Pursuant to the functions of Bar Council of India under section 7 and its power to make rules under section 49 of the said Act. the Indian Legislature came up with the Advocates Act. whether by circulars. The law under Bar Council of India Rules As compared to other big common law countries like US and UK.

Similarly. This law relating to bar on advertisement for legal professionals has been justified on the grounds of public policy and ‘dignity of profession’. or he has been a Judge or an Advocate-General. simply disregarding all the criticisms made against this archaic rule. It should not refer to details of an affiliated by the advocate i. The law under Bar Council of India Rules The roots of this law are based on age old Victorian notions of British Common law.[12] The conception of legal services as a ‘noble profession’ rather than services has resulted in the formulation of such stringent and restrictive regulatory machinery.[13] Letting advertise. “Duty to colleagues”. under threat of legal action ranging from temporary suspension to permanent debarring of the lawyer from practice. profession and address printed on the manifestos. or that he is or was associated with any person or organisation or with any particular cause or matter. Further advertising on internet is also prohibited. or that he specialises in a particular kind of work. the following forms of indirect advertising are prohibited: i. advertisements. Thus.e. An advocate may not advertise his services through circulars. touts. which must necessarily mean directly approaching advocates practising in subordinate courts. It ordered all the legal Websites to be withdrawn immediately. The above rule has been vehemently enforced by the Bar Council of India. Bar Council of India. Both direct and indirect advertising is prohibited. thereby appealing to the members of the profession practising in the lower courts who are in a position to recommend clients to counsel practising in the high court ii. Further. by issuing circulars or election manifestos by a lawyer with his name. canvassing for votes by touring in the province or sending out his clerk or agents to the various districts. personal communication or interviews not warranted by personal relations. [11] Also publishing in online legal dictionaries is a bar for advocates. This means that the another reason . Further.e. in a notice dated 21st October 1999. reaffirmed that such ‘advertisements’ on the Internet are considered an offence. the words of Section IV of Chapter II of Part IV of Bar Council of India Rules are clear i. would lead to the commercialization of this noble profession and would degrade it. it is against an advocate’s code of ethics to solicit or advertise work and amounts to a misconduct on the part of the advocate. the signboard or nameplate displayed by an advocate should be of a reasonable size. that he is or has been president or member of a bar council or of any association.

[15] that “…. It has been further observed that writing of articles for publication in newspapers under his signature. law firms. legal advertising by far is a taboo in India and the courts have more or less approved and agreed with this rule framed by Bar Council of India. not briefs. Such a law is also made in order to help the small and unknown advocates and firms to rise in the market and do business. The purpose behind it is to prevent a set of lawyers from taking unreasonable advantage otherwise the same names would appear time and again. advertising. The Bombay High Court in Government Pleader v. and so the heaven of commercial competition should not vulgarize the legal profession”. The Allahabad High Court[16] observed that self advertising tends to lower the dignity of this honourable profession and is undoubtedly akin to touting. V.[14] Also such a law prevents lawyers from falling below their dignity in order to fetch clients by doing anything and thus degrading the nature of the profession. S. scrambling and other obnoxious practices…. not merchandise.Authorised Officer[18] and held that even a sign board or a name-plate should be of a moderate size. . etc from enticing the clients of their adversary and to snatch away the business of their adversary. The Judiciary on this rule The courts have more or less agreed with the view of the Bar Council and have implemented the rule laid down by the Council pertaining to advertising. The High Court of Madras went one step ahead in SK Naicker v. where the writer describes himself as an Advocate practicing in the court as a flagrant breach of professional etiquette. Dhabolkar.” It further noted that “Law is not a trade.behind enactment of such a norm is to prevent the advocates. The Supreme Court of India observed inBar Council of India v.the canons of ethics and propriety for the legal profession totally taboo conduct by way of soliciting. M.[19] Thus. a Pleader[17] considered sending a circular postcard merely giving the address and description as an improper conduct by the Advocate..

