You are on page 1of 16

Brent Wasser

Test One Study Guide

Chapter 1
• Consumer behavior as human behavior
• Consumer behavior as a field of study
• The basic CB process
• The dynamics of consumer behavior

Consumer behavior as human behavior:

Consumer Behavior: The set of value seeking activities that take place as people go
about seeking activities that place as people go about addressing realized.

Basic CB Process
Need: (Better communication w/ people and access to media)
Want: A specific desire that spells out a way a consumer can go about addressing a
recognized need. (blackberry)
Exchange: The acting out of a decision to give up something in return for something of
greater value. (Decision that the blackberry will be at least worth the price of the product)
Benefits and Costs:
-Costs: negative results of consumption. Cost is more than price. Includes time
spent, physical effort etc.
-Benefits: Positive results from consumption.
Reactions: Evaluation of costs and benefits lead to reactions which involve thoughts and
Value: Ultimately the process results in perceived value.

Consumption: Process by which goods, services or ideas are used and transformed and
transformed into value.

Consumer behavior as a field of study:
• Represents the study of consumers as they go about the consumption process.
• Science of studying how consumers seek value in an effort to address real needs
• Sometime called buyer behavior, but goes beyond point of purch so CB=better

CB is related to lots of other fields like:
Economics: is often defined as the study of production and consumption.
• Marketing originated from econ
• Econ focus on CB is generally broad. (I.E. consumption of a nation over time)
• In contrast to econ, CB study consumer behavior at the micro level, and focuses
on the individual.

Psychology: is the study of human reactions to their environment. Seeks to explain
thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that represent human reaction.

activities the participate in. Consumer Behavior is Dynamic: Current Trends Internationalization: Technological Changes: Changing Demographics Other Vocab words Consumer (Customer Orientation): Way of doing business in which the actions and decision making of the institution prioritize consumer value and satisfaction above all other concerns. Market Orientation: Organizational culture that embodies the importance of creating value for customers among all employees Relationship Management: Activities based on the belief that the firms performance is enhances through repeat business Touchpoints: Direct contact between people and the firm Resource advantage theory: Explains why companies succeed or fail. feelings and behaviors of groups. These activities include production. • Social psychology: focus on thoughts. Sociology: focus on the study of groups of people within certain a society and thus is relevant because consumption takes place in this setting. • In some ways involves inverse marketing as consumer operate at the other end of the exchange. products they own. Anthropology: interprets relationships between consumers and the things they purchase. promotion. Attribute: A product feature that delivers a desired consumer benefit Product: Potentially valuable bundle of benefits Undifferentiated Marketing: Plan wherein the same basic product is offered to all customers Production orientation: Approach where innovation is geared primarily toward making the production process efficient and economical Differentiated marketers: serve several market segments with a unique product offering One to One marketing: a different product is offered for each individual so that they are treated as a segment of one Niche Marketing: Specializes in serving one market segment with particularly unique demand Interpretive research: Approach that seeks to explain the inner meanings and motivation associated with specific consumption experiences . retailing of goods/services/ideas and experiences that provide value for consumers. Marketing: The multitude of value producing activities that facilitate exchanges between buyers and sellers. the firm goes about obtaining recourses from consumers in return for the value the resources create. (Group behavior • Cognitive Psychology: deals with the intricacies of mental processes related to info processing. distribution.

