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Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study For centuries, paper was a rare and precious commodity. Until today, paper is a fundamental part of life and its existence is always taken for granted. Each year, the world produces more than 300 million tons of paper. Since paper comes from plant fibres and trees, the paper production creates a big sacrifice for our forests. Natural forests are destroyed at an unsustainable pace with most surviving forests degraded by roads, agriculture, pollution and invasive species. Also, paper manufacturing requires large factories with large inputs of fibres, chemicals, machineries and water. Ultimately, saving our trees will save humanity as all our food, water, livelihood, medicine and shelter come from the environment. Producing paper from virgin materials destroys a lot of our forests, efforts has been made to produce paper from other cellulose materials like banana peels, carrot stalks, onion skins, corn husk, used cloth or any fibrous materials. This method of creating paper has been adopted by companies like Papyrus Australia, which uses banana peelings to produce paper products. Not only do they produce good quality paper, creating paper from these materials also uses a lot less energy compared to manufacturing paper from virgin materials. If these materials are widely used, problems arising from paper production can be greatly aided. The researchers think that one reason for the unpopularity of recycling these waste materials is due to the arduous process of creating paper. Recycling waste materials usually takes a lot of effort, as well as time since the procedures are done manually. If there is an automated way to recycle these waste materials, we believe that more people

2 will be encouraged to produce paper from materials like corn husks, banana peels and those fibrous plants abundant in the country. Since there are a lot of electronic devices that can replace and mimic the procedures in the manual procedure, creating such machine is very feasible. And with this information at hand, the researchers have decided that the automation of the creation of paper proves to be useful to us as it is important to our environment. The researchers hope that this project will promote consciousness of conserving the precious resources we still have and pass this through the next generation.

1.2 Objectives 1.2.1 General Objective: To design and implement a microcontroller-based paper making machine involving pulp making, paper forming and paper drying using corn husk as a raw material 1.2.2 Specific Objectives:  To design a paper making machine using a PIC16F877 MCU that is able to produce a paper material out of corn skin.  To interface a blender to produce the paper pulp, as well as an electronic heating element to cook the corn husks for 60 minutes.   To create a program for the PIC16F877 MCU using Proton Plus Compiler. To design a water level detector that will determine the amount of water to be transferred to the blender cooker and a circuit that controls the blower to dry the corn husk paper for 30 minutes.

3  To interface solenoid valves that would transfer the solution and water to the blender cooker, and the pulp with water to the mould and deckle.  To test the systems reliability.

1.3 Statement of the Problem Today the lush forests are long gone, and even though many trees are planted specifically for the paper industry, they cannot grow fast enough to meet demand. The ever-increasing demand, especially of the advanced countries has resulted in continued denudation of forests causing severe environmental imbalances. This phenomenon if not treated well will result to serious planet degradation. Deforestation or cutting of trees because of paper production presents multiple societal and environmental problems such as loss of biodiversity, destruction of forest-based-societies, erosion, flooding and climate change in the world. These immediate and long-term consequences of global deforestation are almost certain to jeopardize life on Earth. Moreover, loss of trees is not the paper industry’s only ecological problem. While the impact on the world’s forests is undeniable, the industry consumes vast amounts of energy and water to convert trees into paper. In addition, many chemicals that are used in the process end up in our air, water, and soil in large amounts, causing serious pollution. Global deforestation and waste pollution are both major problems the world is facing right now. And business establishments together with the government in different areas of the world are having a hard time to solve these problems caused by paper industries. So in order to eliminate or even reduce this occurring problems an alternative solution of producing a tree-free paper must be made.

 The compiler to be used on the PIC16F877 will be Proton Plus Compiler. This material will be processed automatically in order to minimize the time frame of producing paper to meet the demand of the consumers. The group’s project promotes method of recycling . which can be easily downloaded from the internet.5 cm x 0. .4 The group proposed an eco-friendly alternative of producing paper from corn husks. This method makes use of existing waste and turns it into something beneficial while saving natural virgin resources such as hardwood trees and eliminates waste pollution for the purpose of protecting the environment and human lives while meeting the demand for paper. the study will focus on using corn husks as raw materials. the corn husks that will be used in the study is cut into small pieces. Corn husks will be loaded into the cooking section of the prototype. The stalk or any hard part of the corn husk shall be removed. about 0.  The corn husks that will be used in the study are cleaned and washed.4 Scope and Delimitation The study conducted will include the topics discussed but will be limited to the following conditions:  Though there are many kinds of plant materials that can be recycled.producing paper from waste (corn husks) rather than virgin trees. This is due to its availability in the country as well as in the vicinity of the researchers.  Also. 1.a discarded agricultural waste which is also noted that if not disposed properly can cause stubborn drain blockages where fibers get tangled.5 cm.

1. This project can promote awareness to people as to how important recycling is to us and our environment. This project provides an important contribution to saving our environment. which is estimated to be enough to test the quality of the produced paper.  For the soda ash solution. this project can give ideas to other researchers that manual recycling processes can be made to an automated process. the size of the paper produced will only be 8’’ x 10’’.5 Significance of the Study One importance of this design is that it imposes and promotes recycling process in our area. Since the design will produce paper from corn husks as raw materials.5  For testing purposes. more people will be encouraged to recycle their waste since it is easier to do so. Since the researchers will make an automated way of producing paper from corn husks.  The quality of paper produced has scrapbook material appearance. . there will be a reduction in waste produced by improper disposal of such materials. the ratio to be used will be 1L of tap water for 12.5ml soda ash. Also.  The tanks used for water and soda ash solution will have a capacity of about 3 litres.

constitutes a staple food in many regions of the world. The switch may be used in a pump. similar to a thread or hair in shape Float Switch . for fuel or as a commodity.a basic. while cleared land is used aspasture for livestock.planning that lays the basis for the making of every object or system Deforestation .occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as. an alarm. Deckle .demanding great effort or labor Alkali solution . or other devices.is an electromechanical device designed to blow cool or hot air C Corn . Blow Dryer .6 1. F Fiber – a long thin piece of a natural or artificial substance. Cellulose .is a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element B Blender . and settlements.structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants D Design . .is a belt used along with a mold to gather up wood pulp from a vat for pressing and drying into sheets. an indicator.6 Definition of Terms A Arduous . or sold. plantations of commodities.is a kitchen appliance used to mix ingredients or puree food.

7 H Husk - the external covering or envelope of certain fruits or seeds I Implement - outsource the new project Interface - A point at which independent systems or diverse groups interact Invasive - having to do with invasion M Microcontroller - is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting internally of a relatively simple CPU, clock, timers, I/O ports, and memory. Motor - uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, very typically through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. Mould - is a hollowed-out block that is filled with a liquid like plastic, glass, metal, or ceramic raw materials. P Paper - a thin, flexible material made usually in sheets from a pulp prepared from rags, wood, or other fibrous material, and used for writing or printing on, for packaging, as structural material, as a fabric substitute, etc. Pulp - a soft, moist, formless mass that sticks together

Procedure - the act, method, or manner of proceeding in some action; esp., the sequence of steps to be followed

Proton Plus - is an entry level product written with simplicity and flexibility in mind by Proton.