S. In U.K. But later this ban was lifted.S. which considered each and every profession to be noble and stated that such a regulation is necessary in order to preserve the dignity and nobility of this profession. Prior to this case. UK. misleading and deceptive advertisements but advertisements displaying truth are allowed. too advertising was banned for professionals like lawyers. The court invalidated in this appeal the law prohibiting legal .CHAPTER II: Law in other Countries Legal advertising has been an important and widely used tool of communication in many common law countries and in most of the developed countries like US.e.S.K. Later in Bigelow v. There was a complete ban on advertising for legal professionals. the U. Earlier. The Monopolies and Mergers Commission in 1970 and the review given by the Office of Fair Trading in 1986 pointed out at the advantages of letting the professionals advertise and the benefits availed by from relaxing such norms. In these countries the regulation is done in order to avoid false. It is allowed in most of the countries with regulations regulating it as compared to India where it is completely banned. Chrestensen. in U. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council Inc.C. invalidated laws restraining ads marketing abortion services and ads showing prices of prescription drugs on the basis that they violated First Constitutional Amendment i. S. This position took a complete U-turn after the decision of the U.[20] Ultimately the ban was lifted and the restrictions lowered and thus legal marketing and legal advertising became a reality in U. Freedom of Speech and Expression and held that “the free flow of commercial information is indispensable. Position in U. [22] The Supreme Court validated legal advertising and invalidated the law of State Bar of Arizona banning legal advertising by a majority of 5:4 holding such a law violative of First Constitutional Amendment. (1976) the U.S.K. State Bar of Arizona. The provision banning advertisement adopted in India has its roots in Victorian notions of U.”[23] All these decisions were adopted in the Bates’ judgement by the US SC and it was held that truthful legal advertising should not be prohibited as there is nothing wrong in it. Supreme Court validated commercial advertisement and gave its scope in the 1942 case of Valentine v.K. Virginia (1975) and in Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. the position was somewhat similar to that in India until 1977.[21] Position in U.S. etc it is used by the lawyers to promote their professional services. Supreme Court on 27th June 1977 in the case of Bates v.

Advertising is allowed in most of the countries. etc. Malaysia’s Legal Profession (Publicity) Rules. Even in Singapore the legal advertisements are allowed with certain restrictions. and helping to allocate resources in the American system of free-enterprise. and.[26] Position in other countries The position in other developed countries is also quite clear.[29] Legal Advertising is a reality everywhere. in fact. it stands somewhere between Indian and U.[24] The Court held that allowing attorneys to advertise would not harm the legal profession or the administration of justice. In Hong Kong.[30] For instance. larger firms prefer alternative strategies such as engaging in aggressive client and public relations programmes and branding exercises. Singapore and Malaysia have been progressively relaxing their regulations on legal advertising to adapt to global demands. would supply consumers with valuable information about the availability and cost of legal services.[31] Thus. . magazines.[25] But the states are allowed to regulate and monitor the advertising by advocates. radio and cinema. bars publicity through clients and even includes a rule that regulates lawyers sending greeting cards on special occasions.advertising holding it to be violative of freedom of speech and expression guaranteed by the First Constitutional Amendment. There is not a complete ban on advertising. Spain. such as providing consumers with information about services and products. controls publication of journals. Though advertising in print is permissible.[27] Also in Italy. [28] This has been true for most of the European countries like Germany. This has resulted only in advantages and benefits for those countries and no harm is done on the contrary. the legal marketing has been legalized by the Bersani Decree of 2004 which was enforced in 2007. Asian countries such as Hong Kong. brochures and newsletters by lawyers and interviews in electronic and print media. passed in 2001 is a simple yet comprehensive code that regulates advertisements in legal and non-legal directories. lawyers are forbidden from advertising on television. In France. though the law is not that liberal. it is clear that most of the countries have adopted a liberal policy towards legal advertising and has allowed it to meet the global demands and compete with the other countries. position. Justice Blackmun argued that commercial speech does merit First Amendment protection given the important functions it serves in society.K. Besides countries in the West. This is evident from the later judgements of various state Supreme Courts which have upheld the laws regulating and restricting certain practices of legal advertising.

