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THE

ANCIENT HISTORY
OF THE

EGYPTIANS, CARTHAGINIANS,
ASSYRIANS,

MEDES AND PERSIANS,
MACEDONIANS,
AND

BABYLONIANS,

GRECIANS.

By M. ROLLIN,
lATE PBIKCIPAL OF THE UKIVEBSITY OP PABIS, &C. &C

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH,

IN EIGHT VOLUMES.
VOL. VI.

REVISED, COERECTED, AND ILLUSTRATED WITH A NEW SET OF MAPS.

LONDON
PRINTED POn W. SHARPE

:

W. ALLA80N, C. CHAPPLE, W. ROBINSON & SONS, J. MOLLISON, T. FISHER. T. M'LEAN, J. BUMPUS, G. & J. OFFOR, J. CBANWELL, J. EVANS & SONS, J. MAYNARD, E. WILSON, T. MASON, J. ROBINS & CO. AND IT. HARWOOD, LONDON; ALSO J. ROBINSON, W. STEWART & CO. AND J. CABFBAE> EDINBURGH: AND W. TUBNBI7LL, AND J, 8AWERS, GLASGOW.

& SON,

1819.

EDINBUUGH
Printed

:

by William Blak.

,

CONTENTS
THE SIXTH VOLUME.

BOOK XVH.
Page,

TJie History of Alexander's Successors

.,

^

1

CHAPTER
SECT.

I.

I. Tlie four victorious Princes divide the empire of Alexander the Great into as many kingdoms. Seleucus builds several cities. Athens shuts her gates against Demetrius. He reconciles himself with Seleu£us, and afterwai'^ls with Ptolemy. The death of Cassander. The first exploits of Pyrrhus. Athens taken by Demetrius. He loses almost at the

same time

all

he possessed

»

ibid.

SECT.

Dispute between the tzvo sons of Cassander of Macedonia. Demetrius^ being infor vited to the assistance of Alexander, finds means to destroy him, and is proclaimed king by the Macedonians. He makes great preparatimisfor the con-A powerful confederacy is formed quest of Asia. him. against Pyrrhus and Lysimachus deprive him of Macedonia, and divide it between themselves.
II.

the croivn

Pyrrhus is soon obliged to quit those territoi'ies. end of Demetrius^ who dies in prison

Sad
\%

SECT.

III.

his son

Ptolemy Soter resigns his kingdom to The tower of PhaPtolemy Philadelphus.

VOL. VL

A

11

CONTENTS.
Page.

Tos built.

city^

andria, with

The image of Serapis conveyed to AlexThe celebrated library minded in that an academy of learned men. Demetrius

f

Phalereus presides over both.
Soter,.

Death of Ptolemy

24

SECT.
.

IV.

ration

The magnificent solemnity at the inauguof Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt The
first

SI

SECT.

V.

transactions

of

the reign

of

Ptolemy Philadelphus. The death of Demetrius Phalereus, Seleucus resigns his queen and part of his The tear between Seempire to his son Jntiochus. leucus and Lysimachus ; the latter of whom is slain in a battle. Seleucus is assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraicnus, on ivhom he had conferred a multitude of The two sons of Arsinoe are murderobligations. ed by their uncle Ceraunus, who also banishes that Princess. Cerazmus is soon punished for those crimes by the irruption of the Gauls, by whom he is slain The attempt of that people against the in a battle.
temple of Delphi. Macedonia

Antigomis

establishes himself in

44

SECT.
the

Ptolemy Philwlelphus causes the books of Holy Scriptui^e, preserved by the Jews with the utmost care, to be translated into the Greek language, as an ornament to his library. This is
called the Version

VI.

of the Septuagint
ejcpeditions

61

SECT.

VII.

The various

ofPyrrhus

:

First, into Italy ; where he fights two battles with The character and. cofiduct of Cineas, the Romans,

Secondly, into Sicily; and tJien into Italy again. His third engagement with the Romans^ whereifi he

His eapedition into Macedonia, of defeated. which he makes himself masterfor some time, after hamng overthrown Antigonus, His expedition into
is

Peloponnesus. without success.

Heforms

the siege of Sparta, but Is slain at that ofArgos. The de-

putation

from

the

from Philadelphus to the Romans, and Romans to Philadelphia

67

CONTENTS.
SECT. VIII.
poet.

Ill

Page.

Athens besieged and taken by Antigonus, The just punishment inflicted on Sotades, a satiric

The revolt of Magas from Philadelphus. of Phiktwrus^ Jbimder of the kingdom of Pergamus. The death of Antiochus Soter. He is succeeded by his son Antiochus, surnamed Theos. The mse measures taken by Ptolemy for the inu provement of commerce. An accommodation effected between Magas aiid Philadelphus. The death of the The war between Antiochus and Ptolemy, former. The revolt of the East against Antiochus. Peace The death of Ptorestored between the two kings.

The

death

lemy Philadelphus

107

SECT. IX.
delphus

Character and qualities of Ptolemy Philor-

125

CHAPTER
SECT,
I.

II.

Antiochus Theos

is

poisoned by his queen

who causes Seleucus Callinicus to be declared king. She also destroys Bei'enice and her son.
Laodice,

Ptolemy Euergetes avenges their death., by that of Laodice, and seizes part of Asia. Antiochus HieraXy

and Seleucus

his brother, unite against Ptolemy, death of Antigonus Gwiatas, king of Macedonia. He is succeeded by his son Demetrius. The war between the two brothers, Antiochus and Seleucus, The death of Eumenes, king of Pergamus, Attains succeeds him. The establishment of the Parthian empire by Arsaces, Antiochus is slain by rob-

The

Seleucus is taken prisoner by the Parthians, Credit of Joseph, the nephew of Onias, with Ptolemy. The death of Demetrius, king of Macedcmia,
bers,

Antigo7ius seizes the throne of that prince. death of Seleucus

The
128

SECT.

II.

The

establishment

of

the republic

of the

Aratus delivers Sicyon Jrom tyranny. Achceans, The character of that young- Grecian. He is enaUedy by the
liberalities

of Ptolemy Euergetes^

to

IV

CONTENTS.
Page.

check a sedition ready to hredk out in S'lcyon.
vails

Takes

Corinth from Antigonus, king of' Macedonia. Preon the cities of Megara., Trcczene, Epidaunis, and Megalopolis^ to accede to the Achwan league ; but is not successful with respect to Argos

144

SECT.

III.

Agis king of Sparta attempts

to

reform

the state^ and endeavours to revive the ancient institutions of Lycurgus ; in which he partly succeeds :

butjinds an entire change in Sparta, at his return from a campaign in which he had joined Aratiis against the Italians. He is at last condemned to die, and executed accordingly

164

SECT.

IV. Cleomenes ascends the throne of Sparta, in a war against the Achceans, over, •wlwm he obtains several advantages. He reforms the government of Sparta, and re-estahlishes the ancient discipline. Acqicires new advantages over Aratus and the Achceans. Aratus applies for succour to Antigonus, king of Macedonia, by whose aid the Achceans obtain repeated victories, and take seve-

and engages

ral placesfrom the

enemy

184

SECT.

of Selasia, wherein who i^etires into Egypt. Antigonus Antigonus makes himself master of Sparta, and treats that city with great humanity. The death of that Prince, who is succeeded by Philip, the son of Demetrius. The death of Ptolemy Euergetes, to
celebrated battle
defeats Cleomenes,

V.

The

whose throne Ptolemy Phihpater succeeds. A great earthquake at Rhodes. The noble generosity of those

princes and

of the

cities who contributed to the reparation which the Rhodians had sustained by that calamity. The fate of the famous Colossus

losses

205

BOOK
Tlie History

XVIII.
218

of Alexander's Successors

CONTENTS.
Page.

The v*^ECT. I. Ptolemy PhUopator reigns in Egypt. He is succeeded short reign of Selencus Ceraumis. by his brother Antiochu^^ surnamed the Great. Ach~ Hermias, his chief minister^ aus'sjidelity to him.
Jirst removes Epigenes,
rals^

the ablest

of all

and afterwards puts him

to death.

his gene^ Antiochus

subdues the rebels in the East.

Hermias.

He

attempts

to

He rids himself of recover Ccele-syria froim

Ptolemy Philopatoi\ and possesses himself of the After a short truce^ a war strongest cities in it. Battle of Raphia^ in breaks out again in Syria. The anger which Antiochus is entirely defeated.

fusing

and revenge of PhUopator against the Jews for reto let him enter the Sanctuary. Antiochus concludes a peace with Ptolemy. He turns his arms against Achceus, who had rebelled. He at last seizes him treacherously^ and puts him to death 218

SECT.

The JEtolians declare against the AchBattle qfCaphyce lost by Aratus. The Achoeans have recourse to Philip, zcho undertakes their defence. Troubles break out in Lacedasmonia. The
II.

ceans.

unhappy death of Clemnenes in Egypt. Two kings are elected in Lacedoemonia. That republic joins
with the JEtolians

243

SECT.

Various expeditions of Philip against ApelleSy his prime mi^ nister^ abuses his confidence in an extraordinary manner. Philip makes an inroad into JEtolia. Thermce taken without opposition. Excesses of Phisoldiers in that city. P?'udent retreat of that lip'^s Prince. Tumults in the camp. Punishment of those who had occasioned them. Inroad of Philip into The conspirator's form new cabals. PuLa£onia. nishment injiicted on them. A peace is proposed between Philip and the Achoeans cm one side, and the JEtolians on the other, which at last is catwluded...,
III.
the enemies

of the Achceans.

253

SECT.
TJte
at

IV.

Romans gain a

Philip concludes a treaty with Hannibal. considerable victory over him

Apollonia.

He

changes his conduct.

His breach

Vi

CONTENtS.
Page.

offaith and irregularities. He causes Aratus to he The jEtoUuns conclude an alliance with poisoned. the Romans. Attains., king of Pcrgamus, and the Machanldas usurps Lacedaemonians^ accede to it. a tyrannical poicer at Sparta. Variows expeditions of PhUip and Sulpitius the Roman prcctor, in one

of which Philopcemen

signalizes himself
qualities

281

SECT. SECT.
tius.

V.

Education and great

of Pkilo-

potmen
VI. Various expeditions of Philip and SulpiA digression of Polyhius upon signals made
'.

295

by fire

305

SECT

VII. Philopcemen gains afammis victory near Mantinea, over Machanida.^^ tyrant of Sparta. The high esteem in ivhich that general is held : Nubis succeeds Machanidas. Some instances of his avarice

and crudty. A general peace concluded between Philip and the Romans, in which the Allies on both sides are included
VIII. The glorious expeditions ofAntiochus Media, Parthia, Hyrcania, and as far as India.

319

SECT.
into

At

his return to Antioch, he receives advice
Philopator'^s death

of Ptole-

my

330

BOOK XIX.
Sequel
to the

History of Alexander''s Successors

336

CHAPTER
SECT.
I.

I.

Ptolemy Epiphanes succeeds Philopator his
the

father

iii

kingdom of Egypt.

Antiochus and
king,

Philip enter into an alliance to invade his dominions.

The Romans become guardians of the young

CONTENTS.
The Antiochns subdues Palestine and Cocle-syrm. of Philip against the Athenians, Attalus, and He besieges Abydos, The unhappy the Rhodians.
ioar

vii
Page.

fate of that
Philip.

city.

The Romans

declare

Sulpitius the consul

w sent

war against
Macedonia.

into

336

SECT.

II.

cedonia.

Expeditions of the consul Sulpitius in MaThe JEtolians wait for the event, in order

to declare themselves.

succeeds Sulpitius.

No considerable transaction

Philip loses a

battle.

Villius

hap-

pens during

his government.

Flamininus succeeds

him. Antiochus recovers Ccele-syria, of which he had been dispossessed by Aristomenes, the prime minis fcr Various expeditions of the cons id iiito ofEgi/pt.
Phocis.

for

the

The Achccans, Romans

after long debates, declare

348

SECT.

