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Handout Stakeholder Inventory and Analysis

Henk de Zeeuw, ETC Urban Agriculture/RUAF (2007)

Why stakeholder inventory and analysis?

Stakeholder inventory and analysis is useful since it helps:
- To identify which stakeholders are actually involved in urban agriculture and to
assess their mandates, opinions, interests, available resources and potential
contributions to an Multi-stakeholder Policy formulation and Action Planning (MPAP)
- To identify and motivate organisations that are interested to work together in the
start up and implementation of an MPAP process on urban agriculture,
- To identify organisations that are relevant for solving the problems encountered by
urban farmers and/or realising the existing development potentials in urban agriculture,
identify their mandate and the human, financial and other resources they have available
and motivate them to take an active part in the MPAP process (Multi stakeholder Forum,
working groups, implementation of projects),
- To analyse the relations between the various stakeholders, including
cooperation and conflicts, as to provide a basis for identification of effective
strategies to improve networking, communications, coordination and cooperation
between the various participants in the MPAP process.

A crucial aspect to consider is the wide range of stakeholders encountered in urban settings.
Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture (UPA) is taking place in a multi-sectoral environment and it
is easy to miss some key stakeholders in a participatory process. Effort has to be put into
identifying these different stakeholder groups and motivating them to participate.

The type of stakeholders involved and their level of participation in the planning process will
vary depending on local circumstances. In any case, early co-operation between all
participants in planning and implementing actions and decisions for urban agriculture, can
smooth many obstacles from the path of the planning and implementation process (
Zeeuw and W. Teubner, 2001).

Types of stakeholders in urban agriculture

One can distinguish between :
1. direct stakeholders: 1.various types of actual urban farmers / groups / organisations;
2. categories of the population with a strong interest in urban agriculture due to poverty,
food insecurity, lack of income, disabilities, etc, 3. those interested to invest in urban
agriculture as an economic enterprise.
2. indirect stakeholders; organizations that play (or should play) a role in the
development urban agriculture: Councillors, Municipal departments, local offices of
governmental organisations, ONG’s, universities/research institutes, extension
organisations, credit institutes, parastatals (e.g. marketing board or water authority),
private enterprises (e.g. inputs supply, super markets, agro-processing industry),
community based organisations, etc.

The number and types of stakeholders differs from city to city. That is why we cannot
provide a comprehensive list but just give some general ideas about potential stakeholders
to be considered and their possible role in the planning process:
Important types of stakeholders normally are:

a. Elected councillors
The initial idea to put urban agriculture on the political agenda may come from officers of the
local authority, from the elected councillors or from urban farmers and other citizens groups,

food box schemes. d. jams and marmalades. the interest of the elected council should be engaged and a resolution made to support the work with the resources of the administration. HIV-AIDS affected people.g. cheese making. Livestock. and other forms of organization of urban Farmers and Gardeners The involvement of the urban farmers and gardeners will be particularly important since their viewpoints. During meetings. the processing of agricultural produce (e. etc. The participation of the local authority in the planning process regarding UPA is a crucial factor and if representatives of the Local Authority participate in the MPAP process. we should ensure that all of these stakeholder categories are recognized and get involved in the MPAP process. b. One has to ensure to differentiate between different types of farmers.g. regarding municipal policies. Horticulture. Residential Neighbours and Community Based organisations It is important to involve individuals or groups. … Although these groups might have certain interests in common. . Commercial or (mainly) Subsistence Farmers and Gardeners c. such as urban planning. Aquaculture. Local authorities Departments of the local Municipality are already engaged in areas of service provision and regulation. Therefore. provide feedback in council meetings. dried fruits and flowers) and its marketing (e. Actions to promote urban agriculture in its social role should be discussed with representatives of the targeted populations (i. Social organisations can have various roles in the creation and implementation of the action plan: they will provide expertise and knowledge regarding projects aimed at hard-to-reach groups.g. they will also provide expertise and advice to the stakeholders. migrants). Small scale or Larger scale farmers and gardeners b. Wherever the initial impulse comes from. disabled people. Especially the participation of the small scale and informal urban farmers is often problematic since they are less organised and easily overlooked or left out.environmental organisations. water treatment. Urban and Peri-Urban agriculture (UPA) planning activities undertaken without the council involvement may achieve little in the long term. etcetera). They will also act as a link between the local administration and minority groups. women. whose habitations or activities are located near sites of urban agriculture and who might be positively or negatively affected by future projects. overcome possible resistance and eventually gain support from the council. sales in small shops and on local markets. e. and needs should be taken in the planning and decision making process. Hence. street vending of fresh products or prepared food. it might be appropriate to involve councillors in the discussions all along the planning process. Micro-enterprises involved in urban agriculture Next to the intra-urban and peri-urban farmers and gardeners themselves various micro- enterprises are involved in the production of agricultural inputs (e. f. Organisations representing or working with disadvantaged groups of the urban population As already mentioned. in order to acknowledge their opinion and suggestions. Networks. ethnic minorities. this importantly facilitates the involvement of other actors and the coordination of the planning process and its link to the formal decision making and legislation. urban agriculture plays an important social role: it contributes to supply healthy food to the urban population and acts as a tool for integration of excluded populations. composting).e. which have direct interactions with urban agriculture. especially between a. Forestry. the identification of their representatives needs special attention (and will be an important component of participatory farming system analysis). c. they might strongly differ in other interests and needs and might require quire different kinds of support. Therefore. This will enable to better tailor actions. projects and areas of service provision. waste collection. Associations.