interviews. o CRM tracks info about customer so more customer oriented decisions can be made leading to better relationships o CRM looks at each customer as a potential stream of resources • Relationship Quality: Reflects the connection between a consumer and a Org. o High RQ is a consumer who buys the same brand each time o Consumer realization of high value leads to high RQ Factors influencing the consumption process are either internal or external Internal Influences (Psychology and personality of Consumer): Things that go on inside of the mind and heart of the consumer. • Involves both cognitive and affective process o Cognition: Refers to thinking or mental processes that go on as we process and store things that can become knowledge.Qualitative research tools: Means for gathering data in a relatively unstructured way including case analysis. the belief at it being nasty may result in feelings of disgust) • Individual Differences: Characteristic traits or differences of individuals. (If a kid hears about smoking being nasty the kid will develop a dislike of smoking) o Affect: Refers to the feelings that are experienced during consumption activities or associated with specific objects. and focus groups Researcher dependent: Subjective data which requires a researcher to interpret the meaning Phenomenology: Qualitative approach to studying consumers that relies on interpretation of the lived experience associated with consumption Ethnography: Qualitative approach to studying consumers that relies on interpretation of artifacts to draw conclusions about consumption Quantitative research: Approach that addresses question about that addresses question about consumer behavior using numerical measurement and analysis tools Chapter 2 • Value • Two basic types of value • Market segmentation • Perceptual maps Value Consumer Value Framework: consumer behavior theory showing factors that shape consumption related behaviors and ultimately determine the value associated with consumption • Value is at the heart of experiencing and understanding CB • Value is subjective and a matter of perception • CRM: Customers form relationships with companies as opposed to companies conducting individual transactions with customers. including personality and lifestyle . (If kid continues to hear smoking is nasty.

Analyzing Markets with Perceptual Maps . o MS is a market place condition o Is a function that shows that as price and other characteristics varied. o Value is provided entirely by the actual experience and emotions associated with consumption. o Individual difference shape the value experienced by consumers and the reaction consumers have to consumption • External Influences: Social and cultural aspects of life as a consumer o Social environment: Elements that specifically deal with the way other people influence consumer decision making and value o Situational Influences: Things unique to a time or place that can affect consumer decision making and the value received from consumption The Two basic types of value Value: a personal assessment of net worth obtained from an activity -What consumers ultimately pursue because valuable actions address motivations that manifest themselves in desires or needs. -The Value Equation Value=What you get-What you give Two Types of Value. o A rational explanation can usually be given to justify purchases based on utilitarian value o UV is often though of as a means to an end • Hedonic Value: Immediate gratification that comes from experiencing some activity. the quantity demanded changes o Elasticity: Degree to which a consumer is sensitive to changes in some product characteristic. Hedonic and Utilitarian (Not mutually exclusive) • Utilitarian Value: Derived from a product that helps the consumer solve problems and accomplish tasks that are a part of being a consumer. o A market for any product is the sum of the demand existing in individual groups or segments • Product Differentiation: Marketplace condition in which consumers do not view all competing products as identical to one another. Hedonic differs from Util BC: -It is an end itself rather than a means to an end -very emotional and subjective -Can be difficult to explain related purchasing decisions rationally Market Segments and Product Differentiation • Target Market: Identified segment or segments of a market that a company serves • Market Segmentation: The separation of a market into groups based on the different demand curves associated with each group. not because some other end will be accomplished.

o A way to link differences in CB to changes in Market strategy or tactics.  Analogous to someone performing a sorting task  During the organizing stage. opportunities to increase biz and diag problems. devote attentions to stimuli. and react to various stimuli by developing responses. organize them as we comprehend them. o 3 possible reactions to stim . Organizing and Reacting -We sense the many stimuli we are exposed to. • Sensing: Occurs when one of the consumers senses is exposed to something. comprehension is begun. Perception: Consumers awareness and interpretation of reality During the perceptual process consumers are exposed to stimuli. comprehend stimuli. Consumer Perception Process: Sensing. Exposure: The process of bringing some stimulus within the proximity of a consumer so that is can be sensed Sensation: Used to describe a consumers immediate reaction to this stimulus Attention: The purposeful allocation of information processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus. • Product positioning: Way a product is perceived by the consumer • Perceptual Map: Used to depict graphically the positioning of competing products o PM help identify competitors. Comprehension: Occurs when the consumer attempts to derive meaning from the information the receive. o Ideal Points: Combination of product characteristics that provide the most value to an individual consumer or market segment Chapter 3 • The perceptual process of consumer behavior • Just noticeable difference • Just meaningful difference • Implicit and explicit memory • Intentional and unintentional learning Learning: Change in behavior resulting from some interaction between a person and a stimulus. o Represents an immediate response to stimuli that has come into contact with one of the senses o Does not allow a consumer to assign meaning • Organizing: o Cognitive organization: refers to the process by which the human brain assembles the sensory evidence into something recognizable.