III. Flamininus is continued in the command He has a fruitless interview with as procons^ul. The jEtolians, Philip about concluding a peace. and Nabis, tyrant of Sparta, declare for the Romans. Sickness and death ofAttalus. Flamininus defeats Philip in a battle near Scotussa and Cynoscephalein Thessaly. A peace concluded with Philip, which puts an end to the Macedonian war. The

extrcurrdinary joy of the Greeks at the Isthmian games, when proclamation is made that they are restored to their ancient liberty by the Romans

3TS

SECT.

pose both parties for an open rupture. A conspiracy is formed by Scopas the jEtolia?! against Ptolemy. He and his accomplices are ptit to death. Hannibal
retires to Antiochus.

IV. Complaints being made, and suspicions arising concerning Antiochus, the Romans send an embassy to him, which has no other effect than to dis-

War of Flamininus

he besieges in Sparta : him to sue for peace and grants it him. Rome in triumph

Nabis,

whom

He obligees He enters

against

396

SECT.

V. Univcrscd preparatio/nsfm- the war between Antiochus and the Romans, Mutual embassies and

Vlii

CONTENTS.

interviews on both sides, which come to nothing'. The Romans send troops against Nahis, who had

hifringed the treaty. Philopoemen gains a victory The ^tolians implore the assistance of over him. AntiochuSi Nobis is hilledi Antiochus goes at last to Greece 413

SECT.

V.I.

Antiochus endeavours to bring over the
to his interest,

Achceans

but in vain.

He possesses

The Romans himself of Chalets and all Eubwa. war against him, and send Manias Acilius proclaim the consul into Greece. Antiochus makes an ill use of HannibaVs counsel. He is defeated near Thermo43,^ The JEtolians submit to the Romans pyke.

in Demetr. B . and as far as the river Ininto four kingdoms. VOL. donia and Greece Lysimachus. because Seleucus. i< e THE HISTORY ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. XV. and the Bosphorus and Seleucus all the rest of Asia. in Syr. Coele-syria. Athens taken by Demetrius. The four victorious pinnces divide the empire of I. 902. He loses almost at the same time all he possessed. I. The Death of Cassander. After Ptolemy had Egypt. SECT. Libya. Seleucus Athens shuts her gates against Demebuilds several cities. Bithynia.BOOK THE SEVENTEENTH. Alexander the Great into as many kingdoms. 572. the battle of Ipsus. CHAP. : : . and added them to those which they already The empire of Alexander was thus divided possessed. ^ the four confederate princes divided the dominions of Antigonus among themselves. p. VI. 1. 122. made it the chief ^ Plut. dus. 125. p. He reconciles himself with Seleucus^ and afterwards trius. to the other side of the Euphrates. Thrace. Polyb. with Ptolemy. The first exploits of Pyrrhus. The dominions of this last prince are usually called the kingdom of Syria. Appian. and some other provinces beyond the Hellespont. Araand Palestine Cassander had Macebia. who afterwards built Antioch in that province. p.

who destroyed the empire of the Medes and Persians. king of Greece. comyears. 8. 20. which The reign of twenty constituted the Persian empire." Ibid. and lo. is the first king. 6. however. and the great horn that is between his eyes. but he cast him down to the ground. f And as I was considering. and divided his empire among them.2 THE HISTORY OF seat of his residence. and brake his two horns. ver. which had . West on the liver the ram out of his hand. during which he had already exercised the regal authority without the title. and ran unto him in the fury of his power. but those vast and fertile provinces of Upper Asia. and the rough goat is the king of Grecia. God afterwards explains to ven. followed his example. viii. are those four kings who rose up after him. and he was moved witli choler against him. another like a leopard. and the other four horns. are the four horns of the he-goat came up in the place The first horn was Alexander. who from his name were called Seleucidse. They are likewise shadowed out by the four heads of the leopard. which form part of another vision shown to the * " behold. designated by the ram with two horns. not only included Syria. These four kings * in the prophecy of Daniel. 7. in which his successors. but they were not of his posterity. 21. whereas four stood up for it. and came up four notable ones. mences as at this period. and smote the ram. an he-goat came from the whole earth." his prophet what he had seen : " The ram which thou sawest having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia. because he was not acknowledged king till after the battle of Ipsus . ver. and there was no power in the ram to stand before him. and touched not the ground . t " After this I beheld. And I saw him come close unto the ram. And he came to the ram that had two horns. for it and when he was strong. four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation. Now that being broken. chap. 22. the great honi was broken . Therefore the he-goat waxed very great. and if we add to these the twelve years. and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. 5. towards the four winds of heaDan. which I have assigned to Seleucus Nicator. which of the first horn that was broken. but not in his^ power. This kingdom. which I had seen standing before the river. they will make out the reign of thirty-one years assigned him by Usher. and stamped upon him and there was none that could deface of the : same prophet.

even amidst the variety of these revolutions. as being assumed by each of the several parties. and this chaos of singular events." and dominioa was given to Dau. but they of provinces. and not acknowledged by any of the rest. and fix the number of the We How expressly has li^ pointed out the nation. But not one of Alexander's successors obtained the regal dignity. treaties. These four kings are Ptolemy. with what lively colours has he drawn the characters of those princes. and authorised and acknowledged them as kings and sovereigns. Whereas. prophecies. indeed. which was to be the Grecian . the strong light with which the prophet penetrates the thick gloom of futurity. four wing-s of a fowl. And even then this dignity was precarious. wherein the completion of the prophecies of Daniel will be pointed out. inferior to that of Alexander . in this and the other places. and the extent of their power. in a word. the treaty made between the four confederates. and none but the last was a partition into kingdoms. the beast had also four it. therefore. vii. several successors ! and heads specified their it alliances. can never sufficiently admire. other divisions had. With how much certainty and exactness. for they evidently represent these four successors of Alexander. . as four kings. at a time when there was not the least appearance of all he foretels. measured the duration of their empires. described the countries they were to possess . treachery. under the appellation of so many kingdoms. after the battle of Ipsus. does he determine each particular circumstance. been made before this. are to be understood of this alone. and Lysimachus. till about three years before this last division of the empire. Cassander. which were consigned to gowere ed by this only under the brother and son of Alexander. independent of any superior power.EXANDEU's SUCCESSORS. Seleucus. 6. and divested him of his dominions.At. assigned each of them their dominions. mar- npon the back of . 8 These prophecies of Daniel were exactly accomplishlast partition of Alexander's empire . merely by his own authority. Those vernors. four stood up for it. when they had defeated their adversary.

xv. chance. c. the third was Laodicea. and as it were the seal. C * Strab. where he built Antioch on the Orontes. 124. p. c. for a long time. was. xii. and was succeeded by his son Simon. of the Divinity. and not evidently dis- them the character. Among several other cities built by Seleucus in this country. and the He equity of all liis actions.^ as were enjoyed by the Greeks and Macedonians^ cover in *^ "^ ^ Joseph. Ant. M. . where the Syrian kings afterwards resided. so denominated from his mother. and gave it that name. or human Can any one possibly ascribe to foresight. in each of these new cities. there were three more remarkable than the rest : the first was called Seleucia. for they were both called Antiochus. the capital of the East. This city. 1. p. 1. in Syr. so many circumstantial pre! were dictions. A. after the defeat of Antigonus^ made himself master of Upper Syria. Antigonus had lately built a city at a small distance from this. ^Onias. the first of that name. 1. to whom all ages are present in one view. for the sanctity of his life. either from his father. or his son. 3704. but Seleucus caused it to be entirely demolished. 4. and still preserved that privilege under the Roman emperors. Appian. Justin. 750. xvi. who was the daughter of Artabazus the Persian . xvi. so remote from probability . 1. and Laodicea was on the same side towards the south. ^0©. died about this time. from the name of his consort. 749:. Apamea.4f THE HISTOUY OF and success riages. Antiq. from his own name . enjoyed Seleucus. the second. J. the pontificate for the space of nine years. and employed the materials in the construction of his own city. was surnamed the Just. 750. who. to which he afterwards transplanted the inhabitants of the former. and who alone determines at his will the fate of all the kingdoms and empires of the world ? But it is now time to resume the thread of our history. p. He allowed the Jews the same privileges and immunities. which 'at the time of their being denounced. "" Strab. 2. Apamea and Seleucia were situated on the same river on which Antioch was built. and high priest of the Jews. and called it Antigonia .

Demetrius was then sensible of the value of honours and homage extorted by fear. settled in such numbers. that they possessed as considerable a part of that city as their other countrymen enjoyed at Alexandria. ^This alliance between Lysimachus and Ptolemy a gave umbrage to Seleucus. and demanded his galleys. offended. M. by a decree. when he was met on his way by ambassadors from the Athenians. and by that expedient prevented the desertion of his troops. with all the honours and attendance due to her rank. Lysandra. p. who came to acquaint him that he could not be admitted into their city. in Demetr. with whom he had left his fleet. A. C. by Phila the sister of Cassan'' Plut. and strengthened the alliance between them. to be married to his son Agathocles. that his consort Deidamia had been conducted to Megara. The posture of his affairs not permitting him to punish the perfidy of that people. after the battle of Ipsus. he sailed towards the Chersonesus . and espoused Stratonice. Lysimachus. prohibited the reception of any of the kings . J. money. and from thence embarked for Greece.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. because the people had. king of Thrace. 3705. they also informed him. who thereupon entered into treaty with Demetrius. named Arsinoe he had before this procured another. and having committed some devastations in the territories of Lysimachus. 903. Aat. and 5 where that people especially at Antioch in Sjn-ia. As soon as he had received them. and Eut he was strangely surprised and wife Deidamia. 299- . who now began to recover their vigour. he contented himself with intimating his complaints to them in a moderate manner. entered into a particular treaty with Ptolemy. named . Demetrius had withdrawn himself to Ephesus. and render themselves formidable anew. in order to strengthen himself in his dominions. he enriched his army with the spoils. by espousing one of his daughters. among which was that prodigious galley of sixteen benches of oars. and which did not proceed from the heart. his only resource being the affection of the Athenians. the daughter of that prince.

by which means his affairs began to assume a better aspect . where the ney. advanced directly to the city of Quinda. THE HISTORY OF The beauty demand her in marriage of Stratonice had induced Seleucus and as the aiFairs of De. * were These he carried off with all deposited. Ant. and then set sail for Syria. . with whom it is customary to have several wives at the same on each time. in order to excuse this proceeding. M. which he considered as an infraction of the Demetrius receiving intelligence of this jourtreaty. Demetrius having reconciled himself with Ptolemy. He then sent his wife Phila to Cassander. t A.6 der. and made himself master of the whole province. another of his who had taken a journey to meet him in Greece. and wives. the daughter of Ptolemy. where expedition he found Seleucus. Plistarchus went to complain of this proceeding to Seand to reproach him for contracting an alliance w^ith tlie common enemy. G. f espoused Ptolemais. was seized with an indisposition that ended her days. Demetrius. by the mediation of Seleucus. 298. returned to Cilicia. to which. During his passage he made a descent on Cilicia. after some days passed in rejoicings for the nuptials. he immediately conducted his daughter with all his fleet into Syria from Greece. and gave him the princess Stratotalents. nice in marriage. had passed some time with him in that country. These kings imitated the princes of the East. During these transactions. to his fleet. for he had all the island of * Twelve hundred thousand crowns. metrius were at that time in a very bad condition. amounting to twelve hundred leucus. which then belonged to Plistarchus the brother of Cassander. to whom it had been assigned by the four kings. treasures of the province. so honourable an alHance with so powerful a prince was In consequence of exceedingly agreeable to him. 3706. Deidamia. who divided the dominions of Alexander the Great after the death of Antigonus. without the consent of the other kings. and in entertainments given side. J. where he was still in possession of some places.