but as in the present case the commendation of the efficacy. freedom to carry on Trade.e. This is against fundamental rights guaranteed under A. the ground on which the US Supreme Court held this ban to be violative of Constitution is not available in the Indian scenario.” In the view of the above decision. 19(1)(a) of Constitution of India. prohibit advocates from advertising. advertisement is a part of business even though as described by Mr. because of the decision of Indian Supreme Court in the case of Hamdard Dawakhana v.CHAPTER III: The Constitutional validity of Rule 36 The Rule 36 of Bar Council of India Rules. freedom of speech and expression as done in US in the case of Bates v. This Rule cannot be challenged with regards to A. value and importance in treatment of particular diseases by certain drugs and medicines. The Court held that: “An advertisement is no doubt a form of speech but its true character is reflected by the object for the promotion of which it is employed. Thus.e. It assumes the attributes and elements of the activity under Art. 19(2). When it takes the form of a commercial advertisement which has an element of trade-or commerce it no longer falls within the concept of freedom of speech for the object is not propagation of ideas . It cannot be said that the right to publish and distribute commercial advertisements advertising an individual’s personal business is a part of freedom of speech guaranteed by the political or economic or furtherance of literature or human thought. The only remedy left is to challenge its constitutional validity against A. 19 of Constitution of India. Article 19 (1) (g) of the Constitution of India . In such a case.19(1)(a) i. Profession or Business. Munshi its creative part. and it was being used for the purpose of furthering the business of the petitioners and had no relationship with what may be called the essential concept of the freedom of speech. the commercial advertisement is not a part of freedom of speech and expression and thus ban on advertisement for advocates is justified to be falling within reasonable restriction as stated under A. 19(1)(g) i. 19 (1) which it seeks to aid by bringing it to the notice of the public.[32] The Supreme Court came on to decide validity of law banning advertisement for the sale of certain medicines in this case against A. Arizona State Bar. Union Of India.

Any restriction on this right would be unreasonable unless it is done in public interest. 1986 that Consumer redressal forums have jurisdiction to deal with claims against advocates. 1947. the right of freedom of occupation and business cannot be curtailed by it………. A.[37] The Supreme Court further observed that: “Unless it is shown that there is a reasonable relation of the provisions of the Act to the purpose in view.. In the view of the above background. 3 of Consumer Protection Act.[33] The question that remains is whether legal profession falls under the category of trade or business so as to avail the above right? Even though the judiciary in the words of Justice Krishna Iyer.confers every citizen with the right to choose his own employment or to take up any trade or calling.for effective carrying of the trade or occupation provided it doesn’t go against public interest. it could be concluded that legal services are becoming subject of trade related laws in India where consumerism and market forces should be given adequate space. Union of India. the fundamental right to advertise guaranteed under A. Over the years. This right thus. In the case of Srinath v.[34] the recent trend of the courts is to justify this profession as a trade. Also the decision of Supreme Court in Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board v. 2002 defines the term ‘Service’ along the lines of the Consumer Protection Act. Sec. This right is impregnated with an implied right for availing all the mechanisms and resources – including advertising . [36] Thus. the courts have recognized ‘Legal Service’ as a ‘service’ rendered to the consumers and have held that lawyers are accountable to the clients in the cases of deficiency of services. The restriction must have a reasonable relation with the object which the legislation seeks to achieve and must never exceed it. 1986. the phrase ‘reasonable restriction’ connotes .[35]holds that legal profession is covered under the definition of the term Industry under the Industrial Disputes Act. Advertisements can go against public interest only when it is immoral or obscene or presents something which is illegal and goes against public morality. has held that Legal Profession is such a noble Profession that it cannot form a part of trade or business. 2 (U) of the Competition Act. Any blanket bar on this right would be unreasonable when there is an option of constituting a specialized government body that would examine the content of the advertisement. Rajappa. 19(1)(g) can be given to the legal professionals to promote their services. in view of Sec. 19(6) of the Constitution. the Madras High Court held that. Further it should be noted that India is a part of WTO and is subjected to WTO laws and legal services are listed as a subsection of Business Services in WTO Services Sectoral Classification list. can be taken away only by imposing a reasonable restriction under A.

that is. the choice of a course which reason dictates. Presently a writ petition is pending before the Indian Supreme Court challenging this rule of Bar Council of India. V. I feel that this kind of total ban on advertising for legal professionals laid down under Rule 36 is excessive in nature and is beyond what is required in the interests of the public. Restrictions can be laid by regulating and monitoring the advertising but not completely banning it as it would be going beyond what is required as regulating the advertisement is sufficient in public interest. The Government agreed to allow the lawyers advertise on their own website and to enter their name into online directories but all these to be done under a committee monitoring it.” In the view of the above decision of the Supreme Court. 19 (1) (g) and the social control permitted by cl. Thus. Legislation which arbitrarily or excessively invades the right cannot be said to contain the quality of reasonableness and unless it strikes a proper balance between the freedom guaranteed in Art. according to me. that the limitation imposed on a person in enjoyment of the right should not be arbitrary or of an excessive nature. The word ‘reasonable’ implies intelligent care and deliberation. B. 19. Rule 36 is violative of A. the Government agreed to relax this law a bit. Joshi who is an advocate practicing in the Supreme Court. (6) of Art. The petition was filed by Mr. 19(1)(g) of the Constitution. it must be held to be wanting in that quality. . In the last hearing of this matter in September 2007.beyond what is required in the interests of the public.[38] But still all the other forms of advertisement are a bar for advocates and no one knows when the Government would enforce these relaxations.