and Add-on Purchases • Just Meaningful Difference: Represents the smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence behavior and learning o (Price drops need to be at least 20% to be effective) Implicit And Explicit Memory • Implicit Memory: Memory for things that a person did not try to remember.  Contrast: A stim does not share enough in common to allow it to fit into an existing category. such as when learning is intentional. o Weber’s Law: A consumers ability to detect differences between two levels of the stimulus decreases as the intensity of the initial stim increases. Intentional and Unintentional Learning • Unintentional Learning: consumers simply sense and react to the environment. • Reacting: The final step of the perceptual process that occurs as a response of behavior o Selective Exposure: Process of screening out certain stimuli and purposely exposing oneself to other stimuli o Selective attention: Paying attention to only certain stimuli o Selective distortion: Interpreting info with a bias on previous beliefs o Subliminal Processing: Way the human brain deals with very low strength stimuli. as with things learned passively and unintentionally. • Explicit Memory: Occurs when the person is indeed trying to remember the stimulus. . so low that one cant notice anything o Absolute threshold: Level over which the strength of a stimulus must be great so that it can be perceived • Just Noticeable Difference: Condition in which one stimulus is sufficiently stronger than another so that someone can actually notice that that the two are not the same o Represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice they are not the same. quantity. • Intentional Learning: Consumers set out to specifically learn information devoted to a certain subject. o JNP can effect pricing. quality. A consumer then begins processing which allows them to make exceptions to fit that stim in a category.  Assimilation: occurs when a stimulus has characteristics such that they are readily recognized as an example of a particular category. Learn without trying to learn.  Accommodation: Occurs when a stimulus shares only some characteristics that would let it fit in a specific category.

eventually. meaningful encoding. • Encoding: The process of by which info is transferred from workbench memory to long-term memory for permanent storage • Retrieval: The process by which info is transferred back into workbench memory for additional processing when needed. Mental processes to aid learning: 1. retrieved for future use. there is limited capacity. (Sensory. • Capacity: Unlike sensory. Repetition: Process in which a thought is held in short-term memory by mentally saying the thought repeatedly . longterm) o Sensory memory: Where the things that we encounter with the five senses are stored. Generally capacity is between 3 & 7 units of info. • Involvement: Capacity expands and contacts based on involvement. dual coding. chunking) • Scripts • Associative networks • Framing: a term that captures the idea that the same information can take on different meanings based on the way in which the info is presented o Prospect theory: Hypothesizes that the way in which info is framed differently affects risk assessments and any associated consumer decisions -Negatively framed info generally has a greater effect on consumers o Priming: Refers to the finding that the context or environment frames thoughts and therefore both value and meaning o Time can also affect comprehension. • Multiple Store Theory of Memory: Views the memory process as utilizing three different storage areas within the human brain. Considered pre-attentive and stores everything a person is exposed to • Iconic storage: Is the storage of visual info • Echoic: Storage of auditory info o Workbench memory: is the storage area in the memory system where info is stored and encoded for placement in long term memory and. workbench. Timing refers to both the point and ammoing of time Memory: Psychological process by which knowledge is recorded. • WB MEM relies on: • duration: sometimes called short term because of the limited duration.Chapter 4 • Framing • The multiple store approach to memory • Four mental processes to aid learning: (repetition.