8 Prototype - the first thing or being of its kind; original; model; pattern Proximity Detector - Proximity detectors are devices that use mutual capacitance between itself and object in order to detect its presence. R Recycle - to pass through a cycle or part of a cycle again, as for checking, treating, etc. Relay- is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism, but other operating principles are also used. Reliability - Ability of an equipment, machine, or system to consistently perform its intended or required function or mission, on demand and without degradation or failure. S Solenoid valve - an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas; it is a tube like System - a set or arrangement of things so related or connected as to form a unity W Water Detector - is a small electronic device that is designed to detect the presence of water and alert humans in time to allow the prevention of water damage.

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Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature
The collection of theories, concepts, works and articles that are related to the study can be found in this chapter. Review of related Literature discusses all the factors contributing to the study that help in the completion of the design prototype. All the concepts which are comparison to the study are applied in this chapter which was used as a reference by the researchers.

2.1 Philippine Agriculture About one-third of the total land area of the Philippines is classified as arable. Three-fourths of the cultivated area is devoted to subsistence crops and one-fourth to commercial crops, mainly for export. Farms tend to be small, and many areas are doublecropped. Soils are generally fertile, but 30% of the agricultural land is suffering erosion. In 1973, the Marcos government began a land-reform program that undertook to transfer landowners to about half of the country's 900,000 tenant farmers. By February 1986, over one- half of the area—about 600,000 ha (1,482,600 acres)—had not been distributed. The Aquino administration proposed a program in two stages: the first, covering 1.5 million ha (3.7 million acres) in 1987–89, involved previously undistributed land and other land held by the state; the second, covering 3.9 million ha (9.6 million acres) in 1990–92, involved land cultivating sugar, coconuts, and fruits. A more detailed 1990–1995 plan sought to increase productivity of small farms, maintain self-sufficiency in rice and corn production, and to increase the agricultural sector's role in the trade balance.

imports are still necessary.000 tons in 1999. palay (unhusked rice) and corn. tomato. which is the chief food crop in areas unsuitable for rice-growing and is increasingly important as feed for use in the developing livestock and poultry industries. and 3. The Philippines has been self-sufficient in corn for human consumption since the late 1970s. Population growth reduced the amount of arable land per person employed in agriculture from about one hectare during the 1950s to around 0. and cotton.5 million hectares in field crops. In 1988 double-cropping and intercropping resulted in 13. 4.643.com/Asia-and-Oceania/PhilippinesAGRICULTURE. onion. (Retrieved February 03.html) 2. Lesser crops include peanut. nearly 8 million hectares--over 25 percent of total land--were under cultivation. garlic.5 hectare in the early 1980s.388. but since production of animal feed lags behind the demand. rubber. A similar development plan was aimed at raising yields of corn. longterm production has increased. Corn output in 1999 was 4.10 Roughly half the cultivated land is devoted to the two principal subsistence crops. a total that was considerably greater than the area under .2010 from http://www. calamansi. Production of palay was 11.000 tons. mainly through the use of high-yielding hybrid seeds under a government development program begun in 1973. The Philippines attained selfsufficiency in rice in 1974 and became a net exporter of rice for the first time in 1977. cassava.2 Philippines Agricultural Geography In the late 1980s. eggplant. Growth in agricultural output had to come largely from multicropping and increasing yields.nationsencyclopedia.2 million hectares in tree crops. cabbage. camote. mango.4 million hectares of harvested area.

pineapples. Climatic conditions are a major determinant of crop production patterns. Palay (unhusked rice) and corn. For example.000 tons despite high-fertilizer prices and the damage wrought by typhoons on corn plantations. (Retrieved February 03.com/2009/04/rp-cornproduction-up.htm) 2. and Cavendish bananas (a dwarf variety) were also important earners of foreign exchange. Soil type.2010) from http://www. accounted for about half of total crop area. the two cereals widely grown in the Philippines. although they accounted for a relatively small portion of cultivated area.3 RP Corn Production Up Efforts to raise corn output are paying off The total corn production of the country has increased by an average of 5. topography.agriculture-ph. a major export earner. government policy. Yap said that last year’s national corn production reached 6. on the other hand.8 percent in the last seven years. needs moderate rainfall spread out over a long growing period and a dry season for ripening and harvesting.html) .us/philippines/60. 2010 from http://countrystudies. according to Agriculture Secretary Arthur Yap. coconut trees need a constant supply of water and do not do well in areas with a prolonged dry season. (Retrieved February 15. In a statement sent to the Sixth National Corn Congress held at the Albay Astrodome here from April 16 to April 18. and regional conflict between Christians and Muslims were also determinants in the patterns of agricultural activity. Sugarcane.93 million tons (MT) which surpassed the 2007.11 cultivation. harvest by more than 200. Another 25 percent of the production area was taken up by coconuts. Sugarcane. an indication that efforts by the government and various industry stakeholders are paying off.

69 MT in 2010.2 MT to 7. because we are taking into account a host of factors including the expected decline in corn yields due to the adverse effect of changing weather patterns. the DA will promote the use of organic and microbial fertilizers.4 MT this year and further to 7.‖ he added. To achieve those goals.percent en route to total sufficiency by 2010.12 ―For 2009. continue to increase the production and consumption of white corn particularly . ―Hence.4 MT—which is admittedly lower than our original target. And lastly ―We will also continue to encourage the use of hybrid corn technology among farmers across the country. to attain those targets. we are looking at anywhere between 7. Yap said farmers should realize an average yield of six tons per hectare in program areas. Yap said. we have tasked ourselves to realize the targets of raising the national harvest to 7. expand farmlands devoted to corn by opening up new corn areas nationwide.7 million. reduce postharvest losses by promoting better harvest practices. Moreover this allocation reflects a policy shift in favor of investing in infrastructure development and away from soft interventions in the form of subsidies for corn seeds and microbial inoculants.000 per hectare by 2010. lower postharvest losses to 8 percent and boost farm income to at least P10. At the core of the Department of Agriculture’s (DA's) corn sufficiency and security agenda is a stronger focus on the establishment of postharvest facilities.‖ Yap said. Furthermore.―For these endeavors. and step up the nationwide inter-cropping program in coconut plantations. we have earmarked P400 million or half of the National Corn Programs’ proposed 2009 financial programming of P817. and therefore improve sufficiency level from 94. such as corn-cob dryers. shellers and farm mechanization support in the form of four-by-four tractors and shallow-tube wells.‖ he said. he said.