What organisations represent other categories of the population that might be negatively affected by it (and thus likely to be against new urban agriculture initiatives)? Three moments to identify.UPA. Therefore. Key questions to identify stakeholders in urban agriculture include: . Governmental and non-governmental support organisations and universities/ research centres Local authority officers and urban farmers/gardeners may lack expertise regarding specific aspects of. . They might consider getting advice and guidance from universities. The concrete result should be the signing of collaboration agreements. and involve them in the planning process. Which are crucial and dynamic key institutional actors? Who should we work with? . Their interest to initiate the MPAP process and participate in the MPAP facilitating team. What organisations have a mandate.g. An urban farmer organisation or network. expertise and/or resources that make them important partners? . Representatives of other local governments and other levels of government. or related to urban agriculture. and as such are entitled to take part in the discussions. analyse (and motivate) stakeholders 1. NGO’s and governmental agencies. c. Which (formal or informal) organisations are actually representing and/or supporting urban farmers in one way or other? . b. Organisation into groups or working through an existing regional level of local government may be the most effective way to action. One or more research institutes or universities. One or more Municipal Departments.the MPAP process). Normally we would like to see involved at least: a. it should be considered at the beginning of the process whether co-operation with neighbouring local authorities is a sensible way forward. . NGO’s and governmental organisations will often help finance and implement projects. What to analyse: . In the preparatory stage: Why/expected result: Identification of a small number of key institutional stakeholders in urban agriculture that are interested to start and facilitate an MPAP process in their city and take part in the MPAP core or facilitating team (responsible for taking the lead in –facilitation of. h. regional bodies if relevant Urban agriculture issues are not always bound by the same borders as local authority areas. What organisations represent other categories of the population that have a strong interest in urban agriculture policies and projects? . In this stage the main focus is on identification of potential partner organisations interested and willing to take part in the “core or facilitating team” and that are committed to organise and facilitate the MPAP process in the city concerned. d. What organisations have a specific authority that requires their involvement in activities focusing at formulation of policies and design / implementation of projects on urban agriculture? . Resources can be shared and actions increased in effectiveness. One or more local dynamic NGO’s involved in -or interested in. Their views on urban agriculture (main problems and potentials and what to do about it).

g. preferably we involve the core local partners already in the realisation of the literature review and the stakeholder analysis. Then we also can decide whether we will focus the MPAP process on the whole city (if not too big) or on one part of the city (e. Interviews with these contacts to identify potential interested/knowledgeable partner organisations and the right persons to speak with in these organisations. How: . Hence we are faced with a dilemma. the partner(s) initiating the process will have to decide to what extent it will already get into the literature review and stakeholder analysis themselves before selecting the core partners and training/involving them in further implementation of the situation analysis. commitments). Review of available literature on urban agriculture and internet search to identify some knowledgeable contacts in this city. . Selection of the right core partners is crucial for the success of the whole MPAP process. Follow up by mail/telephone and a meeting with all interested key partners to sign cooperation agreement and identify dates and participants for a planning workshop.g. which decision of course influences the selection of core partners in the MPAP process. Visits to the partner organisations (after sharing written information) to present your organisation and explain MPAP-process and check out their interests. . The contributions to the MPAP process we may expect of each of these partners (resource base. one of the Municipalities in a Metropolis). However. For each city. after review of existing data and the stakeholder analysis). expertise. . Such a decision can best be taken when already more insight in the situation regarding UPA in the city is obtained (e.