Informed choice is one of the rights of a consumer. Not allowing lawyers to advertise has resulted in Indian lawyers loosing a lot of potential clients internationally.CHAPTER IV: Disadvantages of banning Legal Advertisements Globalization brought about a revolution in international trade with increasing participation and involvement of countries & greater access to domestic economies. the public . consumer’s right to free and fair competition is paramount and cannot be denied by any other consideration.[42] In the age of consumerism and competition law. particularly the quality of service available with respect to particular fields. environmental protection.In last few years Law Firms. It is realized that in this era of cyber age instead of turning to the Yellow Pages. it has become inevitable to let lawyers advertise to compete in the global market.[44]Also it is worthy to note that the services available to consumers of India are only domestic legal service providers and also the consumers most often are left at the mercy of advocates and the system and thus it is very detrimental as they cannot resort to any other service provider in absence of choice. corporate governance and investment law were almost unknown before 90’s. The implication of the same on the legal service sector has been both quantitative and qualitative. infrastructure contract.[39] Globalization has expanded the internal and external demand for legal services.[41] Consumerism and Informed Choice The emerging legal service sector is equally beneficial to all the consumers of legal services. [43] Trade in legal services focuses on benefits accruing to consumers from legal service sector. Ban on advertising leads to depriving consumers of valuable information about the advocates. The past decade has been mini-revolution in legal service sector with the greatest legal impact on corporate legal arena Activities in project financing. without discrimination. corporate taxation. Moreover restriction on professional firms on informing potential users on range of their services and potential causes further injury to the competition.[40] Today trade in legal services is on inevitable fact and is at the same time significant for progressive development of legal profession in India in this era of Globalization. in house firms and individual lawyer’s expertise in providing legal services in corporate sector has increased by several times. Advertisement on Internet Looking at the recent trend of Globalization and India joining the WTO. intellectual property protection. This has resulted in a situation where consumers cannot make an informed choice from the competitive market since information relating to the service is not available to them. competition law.

increasingly uses online search engines and other Internet tools to find needed goods and services and with the concepts of legal process outsourcing increasing. still widely accepted as the most used UK search engine. Lycos.[47] Thus banning advertisement by lawyers is completely disadvantageous to the Indian society as a whole. But no one knows when this will be implemented. For example. Thus. AOL. cost saving. MSN. Need for regulating the advertising .e.889.2. stated that restrictions on advertisement by professionals reduce the stimulus to efficiency.K. The Government has recently agreed on lifting it but only allowing the advocates to advertise on their own websites and in online legal directories. Other disadvantages The report of Monopolies and Mergers Commission in U.[45] In December 2004 the following searches were made in U.4% to 36% (National Statistics). in turn affecting the economy of India largely.e. new entrants who require to establish their name in the market in order to get clients.407 population use the internet (Internet World Stats 3/2/05). across the search engines of Yahoo. i. Thus.529 • Manchester Solicitor -1. are deprived of doing so through advertising as this is the most simplest and easiest method to enter into a market. innovation. Between September and October 2004 the percentage share of the market for broadband (i.[46]But these searches results in not a single Indian attorney or advocate or a law firm as India bans advertising by them as compared to other neighbouring Asian countries which allow it and hence a lot of potential clients are lost. for solicitor services. 35. Also restrictions enhance the more undesirable effects of less open methods of self promotion Also they could give a false image to a profession.K.422 • Divorce Solicitor . and Wanadoo (search phrase followed by number of searches in one month:) • Personal Injury Solicitor .197 This does not take into account the number of searches made across Google.523 • Conveyancing Solicitor .309. people from countries like UK and US and other developed countries search for such services online.3. always on internet connections) increased from 34. new entry to professions and competition within the professions.524 people of the UK’s 59. India has lost lot of economic revenues and thus it would be beneficial for India’s economy to lift the ban on advertising for advocates.1. to find cheap legal services.