2010 from http://www.the corn husk. Impact More than 15. They hadn't pursued alternative sources of income.13 among the traditional corn-eating population to ease the pressure on our rice requirements.5 Tree-Free Paper Products Tree-free paper is one eco-friendly alternative.4 Philippines Life. (Retrieved February 3.000 corn farmers have been trained. 2. Livelihood and Corn Situation A Filipino corn farmer earns an average of US$ 535 per hectare each growing season and plants 1.com) 2. a family producing cornhusk handicraft five days per week can double their annual income enabling farmers to improve their quality of life.‖ Yap renounced. Now.5 hectares of corn twice a year. Solution A Pioneer Hi-Bred International community service project in collaboration with the Corn Husk Association of the Philippines (CHAP) allows Filipino corn farmers and their families to earn additional income by training them to create crafts and handiwork utilizing a natural material abundant in their community . Rapidly renewable resources such as flax and hemp .pioneer. The fibers from most plants can be made into quality paper products.

oats. . Banana leaf paper is known as abaca. corn. 3. 7. Cotton paper can be made from old cotton rags and other recycled cotton material. 5. This method makes use of existing waste and turns it into something beneficial while saving natural virgin resources such as hardwood trees. Paper can be made from bacteria. or even fresh organic cotton fibers. cotton processing waste. can be made into excellent paper pulp comparable to North American hardwood pulp. Coconut husks can be processed into thick. Stalks and husks left after harvesting a main crop are perfect. 6. and even tobacco fiber can be made into paper. barley. 4. known as corn stover. 2. Experts believe the most effective and environmentally friendly resources for tree-free paper can come from otherwise discarded agricultural waste. rye. textured paper. Bamboo is being used for everything from flooring to clothing and even paper. Corn plant stalks. coffee bean skins. it can be processed into paper. Some of the most popular alternative materials being used for papermaking today include the following: 1. Waste bark from banana trees can be made into paper. rice. wheat. Bamboo paper and rice paper have been made on a small scale in Asia for centuries. Bagasse is the husk and pulp that remains after extracting juice from sugar cane.and odor-free elephant dung. sugar cane husks.14 can create quality paper.

6 Making Paper from Plants Renewable and easy to find fibers like cattail leaves.15 8. 12. The same plant can yield fibers that vary in color and consistency depending on when and where . demand pushes supply up. It is said that Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence on hemp paper. 10. At one time. Straw fibers are very similar to wood and make great paper. 13. Mango paper is made from the mango leaf and paper mulberry. Jute can be made into high-quality specialty paper. Tree-free paper is not entirely a mainstream product yet. iris leaves and agricultural waste like corn husks are perfect for making paper and provide good results for beginners. mainstream stores will start supplying it to the general public. the first of which is harvesting. as with everything else. There are several steps to papermaking. As more people start asking for tree-free paper. but the industry no longer exists. the United States produced straw paper. However. The petals and leaves from the tamarind tree can be made into paper.com/Eco-InvitesTree-Free-Paper-Products/) 2. Hemp paper is a superior quality product. Until then. Kenaf is a hibiscus from Africa that has been used to make paper. you can search in your local health food and natural supply specialty stores and online. 11. 9.everything. (Retrieved February 05. 2010 from http://www. so it may be hard to come by at your local office supply store or printer.

cut them into small pieces about 2 cm long. After rinsing. Next is cooking. For the most simple drying method. depending on the variety. After cooking. they are transferred to a cloth or wool sheet and stacked in a ―post‖. A flat surface near a window is a good spot that allows the sun to help speed up this process. Once the husks have dried. the cloth with the still-damp paper still attached can be hung on a clothes line. cover with water and let them simmer for about 12 hours. the fibers must be thoroughly rinsed . (Retrieved March 12. 2010 from http://www. Place them into a crock pot. After beating. There are any numbers of other drying techniques that yield different surface textures.com/plants. Let cornhusks dry out in an airy place overnight. This will soften the . the fibers are floated in a vat of water and scooped up onto a papermaking mould in a thin layer. The post is then pressed to squeeze out water and promote bonding between the fibers. Peel cornhusks from corn. B.htm) 2. Fibers need to be cooked in an alkali solution for three to twenty hours. the fibers are beaten into a pulp. making sure to remove the corn silk from the husks as well.a process that takes much more time and water than you would think. they are good choices for papermakers without access to a Hollander beater. 2.16 they are harvested. Removing the husks: 1.7 How to Make Cornhusk Paper A. or even with a kitchen blender. Because most leaf and grass fibers area easy to beat by hand. Making pulp: To make the PULP.missioncreekpress. Plant fibre and Water 3. you will need the following: Crock pot (also called ―slow cooker‖) Blender. From there.

8. 10. If you want it to dry in half the time. place it between 2 sheets of clean paper and press with hot iron. Run your fingers over the screen to help the paper separate from the screen. such as shredded toilet paper. 9. Pulling a Sheet of Paper: 6. you will need: Iron. When you first remove the paper from the mold. Immerse the mold and pull a sheet of paper by lifting the mold in a horizontal position from the water. at this step. you can use a sponge to dab excess water from the paper every so often. 5. D. Transform poem-photograph from white. It can take up to 2 days to dry this way.17 husks and help separate the fibres. notice that the edges are curled. Your Paper is ready to work with! To finalize the papermaking. 7. Place softened cornhusks into blender with enough water to help the husks move around while being blenderized. To flatten this newly formed paper. Clean sheets of paper (letter size is okay) and Surface covered with thick cloth to iron onto. Paper should release from the mold. When you remove the pulp from the blender and strain it. Remove dried paper from mold by placing the mold upside down onto a flat surface. the fibres will look ―stringy‖. heavy paper to an antique. You can now place these into a large vat or sink full of water. Place mold over a pan to catch the water as it drips while the air dries the paper. Tear edges of poem-photograph and dab paper completely with a wet teabag. Let it dry and repeat the . D. 4. You can add other types of pulp.

com/ancestral/corn/CornHuskPaper. that is. that he have been making paper recently. Glue and iron the poem-photograph onto the cornhusk paper. He said ―Making paper is generally not an easy thing to achieve at home.18 dab-dry process until its color deepens to your liking.info-paper and book making blog).pdf) 2. Figure 1 Braided tapes As he mentioned before in his blog (Cailun. 11.2010 from www. an entrepreneur and an artist at the same time made a new addition to his repertoire which is a book made entirely out of his own handmade paper. You can add decorative items to enhance your new creation your picture is now ready for framing! (Retrieved February 12. Handmade Paper Scruptural Book Dennis Yuen. This book uses 3 sheets of handmade denim plus corn husk paper (the bluish pages) and 1 sheet with "Angel Wings" botanical elements (the yellowish pages).nativeaccess. Iron it between 2 clean sheets of paper to flatten it. if you want to have an efficient process and good . See the picture below.8 “Braided Tapes”.