A tag line like (Other coffee tastes like mud) is a form of chunking Response Generation: process by which consumers reconstruct memory traces into a formed recollection of the info they’re trying to remember. a. sometimes referred to as a semantic network. Declarative knowledge is represented in an associative network when two nodes are linked by a path o Node: Concepts in a network o Path: show the association between nodes. Schema: Cognitive representation of a phenomenon that provides meaning to that entity. • Associative Networks: Network of mental pathways linking all knowledge within memory. Meaningful Experience: A process that occurs when two different sensory traces are available to remember something. a. 4. o Knowledge in LT memory is stored in a associative network o Declarative knowledge: is a term used in psych to refer to cognitive components that represent facts. Consumers derive expectations for service encounters from these scripts. Chapter 5 • Motivations • Two key groups of human motivations • Hedonic motivation v. Dual Coding: a process in which two different sensory (traces) are available to remember something. One Problem is Cognitive interference: notion that everything else that the consumer is exposed to while trying to remember something is also vying for processing capacity and thus interfering with memory 2. utilitarian motivation • Different types of involvement • Emotions • Cognitive appraisal theory • Emotional Terminology • Differences in emotional behavior . Trace: Mental path by which to remember something 3. Script: Schema representing an event. Long Term Memory: Repository for all information that a person has encountered. -LTM is coded with Semantic coding: which means stimuli are converted to meaning that can be expressed verbally’ -Memory trace: is the mental path by which some thought becomes active. Chunk: a single memory unit. Chunking: Process of grouping stimuli by meaning so that multiple stimuli can become a single memory unit. Integrating marketing communications ensures a unified message is sent across all consumers. b. -Spreading activation: Way cognitive activation spreads from one concept to another. Unlimited capacity and duration.

Associated with hedonic value • Emotional Involvement: Represents how emotional a consumer gets when involved with a specific consumption activity. -Does not completely determine behavior because other sources also exert influence. • Utilitarian: Desire to get products that can be used to accomplish things. Similar to the idea of maintaining behavior. normal bloodstream. frustration. Can elicit gratefulness. • Cognitive appraisal theory: Proposes that specific types of appraisal thoughts can be linked to specific types of emotion. 4 Types of appraisals: o Anticipation: Focus on future. Emotionally gratifying. not at simply maintaining the current status. Closely related to enduring involvement Emotion: psychological reaction to appraisal • Emotions are considered psychobiological because they involve psychological processing and physical response • Emotions create Visceral responses: certain feeling states that are tied to physical reactions/ behavior in a very direct way. high involvement means high personal relevance and the fact that receiving value is highly important. Works like homeostasis (replace Kleenex) • Hedonic: involves a desire to experience something personally gratifying. • Self Improvement: Aimed at changing the current state to a level that is more ideal. Key types of consumer involvement include: • Product involvement: Means that some product category has personal relevance o Product enthusiast: are consumers with very high involvement in a category • Shopping Involvement: Represents the personal relevance of the shopping experience.Motivations: Inner reasons or driving forces behind human actions as consumers are driven to address real needs. (Kitchen appliances) (Temporarily learn a lot about something ) • Enduring involvement: Ongoing interest in some product or opportunity. can elicit warmth or anger . sad o Equity: Considers fairness. Different Types of Consumer involvement: In all cases. Comes about when consumers are shopping for something with low involvement but high price. can elicit emotion like hope or anxiety o Agency: Reviews responsibility. -Provide the intended reason for a consumers actions Two key groups of human motivations • Homeostasis: refers to the fact that people that the body naturally reacts in a way so as to maintain a constant. • Situational Involvement: the temporary involvement associated with some imminent purchase situation.