and other measures. . where. to define the methodology to be applied and instruments to be used. when. What are their views on actual situation and positive/negative impacts of (various types of) UPA? e. What are their views on the desired development of (various types of) UPA: main strategies to apply and their own role in and contributions to that process? f. operational plan/time schedule/commitments. how to coordinate /monitor these activities. laws. 2. An inventory of all stakeholders in UPA in this city. How do we see their potential or desired role in UPA? g. To gain insight in their views on urban agriculture and the role of their organisation might play in the development of urban agriculture and the human. Existing formal and informal relations between this organisation and different types of urban farmers (market chain. cooperation. to familiarize them with stakeholder analysis (why. To motivate the most relevant stakeholders to take part in the MPAP process (especially the Multi-stakeholder Forum – to formulate the Strategic Agenda on UA) and its working groups (to operationalise the Strategic Agenda into action projects. What to analyse: Through the stakeholder analysis we would like to find out: a. With the stakeholder inventory and analysis we want: 1. organisations and networks only. What is the mandate / mission of this organisation (does it include aspects that relate to urban agriculture)? What is their main area of operation? Their main target groups? b. how).2. As part of the situation analysis Why/expected result: In this stage the focus is on making a systematic inventory and analysis of all stakeholders that have something to contribute to the development of Urban Agriculture. instruments used. products to be produced. etcetera) NOTE In the stakeholder analysis we focus on institutions. What human. . The meeting(s) should result in a methodological document that should describe: main concepts. with what objectives and results)? c. Activities at farmers level will be undertaken in the context of the farming system analysis in selected urban and peri-urban farming areas. . financial or other resources they have available that might be of interest for the development of UPA? In what aspects they might become a constraint or help in the MPAP process? How: a. . to define what products have to be developed as a result of the stakeholder analysis. new zoning regulations. methodology. financial and other resources available in these organisations of relevance for such development. d.Preparations Meetings are organized with all persons that will be involved in this activity in order: . what are past and ongoing activities regarding urban agriculture (with what types of urban farmers. work planning: who will do what when how/means. 3. conflicts) and other supporting institutions. What is their actual involvement in urban agriculture. . what.

Prepared by:………………………… On the basis of: a. .name organization. etcetera) and “brainstorming” and interviews with key informants. another important component of the situation analysis). Inventory of all relevant stakeholders By reviewing available information from reliable sources (literature. . documents:………………………… b. human. address.Data gathering on identified stakeholders An interview is held with one or more representatives of each organisation included in the list with help of an interview guide. tel. intervention strategies Ongoing and planned .b. that is to say: the locations of the main urban farming locations (identified during secondary data review and land use mapping exercise. .type of stakeholder. The collected information is added to the stakeholder table which will result in a short stakeholder profiles per organization (see below). The person to be interviewed should be of senior rank in that organisation and his/her views should represent well the institutional viewpoints. a list of stakeholders is developed. Elements Profile Institutional mandate and current policies Available resources (financial. at the City level b. Stakeholder Profile Sheet Profile of Stakeholder …………………. at the intervention level. e-mail). The list of stakeholders should include at least the following information: .contact details (name and function of contact person(s). interview with:……………………. solutions. databases. in- kind) Expertise Main target groups Main areas of intervention Main relations with other stakeholders.available sources of information on that organisation (website address. networks they participate in Information they have on UPA and related fields Perceptions/views on key problems and potentials of UPA. c. documents). It is suggested to make two of such lists: a.