Figure 2 Recycled Paper In this pulp (and the resulting paper shown here). It's the a mixture of cellulose fibers and water. ―By the way. pulp is the basic ingredient of paper.9 Tips for Variations in Paper-Making Given that the ancient Egyptians used plants to make papyrus paper. In place of a professional beater to break up the fibers. He added denim cotton (for indigo the color). Small batches of fibers are blended and added into the vet to create a workable amount of pulp. the left behind fibers is essentially paper‖ he said. he used—of course. he don't have a deep vet to hold the pulp. in creating our . When the water is drained away. The leftovers pulp is drained and frozen for next time's use.19 result‖. like most paper-makers at home—a blender. He also added that at home. 2. but he has a big plastic storage container for the purpose. corn husk fibers (for the texture) and recycled paper pulp. as well as other creative sources. it’s only natural that we consider various plants.

Write like an Egyptian. confetti to pieces of thread to glitter can work. Adding texture to your paper can give it a very unique definition. 2010 from: http://www. You can even put pictures in your paper. Just smooth a paper copy of a photo onto the paper-paste before draining the water from it. Use essential oils. there’s bound to be something creative you can use in your house this very moment. full leaves to flower petals themselves. (Retrieved March 18. Make it touchy-feely.20 own modern paper today. Here are a few tips in creating a look with your own homemade paper that’s personal. powdered paint. but scented paper can be even more fun. Rather than reeds. Not sure what to add? Anything from tiny seeds to grass. Experiment to see what colors you like best. liquid paint. add the items of your choice to your paper-paste before you let it dry. Add your bright and shiny face.net/how-tomake-paper/tips-for-variations-in-paper-making/#more-18) . Give it an eu de toilette. beautiful and unique. tea. why not add some flowers to give your paper a nature look? You can use anything from moss to pieces of grass. coffee grains to cool-aid. Give it a little color. You may have tried scenting a love letter with some perfume you had on hand.papermaking. potpouri or spices to give your paper a unique fragrance. Add some dye. To do this. food coloring… From henna to smashed berries.

the co-founder of Collab. Her video and instructions are perfect for anyone who isn’t afraid to get messy and produce some truly amazing results. Would using handmade paper really support a more local economy and a sustainable world in general? In a word. musicians and other creative people collaborate together to form a more sustainable world. One sustainable practice that Levin advocates–and is knowledgeable in–is making homemade paper. By using 50% less energy and 75% less water–as well as creating up to 90% less wastewater and 70% less air pollution–than . probably. By enabling these innovative minds with the tools and space that they need to collaborate together. often touching the paper pulp and getting very involved in the process. At The Daily Green. Collab is short for collaborators. creative. She also promotes a messy. we’ve all heard some pretty interesting. hands-on approach. and sometimes slightly unhinged ways to save money these days. and is a Manhattan based company that plans on re-localizing the economy through helping designers. They recently featured a piece on Adina Levin.21 2.10 Homemade Paper to Localize Economy? From pilfering hotel shampoo bottles to using single squares of toilet paper at a time. Levin uses a very similar process to the one posted here at Paper Making. writers. artists. which will hopefully yield environmentally-friendly products and processes to help create localized economy. handmade paper is considered one of many ways to re-localize the economy and go green. Collab hopes to get them inspired and working together.

stop the project immediately and apply an antiseptic and a bandage. Here are a few tips to do that when making paper. Be sure that the bleeding has stopped before continuing. The best bet is to only use paper that you know has not been chemically treated. there are some dangers that can always be present. Remember. Use caution when handling your screen. it’s always possible to come in contact with harmful chemicals if you’re not certain of your paper’s origin. If you make your own screen. .papermaking.net/) 2. While most smells are harmless. Wearing a mask can also help with this. it’s made of wire and can cause a cut. If the cut is deep. such as those released during making grass paper. If you cut yourself during construction. may make some people sick. it definitely has less of an environmental impact. like any craft. as it helps minimize the mess. you might even wish to wear protective work gloves until its edges are finished. seek medical attention.22 paper made from unused fibers.11 Keeping Safety in Mind While Making Paper Making paper is considered a very safe and enjoyable activity. Make your paper in a well ventilated area. 2010 from http://www. However. Even benign but strong smells. It’s important to take precautions before embarking on any new activity. Making paper outdoors is also a good option. (Retrieved March 18.

For your next gift or special purchase. handmade paper is used in the finest crafts and arts all over the world. You may also wish to wear gloves and eye goggles while making paper in general. so walk carefully if you must walk in the water. do not use it. It will obviously cause surfaces to become slick. handmade paper. handmade paper is not just for this purpose. be sure to clean it up immediately. homemade paper is a staple in many artisan projects.papermaking. and don’t work near anything electrical to avoid water damage and electric shocks. Avoid any materials that may cause irritation to your skin.net/how-to-make-paper/keeping-safety-in-mind-whilemaking-paper/#more-91) 2. handmade paper journals are highly unique.12 Top Handmade Paper Products Though making your own paper and using it for personal projects is a fun and rewarding activity. 2010 from http://www. If an herb or plant or other item is a known allergen to you. Be sure to have some towels handy prior to beginning. often displaying cloth or beaded covers that add an artistic style to the author’s thoughts. Journals: Though all journals are mostly made of paper. you might consider buying one of these unique creations made by fine. they are also often more . (Retrieved March 18. Only use mediums that you are comfortable with. From India to the United States.23 Use caution when handling your water. If you spill water. On the contrary. Typically quite exotic and bold.

elegant designs created for holding and highlighting tea lights. Why not go for a bold. Rice paper is a beautiful and elegant creation that has been used in . That said. batik handmade paper desk set instead? Gift Boxes: How entertaining it would be to be gifted a handmade paper craft– within a gorgeous handmade paper box? (Retrieved March 18. with it being such a flammable source.net/paper-uses/top-handmade-paper-products/#more-68) 2. there are some very simple.13 How to Make Rice Paper If you’ve been making your own handmade paper now. The same sentiment applies toward handmade paper photo albums. Bags: Rather than wasting brown paper–or even plastic–shopping bags. beautiful alternative that is both stylish as well as eco-friendly. Desk Sets: From paper pads to pencil holders. photo frames and scrapbooks. Candle Holders: This is a very novel function of handmade paper.papermaking. Clocks: How many of your relatives can say that they own a clock made from paper? It would surely be a more unique gift than another tie or fruit pie. 2010 from http://www. you might want to try making rice paper.24 durable than manufactured journals. handmade paper bags provide a clever. the items on your desk needn’t be encased within stark cookie-cutter plastics.