intentions. o Outcome: outcome relative to goals. • There are 4 distinct qualities of personality . (Highly involved shoppers sometimes achieve flow) • Emotional Expressiveness: The extent to which a consumer shows outward behavioral signs and otherwise reacts obviously to emotional experiences. • Flow: extremely high emotional involvement in which a consumer is engrossed in an activity. o Generally considered less intense than many other emotional experiences o Consumers in good moods tend to make faster more expensive purchases o Bad mood is detrimental to customer satisfaction • Mood-Congruent Judgments: evaluations in which the value of a target is influenced in a consistent way by ones mood. Includes awareness of emotion by the individual and sympathy for others. emotions. superego • Trait • Specific traits in consumer research • AIO statements • Self-concept • Different types of self-concepts Individual Difference Variables: descriptions of how individual consumers differ according to specific traits or patterns of behavior. Elicits joy. and behaviors that a person exhibits consistently as he adapts to the environment. pride. • Consumer Affect: Feelings a consumer has about a particular product or activity (Liking coke over pepsi is showing affect towards the brand) Differences in Emotional Behavior: Emotional Involvement: the type of deep personal interest that evokes strongly felt feelings simply from the thoughts or behavior associated with some object or activity • Can be increased by providing something extra with the products purchased. satisfaction. • Emotional Intelligence: a term used to capture ones awareness of the emotions experienced in a situation and the ability to control reactions to these emotions. ego. Personality: the totality of thoughts. • Definition highlights cognitive (thoughts) affective (emotions) motivational (intentions) and behavioral aspects of personality. High emotional expressiveness often yields reactions that are not usually expected. o Sales people with high EQ are more effective in closing sales Chapter 6 • Individual difference variables • Personality • Id. sad Emotion Terminology • Mood: a transient (temporary and changing) and general feeling state often described with simple descriptors.

like a self schema. envy) • Innovativeness: degree to which a consumer tends to be open to new ideas and buying new products. Self concept: refers to the totality of thoughts and feelings hat an individual has about himself. nongenerosity. These consumers are usually middle aged. Has 3 dimensions (possessiveness. o A consumers conscience • Ego: focuses on resolving conflict between the id and the superego. Attempts to balance the two o Works in accordance with reality principle: ego seeks to satisfy id within the constraints of society. upwardly mobile. o Semiotics: Study of symbols and their meanings. The way a person defines or gives meaning to his own identity. 3 components of personality: • Id: Focuses on pleasure seeking motives and immediate gratification o Operate on pleasure principle that motivates one to maximize pleasure and minimize pain • Superego: works against the id by motivating behavior that matches societal norms and expectations. curious. • Symbolic interactionism: proposes that consumers live in a symbolic environment and interpret the myriad of symbols around them and that members of society agree on the meanings of symbols. AIO Statements: that are used in lifestyle studies to gain and understanding of consumer activity. young. . & affluent • Complaint Proneness: Extent to which consumers tend to voice complaints about unsatisfactory product purchases. These consumers are dynamic. well educated. • Competitiveness: enduring tendency to strive to be better than others. interest. o It is unique to an individual o Can be conceptualized as a combination of specific traits o Traits are relatively stable and interact with situations to influence behavior o Specific behaviors can very across time Psychoanalytic approach: personality results from a struggle between inner motives and societal pressure to follow rules and expectations. assertive. o Balance the desires of id with the constraints and expectations of superego Trait: A distinguishable characteristic that describes ones tendency to act in a relatively consistent manner Specific traits examines in CB research: • Value Consciousness: represents the tendency for consumers to focus on maximizing what is received from a transaction compared to what’s given o Underlies tendencies like redeeming coupons • Materialism: refers to the extent to which material goods are important in a consumers life. and opinions.