3. then there would be lot of malpractices of misrepresentation. circulars and other publicity or methods of soliciting may make clear the intention of the individual member to seek customer. It is required to be regulated also. . misrepresentation. While advertisements. etc. Thus. shokevertising. it is required that the advertising by legal professionals be regulated in order to avoid instances of ambulance chasing. circular or other form of publicity used by the member should claim for his practice superiority in any respect over any or all of the practices of other members of the profession. The U. The need of the hour is to lift the total ban on advertising by advocates but not to completely let it free. This kind of regulation is also permissible under A. No advertisement. In case it is not monitored and regulated. Such publicity should not contain any inaccuracies or misleading statements. 2. barratry.K.’s Monopolies and Merger Commission in its report stated that the restrictions on legal advertising should be lifted but the law must also provide that: 1. deceptiveness and false advertisements which would effect the society and degrade the nobility of this profession. they should not be of a character that could reasonably be regarded as likely to bring the profession into disrepute. 19(1)(6) of Constitution of India in the interests of public.

preventing the country from obtaining advantage of India’s considerable expertise and precluding consumers from opportunity of free and informed choice.” Time is ripe to break shackles of this overwhelming regulation subjecting legal profession away from modernity and banning it from advertising.. . CONCLUSION The ban on legal advertisements in India has not proved healthy so far for the Indian economy as well as Indian consumers. A committee could be formed to ensure compliance but laying blanket ban on legal advertising would hamper development and growth of India. globally. restricting their desire and ability to compete globally.the legislative restrictions in terms of law and self-regulation have the combined effect of denying opportunities and growth of professional firms. Hence. Thus all the regulations have to be in conformity with competition policy and the Act. . legal services. The Raghvan Committee has summed up the effect of the existing regulatory system in professional services as “…. there is a craving need to lift this ban and to form rules and policy to monitor and regulate legal advertising. India must remember its commitment to WTO for opening service sectors including. India has adopted WTO laws and a free market policy and thus accepting ‘trade’ facet of legal services would develop this profession qualitatively.

2007). 2003 at http://www.asp?abhinav (last visited on 25th November. 3) Bar Council Entry of Foreign Lawyers in India. 5) Cyber Search . A World Wide Web Of Opportunies. at http://www. 2007).rediff. 9) Legal Websites. 6) David (last visited on 22nd November 2007).htm (last visited on November . says Punjab A-G. “Lawyers may be allowed web ads”. Hudson. .samsonconsulting.htm (last visited on 22nd November. at BIBLIOGRAPHY Articles. at http://news. September 19.indianexpress. at http://www. May 25. at www.indiainfo.aspx?id=14394 (Last visited on 22nd November. 2007).co. 2007). October 15. “Bates participants reflect on landmark case”. 2001. August websites. 2) Anubha Charan. (last visited on 20th November 2007). 2007).What Does Search Engine Marketing Mean For Solicitors?.htm l (last visited on 18th November 2007).indlaw. 1999.wikipedia. Also see Supra note 6.firstamendmentcenter. “Lawyers must be allowed to advertise”. Reports and others: 1) Abhibav Kumar. “Is it unethical for lawyers to put up their own Website?”.com/guest/columns/default. at http://www. at (last visited on 22nd November. 2007) 7) http:// en. Lawyer can’t be blamed if his name appears in print.htm (last visited on 24th November. 4) Bhadra Sinha.hindustantimes.

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atwww. Bar Council of India. (1967) 80 Mad. 350. athttp://www. 10) Haniraj L. 7) Florida Bar v. “World Trade Organization and Legal Services: The Indian Scenario”. 9) Hamdard Dawakhana v. Ohio State Bar Association (1978) US. 2007). Inc. Dhabolkar.S. Chrestensen (1942) . [1] Rajiv Dutta. AIR 1976 SC 242. “Changing Face Of The Legal Profession In India In The Era Of Globalization”. Bar Council of India. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council Inc. 5) Bigelow v. AIR 1929 1978 LabIC 778. 433 U. S. Bar Council of Maharashtra and Goa. State of M. 1960 (2) SCR 671. August 30. Went For It. 15) Srinath v. (1995) US. Allahabad. A. 11) In the matter of A. 2003 at http://www. Haniraj L.pdf (last visited on 23rd November. Indian Council of Legal Aid and Advice v. 2007). AIR 1995 SC 691.htm (last visited on 25th November. AIR 1951 SC 118. 2007). State Bar of AIR 1995 SC 691. [2] Bar Council Entry of Foreign Lawyers in India. (1976) US. Union Of India. AIR 1996 SC 1708. Union of India. Bar Council of Maharashtra and Goa. 13) Ohralik v. Chulani v. 4) Bates v.indiainfo. Rajappa.insolindia. AIR 1996 Mad 427. Virginia (1975) US. AIR 1934 All. Se. [4]See. Authorised Officer. 14) SK Naicker v. AIR 1962 SC 1337 12) Indian Council of Legal Aid and Advice v. V. 3) Bar Council of India v. an Advocate. [3] Swapnil Joshi. 16) Valentine v.legalserviceindia. AIR 1960 SC 554. M. 2) Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board v. Chulani v. 17) Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v.. 6) Chintaman Rao v. AIR 1978 SC 969. 1) (Thirteen) (last visited on 22ndNovember. a Pleader. 1067. Government Pleader v.P. AIR 1996 SC 1708. 335. LW 153 at 154. In the matter of. .