25 writing and art for centuries in China and Japan. you will need about a pound and a half of bamboo leaves. a mortar and a pestle for grinding. any decorations you’d like in the paper. such as bamboo. two and a half pounds of wood ash (such as from a fireplace). a basin. a wooden spoon. Slightly translucent with a unique texture. . water. a big pot. some mesh for straining. and some heavy books for pressing your paper. the frame you made for paper-making. a couple of towels. Rinse the towel out with fresh water and squeeze out the excess water. Prepare your ash by mixing your wood ashes with your water in the pot. Stir it well with your spoon. and wrap the fiber that’s left in a towel. To begin. To make your own rice paper. it will be a lovely addition to your handmade paper collection. Mix your bamboo and the ash mix in the pot and cook it together for five hours. Though rice paper traditionally means paper made from rice plants. strain the mixture through your mesh. The next day. You should have about four parts of water to one part pulp. fill your basin up with water and pour in your pulp. strain the whole mixture once again. shred your bamboo leaves and set them aside. Empty the fibers from the towel into your mortar and grind it into a paper pulp with your pestle. Boil the mixture for half an hour and let it sit overnight. today it can be made from just about any plant source. Next. When it’s finished cooking.

so keep that in mind as you collect your dryer lint. (Retrieved March 18. To make new paper out of your old dryer lint. and when you are finished. 2010 from http://www. preparation frame.14 How to Make Paper with Dryer Lint With the threat of global warming and other environmental concerns looming over us these days. etc. but some household wastes are hard to find uses for. If you want a more full-bodied paper. sink or basin.papermaking. . Soak your lint in warm water for half an hour to break it down for blending. your lint color will show up in your final product. Dryer lint may not have been on your list of things to reuse. toilet paper rolls or even used clothing (did you know that you can make insulation out of old jeans?). gather the items you need to make paper out of any other material–your blender. lay a piece of cloth over the paper before covering it with your books to flatten it out. It’s easy to find a new life for a milk jug. You will essentially be performing the same steps– just with something you may have thought had no use whatsoever rather than your recycled paper or grass! Like any other paper base. more people are turning to reusing and recycling things in their homes.net/how-to-makepaper/how-to-make-rice-paper/#more-56) 2.26 Follow through with the rest of your paper-making steps. feel free to add bits of paper as your lint soaks. but it can actually be a good base to use for making paper.

What are we supposed to do with these lovely cards after the occasion passes? While we might save a few for sentimental value. Use about a cup of lint and fill the rest of your blender with water. Sometimes we can use them in scrap booking. natural gift of beauty from such a thoughtful friend.How cool would it be to enjoy your card–and then plant it into the ground to have a long-lasting gift of nature in its place? Every time you saw it. birthday. but for the most part. blend it in your blender as you normally would when making paper. Fortunately. we’ve got an extra box of recycling to turn in. this is a problem that can be easily remedied with plant-able paper. and other seasonal greeting card blues. or creating cool origami crafts or boxes. letters or other paper projects. Follow through with the rest of your paper-making steps and you’ll have a wholly homemade creation that’s great for arts and crafts.15 Making Plant-able Homemade Paper Everyone experiences the conundrum of post-holiday. most are fairly generic.27 Next.net/how-to-make-paper/howto-make-paper-with-dryer-lint/#more-44) 2. (Retrieved March 18. . and be reminded of the earth-friendly. 2010 from http://www. then. you would think of the person who sent it to you.papermaking. blend until it’s a smooth mixture.

16 How to Make Grass Paper We’ve learned how to make paper. Flat seeds work best. be sure to also add plenty of the seed of the plant you wish to be grown from the paper. Now the variation comes in to make your paper plant-able. chili pepper. such as tomato. it can still be a fun way to use up your grass clippings. The paper around the seeds will naturally disintegrate as the seeds grow. and forget-me-not. Then. stationary or anything else. gift tag. (Retrieved March 18. be sure to note somewhere that it is plant-able and it can be torn up and directly deposited into the ground as seeds would be. hollyhock. and even how to add a bit of grass to homemade paper to give it some texture or a nature look. Why not select some greeting cards for your paper base? Then they will already be infused with good thoughts and holiday cheer from past senders. But did you know that you can actually make paper out of plain old grass? While the smell from making paper out of grass isn’t for people with weak stomachs. . 2010 from http://www.28 While you can buy such paper. follow through with the rest of the steps and you will have made an incredible gift of plant-able paper! If you decide to give the paper as a gift in the form of a card.net/how-to-make-paper/making-plant-able-homemadepaper/#more-30) 2.papermaking. During the step where you add your paper ―shake‖ mixture to a sink or basin. it’s also possible to create your own. You can use all of the steps in creating regular paper to begin with.

letting the grass soak overnight in cold water first can loosen it up even more. pour your mixture into a blender and blend until it’s of a smooth. You may want to do this right after you mow the lawn. Solenoid valves may have two or more ports: in the case of a two-port valve the flow is switched on or off.29 First. The valve is controlled by an electric current through a solenoid coil. Remember that you may have to play around with the consistency to get the thickness that you want. Be sure to clean out all of your instruments and containers immediately. uniform consistency. gather up all of your grass clippings.17 Solenoid valve: Definition. which is probably the easiest way to gather grass. You’ll need between six to ten cups of them. Allow this mixture to cook for an hour. long prairie grasses and dried straw work as well. Then you’ll follow through with the steps you used in making homemade paper from recycled paper.) Like you would do with other paper pulps you might create. working principle and common uses A solenoid valve is an electromechanical valve for use with liquid or gas.papermaking. making it easier to work with. fill it with enough water to cover the grass. For variation. 2010 from http://www. Add the clippings to a large pot. and mix in a half-cup of washing soda or baking soda.net/how-to-make-paper/how-to-make-grass-paper/#more-21) 2. in . as this project can start to smell if left to sit for a long period of time! (Retrieved March 18. (If you have plenty of time.

Automatic irrigation sprinkler systems also use solenoid valves with an automatic controller. solenoid valves are usually referred to simply as . low control power and compact design.30 the case of a three-port valve. They are found in many application areas. Solenoid valves are the most frequently used control elements in fluidics. the outflow is switched between the two outlet ports. and may also have electrical interfaces to allow for easy control. Solenoid valves are used in fluid power pneumatic and hydraulic systems. Multiple solenoid valves can be placed together on a manifold. In the paintball industry. distribute or mix fluids. high reliability. dose. Their tasks are to shut off. release. A spring may be used to hold the valve opened or closed while the valve is not activated. in turn. opens or closes the valve mechanically. long service life. good medium compatibility of the materials used. This diaphragm piloted valve multiplies this small flow by using it to control the flow through a much larger orifice. Solenoids offer fast and safe switching. fluid power motors or larger industrial valves. to control cylinders. Solenoid valves may use metal seals or rubber seals. Domestic washing machines and dishwashers use solenoid valves to control water entry to the machine. A direct acting valve has only a small flow circuit. shown within section E of this diagram (this section is mentioned below as a pilot valve). A solenoid valve has two main parts: the solenoid and the valve. The solenoid converts electrical energy into mechanical energy which.