* The eyes of Seleucus were. them from him was renderThis proceeding of Seleu- sufficiently conformable to the rules of political interest. and the two Sidon in Phoenicia. reinforced their garrisons. in order to prevent his having a neighbour of such abilities on each side of his dominions. with reference to the maxims of honour. that though he should lose several other battles as fatal to him as that of Ipsus. equity. however. and to usurp from one of his allies a All province so near his own dominions as Cilicia. but that prince not being disposed to comply with such a proposal. besides his new conquests in and Cilicia. and gratitude. enraged at this demand. and was universally condemned : for. open at last . and some other cities in Asia. Seleucus insisted upon his returning him the cities of Tyre and Sidon. that were dependencies on Syria. replied very abruptly. 7^ rich and powerful cities of Tyre Cyprus. and.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. At the same time he sailed to those two cities. how^ insatiable was that rigour and avidity which would not * Chap. It was very imprudent in Seleucus to permit so dangerous an enemy to establish himself at so small a distance from him. that it shocked all man- though kind. by which means the intention of Seleucus to take ed ineffectual at that time. and only reigned for the unhappiness of their people. and were even ignorant of principles For as to sincethe true interests of their ambition and c bees has observed. he could never resolve to purchase the friendship of Seleucus at so high a price. they ced them all. 9- . this shows that these princes had no established rules of conduct. cus. he required De- had long since renounrity. Demetrius. of which he was king. had such an odious aspect. L ver. as the author of the first book of Macca- metrius to surrender Cilicia to him for a very considerable sum of money . and furnished them with all things necessary for a vigorous defence . as his dominions were of such a vast extent as to include all the countries between India and the Mediterranean.

in a rebellion. however. When Molossians. 3707. with whom he had been brought up. and it was with great difficulty that Pyrrhus himself. in Egypt. ^Pyrrhus. he was conducted to the court of king Glaucias in Illyria. J. in order to be present at the nuptials of one of the sons of The Glaucias. Ant. by which means the : Molossians were compelled to submit to force. 383—385. and assigned him guardians to govern the kingdom till he should be of age himself. after having governed Macedonia for the spaqp of nineteen death of his father Antipater. that their hatred being softened into compassion. and when the infant had attained the twelfth year of his age. who pursued him with intent to destroy him. was preserved from the fury of the rebels. was struck with horror at such a proposal . where he was taken into the protection of that prince. one of the sisters of Alexander the Great. and offered him two hundred talents on that occasion Glaucias. Plut. had espoused Antigone. M. he beto think himself sufficiently established on the gan throne . 297. the mortal enemy of iEacides. . then an infant at the breast. This young ! prince was the son of Macides. whom the Molossians. C. who succeeded him. After various adventures. and reinstated him in his dominions . taking advantage of his absence. in Pyrrh. solicited the king to deliver the young prince into his hands. and set out from his capital city for Illyria. Philip. the famous king of Epirus. he had attained his seventeenth year. from the He left three sons by seven from the last partition. left his crown to be contested by his two brothers. revolted f » A. but there seems to be no great probability in his account. they themselves recalled him. dying soon after. Justin tells us. a relation of Ptolemy. and six or years. p. Cassander. Thessalonica. had expelled from the throne .8 THE HISTORY OF pennit him to leave his father-in-law the peaceahle enjoyment of the shattered remains of his fortune Cassander died ahout this time * of a dropsy. he conducted him in person to Epirus with a powerful army.

Demetrius. he neglected no opportunity of making his court to those on whom self his fortune depended.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. and all other labours. by the mediation of Seleucus. he attached himself to her in particular. as to induce him to grant his son-in-law a fleet. the daughter of Berenice his favourite consort. and ex- traordinary patience. Here began the fortune of an exiled prince. martial exercises. who was afterwards esteemed the greatest general of liis age : and it must be acknow- . and finding himself destitute of all succours. he sufficient proofs of his strength. by Philip her first husband. that he gave him Antigone. Observing. This young prince distinguished himself among the bravest in the battle that was fought on the plains of Ipsus. retired to his brother-in-law. Berenice had the greatest ascendant over him. in preference to several young princes who de- manded her in This lady was the daughter marriage. vested of his dominions. sort. which enabled him to repossess himself of his dominions. seized all his treasures. and conferred the crown on his great uncle. who had espoused his sister Dei- damia. of Berenice. When Pyrrhus had espoused Antithe queen had so much influence over her congone. in hunting. for as he was already an able politician. He also preserved for him those Grecian cities which that prince had confided to him . and when a treaty of peace was concluded between Ptolemy and Demetrius. who was a lyiacedonian nobleman. drove all his friends out of the kingdom. as well as beauty. a 9 second thne. the son of Antigonus. that of all the wives of Ptolemy. address. and w^ould not forsake Demetrius even after he was defeated. and that she surpassed the others in wit and prudence. Pyrrhus went into Egypt as a hostage for his brother-in-law\ During gave his continuance at the court of Ptolemy. and of ingratiating himwith such persons as were capable of being useful to him. with a supply of money. Pyrrhus being thus di- Neoptolcmus. His noble and engaging demeanour procured him such a share in Ptolemy's esteem. little known with respect to any other particular.

J. g Athens. But he dissipated their apprehensions by the first expressions he uttered ."904. C. for when this naval force saw a strong fleet arrive from Peloponnesus to the assistance of Demetrius. and raised great expectations of his future glory. and which appeared on the coasts of jEgina. the extreme necessity to which they were reduced by want of provisions. sent by king sions. with a The first resolution to punish her as she deserved. A. 296. obliged them to open their gates to him. and posted his guards on each side of the stage where the dramatic pieces were performed. But when that prince thought he had sufficiently provided for the security of his territories in Asia. year and the conquest of some other cities who had quitted and he returned the next season to Athens. had revolted from Demetrius. Ant. — extremity. S708. in ^ Demetr. who seemed rather dead than alive. he showed himself to that multitude. Ptolemy. which he closely blocked up. and shut her gates against him. by cutting off all communication of provi*A fleet of a hundred and fifty sail. that every instance of his early conduct denoted extraordinary merit. Ant. 3709. and — waited for the event in inexpressible terror. . and then descending from the upper part of the theatre. by which they made it capital for any person even to mention a peace with Demetrius. and fled. When he entered the city. J. M. in the manner usual with the actors. M. which he surrounded with armed troops. he commanded the inhabitants to assemble in the theatre. 905. C. expecting it would prove the sentence for their destruction. 295. they weighed anchor.10 THE HISTORY Or ledged. for he did not raise his voice like a g Plut. was employed in the reduction of the Messenians. he marched against that rebellious and ungrateful city. A. and that the whole amounted to three hundred. as we have already observed. to succour the Athenians. besides a great number of other vessels from Cyprus. p. Although the Athenians had issued a decree. and reduced to the last his party . afforded them but a transient joy .

and only addressed himself to them in gentle complaints. and obliged him to have recourse to flight . and amicable expos- pardoned their offence. he determined to reduce the Lacedaemonians. and two hundred killed upon the spot. at the same time. and reinas were most agreeable to them. who could always supglorious must port so brilliant. but was soon informed that the place had surrendered. and children of his enemy. presenting them. so admirable a character When he had regulated the state of affairs in Athens.alexandek's successors. from the and how terrors with which they were before affected such a prince be. The first was. He even made them magnificent presents at their departure. and conquered all the island. which compelled him to direct his attulations. except Salamis. their liberty without any ransom . wife. gour. which he accompanied with all imaginable marks of honour. Ptolemy had the generosity to give the mother. but softened the tone of his voice. and restored . ! : tention to a quite different quarter. and fought another battle He was again victorious . and the other. in the very sight of Sparta. He them to his favour . had retired . that Lysimachus had lately divested him of all his territories in Asia . Archidamus. stating such magistrates The joy of this people may be easily conceived. which had never been taken before. 11 man affected with the emotions of rage. advanced as far as Mantinea to meet him but Demetrius defeated him in a great battle. their king. . with a hundred thousand measures of corn. so that he was already considered as master of the city. after which he advanced into I^aconia. live hundred of his enemies were made prisoners. and to dismiss them with all their attendants and effects. nor deliver himself in any passionate or insulting language . that Ptolemy had made a descent on Cyprus. where the mother of Demetrius. and that the king of Egypt carried on the siege of that city ^vith great vi- Demetrius left all to fly to their assistance. with his wife and children. But at this important moment he received two pieces of intelligence.

and he returned to his own dominions. Alexander. His greatest successes were immediately followed by his being dispossessed of all his dominions. Jinds means to destroy him^ and is proclaimed Mng by the Macedonians. that he killed her with his own hands. Thessalonica. the former of whom was in Epirus. though she conjured him by the breasts which had nourished him. in Demetr. to spare her life. in Pyrrh. after he had reJ^ A. . 1. Plut. Sad end of Demetrius. than Demetrius. Pyrrhus arrived the first. Pyrrhus is soon obliged to quit those territories. is formed against him. which so enraged Antipater.12 THE HISTOHY OF loss of Cyprus was soon succeeded by that of and Sidon and Seleucus dispossessed him of CiTyre licia on another side. he saw himself divested of all his dominions. a^oxvn No piince was ever obnoxious to greater vicissitudes of fortune. SECT. who was the youngest . part of which he retained as a compensation for the aid he had given Alexander . Dispute between tJie tzoo sons of Ca^sander far the Macedonia. 905. SSS* 3710. in order to avenge this unnatural barbarity.M. He makes great preA powerful confederacy parations for the conquest of Asia. and divide it betzveen themselves. the eldest son. p. Ant. while he abandoned his provinces to the first invader. in a very short time. Thus. The resource or hopes for the future. exposed himself to these events by his He imprudence. favoured Alexander. amusing himself with inconsiderable conquests. their mother. solicited for the the assistance of Pyrrhus and Demetrius. C. II. and the latter in Peloponnesus. Justin. Pyrrhus and Lysimachus deprive him of Macedonia. and made himself master of several cities in Macedonia. when suddenly an unexpected resource offered itself from a quarter from whence he had not the least room to expect it. who dies in prison. without any . h In the quarrel between the two sons of Cassander crown. c. J. Demetrius^ being invited to the asof sistance of Alexander. nor ever experienced more sudden changes. I xvi. p. and almost reduced to despair. ^94.

ed to destroy him.M. xvi. at the same time. and Anti- them to declare for Demetrius. was apprehensive of subjecting himself to a master. at the interview between them. his two sons. and destroyed such a number of royal families. however. who dreaded the greatness pliment. the infamous. 738 & 7*3. A. of his power. experienced. 1. and entertained each other with reciprotill at last. S711. Demetrius. . J. prevented the execution of that deThis murder armed the IMacesign. whilst Alexander. by a just decree of Providence. and killed him. the same calamities in their own families. king of Macedonia. Thus these two princes. Demetrius possessed this crown for the space of seven years. They. Demetrius came up at the same instant. who by their unjust wars had spread desolation through so many provinces. 293. 1. induced proclaimed him king and they accordingly of Macedonia. donians against him at first but when he had acquainted them with all the particulars that influenced his . ^ Much about this time Seleucus built the city of Se> Strab. conversed together with an external air of friendship.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. all imaginable gratitude and friendship but represented to him. as they had occasioned to others. that Alexander intendgence. and all their descendants. vi. should he admit him into his dominions. that the state of his affairs was changed. murderer of his own mother. 2(). with their wives. One of the branches of the royal family of Philip. . conduct. as the other branch from Alexander the Great had been before by the death of the young Alexander and Hercules. the aversion they entertained for Antipater. GOiiciled the 13 two brothers. Philip and Alexander. became entirely extinct by the death of Thessalonica and her two sons . pater fled into Thrace. . where he did not long survive the loss of his kingdom. upon some intellical feasts either true or fictitious. Ant. upon which Alexander advanced to meet him and testified. and that he no longer had any need of his Demetrius was displeased with this comassistance. p. C. perished by violent deaths. . c. Plin.

