Asian Civilization Lesson-1 Physical Environment Importance of knowing Asia: 1.

We are Asians, so we should know more about Asian than any other region in the world. 2. Asia will dominate the world s political, economic and spiritual developments during the last part of the 20th century. The East led by Japan has gained ascendancy in world technology, political importance and social upheavals in 20th century. 3. The Philippines due to its location and heritage, has always been the light of Asia , and today is still able to fulfill a great role in this Asian renaissance. East and West: The world is divided into two parts- The East (Orient) said to be the region of rising sun. and the West (Occident) is Europe and North America, said to be the region of the setting sun. Russian geographers placed a stone cross on the highest pass in the route connecting Tifilis(T bilisi) with Orjonikidze. This mountain pass was called Krestovie Pereval (Pass of the Cross). The cross bore the word Asia on the side facing the East and Europe on that facing West . Asia- Largest Continent- Total area- 17 million miles, one third of the land surface of the earth and with 60% percent of its population. Sprawled like a sleeping giant halfway across the globe, Asia is bordered On the North- Arctic Ocean; On the South- Indian Ocean; On the east- Pacific Ocean; On the West by the Ural Mountains; Caspian Sea; Black sea and Aegean Sea. It is separated from North America by the narrow Bearing Strait and from Africa by the man-made Suez Canal. In the southeast, it is linked by tropical islands like stepping stones to Australia. Sub-regions of Asia: 5 sub regions REGION COUNTRIES

East Asia-called Far east China, Mongolia, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Asia s Rich Natural Resources but Poor People- Almost all kinds of important mineral and other natural resources are found in Asia. About 60% of the world oil reserves and 50% of world coal deposits lie beneath Asian strata.

Middle east, Brunei, Indonesia Virtually float on a sea of oil.

China produces 50% of the world supply of antimony (mineral used in steel ) and 30% of tungsten (mineral used for light bulbs)

China and Siberia rich in coal and natural gas deposits and oil.

Malaysia world greatest producer of rubber and tin

Indonesia greatest exporter of kapok, pepper, and quinine

Western Asia/Southwest Asia- called Near East because of its nearness to Europe. Middle East lies midway between Asia and EuropeTurkey, Iran, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen.

Philippines rank first in coconut hemp production, second in sugarcane, fifth in tobacco

Burma, Vietnam, Thailand and Phils. the greatest rice bowls of the world. 90% of the world s rice.

North Asia/Central AsiaAfghanistan and Asia ( Siberia, Russia, and the five new Muslim republics in Central Asia- Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyztan, Tadzhikistan and Turkmenistan).

Borneo, Burma, Cambodia and Thailand Teak

Bangladesh the leading producer of Jute (tough fiber for making sacks) South Asia Indian, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri-Lanka, the Himalayan kingdoms (Bhutan, Nepal, and Sikkim) and the Maldive Islands. Sri-Lanka and India world s supplier of tea South East Asia Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore and Laos Siberia and Tropical forests in Southeast Asia Asia houses ¼ of the world s forest/ world log exports