2010 from http://www. . especially for patch-clamp.wikipedia.com) 2. the switch's "turn on" point may be much higher than the "shut off" point. at which point the pump is switched off again. A very common application is in sump pumps and condensate pumps where the switch detects the rising level of liquid in the sump or tank and energizes an electrical pump which then pumps liquid out until the level of the liquid has been substantially reduced. The switch may be used in a pump. Perhaps the most common type of float switch is simply a float raising a rod that actuates a microswitch.31 "solenoids. which can control the application of agonist or antagonist. an indicator. Float switches are often adjustable and can include substantial hysteresis. Besides controlling the flow of air and fluids solenoids are used in pharmacology experiments. (Retrieved April 15. an alarm. This minimizes the on-off cycling of the associated pump.18 Float Switch: Definition and common uses A float switch is a device used to detect the level of liquid within a tank. Float switches range from small to large and may be as simple as a mercury switch inside a hinged float or as complex as a series of optical or conductance sensors producing discrete outputs as the liquid reaches many different levels within the tank. In the industry. or other devices. That is. "solenoid" may also refer to an electromechanical solenoid commonly used to actuate a sear." They are commonly used to control a larger valve used to control the propellant (usually compressed air or CO2).

This stage may switch off the source of the liquid being pumped. They may be physically integrated with the devices they control. or both. the second stage will be triggered. The float switch allows for automatic operation of devices depending on the level of fluid. Such switches typically include a base member having mounted thereon a buoyant arm or float member. Typically. or physically independent and connected to those devices only electrically. Float switches of numerous configurations have been used for various marine and industrial applications.19 Float Switch Operation A float switch is an electro-mechanical switch which allows for an electrical switch to be opened or closed depending on the fluid level in a container. changes in the angular position of the arm or member due to changes in water level cause an electrically conductive ball or fluid. 2010 from http://www. As liquid rises to the trigger point of the first stage. (Retrieved April 17. Most float switches contain an electrical switch imbedded within the body of the float switch device. to move between switch ON and switch OFF positions to . trigger an alarm. such as mercury. The electrical switch is actuated upon physical movement of the portion of the float switch device containing the electrical switch or upon physical movement of another portion of the float switch device.com) 2. whereby the electrical switch means opens and closes as the angular position varies.32 Some float switches contain a two-stage switch. or the opening or closing of valves.wikipedia. such as the operation of pumps. the associated pump is activated. Electrical circuit and switch means are associated with the arm or member and are responsive to the angular position thereof. If the liquid continues to rise (perhaps because the pump has failed or its discharge is blocked).

A microcontroller or stepper motor controller can be used to activate the drive transistors in the right order. or water heater. they are probably the cheapest way to get precise angular movements. dehumidifier. 2010 from http:// www. these two phase commons are internally joined. A common design is a small device that lays flat on a floor and relies on the electrical conductivity of water to decrease the resistance across two contacts. Typically.electronics-manufacturers. Often. so the motor has only five leads. air conditioner. These are useful in a normally occupied area near any appliance that has the potential to leak water. such as a washing machine. the commutation circuit can be made very simple (eg.wikipedia. one end of each winding is made common: giving three leads per phase and six leads for a typical two phase motor.com) 2.20 Water Detector A Water detector is a small electronic device that is designed to detect the presence of water and alert humans in time to allow the prevention of water damage. given a phase. A 9 volt battery then sounds an audible alarm in the presence of enough water to bridge the contacts. (Retrieved April 17.21 Unipolar Stepper Motor A unipolar stepper motor has two windings per phase. and this ease of operation makes unipolar motors popular with hobbyists. . (Retrieved April 20. 2010 from www.33 permit or preclude the flow of current through the electrical circuit means. one for each direction of magnetic field. refrigerator with icemaker. a single transistor) for each winding. Since in this arrangement a magnetic pole can be reversed without switching the direction of current.com) 2.

22 Relex Case Study: Redesign of a Robot for Improved Reliability Many product manufacturers realize the need to establish reliability process goals and commit to continual product improvement in order to meet customer. To analyze the client’s test coverage. After that. 15. as well as internal.34 (For the experimenter. Common degree/step includes 0. it indicates that the circuit to the particular winding is closed and that the phase is working. 3.6. Resistance between common wire and coil-end wire is always half of what it is between coil-end and coil-end wires. test plans were formulated in order to prove that the prototype can obtain the desired reliability.72. and . Degree per step is also known as the resolution of the motor.5. companies committed to reliability improvement turn to Relex Professional Services to aid in their reliability programs. 7. quality goals. 2. This is due to the fact that there is actually twice the length of coil between the ends and only half from center (common wire) to the end. These two flow charts were compared.) A quick way to determine if the stepper motor is working is to short circuit every two pairs and try turning the shaft. 1. and even 90. whenever a higher than normal resistance is felt. Degree per step is often the most important factors in choosing a stepper motor. Oftentimes. It specifies the number of degrees that the shaft will rotate for each full step. The first step in improving reliability was to identify points in the system affecting reliability. one way to distinguish common wire from a coil-end wire is by measuring the resistance.8. flow charts were created for the processes followed by both the test robot and a robot in the field.

. de-crating the robot.35 all differences were identified. transporting the robot to the installation site. The key differences were in the processes of crating the robot. and installing the robot. It was suggested here that the product reliability must be between 90-95% confidence levels.

36 Chapter 3 Research Methodology This chapter contains the research methodology that the researchers will use through the course of the study.1 Conceptual Framework MICROCONTROLLER Shredded Corn Husk Pouring of alkali solution Cooking Draining of solution Pouring of water Blending Draining of Pulp Passing through a conveyor with blower at both ends Drying Figure 3 Conceptual Framework Molding . 3. as well as the proposed schematic diagram for the design. It will also contain process flowchart regarding on how the system will work. This section contains the theoretical and conceptual framework that will be used in the implementation of the design.

37 Figure 4 Block Diagram of the whole System .

Once the pulp is leveled well in the mould and deckle. an amount of water will be added to aid with the blending process. The pulp is now transferred to the mould through the use of a solenoid valve. a solenoid valve will be used to drain the alkali solution without draining the corn husks as well. the shredded corn husk will be boiled using a heating element. with two hair dryers located at the sides. After cooking the corn husks in alkali solution. Here. a brush controlled by 2 motors is used. a motor controlled lid. The paper making process will be automatically controlled by our microcontroller. The drained alkali solution will be passed to the solenoid valve to the container itself. The cooking part lasts for about 1 hour.38 The figure 3 shows the process of a microcontroller-based recycler. where the user must input the shredded corn husk. The dryer is composed of the conveyor belt. the next process involves draining the alkali out of the container. The blender will now be activated by the microcontroller. The microcontroller will be activating necessary devices in order to successfully process the shredded corn husk to corn paper. . it can now be passed to the dryer section of the machine. In order to spread the pulp while in the mould. With this. After the time allotted for drying. the paper pulp is now produced. Once the corn husks are fully blended. The process starts at the cooking. The microcontroller also adds a specified amount of alkali solution to the cooker. Before blending the corn husks. which will be timed by the microcontroller. It is composed of blocks that reflect the process of the machine recycler. which is a PIC16F877A. the mould will be now unloaded and the corn paper is now finished.