. which passed through Babylon. 2. 3716. 1. This circumstance prepared the way for the accomplishment of that celebrated prophecy of Isaiah. have observed elsewhere. visited them in person. in Demetr. M. M. J. that as soon as Seleucia was built. believing his power sufficiently established in Greece and Macedonia. & 1. 2. ' the taking of Babylon by Cyrus. '« Plut. began to make great preparations for regaining the emAV^ith this view he raised pire of his father in Asia. The dykes of the Euphrates being broken down. directed them how to act. and the branch of that river. and fitted So great an armament out a fleet of ^ve hundred sail. an army of above a hundred thousand men. by which means that city became so incommodious. and their extraor^^ Vol. died at the close of the ninth year of his pontifiAs he was cate. J. ii. Antiq. named Onias. 3712. Simon. had foretold. it was consigned to Eleazar the brother of Simon. c. and even assisted them in their labours. sence and instructions. and proceed to Demetrius. It became very populous in forty a short time. A. At Joseph. Ant. 386. ^^ I here pass over some events of small importance. and left a young son. who. 292. A. 909. xri. THE HISTORY OF on the banks of the Tigris. The number of his galleys. as to be rendered unnavigable. was sunk so low by this evacuation. C. at a time when this city was in the most flourishing condition. 210. p. p. &c. who discharged the functions of it for the space of fifteen years. by w^hat 1 manner and degrees this prediction was fully ac- complished. C. all its inhabitants withdrew thither. xii. had never been seen since the time of Alexander the Demetrius animated the workmen by his preGreat. p. and Pliny tells us it was inhabited by six hundred thousand persons. at the distance of miles from Babylon.14 ieucia. Ant. the high-priest of the Jews. 288. surnamed the Just. of too tender an age to take upon himself the exercise of that dignity. who. in Pyrrh. spread such an inundation over the country.' Justin. that it should one day become entirely de^ I sert and uninhabited.

that Demetrius. and. and twenty-eight cubits (sevenIt carried four ty-two feet) from the keel to the top of the poop. 3717. f Ptolemy. that they would return to defend their families and effects. and effects of a great number of soldiers belonging to Demetrius. Pyrrhus had takea Beraea. whom they proclaimed king of Macedonia. children. advanced with all speed to defend his own dominions . and it was not till many Ptolemy Philopator built of forty benches. but before he was able to arrive there. and Seleucus. besides four thousand rowers.M. receiving intelligence of these formidable preparations of Demetrius. till had ever been seen then . in order to frustrate their effect. Lysimachus. and his troops went over to Pyrrhus. iliuary dimensions. immediately caught the alarm . hundred sailors. t A. whereas those which Demetrius built were extremely useful in battle. J. Pyrrhus did the same on the Demetrius. C. fled to Greece in the disguise of a common soldier. perceiving he no longer had any influence over them. and near three thousand soldiers. 287* . Ant. that a considerable part of his troops absolutely refused to follow him. side. Plut. even fifteen benches of oars. and more admirable for their lightness and agility than their size and magthat years after this period nificence. in which they likewise engaged Pyrrhus. for no ships of sixteen. * but then it was only for pomp one and ostentation. who was then making preparations in Greece for his intended expedition into Asia. renewed their alliance. where he found the wives. and declared. king of Epirus . and on the lower deck. when Lysimachus began to invade Macedonia on one other. with an air of mutiny and sedition.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOKS. The * different characters of these two princes greatly This galley was two hundred and eighty cubits (about four liundred and twenty feet) in length. In a word. This news caused so great a tumult in the army of that prince. in consequence of which. things were carried to such an extremity. in the life of Demetrius. or IS created an universal astonishment . who were disposed in the spaces between the rowers. one of the most considerable cities in Macedonia.

That prince had several times refused audience to a poor woman. in the very circumstance by which he thought to obtain their esteem. enriched with a proThe ornaments of his feet were altofusion of gold. But that which rendered him He them with so much rudeness. on which the system of the world. rendered himself contemptible to the Macedonians. One day. Demetrius^ considered vain pomp and superb magnificence as true grandeur. was either so imand disdainful. made it a maxim with himself to grant his subjects long and frequent audiences. THE MOST INDISPENSABLE DUTY OF A KING. He ambitiously encircled his head with a double diadem. as Plutarch observes on that oc- stream. and wore purple robes. . and he had long employed artists to make him a mantle. as not to allow those who had perious any affairs to transact with him the liberty of speech . like a theatrical monarch. A but as he was passing over a bridge on the * he threw all those petitions into the — casion. On this behaviour is sufficient to disgust his subjects. with a gracious air. occasion. and no future king prevented still more odious. an action of the great Philip was recollected. were The change of his fortune to be embroidered in gold. longer king then. the finishing of this work. with all the stars visible in the firmament. some persons were encom*aged He received them to present a few petitions to him. from thenceforth. which has been related among the events of his reign. prince must certainly know very little of not to be sensible that such a contemptuous mankind." replied she with some emotion . and walked through the streets with a mien of more affability than it was usual for him to assume. under pretence that he wanted leisure to " Be no hear her. as oblithem to quit his presence with disgust. ged when he came out of his palace. For. would presume to wear it. was his being so difficult of access. and placed them in one of the folds or else he treated of his robe river . who gether extraordinary . Axius. and PhUip. * A river of Upper Macedonia.16 THE HISTORY OF contributed to this sudden revolution.

and that he was slow to Some young officers. yoc^ lirui. He superior to De- had beaten them on several occasions. " and " we Yes.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. my lord. who ordered them to be brought into his presence. Pyrrhus himself was not altogether free from with respect to the resemblance of his own feavanity. was a common expression with them. over their anger and severity. 5/«>|{ epy«y. They had heard it reported. Alexander. till at last he pressed her very earnestly to satisfy his curiosity . even in military merit. VI. should have added a great deal more. him. that other princes imitated Alexander in nothing but their purple robes. if we had had more wine. but their admiration of his bravery It was greater than their resentment for their defeat. The Macedonians thought him much metrius. that he resemWith this belief he sent bled Alexander in the features of his face. that he was naturally affable. rS &oi<riXi7 TrpoirKKiv. other princes. the number of their guards. f but a good matron of . * Ovoh t A set She refused to answer him for a considerable time. the affectation of inclining their heads like his. Cassander. C . tures to those of Alexander . for the pictures of Perdiccas. if they had expressed themselves in the manner he had heard. upon which she VOL. to tell him which of those princes he most resembled. with whom he then lodged. and dismissed them from his presence without further notice. The particulars of their conversation were related to Pyrrhus himself. of flatterers had really persuaded Pyrrhus. and that he was always mild and accessible . ag to t?." Pyrrhus could not forbear laughing at this facetious and sprightly turn. they were convinced of his promptitude to recompense the services rendered him. had vented several offensive pleasantries against liquor. and their imperious manner of speaking but that Pyrrhus was the only one who represented that monarch in his great and laudable qualities. The Macedonians had formed a very different idea of Pyrrhus. IS 17 TO EXERT HIMSELF IN THE ADMINISTRATION OF * JUSTICE. and then desired a woman of Larissa." replied one of the company. and some Philip. and then asked them. and were sensible by their own experience.

that it was rather the constant source of animosities and divisions for. 553. which constitutes their most solid glory. should easily quit the party of Demetrius to espouse that of Pyrrhus : and one may see by this instance. and impetuosity. was not entirely certain of the fidelity of the Macedonians. and by entertaining a real love for them. and ability in drawing up an army in battle. as Plutarch observes. not at all agreeable to him. their most essential obligation. and that he consequently ought to have a share in that khigdom. by an answer. by treating them with mildness and affability. with which he charged his ene- down all who presumed to oppose him : but with respect to the military art. "As after l^ysimachus happened to arrive immediately Pyrrhus had been declared king of Macedonia. and the vivacity. replied. that she cook in that thought him very like Batrachion. nor uninhabitable deserts. and so disadvantageous to the other. in Pyrrh. him thought they discovered in him the aspect of that prince . be thought surprising. promptitude. The Macedonians. by the gentle ties of affection and gratitude . therefore. they thought none comparable to Pyrrhus. . with all the fire of his eyes. Pyrrhus. It cannot. who entertained prepossessions so favourmies. that the Macedonians. in whose house he once lodged. 389. in this conjuncture. had undeceived in that particular. when neither seas nor mountains. perhaps. and the cities and but provinces were accordingly shared between them this agreement was so far from uniting them with each other. 552. he pretended that he had contributed as much as that prince to the flight of Demetrius. however. 390. p. who. readily acquiesced in the pretensions of I^ysimachus. and knowing how to take advantage of circumstances. : . ^ Plut. of what importance it is for princes to attach their people to their interests.18 THE HISTORY OF Larissa. p. who was a noted Lucian. and at the same time their greatest security. city. indoct. and bore able to the one. and a thousand others. which is the only means of acquiring their love. advers.

how could they possibly continue in a state of refrain from the injustice of invading tranquillity. is of justice. friendship. continues the same author. and lost Macedonia in the same manner he had gained it. . from the malignant seeds of envy and usurpation that had taken root in their The names of peace and war were considered minds. who feared the consequences of this alienation. when he led them to w^ar. or transient suspension view^s.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. drew in the greatest part of the soldiers . whom interest. than when they use the sacred — own interest. and domains which lay so near and so commodious to them ? This was not to be expected . Lysimachus took advanof the army's disaffection to Pyrrhus. and never were they violated with less disguise The whole and more impunity. for what. to which they themselves had given currency. than when he permitted them to enjoy a state of repose. retin d with tlie Epirots and the troops of his allies. and peace. they act more laudably. and a perpetual war between them became inevitable. merely for their without the least regard to justice. upon which Pyrrhus. Would to God that those complaints were never applicable to any princes or times but those we are treating of at present Pyrrhus finding the Macedonians more tractable and submissive. nor capable of satisfaction in the calm of a long peace. had attached to Macedonia. and being himself not much addicted to tranquillity. Still. 19 could suffice as barriers to the avarice and ambition of these princes. when they engage in an open war. and not affecThese reproaches tion. by them as two species of coin. and names ality. was daily ! forming new enterprises. and when their desires were not to be bounded by those limits which separate Europe from Asia. of their unjust history of Alexander's successors justifies these reflections of Plutarch. who artfully insinua- ted that they had acted most shamefully in choosing a stranger for their master. in reno more than a truce. Never w^ere more treaties and alliances made. without much regard to sparing either his subjects or allies. and inflamed tage them still more by his emissaries.

and their disaffection to his person . the sister of his late wife Phila. as Plutarch again observes. he embarked for Asia. 912—915. Demetr. **As to Demetrius. where several cities still continued devoted to him . when he found himself deserted by his troops. tate their : — o Plut. and practise the lessons of infidelity and treason. her daughter by Ptolemy. pil. as in acting so they only imiown example. in P Plut. he left the government of those places to his son Antigonus . p. and this alliance gave birth to Demetrius. and in Upper Macedonia. with a resolution to make a desperate attempt to retrieve his good fortune. and was so terrified at the misfortunes to which she herself was exposed by the declension of his affairs. where he took se^ nuptials. where she lived with the princess Ptolemais. in the observance of engagements. kings have no reason to blame other persons for sometimes changing their party ac- He cording to their interest. demonstrates an utter disregard for justice. upon all occasions. that she had recourse to a draught of poison. which.* where his consort Phila resided this lady was so afflicted at the calamitous state in which she beheld her husband. on the frontiers of Thrace. which amounted to between ten and eleven thousand men. but. and when he had disposed his affairs in the best order he was able. who afterwards reigned in Cyrene. p Demetrius. p. received him at Miletus. by which she ended a life that was become more insupportable to her than death itself. . immediately after the celebration of his entered Caria and Lydia. and assembling all the troops he could raise in that country. Eurydice accordingly presented the princess to him. Eurydice. veracity. whose marriage with Demetrius had been agreed upon by the mediation of Seleucus.20 THE HISTORY 0¥ greatly complained of the inconstancy of thi« people. which they have learned from the whole of their own conduct. 9IO. and sincerity. in * A city Demetr. returned to Greece. Demetrius thinking to gather up some remains of his shattered fortune. he had retired to the city of Cassandria.