presents an image of what consumer could become o Extended self: Various possessions a consumer owns that help for perceptions about himself Chapter 7 • Attitudes • ABC Approach to attitudes • Functions of consumer attitudes • Hierarchy of effects • The elaboration likelihood model • Balance theory • Social judgment theory Attitudes: Relatively enduring overall evaluations of objects. I. services. behavior and cognitions towards an object. products. o Ideal Social self: The image that a consumer would like others to have o Possible self: Similar to ideal self. Actions and attitudes are intended to lead to desired outcomes • Knowledge function: Allows for simplification of decision process.E. . wearing team colors • Ego defensive function: works as a defense mechanism for consumers.My Honda gets great gas mileage (cognition) Functional theory of attitudes: Attitudes perform four basic functions: • Utilitarian Function: based on the concept of reward and punishment. Allows consumer to protect himself from threatening info. self concepts and beliefs to others.(I. Doing things like wearing jewlry to project a certain image is also included in this. • Value expressive function: Attitudes allow consumers to express core values. ABC Approach to Attitude: suggests that attitudes encompass 3 components including ones affect. Consumers use attitudes to maximize rewards & min punishments. -Play a critical role bc they motivate people to behave in consistent ways. Smokers ignore evidence that smoking is bad. seeing unknown on caller ID and not answering to avoid telemarketer) o Attitudes are stored in associative network of LT memory and become linked together to form rules that guide behavior.E.E. Bumper stickers. • Different self concepts include: o Actual self: How a consumer currently perceives himself (who I am) o Ideal self: How a consumer would like to perceive himself (who I want to be in the future) o Social self: beliefs that a consumer has about he is seen by others. issues or people.I Always by Honda (behavior) . . (Called looking glass self bc it denotes the image that a consumer has when he looks in a mirror & sees how others see him.I really like my Honda (statement of affect) . I.

High Involvement (standard learning): When a consumer faces a high involvement decision. Beliefs are formed 4. Low Involvement: For routine and boring purchases.E. Consumer considers features and develops cognitions.E. Consumer has basic beliefs b. Affect i. . Often behavior is prompted by strong environmental pressure b. likes it Experiential Affect-behavior-belief Desert. purchase it. Behavior results from feelings c. -Depending on involvement. Feelings about product are formed 3. Such impulse purchases are made spontaneously without concern for consequences. Hierarchy of effects: attitude approach that suggests that affect. Behavior occurs first with having formed strong beliefs or affects. I. behavior. motition. Beliefs about products are formed first. and cognition form in sequential order. Next feelings or evaluations are formed c. 2. a. beliefs develop Behavioral Influence Behavior-belief-affect Soft music influence to buy drink without strong belief/affect Elaboration Likelihood model: Attitude change model showing attitude change based on differing levels of consumers involvement though central or peripheral processing. Behavioral Influence: a. a. -States that a consumer begins to process a message as soon as its received. Finally Beliefs and feelings are formed and the consumer acts in some way. amusement park. a. consumers are conditioned to slow down and relax and therefore by more drinks when restaurants play soft smooth music. ability and motivation to process a message persuasion process follows either central or peripheral route • Central route to persuasion: consumer has high involvement. Consumers often have some basic beliefs without having strong feelings. I. pick brand Low Involvement Belief-behavior-affect Detergent. buy desert. Often motivated by feelings. b. Beliefs c. Behavior occurs c. Experiential: For purchases made based on feelings bc it feels right or good. develop eval. Important decisions often associated with high risk.determine beliefs. They follow one of four hierarchies 1.Strong feeling/impulse. Such behavior is a result of the environment and is not related to beliefs or affects Purchase Context Hierarchy of Effects Example High Involvement Belief-affect-behavior Game system. (Dessert) b. and or ability to process message.downy is popular.