The task of putting the shredded corn husk in the cooker blender container is done manually by the user. The user part has start button and a task of putting in the corn. These two tanks supply the liquid necessary on a specific process. When this is done. The link between the user’s button and the machine will be the MCU. The whole process depends on the start button which gives the go signal to the machine to start the whole process. The machine has many processes in it. The user part tells us where the user is involved on the process. It is divided into two main boxes namely the User and the Machine. It will also give orders to what process will take effect next. the pulp will be drained to the mould and deckle. the material will be dried and then will be ready for use.39 Figure 4 shows the basic processes the machine will go through. The pulp will be flattened or leveled to the mould. the soda ash tank and the water tank. The tanks are all connected to the cooker blender where the cooking and blending process is made. After this stage. There are two tanks inside the machine. . The machine part tells us the processes where the user has no intervention. The LED display will indicate if the water and soda ash solution source is nearly depleted.

2.5 x 0. there are two detectors to be used. The water level detector for the tank with water and soda ash will determine the volume needed to be poured to the container to cook the corn husks and the other one will determine the volume the water needed to blend the cooked corn husks and needed to drain the blended corn husks or pulp to the mold and deckle. These water level detectors are placed into the tanks. it must be in a size of 0.40 3. Both water level detectors will send signal to the microcontroller to control the operation of the solenoid valves. There are two tanks in the system. This water level detector uses LDR sensors. one is filled with water mixed with soda ash and the other tank is filled with pure water. In the system. The input to the inverting input will be the voltage across the LDR that is light dependent.5 cm and weighs 40 grams.3 Water Level Detector The water level detector will determine how much volume of water to be poured into the container.2 Design Considerations 3.1 Input The shredded corn husks will be fed into the machine as an input. 3.2. The shredded corn husks are pre-determined before being fed into the machine. The sensor is based on a voltage comparator circuit using LM741. At darkness the resistance of . It is fed into the hole directly to the container where it will be cooked.

2. When the LDR is illuminated. the water sensor sends signal to the microcontroller to stop the solenoid valve from draining.41 the LDR will be high and so do the voltage across it. Figure 5 LDR 3. The sensor will send a signal to the microcontroller to start the motor in distributing the pulp over the mold and deckle. its resistance drops and so do the voltage across it. thus the voltage at inverting input will be lower than that at non inverting input and the output of the comparator goes high. The other one will detect the draining of water with pulp. The first one will detect the draining of the water from the container where the corn husks are cooked. A potentiometer will be used as an adjustable reference voltage of the sensor to alter the sensitivity of the sensor. The inverting input will be higher than the reference at non inverting pin and the output of the comparator will be low. Once the draining is done.4 Water Sensor The system will utilize two water sensors. .

and the hair dryer in the heating of the paper. It uses the transistor to act as a switch when the base of the transistor is shorted to the positive of the supply by the water falling on the sensor.5 Relay Circuit The relay circuit will be used to control the operation of the heating element in the cooking.42 The water sensor is based on a 2N3904 transistor.2. 2N3904 Figure 6 Water Detector 3. it will send signal to the microcontroller. The relay circuit will be controlled by the microcontroller. The 1 MΩ potentiometer will be used to alter the sensitivity of the sensor. the blender to slice the pulp. Figure 7 Relay . When the transistor saturates.

DC and stepping motors. The L298 IC is an integrated monolithic circuit.2. solenoids.43 This is the circuit that drives the ac components of the prototype as shown above. 3. And two other motors will be used in pressing the paper in the heating process. and stepper motors. It uses a 2N3904 transistor to act as a switch. There are five DC geared motors to be used move the components of the system. Two unipolar stepper motor will be used to transfer the paper and the mould and deckle to the drying area and to the output area using a conveyor belt. 3. The first motor will control the replacement of mould and deckle. It is a high voltage. The 1N4001 diode to be putting between the collector and the power is for the protection of the transistor. The microcontroller saturates the transistor to run the relay.2. the proponents will be using L298 IC. There are two motors to be used to spread the pulp to the mould and deckle.7 Motor Driver For the motor driver for the motors of the prototype. high current dual full-bridge driver designed to accept standard TTL logic levels and drive inductive loads such as relays. .6 Motors There are two types of motors that the proponents will use: DC motors.

44 Figure 8 L298 Motor Driver Figure 9 L298 Pin Configuration Figure 10 DC Geared Motor Driver .

It uses fast recovery UF202 diode which has 50 ns recovery time as required by the datasheet of L298 which should not be greater than 200 ns recovery time. A 0. The enable pins are at high condition to enable the Bridge A and Bridge B because both bridges will be used.2. The circuit provides two source voltages. together with a large RAM area and an internal EEPROM. 3. making .7 PIC16F877 The PIC16F877 Microcontroller includes 8kb of internal flash Program Memory. An 8channel 10-bit A/D convertor is also included within the microcontroller. DC geared motors and stepper motors using L298. 5V and 12V for VCC and VS respectively.45 Figure 11 Stepper Motor Driver The circuits above are circuits that drive the motors of the prototype.5Ω resistor is connected to sensing pins to control the current of the load.

All port connectors are brought out to standard headers for easy connect and disconnect. It will accept all the signals from the detection circuits and will actuate all the motors and other devices of the system.46 it ideal for real-time systems and monitoring applications. the PIC16F877 will be the system’s main microcontroller. Figure 12 PIC Microcontroller In the design. Figure 13 PIC16F877 Pin Configuration .

Though there are other diodes available such as 1N5401 to 08 but are more expensive. L7805 and L7812. 25V capacitor is used to flatten the pulsating output from the Center-Tapped Full Wave Rectifier. The L7805 voltage regulator has a fixed output voltage of 5V and output current of 1A that will be used to supply the microcontroller. the L7812 has a fixed output voltage of 12V and output current of 1A to supply the motors.47 3. produces a distorted DC signal which can generate noise causing a delay in the operations of the microcontroller which may lead to damaging it.8 Power Supply A dc power supply is used to convert ac voltage at wall outlets into a constant dc voltage. The power supply will use a transformer with a rating of 0-110-220V primary and 12-0-12V. Half-Wave Rectifier and Bridge Rectifier are not appropriate for the functions of the system because Half-Wave Rectifier produces a half cycle pulsating DC. The rectifier is a Center-Tapped Full Wave Rectifier that provides a full cycle pulsating dc which leads to produce a smooth and regulated dc signal to the electronic components. The circuit is shown below. 3A secondary. The Bridge Rectifier produces a higher voltage and current rating than Full Wave Rectifier that is not suitable for the functions of the prototype because it can lead to damaging its electronic components. Moreover. The 1N5400 diode will be used in rectifier because this diode suits the output rating of the transformer t its secondary winding. Thus. There are two voltage regulators will be used.2. The 2200 µF. and detection circuits. .

48 Figure 14 Power Supply .

49 3.3 Ideal Design of the Prototype Figure 15 Prototype Figure 16 Water Tank and Soda Ash Tank with Water Level Detector .