in a very moving manner. Seleucus was touched with From tenants. he abandoned all his conquests. that a sickness spread through his army. who followed him close. instead of continuing to support him. For which reason. and marched into the East. which obliged him to fall back to Tarsus in Cilicia. he entreated him to allow him to take up his winterquarters in his dominions . his genius for resource and stratagem. veral places from mented his forces. cution of his designs. and begged that prince not . with an intention to attack him. and when he at last made an attempt to march over mount Taurus with the small remains of his troops. to furnish and despatched orders to his lieuhim with all he should want. without exposing himself to danger. and weakened it extremely . cut off his provisions and forage so effectually. he found all the passes guarded by the enemies. but Agathocles. whenever the least opportunity he thought it impossible to reinstate a prince of that character. and considerably augand at length made himself master but. who had received intelligence of these measures. to afford him the necessary subsistence for himself and the remainder of his troops. and his intrepidity in the execompassion at first. Demetrius. appeared at the head of an army. the melancholy situation of his affairs. posted his troops in those parts of mount Taurus where he imagined it would be very difficult to force them. to implore his permission to pass into the East. to whom that city belonged. where if he should he might end his days in tranquillity : but not be inclined to grant him that favour. design in taking this route was to surprise Armenia and Media . and entreated him. His of Sardis . and sent to Seleucus a second time. in order to establish himself in some country belonging to the barbarians. the son of Lysimachus. as soon as Agathocles. thence he represented to Seleucus. But when remonstrances were afterwards made to him upon the valour and abilities of Demetrius. he resolved upon his destruction. and immediately placed himself at the head of a numerous army. 21 Lysimachus.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. for acting presented itself.

and the rigom's of the season. and he consented to nothing more than his taking up his quarters in Cataonia. He then endeavoured. who caused him to be conducted under a strong guard to the Chersonesus of Syria near Laodicea. and compelled to surrender himself to Seleucus. 286. THE HISTORY OF by driving him from thence. and opened himself a passage into Syria. that he dislodged them from thence. as his last resource. where he A . that he was obliged to conceal himself in the woods . which disconcerted all his mea* sures. he found himself reduced to the desperate necessity of attempting to surprise Seleucus in his camp by night. and join his fleet . to regain the mountains. and the hopes of his soldiers. Seleucus was so prejudiced against the design which Demetrius liad formed against the East. after which he was immediately to evacuate that country. but he found the passes so well guarded. but he had the misfortune to be suddenly seized with a severe distemper. J. deserter gave Seleucus intelligence of this design time enough to prevent its efiect and the desertion of Demetrius's troops increased upon this disappointment. with the handful of men who still continued in his service. to famine. . that this proposal only tended to increase his distrust . 3718. which he immediately entered. during this negociation. so as to be capable of action. as that would be deliver- ing him up defenceless to the discretion of his enemies. a province adjacent to Cappadocia. His own courage. * A. had placed strong guards at all the passes from Cilicia into Syria. in order to disengage himself He accordingly made such a vigorous attack on the troops who guarded the passes in the mountains. most of his soldiers deserted .M. during the two severest months of the winter . reviving from this success. which obliged Demetrius to have recourse to arms. C. Seleucus. Ant. During the forty days that he continued sick. and w^hen he at last recovered his health. he took all possible measures for making a last effort for the re-establishment of his affairs .^2 to expose him. from whence he was soon dislodged by hunger.

however. liberty. and. was allowed the all the conveniences liberty of a park for hunting. WHien Antigonus received intelligence of his father's captivity. and of life in abundance. derive from all their labours and wars. had he made a true estimate of his condition. his own person as a hostage for him. For what other fruit do these pretended heroes. that unhappy prince supported his misfortunes with patience and magnanimity and became at last so habituated to them. that they no longer seemed to affect him. that Demetrius might owe the obligation of his liberty to them. In the mean time. at the same time. He. if they may be believed. He exercised himself in racing. and abandoned himself to drinking and gaming at entirely dice. barous and inhuman a proposal .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. which. who are called conquerors. than whilst hurried over lands and seas by the phrensy of ambition. their solicitations in favour of the captive prince . while they render otiiers miserable . 23 was detained prisoner. he seemed only to wait the arrival of his son Antigonus. and Stratonice. When he had continued in . as the price of his Several cities. than that of tormenting themselves. and from all the dangers to which they expose themselves. and even to Seleucus himself. walking. to which he devoted whole days. and a great number of princes. are the sole ends of all their motions? But Demetrius was gradually seized with melancholy . and might have been infinitely more happy. he was affected with the utmost sorrow . offering. in order to grant a favour solicited from so many different quarters. and no longer amused himself with his former exercises he grew corpulent. joined but Lysimachus offered a large sum of money to Seleucus. and wrote to all the kings. and constantly turning their backs on tranquillity and happiness. to obtain his release. provided he would cause his prisoner to be put Seleucus was struck with horror at so barto death. and consenting to part with all his remaining dominions. and hunting . undoubtedly endeavouring by these methods to banish the melancholy : : thoughts of his condition.

the daughter of Antipater.p. C. The Ptolemy Philadelphus. who came into Egypt. merely to accompany Eurydice. image of Serapis conveyed to Alexandria. considered the crown as his right. and the race of this prince enjoyed the crown for several generations. occasioned by his inactivity. who was the last of that family. Death of Ptolemy Soter. with an academy of learned men. His son Antigonus. and the eldest of the male issue. in a direct line from father to son. he was seized with a severe distemper. in the sequel of the present history. near thirty-nine from the death of Alexander. or The Thunder . and then caused them to be destroyed. and of twenty Egypt. He had likewise Soter. after a reign of with the title of king. and intemperance in eating and drinking. that he mar285. The word signifies. 1. by Berenice. But Berenice. 12. 1. who Ptolemy. at the time of her espousals with Ptolemy. continued peaceable possessor of the kingdom of Macedonia . Ptolemy son of Lagus. but Ptolemy received this surname. and died at whom the urn the age of fifty-four years. Ptolemy Soter resigns his hingdom to his son The tower of Pharos built. his life. and was divested of Macedonia by the Romans. of his brethren . was desirous of transmitting the throne to Ptolemy Philadel* one of his sons phus. a lover Ant. after the death of his father. to a figure of speech called antiphrasis. who was surnamed Gonatas. shall see. We SECT. till the reign of Perseus. celebrated his funeral with great magnificence. . III. and among them. J.24 THE HISTORY OF his captivity for the space of three years. being the son of Eurydice. A. xvi. Demetrius Plwlercus presides over both. 3719. i. beagreeably cause he charged two of his brothers with forming designs against "^ Justin. had so charmed that prince with her beauty. to which enclosed his ashes was transmitted. that this Antigonus. ^ the years in several children by his other wives. The celebrated library founded in tlmt city. Pausan. surnamed Ceraumis. * M.

in order to guide ships in their course. and retired to Lysimachus. and. hundred talents. which was also the first year of the 124. Strab. . 1.* Pharos was originally a real island. In order. Ptolemy Ceraunus quitted the court. both by father and mother . received for him w^ith a geafter- which he was wards repaid with the blackest ingratitude. It burning. Suid. vied her 25 and so great was her ascendant over him. 12. but amount to almost double that sum if comcost eight edifice puted by the coin of Alexandria. which. declaring. he resolved to have him crowned in his own life-time. to resign all his dominions to him . at the same time.th Olym. to perpetuate the whole honour of it to himself. the sister of Ceraunus. that she caused him to prefer her son to all his issue by the other queens.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. at the distance of seven furlongs from the ' Plin. are equal to two hundred thousand pounds. estimated by the Athenian money. as he was then fourscore years of age . that to create a king was more glorious than to The coronation of Philadelphus was be so one's self celebrated with the most splendid festival that had ever been seen but I reserve the description of it to the end : of this Section. It was a large square structure built of white on the top of which a fire was constantly kept marble.\Q <^L! piad. I. after the death of Agathocles» he removed to the court of Seleucus. who. the famous watch-tower in the isle of Pharos was It was usually called the tower of Pharos. 1. . ^ xxxvi. to prevent all disputes and wars that might ensue after his death. in (pti^ci^ S«e Vol. intending. completed. p. nerosity entirely who uncommon. xvii. and has been reputed one of the seven wonders of the world. had recourse to the artifice I have mentioned before. The architect of the was Sostratus of Cnidus. In the Hiatori/ of Egifpt. which he was sensible could not be very remote. as will ap' pear in the sequel of this history. c. whose son Agathocles had espoused Lysandra. therefore. ' In the first year of the reign of Ptolemy Philadel-'^ phus. 791.

1. called the Museum. called Rhacotis. THE HISTORY OF but was afterwards joined to it by a cause- way s Much image of the god Serawas brought from Pontus to Alexandria. inProtrept.26 continent . Ant. Plut. in Strab. and the statue to Alexandria. all the temples in the world. which was greatly esteemed by In order to enthe ancients. * Amm. was afterwards erected for it in that place. he founded an academy at Alexandria. de Isid. 1. and a famous temple. p. Q. and the improvement of all other sciences. ix. Ptolepis my had been induced by a dream to demand it. cultivation of the sciences. where it was adored by the name of Serapis . till at last the inhabitants of Sinope space suffered such extremities from a famine. but is now entirely lost. in . about this time the was then conveyed contained. 1. except the Capitol at Rome. 691. J. C. by an embassy. Marcell. " Arrian. & Osir. M. l6. that they consented to resign this god to Ptolemy for a supply of corn. which he much courage the admired. c. Plut. p. for the number and value of the books it like that of Tyre. however. as " Ptolemy Soter had been increased by his successors. which became famous in all succeeding ages. p. 83 & 84. a city of Pontus. almost in the same manner as For this purpose. iv. 31. Plut. in prsef. c. ^ His son Philadelphus left a hundred thousand volumes in it at the time of his death. This temple had also a library. Curt. where a society of learned men devoted themselves to philosophic studies. and the succeed^ Tacit. according to Ammianus Marcellinus.* surpassed. Alex. hist. Alex. xvii. in beauty and magnificence. which he transmitted to them . where It was. refused him for the it was kept. of the king of Sinope. This structure. ^ Euseb. he bethose of London and Paris. 3720. 1095. careful to improve himwas evident by his compiling the life of Alexander. Clem. called the Serapion. 1. them a library. which was prodigiously gan by giving self in polite literature. 793. c. of two years. Moral. A. p. and placed in one of the suburbs. p. xxii. 36l. 284. in Chron. 8.

in Caesar. and near the royal city palace. xlii. 202. and the originals were deposited in the library. tors. sed studiosa luxuria: imo. occasioned by those hostilities. Cass. Marcell. Non fuit elegantia illud. p. and sent to the Museum. 27 race enlarged it still iTiorc. qui ele^antiae regum curaeque egregium id opus ait fuisse. and it soon drew vast numbers thither but when it was so much augmented. quoniam non in studium. Dion. in Anton. p. which he caused to be transcribed in as beautiful a manner as possible . 1. both on the library itself. Ptolemy Kuergetes. de tranqxdlU anim. sicut Livius. p. All the Greek and other books that wero brought into Egypt were seized. 732. for which reason it received the appellation of its DauglUer. sed in spectaculum comparaverant. where they were transcribed by persons employed for that purThe copies were then delivered to the propriepose. and he likewise presented them with fifteen talents (equal to fifteen thousand crowns) for the originals which he kept. Seneca seems to me to be out of humour. the Museum was at first in that quarter of the which was called Bruchion. consumed the library of Bruchion. and in process of time had in it three hundred thousand volumes. 2 In Caesar's war with the inhabitants of Alexandria. *" mum Plut. — . who ^ styles it an illustrious monuAmm. as to contain four hundred thousand . Galen. the libraiy was founded in the same place. lb'. he bestows his censures. ix. nihil in apparatum." Senec. Paretur itaque librorum qaantum sit. and ^Eschylus. with its four hundred thousand volumes. and the eulogium made on y it by Livy. regiae (^ulentiae raonumentum. till at ing princes of that last it consisted of seven hundred thousand volumes. 1. for instance. Quafiringenta millia libronim Alexandrise arsenmt/pulcherrixxii. y Tliis library was formed by the following method. a fire. and only returned them the copies. * when. c. c. This last library was a supplement to the former. 94-3. of the Athenians. Euripides. borrowed the works of Sophocles. they began to deposit the additional books in the Serapion. ne studiosa qui- dem. speaking of the conflagration. aut cura.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Alius laudaverit. As volumes.