We thus seek to identify what additional actors are required to take part in the working groups and projects. legitimacy. resources (direct or indirect). power. …. resources. influence . Based on a-e: Which organisations should be included in the MPAP process and in what ways/roles? What might we expect from each of them? Which ones have to be included for strategic or practical reasons but need close attention in order to change their views on urban agriculture? g. representation. The congruency/discrepancy in the views that these organizations have on the main problems (different types of) urban agriculture and the strategies suggested to solve these problems. programme and policies on UPA. and the contributions they might make to future projects. etcetera. f. Points of attention (themes / methods) regarding building mutual understanding. networking and enhancing cooperation and communication among stakeholders. with views on their mandate. UPA …. After drafting the City Strategic Agenda on Urban Agriculture Why/expected result In this stage the key problems and priority intervention strategies for development of UPA have been identified. Our own assessment of their potential role/contributions: expertise. The results of the analysis will be included in a report on the Stakeholder analysis that will be used as an input to the development of the Strategic Agenda. So now it becomes possible to analyse for each main problem and strategy whether all relevant stakeholders are on board or whether additional organisations have to be invited to take part in the operationalisation and implementation of that specific strategy. participation in Multi- stakeholder Forum Other observations d... d. What are the best ways to motivate the various organisations to participate in the MPAP process? h.projects re. b. e. Observations re. The congruency/discrepancy in the views that these organisations have on the potentials / future development of (different types of ) urban agriculture and the strategies suggested to develop these potentials. c. Analysis of the collected information Once all organizations in the list have been identified and visited. expertise and skills. eventual participation in Core MPAP facilitating team Observations re. It might be that the present stakeholders involved in the MPAP process do not have all the required expertise or mandate or social basis to come to adequate project design and implementation. the collected data is analyzed by asking: what do we learn from the collected information regarding: a. 3. The views these organisations have on their own role in the above. The existing relations between the various stakeholders -to that effect one may prepare per type of urban farmers a Venn diagram (a stakeholder inter-relations map) indicating which actors do interact with them and the kind and intensity this interaction.

information is not available/not accessible.the available information is not relevant to the user. to be willing to participate in its development (which mainly depends on the question how UPA may contribute to the main interests of the actor involved). Main obstacles for active involvement at organisation and personal level: a. or only at one level in the organisation (technical level or decision making level). What makes an organisation more committed to actively contribute to the MPAP process? a. The result should be that the working groups include all relevant stakeholders to design and to implement. Link with their institutional policy / interests An organisation probably will be more interested in UPA if . wrong packaging. What kind of expertise or resources or power we need in order to solve the problems or realise the potential identified in the Strategic Agenda? . Motivating stakeholders in urban agriculture to actively participate in the MPAP process In order to get their active participation in the MPAP process an organisation needs: a. . Analysis of the Strategic Agenda. to be able to contribute (which mainly depends on the organisation’s mandate and available human and financial resources).the available information is not presented in a way that is attractive to the user (wrong channel. c. . unwilling / lack of interest . consultations of thematic experts (by telephone/e-mail). ignorance / lack of knowledge . What to analyse: . offered at wrong moments by the wrong persons to the wrong persons). . identification of gaps. c.the person/organisation is not well informed on potentials of UA for pursuing his/her interests. Internet search.the person/organisation does not have the right relations/power . adequate solutions to the problems identified or actions to further explore the existing potentials. .lack of required equipment and economic means. Where can we find that expertise. or resources or power if not yet present among the participating organisations? How: . unable / lack of resources . .they have other priorities. Visits to potential complementary partner organisations to inform and motivate them to participate.and power. b.lack of required expertise/skills. in a participatory manner. . to be aware of UPA and its potentials and problems.the person/organisation does not have the mandate to work with poor urban farmers (is urban or agriculture or poor included in the mandate?). . All three conditions have to be fulfilled to certain degree in order to get the organisation actively involved. Comparison with Stakeholder profiles. is not what he/she needs to get interested and take a decision. b. listing of expertise and resources needed. . .