50 Figure 17 Cooker Blender Figure 18 Mould Dispenser .

51 Figure 19 Pulp Distributor Figure 20 Brush Figure 15 shows the ideal design of the prototype. input section for shredded corn husk. it also contains a LED for indication of errors. roller pins for pressing of the excess water. cooker/blender container for cooking and blending process. Furthermore. solenoid valves. mould and deckle dispenser. It also has a start button for initializing the machine. The whole design is composed of two tanks.motor controlled lid and two blow dryers used for drying process. brush for leveling of the pulp. conveyor for moving the mould and deckle with pulp . one for soda ash solution and one for water which both contains a water level detector. .

4 System Flowchart Figure 21 System Flowchart .52 3.

it will be pressed and distributed to the mould.53 The process begins when the shredded corn skin is fed to the blender cooker. we consider the equation shown below: %R = R × 100% The aimed reliability of 95% was based on a case study provided by the Relex Company. consider the equation is shown below: R=1– Number of Failures Number of Success/ Trial To compute the percent reliability of the system. This combination is ready for the next process which is cooking. Then. The next step involves the pouring of the alkali solution on the blender cooker. Additional water is supplied to the blender cooker after the process of blending is done. the solution on the blender cooker will be drained. The finish product is then produced. 3. When all of the pulp is drained out. This process is time bounded and signaled to start at the moment the right amount of solution is poured.5 System’s Reliability To compute for the reliability of the system. the mould with the pulp will be pressed down with a smooth flat metal and then dried below by blowers or dryers. After this. After the given time is over. Their case study focuses on the reliability study of a robot with an automated . the water with the pulp will be drained out the blender cooker and then poured out to the mould and deckle. A small amount of water will be introduced to the blender cooker and the blending process will start.

3. The errors can happen during the input of corn husks.54 task. The table also shows the test conditions and the expected result for testing. input of alkali solution in the cooker blender. During their test planning.6 Testing procedures 3. the aimed reliability was 95%.6.1 Error Conditions Table 1 Error Conditions Table 1 shows the possible errors that could happen to the prototype machine. input of water in cooker blender and the error that could happen in the mould and deckle. we think that having a 95% reliability is enough for our initial prototype. . Since the case study involves a robot already in the industry.

The testing begins by putting in the shredded corn husk. we consider the five major processes involved in the paper machine recycler such as cooking.6. rice straw or talahib is predetermined. The alkali solution however should be tested in two cases.55 3. As the user press the start button. drying and cutting. The amount of the shredded corn husk.2 Test Conditions Table 2 Testing Conditions The testing procedure will be done per process. disintegrating. draining. rice straw or talahib. As we see from the table 2. the machine should start pouring alkali solution and it must stop pouring after the required . transferring to conveyor belt.

56 level is reached. It must then be tested that once the pulp is in the pressing-drying section. Moreover. If pouring soda ash solution reached the desired amount needed for cooking. water will be poured into the container and the second draining process will happen. The whole blending process will end after 5 minutes. The water level detector operation should be tested depending on the fluid level in a tank. it will be air dried for the last time. the water level detector should be able to detect it and send a signal to the microcontroller to close the valve then start cooking. it must be then pressed using rolling pins and be dried by an electronic heating element. At the end. It should be tested to make an equal spreading. the conveyor must move to the pressing and drying section. Draining 1 is when the alkali solution is drained from the cooker then replaced with pure water. After the paper is dried first. Finally. and the other is the removal of the pulp with water in the disintegrator. . In the molding process. There are two stages where draining is involved. The disintegrator function will remove the part not needed in the process. Motor pump is the responsible device to make this process possible. it will be brought to the cutting section. It will start when the enough water needed is poured to the container. once it was finished. a conveyor belt is used to spread the paper pulp. It must be tested that the cutter can cut the paper with its given size. Cooking will end upon the specified time. It will be tested that the dryer will activate for the specified time.

Table 3 Tabulation for testing the volume of soda ash solution for cooking TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 SUCCESS FAILURE TIME AVERAGE . The number of trials was determined using the Fundamental Formula of Gambling: .95 p = probability of success or failure = 0.57 3. N = 4.7 Testing To thoroughly evaluate the performance of the project.5 N = number of trials Solving for N: From the formula presented above. where DC = degree of certainty = reliability = 0. there would be 5 trials to be used to test each category. Substituting the values of DC and p.322 ≈ 5 trials Test for Volume of Soda ash Solution This will test if the volume of 1 liter soda ash solution is transferred for the cooking of corn husks with five trials.

58 Test for Cooking of the Paper Pulp This will test if the specified time of cooking is achieved with five trials. Table 4 Tabulation for testing of cooking the paper pulp. Table 5 Tabulation for testing of disintegration of the pulp TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE SUCCESS FAILURE TIME . TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE SUCCESS FAILURE TIME Test for Disintegration This will test if the specified time of 5 minutes is achieved in blending the pulp with five trials.

59 Test for Volume of Water This will test if the volume of half liter water is transferred for draining the pulp with five trials. Table 7 Tabulation for testing of moulding the paper TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE SUCCESS FAILURE TIME . Table 6 Tabulation for testing of volume of water for draining the pulp TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 SUCCESS FAILURE TIME AVERAGE Test for Conveyor Belt This will test if the pulp is transferred to the conveyor belt and distributed equally with five trials.

60 Test for Drying of Paper This will test the quality of paper after the specified time of drying with five trials. Table 9 Tabulation for cutting the paper TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE SUCCESS FAILURE TIME . Table 8 Tabulation for drying the paper TRIAL 1 2 3 4 5 AVERAGE SUCCESS FAILURE TIME Test for Cutting of Paper This will test the size of paper after the specified time of drying with five trials.

The group also conducted further experiments in making paper from corn husks. rice straw or talahib manually. The possible errors that will occur in the system design are the following:     Water Level Detector Reading Wrong indication of water level may occur Draining Corn husk. These were merely consideration that served as guide to minimize such errors and achieve a higher reliability. Such experiment done is made for the purpose of observing the problem arises or the disadvantages when making paper done manually and also to test the properties of the finished product paper .8 Error Parameters This part discusses the possible errors that the group considered to occur during the development of the prototype.61 3.8 Instruments Used This study utilizes Internet for gathering information about the study and to site some articles that is related to the project. Rice straw or talahib may clog on and in the valve Dispersion of the pulp in the conveyor belt The Pulp may not be dispersed at all sides of the mould and deckle Drying Paper pulp may stick to the rolling pin and in the dryer 3. The group clarified that the errors stated below will not become the limitations of the prototype that may reduce its total reliability.

Through reading books from the library and articles from the internet.62 done manually. the statistics and the parameters to be measured for the project. the group also asked some Electronics Engineers and concerned citizens for reference regarding the project. . the technology given in this project. Moreover. The group also made school library visits for the improvement of the designed project. the group was able to get some data that will determine all the required information needed for the project.

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