however. that Cleopatra deposited those two hundred thousand volumes from that of Per gam us. tune happened is too singular to be passed over in sisubsisted for lence. not for their own use. and though it was ransacked more than once. that none but kings capable of founding these magnificent libraries. and was burnt by the Saracens. for is it not evident beyond contradiction. and of their judicious attention to the improvement of the sciences. when it suffered the same fate with its parent. that it was not in but that he would his power to grant such a request ^ John. instead of allowing it to be such. sumamed er of Aristotle. ment would have it considered only as a work resulting from the pride and vanity of those monarchs. with other enlargements that were made from time to time. during the troubles and revolutions which happened in the Roman empire. when they took that city in the year The manner by which this misforof our Lord 642. in hist. he entreated that commander to bestow upon him the Alexandrian library. . or emperor of the Saracens. which become a necessary treasure to the learned. and do infinite honour to those states in which they are esare tablished ? library of Serapion did not sustain any damage. but merely for pomp and ostentation. Amri replied. Dynast. a famous followhappened to be at Alexandria. The it and many ages. Seneca.28 THE HISTORY OF of the opulence of the Egyptian kings. the Grammarian. and reIn this condition it covered its number of volumes. was undoubtedly there. seems to discover very little sagacity . which were presented to her by Antony. rendered the new library of Alexandria more numerous and considerable than the first . for his * Abul-Pharagius. IX. . till the seventh century. who had amassed such a number of books. when the city was taken. it always retrieved its losses. This addition. and as he was much esteemed by Amri Ebnol As. This reflection. write to the Khalif. the general of the Saracen troops. displaying its treasures to the learned and curious.

and of having trained up a vast number of men who excelled in literature. that if Omar. . because the Koran was sufficient in itself. 29 orders on that head. in the time of the Ptolemies. and afterwards by the Roman emperor and that they had a hall where the whole society ate together at the expense of the public. It is from thence. that it was a very large structure near the palace. they ought to be destroyed. that the members of this so- ciety were governed by a president. 795. were distributed among the public baths. may from hence form a just idea of the prodigious number of books contained in that library . library which was attached to it. p. by whom they were supported in . and thus was this inestimable treasure of We learning destroyed The Museum of Bruchion was not burnt with the ^ Strabo acquaints us. Demetrius Phalereus was probably the ^ first presi> Strab. in particular. without which he could not presume to dispose of the library. whose station was so honourable and important. a very plentiful manner. in his description of it. they could not be of any use. accordingly writ to the then Khalif. in which the philoso! phers walked. and. 1. for the space of six months. that. He adds. whose answer was. Ammonius. Alexandria was undoubtedly indebted to this Museum. In conseto that book. that the church has received some of tors . Athanasius. Origen. where. they were used for fuel instead of wood. and comprehended all necessary trutlis but if they contained any particulars contrary . for all these as studied in that seminary. and fronting the port . of this answer. Anatolius. and many others . its most illustrious doeClemens Alexandrinus. without any further examination . they were all condemned to the quence flames. those books contained the same doctrine with the Ko- He ran.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and that it was surrounded with a portico. he was always chosen by the king himself. xvii. for that purpose. for the advantage she long enjoyed of being the greatest school in all that part of the world.

as well as a very able politician ? Who ^ We have formerly He seen what inducements brought Demetrius ved to the court of this prince. When the king had relished this excellent advice.30 THE HISTORY OF <= dent of this seat of learning . and measures were taken to procure all such books as were requisite in this tirst view. their duties as well as their defects. this is almost the only expedient for introducing truth to princes. and prevailed upon the king to collect all sorts oi other books for the library we have mentioned. it may easily be imagined that Demetrius carried the affair to a much greater length. ^ Plut. >r. by representing to him. it is certain. who was himself a learned man of the first rank. Ant. Demetrius endeavoured to dissuade him from that design. that these would always supply him with such counsels as none of his friends would presume to offer him. tliat he had the superintendency of the library. p. J. and those which related to the succession to the particularly This prince. if he divested himself of his dignity in such a manner. that he must no longer expect to enjoy any authority. 3719. Diog. with open arms by Ptolemy Soter. Laert. two years before his deatii. under borrowed ed of — names. assming him. in Apophth. in * A. Demetr. in one of his children. formed a resolution to abdicate his crown in favour of other counsellors. In fact. Plutarch informs us. that it was he who proposed to Ptolemy the establishment of a library of such authors as treatcivil polity and government. in Demetr. 285. Phal. who heaped a honours upon him. I89. indeed. 892. which was "" Plut. He was recei- profusion of fidant. . and that it would be dangerous to create himself a master. and showing them. he advised him to regulate his choice by the order prescribed by nature. C. in preference to all his the most important affairs.* had crown. could better assist that prince in the accomplishment of so noble and magniticent a plan than Demetrius Phalereus. p. and made him his {cm- consulted him. But when he found him absolutely determined on this abdication.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. as very few of his successors were industrious to imitate. He frequently ate with them a degree of familiarity. the Rhodian. in the eighty-fourth year of his age. p. who compiled a history of Alex* A. he thought it no disgrace to borrow plate from the rich. Toward the close of this year died Ptolemy Soter. Ant. when he ascended the throne. J. and. and clemency. 3721. as he discovered when he first He was accessible to his subjects. entertained the people. at their own houses . justice. IV. The magnificent solemnity." SECT. generally : 31 which it followed by all nations in consequence of would be incumbent on him to prefer his eld- But the influence est son by Eurydice. 181 "^ . because he had but very little of his own. in a short time. years. as rendered it superior to the other kingHe retained upon the throne the same fonddoms. and left behind him such examples of prudence. at the inauguration of Ptolemy Philadelphus^ King of Egypt. and no more than was necessary for his common use. C. Athenacus has left us a of it. with the most splendid festival mentioned in ancient history. not in being rich — himself. of Berenice prevailed over this equitable and prudent advice. he raised it to such an height of grandeur and power. proved fatal to its author. after his father had abdicated the crown in his favour. * king of Egypt. ness for simplicity of manners. M. which. Ptolemy Philadelphus. in Apoph. and two years after his resignation of the empire to his son. his first wife. when he gave any entertainment himself. ^ And when some persons represented to him that the regal dignity seemed to require an air. . grandeur of a king consisted in enriching others. of greater opu" That the true lence. Plut. and the same aversion for ostentatious pomp. He was the most able and worthy man of all his race. 283. even to ascended it. in During the space of near forty which he governed Egypt after the death of Alexander. transcribed from Callong description lixenes. his answer was.

each carrying a gilded ianjp. I thought it incumhent on me to give some idea of them for once. procession began with a troop of Sileni. and was conducted through the whole extent of the city of Alexandria. and every part of them glittered with figures employment was to Next to the Sileni gold. in which perfumes were burning. I shall insert the particulars of it in this place. by which a judgment may be formed of the magnificence of the rest. and solemn festivals. that as ancient authors speak very often of sacred pomp. Their habits were embroidered with the of animals. it may be passed over. tedious. others in robes of a deep red . and formed a variety of separate processions. nine feet in height. and partly adorned with the leaves of ivy. After these came a double altar. a distinct cavalcade. Athenaius had related only the particulars of that of Bacchus. I may add too. some habited in purple. in honour of their gods. has the approbation of his readers for his particular description of that of Paulus iEmilius. ^This pompous solemnity continued a whole day. which was one of the most magnificent. carrying vases.I. each of them. Plutarch. It was divided into several parts. composed of twenty in two ranks. their The keep off the crowd. by describing one of the most celebrated solemnities that was ever known. the gods had. hecause they are well calculated to give us an idea of the riches and opulence of Egypt. But if the account I shall now give should appear unseasonable.p. 197— 203» . and make way.32 andria. nine feet in height. ^Athen. came a band of Satyrs. THE HISTORY OF and Montfaucon relates it in his Antiquities.v. partly gilt. processions. Beside those of the king's father and mother. These were succeeded by Victories. who is perpetually mentioning triumphs among the Romans. or too prolix. without interrupting the series of this history for I declare beforehand. that the relation will be something . the decorations of which were descriptive of their history. with golden wings.

The next in the procession were the Genii of the four seasons. Their habits were diversified with a variety of colours. as tall as himself. Two tripods were carried next. masked and habited like a tragedian also carried a golden cornucopia. of vine leaves. and glitterShe held. arrayed in purple mantles. of the leaves of the peach-tree. attended by comedians. and was a man. others carried drinking cups. They were followed by forty Satyrs. all sides A hundred and twenty youths advanced next. fashioned like the leaves of ivy. A Some bore vessels filled with wine. Between these two six feet in height.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and in the right hand of each was another crown of the same metal. gold. wearing golden crowns. and adorned on crown. and saffron. Immediately after these came Philiscus. beginning of the next. each of them bearing a golden vase of incense. in one hand. musicians. wearing crowns of gold which represented the leaves of ivy . band of Satyrs then appeared. priest dancers. the other had a trumpet. one of them wore a kind of hat. 8S golden and covered with a luxuriant foliage of ivy. and in the composed She was called Pentetcris.* other a branch of palm. This person preceded a very beautiful woman. myrrh. and supporting two golden vases of odours. the feast of Bacchus was celebrated at tlie * VOL. adorned with vine leaves. adorned with ivy In the midst of them was a square altar of leaves. because. which was the VI. and white drawers . dressed in a magnificent manner. at the expiration of every fourth year. D . and arrayed in red habits. He was distinguished by the appellation of The Year. fifth. a crown ing all over with gold. as prizes for the victors This word signifies the space of five years. In the rear of these marched two Sileni. the poet and of Bacchus. and other persons of that class. and carried a golden caduceus in his hand . wearing characteristic ornaments. composed with certain white fillets. intermixed It was also beautified with a with ornaments of gold. clothed in purple vests .