Darwin paved the way for the science of genetics. it only accounts for 17% of the world population and industry. Clearer vision. 2. With the exceptions of Japan. Lake Baikal (5710 feet deep ) also in Siberia is world s deepest lake. part Asian ) products of mixed marriages 7. Dead Sea.169 ft).between islands of Samar and Leyte is the narrowest strait in the world.500 km. some creatures adapt better to their environment because of distinct characteristics that other species do not possess. Filipinos are unique in the world.Asian. the Angkor Wat in Cambodia. Burma and the famed Dome of the Rock ( Also known as Mosque of Omar ) as Islamic shrine in Jerusalem.Built 2000 years ago on the slopes of the towering mountains of Northern Luzon by bare human represented by Filipinos. The environment is not protected from natural or man-made damage.5 billion( 60%) live in Asia. K2 Mountain in Karakoram range near Kashmir-Pakistan border is higher by 141 ft (29. Secondly. . India. Shah Jahan ( 1627-58). If placed end to end. they would extend more than 22. Meztiso. The Taj Mahal (Crown of the Palace ) a magnificent marble tomb in Agra. in memory of his favourite wife Mumtaz Mahal (chosen of the Palace) who died in 1631. Iranians and Indians (Indian Peninsula). a massive masterpiece of Indonesia s Buddhist Architecture. Although Asia has 60% of the world s population. Red peoples migrated to North America via the Bering Strait and became the ancestors of the American Indians. 1. Lesson-2 Biological Evolution and the Races in Asia Charles Darwin s theory of Natural Selection: -He reasoned that human behaviour and appearance changed with the passage of time. these terraces escalate like colossal stairways into the clouds. It is also the world s largest cemetery because thousands of workers died during its construction. The brown race .is represented by the Arabs.According to the theory. Natural WondersMt. the Shwe Dagon. ( ex.World s highest peak (29. There is a great opportunity to pass on these characteristics to future generations. 2.Refers to Eurasian in the Philippines. the production and distribution of world resources are controlled by companies in the United States and Europe. Population: Asia is the most populated continent in the world. sharper teeth). -He believed that change is a natural human instinct for the survival of the race. eight times longer than China s Great Wall or more than half of the circumference of the earth. crude farming and forest fires. Asian countries mostly rely on foreign technology and capital. European. Jews. Out of the total world population of 5. Everest.most colossal edifice fashioned by human hands built by Emperor Shih Huang Ti (220-221 BC) as a defensive rampart against the marauding Tartars. 4.918 m. Malaysians and Indonesians. Latin (Mexican ) and American. it is not surprising that the weaker perishes and the stronger reigns supreme . found in China and Japan.China and India. Some resources are not developed. Below sea level) found along eastern Mindanao. The Aryan or Indo.030 square miles) Siberia.000 artist and craftsmen from Asia and Europe toiled for 22 years to finish it. s largest archipelago ( 3000 islands. Malacca Strait (between Malaysia and Indonesia) world s longest strait San Juanico s lowest land area (303 m. More than 20. One half of these live in only two countries. The Semitic branch of the white race. Bengal bay in India is the world s largest bay with a shoreline of 2250 miles. The theory argued that all creatures come from a lower life form. Finally the rich forests in Asia are suffering the fastest rate of destruction in the world due to illegal logging. is hailed by Western writers as the most beautiful and most perfect of all buildings in the world . .most splendid of the Khmer temples. below sea level ) a salt-lake in the Israel-Jordan border Pacific Ocean. Man-Made WondersGreat wall of China. Races in Asia. Iraquis and Syrians 5. 3. The Yellow race. Other man made wonders of Asia are the Borobodur in Java.largest lake (inland sea) on earth. 3.European branch of the white race. The Great Wall is the only man-made structure visible from the moon. The Ifugao Rice Terraces of the Philippines. 741.largest ocean and the world s deepest ocean is the Philippine Deep (10. -The theory of Natural Selection is also used to explain the evolution of humans. -Since life and the source of food are limited in the complex relationship of creatures in the world. an idea known as the theory of natural selection. The developed resources are mostly controlled by Western multinational companies and 3.000 men laboured on the gigantic project. Eurasian (part European.85 billion.028 ft) along the Himalayan Range found in Nepal-Tibet border. It was built by the Mogul emperor. It took more than ten years to finish and more than 200. More than half of mankind lives in represented by the Afghans.Most Asian s remain poor despite their continent s rich natural resources because: 1. .Almost all races of man are found in Asia. The average density is over 600 persons per square mile.While Darwin was not able to answer the riddle of gene transfer ( which was eventually answered by Gregor Mendel in his study of genetics). . the fabulous golden pagoda in Rangoon. because they have intermingled and shared cultural influences from four different cultures.

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