htm (last visited on 24th AIR 1934 All.49: General powers of Bar Council of India to make rules: (1) The Bar Council of India may make rules for discharging its functions under this Act. AIR 1934 All.livemint.html (last visited on 18th November 2007). [14] Lawyer can’t be blamed if his name appears in print. [21] Ibid. [15] AIR 1976 SC 242. in particular. .asp?abhinav(last visited on 25th November. 2007). “Is it unethical for lawyers to put up their own Website?”. and.rediff. October 15. [20] V K Aggarwal. 1067. 1067.html (last visited on 25th 2001.7:Functions of the Bar Council of India: (1) The functions of the Bar Council of India shall be – (b) to lay down standards of professional conduct and etiquette for advocates. In the matter of.S. such rules may prescribe – (c) the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. “Professional Advertising: A comparative analysis in the changing milieu”. In the matter of. 2007). Allahabad. Allahabad. athttp://www. an Advocate. [6] Malathi Nayak. [12] Supra at 6. [11] Anubha Charan. LW 153 at 154. [7] See.indlaw. [16] See (Thirteen) Advoates. 350. [17] AIR 1929 Bom. See also (Thirteen) Advoates. says Punjab A-G. 7th National Conference of Practising Company Secretaries. [18] (1967) 80 Mad. [13] Supra at 4. at http://news. 1961. 1999. [8] Supra at 335. [22] 433 U. at http://www. athttp://www. [9] S. “Lawyers must be allowed to advertise”. The Advocates Act. [19] See In the matter of A. [10] S. India debates letting lawyers advertise. Statement of Objects and Reasons. AIR 1962 SC 1337. 2007). May 25.indianexpress.[5] Abhibav Kumar.

Inc.wikipedia. [44] Ibid. State of M. at http://www. [37] Chintaman Rao v.) 1.L. at www.firstamendmentcenter. A World Wide Web Of Opportunies. Mitra and (last visited on 20th November 2007). September 19. Also see Supra note 6. Ohio State Bar Association (1978) and Florida Bar v. Government of India. [41] Supra at note (last visited on 22nd November 2007). AIR 2006 (Jour.legalmarketing. [36] Supra note 1.. 1960 (2) SCR at http://www. (1995). [40] Singh Lalithakumar I. “Bates participants reflect on landmark case”. [29] Supra at 27. 2002.aspx?id=14394 (Last visited on 22nd November.htm (last visited on 22nd November. Executed by Indian Council for Research in Economic Relations. [35] AIR 1978 SC 969. [30] Supra at 6. 19(d) of Competition Act. [32] AIR 1960 SC 554. [43] World Bank Report on Emerging Service Sector.. 2007) [24] Supra at 22. 1999 quoted in The Raghvan Committee Report on Competition Law. “Trade in Services: Opportunities and Constraints”.A Anand. [28] www. Ministry of Commerce. [38] Bhadra Sinha.hindustantimes. 1978 LabIC 778. [25] Ibid.P.[23] David L. [33] AIR 1996 Mad (official legal marketing Italia website. [27]http:// last visited on 24th November 2007). [31] Ibid. 2007). “A View on Legal Profession”. “Lawyers may be allowed web ads”. Coordinator(s) N. [39] Report on Trade in Legal Services. 2000. 2007. [42] S. [34] Supra note 15. Went For AIR 1951 SC 118. [45] Legal Websites. . Hudson.samsonconsulting. [26] Ohralik v.

2007).09.What Does Search Engine Marketing Mean For Solicitors?.[46] Cyber Search .htm (last visited on November 25. thank you kRS Leave a Comment Top of Form Name E-mail Website You can use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <strike> <strong> Submit Bottom of Form . at at 10:46 pm good information received by reading the { 1 comment… read it below or add one } kshama 01. [47] Supra at 20.

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