It contained nine gallons. and thyrsi. and a variety of satiric. was intended for the youths . twelve feet iu breadth. and wore crowns composed. % These were followed by the Bacchantes. X Mystica vannus lacchi. robe of brocade purple. II . and was drawn by one hundred and eighty men. f This was accompanied with a golden tripod. In the same car were the priests ^nd priestesses of that deity. in the attitude of performing libawas arrayed in a tions with a large cup of gold.34 THE HISTORY OF and exercises. which was eighteen feet high. called metretes. the vine. He Over this was a transparent vest of a saffron colour. In this was the statue of Nyssa. formed in the Lacedaemonian fashion. A It had four wheels. with the other ministers. the other. sitting. or Nysa. She is thought to have beea the nurse of Bacchus. and drawn by sixty men. on which were placed a golden vase of odom's. some of serpents. intermixed with the foliage of fruit-trees . t This word is frequently used in the present description . it is the name of a Greek measure. and from these hung several crowns. Bacchus was seated under the shade of ivy and vine leaves. but was somewhat larger. car of an extraordinary size followed these. comic. others of branches of the yew. had also four wheels. witli two cups of the same metal full of cinnamon and saffron. ribands. or the ivy. being thirteen feet and a half in height. was designed for the men. fillets. and above that a large purple mantle embroidered with gold. which corresponds most with the Roman amphora. Some of these women carried knives in their hands. at the athletic combats One of these tripods. and interpreters of mysteries. which flowed down to his feet. and || * All the cars of which mention will be made in the sequel of this relation. fifteen feet in height. Virg. After these advanced another car. dancers of all classes.* was twenty-one feet in length. Before him was a great vessel of gold. and women bearing vans. twelve feet high. and twelve in breadth. others grasped serpents. and tragic masks. with timbrels. In this car was a figure representing Bacchus. and containing fifteen measures. who marched with their hair dishevelled.

placed on a car drawn by the same number of men. The statue rose by the aid of some machines. and streams ployed. The vessel was adorned with chased work. and twenty-four in breadth. This carried a vat of a prodigious size. drawn by three hundred men. This car was followed by a hundred and twenty crowil- ed Satyrs and Sileni. and a gilded lamp hung at each corner of the car. and after it had poured milk out of a golden Its left hand held a cup.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. %i clothed with a yellow vest embroidered with gold. six Another car of the same magnilude. together with the two handles and the base. was drawn by hundred men. and the bottom with several animals. and shed a constant effusion of wine during the procession. over which was another I^aconic habit. and sung such airs as grapes. throughout the whole procession. made of leopards' skins sewed together. and nine in height. on which were represented leaves of ivy. Sixty Satyrs trod tlie to the sound of the flute. Next appeared two silver bowls. of the ])roduce of tlie vintage. three of which were a foot and a half high. and the rim. circumference was adorned with studs. composed of various gems. with It was clusters of grapes. and large cups. The vessel contained three thousand measures. also thirty six feet long.six feet in length. The middle part of it was encompassed with a golden crown adorned with jewels. . containing six hundred metretes. carrying pots. covered with a deep shade. and many more of a lesser size. . corresponded with the action in which they were emSilenus was tlie chief of the band. After this came another car. all of gold. thirty. and it wore a golden thyrsus adonied with ribands crown. This troop was immediately succeeded by a silver vat. without being touched by any person. of wine flowed from the chariot. On this was placed a wine-press. flagons.two and a half broad this was full . it resimied its former seat. formed by a blended foliage. were embellished with the figures of animals. eighteen feet in The upper part of their diameter. and twenty.

and crowned. these contained eight metretes: a 'winetwa other press. and the least five : there were likewise ten cauldrons. After this rich equipage. this was enriched with jewels. All these vessels were of silver. were adorned with precious stones in the middle. four of which. and a hundred and sixty other vessels.four vases with two handles. and thirty more of six feet . eighteen feet in length. on which ten goblets were placed vases. twenty-two vessels for preserving liquors cool. an altar. two salvers of gold. Tw«r . Then came eighty Delphic tripods. sixteen flagons. and the least one four golden tripods of an extraordinary size a kind of golden basket. ten ewers . and three others of less dimensions. two silver wine-presses. four cubits in diameter. a table of massy silver. otheriB with branches of the pine. and two glass bowls with golden ornaments . They were likewise accompanied with twenty-six ewers. some of them with ivy. and : : : twenty-five dishes. disposed on five salvers . something less than the preceding. the other three that were smaller. and sixteen other vessels. the largest of which contained thirty . each of which contained five metretes : and two more that held a couple of measures . adorned with various figures of animals. the largest of which contained six metretes. there were likewise two Corinthian vases. marched sixteen hundred youths. one of which was of massy silver. it was likewise divided into six partitions. and had a circumference of twenty-four feet . all of silver. whose rims and middle circumference were embellished with the figures of animals. called Laconic. and was fifteen feet iu length . twenty. on which were placed twenty-four goblets.w^tretes. the largest of which contained thirty metretes. were crowned with vine leaves . and the smallest two. four feet and a half high . After these came the golden vessels .36 THE HISTORY OF These were followed by ten great vats. one above another. above three feet in height . intended as a repository for vessels of the same metal . habited in white vests. two goblets. four tripods.

There were likewise several tables. 37 Imndred and fifty of this band carried golden vases. issued out and flew about. All the nymphs who stood flowed out of the cavern. A A . made to keep liquors cool. and his neck was adorned with the crown of that metal shaped like the foliage of ivy. After these appeared another troop bearing large drinking vessels. and turtles. and Three hundred four hundred of them vases of silver. We ring-doves. twenty of which were of gold. some of golden brocade. On the neck of the elephant was seated a Satyr above seven feet high. on which were disposed several vests. and blowing a kind of trumpet made of a goat's horn. shrouded with ivy and vine-leaves . and clothed in a splendid manner. likewise. formed in imitation of pine-branches. who commanded the rest. one of milk and the other of wine. and his sandals were of the same metal. The trappings of the elephant were of gold. drawn by five hundred men. where the god was represented by a statue. On one was represented the bed of Semele. that they might be caught by the people around them. hundred and twenty of them. Little bands were fastened to their feet. and three hundred diversified with various colours. and supporting a variety of remarkable objects. wore upon an elephant. and mounted He was arrayed in purple. with a crown of gold on his head. others adorned with precious stones. must not omit a car thirty-three feet in length. round it wore crowns of gold. eighteen feet in height. more carried silver vessels. six feet in length. with a golden caduceus in his hand. adorned with purple vests and golden zones. Tw'O fountains. fifty of silver. from which several pigeons. In this was the representation of a deep cavern. and twenty-one in breadth. The expedition of Bacchus into the Indies was exhibited in an another car. This car was followed by five hundred young virgins. intermixed with twining ivy and vine leaves. long thyrsus of gold was in his hand. and wore a golden crown. Mercury was also seen.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

two cinnamon. arned with pikes. at all points. and those of other nations. sixty cups of gold and silver. were little youths habited like charioteers. They were succeeded by one hundred and supporting of birds and deer. In these cars were several tents. and Molossian breed. On each side of these were three cars drawn by camels. and clothed in mantles embroidered with gold. and seven by stags. iris. came t^tvo hunters carrying gilded darts^ and marching at the head of two thousand four hundred dogs of the Indian. armed with little bucklers. . and followed by others drawn by mules. resembling those of the Barbarians. armed arms. and others in copper To these succeeded five troops of Sileni.3S THE HISTOET OF crowns of gold that seemed to be composed of the branches of pine. the rest with silver. saffron. . some in silver. marched a band of One body of these ^Ethiopians. habited Some of these camels carried three hunlike slaves. and the lesser youths with ivy. . and other odoriferous spices. After these.. They were accompanied by . a species of goats fifteen by buffaloes four by wild asses eight In these chariots by ostriches . were crowned with branches of pine. carried six hupdred elephants' teeth. Next to these came a hundred and twenty Satyrs. in which . . and wearing hats with broad brims. besides a variety of other species. with Indian women. others of a less stature. Hyrcanian. and Satyrs with crowns on their heads. another. and long thyrsi. The boys who performed the office of charioteers. . some of whom were entirely harnessed with gold. with a large quantity of gold dust. . to fifty men which were fastened several species Gages were also carried. dred pounds weight of incense othei^ two hundred of . At a little distance from these. twenty four of which were drawn by elephants sixty by he-goats twelve by lions six by oryges. After this troop appeared a long train of chaiiots. thousand branches of ebony a third. mounted on asses. trees.

but those of several deities. In beasts size . four lynxes . . among three hundred who played on gilded harps. representing ivy leaves. with a large bowl of the same metal. from the persecution of Juno. * and an ^Ethiopian rhinoceros. and twenty-four lions of a prodigious and also a great number of cars. Priapus was placed near him. Bacchus advanced next. All this train wore crowns of gold. this part of the procession were a variety of wild and horses. fourteen . a hundred and feet in length. with the islands which had formerly been conquered by the Persians. leopards . twenty-six white Indian oxen. which contained five metretes. He sanctuary at the altar of was Rhea. was also near Ptolemy. 9^ were parrots. representing the city of Corinth. and those of Alexander and Ptolemy wore crowns of fine gold. and a number of ^Ethiopian birds. three small bears . also a large white bear . whom were After these came a chorus of six hundred men. mentioned by Horace : . a camelopard. sixteen panthers . Another statue. At a little distance from each of these was a great vase filled with golden cups. Iti another car was a golden thyrsus. seated in a car. is * This animal. This car was followed by several women richly arrayedj and bearing the names of the Ionian. whether real or fabulous. The image of Virtue was placed near that of Ptolemy. with the crown of gold formed like the leaves of The statue of Juno was crowned with a golden ivy. pheasants. eight of the ^Ethiopian species . Diversum confusa genus panthera camelo. and a silver lance ninety feet' thirty-five long. and othe^ Greek cities in Asia . After these appeargreat ed a hundred and thirty sheep of that country three hundred of the Arabian breed twenty of the island of Euboea. and wearing a golden crown embellished with ivy represented as taking leaves. peacocks.a-lexander's successors. with a golden diadem on its head. and on her head was a crown of gold made in imitation of olivebranches. in which were not only the statues of kings. turkey hens. diadem.

gilt also. was equal to ten livres of French money . was a golden crown. six feet in height . all of the same colour. sixtygold. encompassed with golden crowns. On the throne of Ptolemy Soter. A . There were likewise twelve gilded hearts. The procession was graced with several thrones of gold and ivory. whose statue of massy gold was placed in a car drawn by elephants on one side of this statue stood Victory. and its upper part was encompassed with a golden crown. . fifteen feet in height. in which perfumes were to be burnt fifty gilded Four torches altars. were fastened to one of these altars. and a great number of other deities. At a small distance from this band marched two thousand bulls.40 THE HISTORY OF and wore golden crowns. which are about five thou- sand pounds sterling. The largest of all was forty-five feet high . together with a caduceus. The procession of Jupiter. seven feet and a half high. and adorned with golden frontlets. and a fourth a horn of solid third supported a crown . and there were six others. that of Alexander. breast of each. nine feet high. and on the other Minerva. which weighed ten thousand pieces of gold. one of which was eighteen feet in circumference. t The Attic Slaterj usually called x^v<^^-. * A kind of buckler which covered the breast. f In this procession were likewise three hundred golden vases. of gold. Nine Delphic tripods of gold appeared next. on the middle of which was embossed the Gorgon's head. advanced next and after all the rest. on one of which was a large diadem of gold. . . the value therefore of this single crown amounted to a hundred thousand French livres. formed of a foliage of vine leaves. on which were placed several animals in gold. They were also adorned with a collar. and on another a horn of the same metal. and sixty in height . in the middle of which rose a crown of the same metal. twelve feet in length. After these were seen several gilded palms. and an aegis * hung on the All tliese trappings were of gold. the father of the reigning prince. and another was only twenty-two feet and a half high.

There were likewise four Imndred chariots laden with vessels. and a large number of tables . All these golden vessels and forty-five feet in length. Several large crowns of gold another golden aegis. and surrounded the enThere was also trance into the temple of Berenice. were in a separate procession from that of Bacchus. 41 a gilded thunderbolt. which con- The . During the games and public combats. all dressed and armed in a magnificent maiiiur. it was likewise adorned with a profusion of gems. troops that guarded this procession were comof fifty-seven thousand and six hundred foot. In this procession were also carried a golden cuirass. and twenty-four in circumference. of a hundred and twenty feet. in length sixtyfeet . several of which were eighteen feet in height. a double horn twelve feet long . Three thousand and two hundred crowns of gold were likewise carried in this procession . a great number of flagons . eighteen feet in length : an oaken crown embellished with jewels . twenty others filled with golden vessels. sixty-four complete suits of golden armour . One of these crowns was three feet in height. and a set of eagles thirty feet high. a gilded temple. all these were of gold. and another of silver. two boots of the same metal. four feet and a half in length . sixty feet in cir(!umferenee . other ornaments. and eight hundred more appropriated to the carnage of aromatic spices. eighteen feet in height . and other works of silver . six feet long.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. twenty golden bucklers . in circumference . were also supported by young virgins richly habited. and a horn of solid gold. There were likewise five tables covered with golden goblets . twelve ewers . twelve golden basons . together with a consecrated crown. and posed twenty-three thousand two hundred horse. which has been already described. most probably. on which latter was the representation of two thunderbolts of gold. twentyseven feet high. a vast number of gilded animals. To these were added several deer of a stupendous size. fifty dishes. ten large vases of perfumes for the baths .