. Less “deviations from normal procedures are negatively rewarded” and less dominant “disciplinary” and “sectoral” orientation. . b. .The organisation is more innovative and learning oriented organisation. development of relevant experience/knowledge/skills. fits in institutional policies. .Funding flows for UPA are increasing and accessible for this organisation.Decision makers are well informed on UPA and its relevance for their main institutional interests. c.There is more staff with positive experiences and relevant expertise on UPA available within the organisation.UPA is close to the institutional interests (fits in mandate/mission. has more democratic attitudes and has gained (positive) experiences with participatory or multi stakeholder processes. better chances for access to scholarship. . no shorter/cheaper routes to the same results are available. the higher rank the better. interventions in UA generates results that serve also other institutional goals. . programmes and budget headings).There is less corruption / more transparency / less resistance to outsiders knowing about planned activities and their participation in the monitoring of results.The organisation is less hierarchical. . Outside pressures An organisation probably will probably be more interested in UPA if there are outside pressures on the organisation to give proper attention to UPA .from media . resources.Attractiveness / clarity of MPAP proposal and “trustworthiness”’ and “leverage power” of the ones that propose it . organisation might be blamed if lack of attention leads to problems.from persons that can influence the institution directly (agenda. . economic incentives.Institutional involvement matches with personal interests of the persons involved and participation in MPAP-process is rewarding (intrinsic values. donor organisations. certificate. .etc. one or more strong internal advocates for UA. Link with individual interests of people in those organisations An organisation probably will probably be more interested in UPA if .from clients. more fieldwork). etcetera) like local and national policy makers. . . etcetera.

Discuss eventual problems encountered at the technical level and include commitments/remedial actions promised in the minutes. new ideas emerging). In crucial organisations (e. Keep superiors well informed and feed them with positive news on progress / results of the work done by their staff and other team members. . Ensure that team meetings are exciting. Work towards a formal stakeholder agreement between the core partners in the process. fact-sheets. . Make a summary of the main outcomes of these meetings and share that with them. In the preparatory stage . Bring most interested partners together and make them express their commitments in public. Municipality) also a seminar for senior staff and councillors might be organised (policy awareness seminars). . Inform opinion and decision makers of the various stakeholders on the expressed interests and commitments of other actors in the city. . . Prepare information package. inspiring and rewarding (learning a lot. press bulletins.Hence. . . . . making promised actions and other commitments of both parties more explicit. Ensure that tasks are well planned and prepared. NB: It is important to develop similar communication strategies for the next phases of the MPAP process (Development City Strategic Agenda. Involve the ‘opinion makers”’ in that organisation in direct dialogues with farmers (field visits). Give adequate follow up to questions raised and observations made. b. supply them with additional information on urban agriculture (e. project planning and implementation).g. . involve them in well prepared meetings on MPAP process. . . REFERENCES . Mayor declarations on UPA) that demonstrates the value of UA for their institutional interests and the link with their mandate/mission and actual policies and programmes. what strategies to use to enhance stakeholder motivation? a. Feed well-packaged information also to influential persons outside the organisation so that they might speak well informed and favourable of UA in meetings. Study the institutional profile of most relevant stakeholders. bring visits to decision and opinion makers in that organisation making use of well packaged information (UPA policy briefs and fact sheets. once in a while) and MPAP Team members (regularly). Maintain a good communication relation with their secretary.g. Involve them in elaboration of report on the situation analysis. which makes it more easy/pleasant to implement. sent them examples of successful UA policies and projects resulting from MPAP processes. videos). Supply training to the implementers in the form of “planning workshops” rather than as training (hence applying what was discussed is not a question anymore since the whole training is oriented towards planning). suggest them to higher ranking officials as contact persons / participants in MPAP process. During the situation analysis . Show that comparable organisations elsewhere are also involved in similar processes. Organise meetings at two levels: Steering committee (superiors. well-selected pictures and/or copy of video for journalists of local influential media and invite them for a briefing or seminar on this subject as well as for a field visit. Inform leaflets for “clients” of these organisations to inform then on UA so that they will advocate for more attention for UA in their contacts with the organisation. Ensure that team members can participate in the MPAP process with formal support of their superiors and with sufficient time and support. build in feedback to higher levels and discuss at decision making level the issues/questions raised at executive level. Organise a policy awareness seminar. . magazine articles. . Identify “like minded” persons in the organisation.

Green and productive cities. Policy Brief on Urban Agriculture. 2001 . ETC/ICLEI.. 2001. Chapter 4. Teubner. H and Zeeuw.