its attributes. attitudes. consumer will likely expend considerable effort in comprehending message. advantages. and behaviors o BT focuses on relations perceived between a person. expertise of spokesperson. I love prince. and object ) Relations between elements either sentiment or unit relations  Sentiment relations: between observer and other elements (observer person and observer object)  Unit relations: (object person relations) o Consumers are motivated to maintain consistent relations found in triad  Ex. number of arguments. o Counterarguments: contradict the message o Support arguments: Support message o In central route consumer relies on:  Central cues: refer specifically to info found in the massage that pertains directly to the product. another person. o Basic premise is that consumers are motivated to maintain perceived consistency in relation found in mental systems. imagery or music with message o Change in belief bc of peripheral cues is often temporary o Corona adds include almost all peripheral cues • Low involvement processing in consumer environment. Thus the theory is based on the: • Consistency Principle: humans prefer consistency among their beliefs. and consequences of use. advertisers rely heavily on peripheral cues Balance Theory: Way to conceptualize the attitude change process that states that consumers are motivated to maintain perceived consistency in the relations found in a system. o If incoming message is particularly relevant to situation. o Attitude change tends to be relatively enduring in central route • Peripheral route to persuasion: Route used when consumer is not involved with message or lack motivation or ability to process info o Consumer is unlikely to have cognitive responses to message. and an attitudinal object. The consumer will more likely pay attention to o Peripheral Cues: Non product related info presented in a message such as attractiveness of deliverer. I will too so as to keep balance. o System is refered to as a triad because its composed of 3 elements (observer.: Most adds consumers are exposed to are processed with low involvement processing o Therefore. This leads to high involvement processing and activation of central route o Consumer develops lots of cognitive responses regarding incoming message that may support or contradict info. person. If prince loves the xbox. .

Cultural groups within broader culture. o Sex roles: societal expectations for men and women among members of a cultural group. o Consistency is maintained when multiplication of the signs in the sentiment and unit relation result in positive value. Leading to attitude change in direction of message  Latitudes of rejection: Messages appearing far away or opposed to initial attitude position will fall within LOR . info must be close to original attitude position . Culture is learned: . LOR is small Chapter 8 • Consumer culture • Subculture • Cultural sanctions • Ways in which culture is learned Consumer Culture: commonly held societal beliefs that define what is socially gratifying.Assimilation occurs when info fall within LOA. (-)x(+)x(-)=+. Subculture: culture existing at a lower level than the overall culture. if I hate prince. o Around the initial reference points are:  Latitudes of acceptance: For a message to fall within LOA. change occurs Social Judgment theory: Theory explaining attitude change that proposes that consumers compare incoming info o the existing attitudes about a object or issue and that attitude change depends upon how consistent info is with initial attitude. Inconsistency with sex roles and result in sanctions. • Cultural sanctions: penalties associated with performing a non-gratifying or culturally inconsistent behavior. prince likes xbox. o When original attitude position is very strong: LOA is small & LOR is large o When original attitude position is very weak: LOA is large. consumer are motivated to change feelings associated with one of the relations  Ex. If equation ends up negative.  When result is negative.Contrast effect occurs when info dissents of orig position and so message is viewed as even more contrasting then it realy is.Message may be viewed as more congruent then it really is. o Initial attitude is a frame of reference for comparison. Shapes value by framing everyday life in terms of these beliefs and determines which consumption behaviors are acceptable. Means the message is viewed as congruent with initial position & received favorably . I will hate xbox there’ll be a . o Pop culture captures trends and shapes norms and sanction within a society.

Include -Family -School -Church -Media World teen culture: Teens world wide are more similar to each other than people from other generations in same culture Modeling: process of imitating others behaviors.Two forms of learning through socialization • Enculturation: represent the way a person learns his native culture. Believe its only right to support worker in native country. The culture one adopts when exposed to new core social values (csv) o Results in old beliefs being replaced by new one so children are acculturated faster than adults o Factors that inhibit acculturation include:  Strong ethnic identity: degree of feelings of belongingness to culture of ethnic origin leads to close minded views  Consumer ethnocentrism: belief consumer have that their group & their groups products are superior to others. Process takes place in the following sequence: Social interaction → modeling → reinforcement . form of observational learning. . Shaping: Socialization process by which consumer’s behaviors slowly adapt to culture through a series of rewards and sanctions. o The most basic way consumers learn culture o Represents the way in which consumers learn and develop shared understanding of things with his family o Made possible by habituation • Acculturation: process by which consumer learn a culture other than their natural culture. everyday experience.Socialization: Learning through observation and the active processing of information about lived.  Quartet of institutions for learning culture: 4 groups responsible for communicating csv both formally and informally from generation to next.