or to have had the least air of taste and genius. c. had been a spectator of it. ut tri* reticuerit merito se plecti.12 THE HISTORY OF tinued for some days after this pompous solemnity. given by Ptolemy Philadelphus. Ptolemy Soter presented the victors with twenty crowns of gold. which makes me recollect a passage in Sallust. so remarkable for his contempt of gold and silver. Such was the pageant (shall I call it religious^ or : rather theatrical and comic?) exhibited by Ptolemy Philadelphus at his coronation. qui triumphum— tam inepte senex concupisset. no part of it seems to have been conducted with any elegance. and fifty minse. xii. in Vespas. An amazing profusion of gold and silver was. mous Roman. son Titus made a triumphant entry into Rome. after the capture of Jerusalem but finding himself fatigued with the excessive length of that pompous procession. for his weakness in desiring a triumph at his advanced age. the faI have formerly mentioned. . the beauty and force of which I have the mortification not Catiline wishes to be able to render in our language.'*— Suetx)N. and have no doubt that he would have tliought and spoken like the emperor Vespasian.lavished. If Fabricius. to represent the immoderate luxury of the Romans his contemporaries. I am persuaded that he would not have been able to endure the sight of the procession till it closed. hy the registers of the pathat these last crowns were valued at two thoulace. sort Berenice. appetivit. who lavished immense sums in the pur. and declared that he was justly punished. he could not conceal his displeasure. by that tedious ceremony. upon an occaHe and his sion which had some resemblance to this.* In this festival. about three hundred and thirty-four thousand four hundred pounds sterling from whence some judgment may be formed of the immense sums to which all the gold and silver employed in this splendid ceremonial amounted. sand two hundred and thirty talents. w^hom * " Adeo nihil omamentorum extrinsecus cupide non umphi die fatigatus tarditate et tsedio pompae. and they received twenty-three from his conIt appeared.

vexant. with the most powerful allurements ! to indulge them. But what can we say. and induce an utter depravity of manners . what is there truly great or admirable in this vain ostentation of riches. and this waste of such immense treasure in a bottomless abyss. without conducing to the least real advantage or utility.^ tamen^umma lubidine In such profusion as divitias suas vincere neqtieunt. therefore. shakes. wrought plate. ailer one of them has thrown his adversary.'j chase of pictures. I. . statues. by presenting to their view all the instruments of excess and debauch. and superl) " They draw out (says he) and tornient buildings. In fact. without being able to extort a confession from him of his defeat. and that under pretext of paying adoration to the gods divinities must those be. when we behold a sacred procession. that What possibly be derived * These metaphorical terms. after they had much fatigue and labour.) exhausting and overcoming their riches. wherein. and of whatever else has any just pretensions to the esteem of mankind. all the profusion of thefOTDier is incapable of exhausting and overcoming her wealth. Nothing ever argued a more profound ignorance of the true use of riches and solid glory. wherein the Roman author represents luxury and riches as engaged. and torments him. their gold and silver by all imaginable methods." (I must entreat the reader's excuse for this literal transla" and yet this excess of prodigality is incapable of tion. v'mcere nequeunt. calculated only to excite the most shameful passions in the spectators. twists. and displayed cost the people so to public view only to raise the frivolous admiration of a stupid populace." Omnibus mo- dis peciiniam h-ahunt^vexant.ALEXANDER'S SUCCElSSORS. In this contest. and perhad been amassed by a long series of violent exhaps actions ? The spoils of whole provinces and cities were sacrificed to the curiosity of a single day. did the whole merit of Philadelphus consist on this this occasion. and a solemnity of religion converted into a public school of intemperance and licentiousness. and imagines himself victorious. may from the combats of the Athletce. he drags him along the Arena^ in sight of the spectators. trahunt.

Antigonus establishes himself in Macedonia. where he ordered him to be confined. iheir unde Ceraunus. we therefore shall consider only what has been observed with respect to his eloquence. ^ father. Plutarch. for the advice he had given his father. Phoenicia. pro Rabir. who merited a better fate. and many provinces dependent on it. raunus the Gauls. Seleucus assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus. During the life of Ptolemy Soter. The testimonies in his favour. Arabia.4i4t THE HISTORY OF suffer. on whom he had conferred a multitude The two sons of Arsinoe are murdered by ^obligations. 23. V. The attempt Delphi. Post. so scandalous a pomp in their worship SECT. the island of Cyprus. Philadelphus had concealed his resentment against Demetrius Phalereus. 3721. as he saw himself sole master. when he was But as soon deliberating on the choice of a successor. Strabo. in orat. ^ s Theocrit. who also banishes that Ceprincess. . leave no room to doubt of the probity and wisdom of his government . xvii. The first transactions of the The death of Demetrius Phalereus. Cic. and many others. the Lysimachus is reign of Ptolemy latter of whom is slain in a battle. C. he caused that philosopher to be seized. Laert. by whom he is slain in of that people against the temple of soon punishedfor those crimes by the irruption of a battle. which were composed of Egypt. Diog. that is to say. cus resigns his queen and part of his empire to his son AnThe i6ar between Seleucus and tiochus. . and sent with a strong guard to a remote fortress. Cilicia. in Demetr. Ant. Pamphylia. Lycia. Diodorus Siculus. is Ptolemy Philadelphus. which are adduced by Cicero. sThe bite of an aspic put a period to the life of that great man. and the isles called the Cyclades. M. n. SeleuPhiladelphiis. after the became sole master of all his death of his dominions. 283. Coele-syria. Caria. IdyU. j^thiopia. Libya. till he should determine in what manner to treat him. A. would and even ! exact. J.

quam gravis . It must be confessed. a pernicious delicacy. which is called the temperate in several places. this species of eloquence has its but as it is merit. The ' 45 * were sweetness. and quitting his tent to attack an enemy. and He excelled in in them the disciple of Theophrastus. and those beauties that constitute the great and the sublime. eruditissimus possis agnoscere. ses. qua perfunderet animos. the faculty of affecting his hearers with something soft and tender. and to become. elegance. quam palaestra." D^ Clar. not unlike that which we retain after hearing the most harmonious concerts. His discourse had. $7 & 38. characteristics of his writings. dulcis tamen. so that it was easy to distinguish grace. ut Theophrasti disci: pulum ille quidem. as Cicero observes His style.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. i. : " Demetrius Phalereus." Offic. which at length vitiates and depraves the taste. and only left in it at most an agreeable remembrance of some transient sweetness and graces. 1. . this kind of eloquence is apt. sed suaviminis. n. calm. sed ut e Theophrasti. beauty. umbraculis tate ea. n. not always guided by the judgment . non ut e militari tabemaculo. doctissimi ho* Suavis videri maluit. non (quemadmodum de Pericle scripsit Eupolis) cum delectatione aculeos etiam relinqueret in anim^ •erum a quibus ewet avditus. in other respects gentle and florid. Oral. * *' subtilis. non qua et tantun perfring-eret ut memoriam concinnitatis suse. when confined within just bounds very difficult and unusual to preserve this due moderation. for and spectacles. formed in the shade and tranquillity. ornament . Itaque delectabat magis AthenienProcesserat enim in solem et pulverem. orator Demetrius Phalereus in hoc numero haberi potest disputator parum vehemens. that species of eloquence. than as a soldier inured to public games arms by exercise. indeed. and to suppress the sallies of a fertile and lively . He was rather to be considered and as a wrestler. that enlivened the subject of his discourse. quam inflammabat. imagination. but it wanted energy to inspire that force and ardour that inflame the mind. even from its very beauties. therefore. was adorned and ennobled with bold and shining metaphors. 3. sed non tarn armis institutus. to degenerate. though otherwise not enriched in any great degree with noble sentiments.

two of Alexander's cap- who were good judges tains still survived. to which he substituted a soft and languishing species. espoused another himself. c. and at length rendered false taste predominant. after the marriage of his son Agathocles with Lysandra. Lysimachus and Seleucus. 1. upon the death of Lysimachus. in Syriac. non fucatus. Appian. to form a powerful party in their favour. Pausan. What are ambitious wives and mothers not capable of attempting Their opposition to each other was not the mere effect of personal interest. ^ Justin." De clar. whose name was Arsinoe. et. and destroyTheir quarrel arose on the following ing.) one would have thought they should have been desirous of ending their lives in the union which had so long subsisted between them instead of which. ^The different interests of these two sisters led them into all sorts of intrigues. p. et earn mollera teneramque reddidit. 36 38. * " Haec — — 1. of the florid and studied graces peculiar to the style of Demetrius. xvii. Oraf. if 1 may use the expression. whose characteristic was a natural beauty without paint and glitter. . Lysandra was the daughter of Eurydice. according to Cicero and Quintilian. nitor Hie (Phalereus) primus inflexit orationem. n.* had been accustomed to a noble and majestic eloquence. After the death of Ptolemy. who. 18. each other.46 This was the THE HISTORY OF effect. in Attic. succus sanguis incorruptus usque ad banc setatem oratorum fuit in qua naturalis inesset. Demetrius was the first that impaired this manly and solid eloquence. they thought only of making war against. and Arsinoe ! ille et ffitas effudit banc copiam. Athens. ut opinio mea fert. had always been united by interest and friendships and were engaged to each other by treaties and conas they were now advancing to the period of their days (for each of them had exceeded fourscore years of age. one of the daughters of Ptolemy. federations : : occasion. in this point. and had several children by her. till his time. Lysimachus. till then. but was chiefly fomented by the disputes of their mothers. that abated the vigour of the mind.

brother of Philadelphus. and prevailed upon liim to declare war Several of Lysimachus's princiagainst Lysimachus. 282. p. by representing him to her husband. and in ' Plut. 126— 12«. Demctr. reserving to himself no other territories than the provinces between the Euphrates and the sea. Lysandra and her children. at the death This calamity she was determined to prevent. of Lyaimachus. where they strengthened the remonstrances of Lysandra by their own comSeleucus was easily induced to undertake this plaints. Antiochus was seized with a lingering distemper. in A. 47 The arrival of Ptolemy Ceraunus. and even those who had been most devoted pal to his interest. who beheld himself on the point of anxiety losing his son in the flower of his age . who was his sister hy the same mother . with her brother Ceraunus. J. 906. of a father. . whom he had intended for his successor in his vast dominions. he resigned his queen Stratonice to his son Antiochus. and she succeeded in her design. for a reason I shall soon relate. against war. were struck with so much horror at the murder of his son. made Arsinoe apprehensive that his interest would strengthen too much the party of Lysandra. and retired to the com't of Seleucus. of which the physicians were incapable of discovering the cause . C.ALEXAXDEH'S SUCCESSORS. for which reason his condition was thought enIt is easy to conceive the grief and tirely desperate. p. Appian. that he caused him to be imprisoned and put to death. by which she so much incensed him against his own son. i Before he engaged in this enterprise. for which he was already sufficiently disposed by idews of interest. that they entirely abandoned him. at the same time. in Syr. 907Ant. and consigned to him. another son of Lysimadius. and Alexander. and her own children. the of Berenice. at his court. and that they would accomplish the destruction of herself. a considerable part of his empire. officers. hy sacrificing Agathocles to her suspicions. took sanctuary in the court of Seleucus. 3722. M. as one who had formed a conspiracy liis life and crown.

that he had a thousand times had recourse to every consideration that could be represented to his thoughts in such a conjuncture . in its present state of distraction. the folly of harbouring a desire he ought never to be desirous of gratifying . helieved at last that he had discovered its true cause. the shame of indulging a passion altogether unjustifiable. more conjecture he was not deceived. he carefully observed the countenance of the prince. by whom he was tenderly beloved . difficult to discover the object of this passion. tonice his mother-in-law. as Plutarch observes. either alone. The physician. however. And he concluded with declaring. dimness of sight . for instance. always affected with the symptoms described by Sappho. burning blushes . having carefully considered every symptom with which the indisposition of the young prince was attended.48 THE HISTORY all 01^ the happiness of his life consisted. except when Stratonice came into the chamber. with a variety of When the physician was afterthe like symptoms. but that his reason. particularly the respect due from him to a father and sovereign. at which times the young prince was. he managed his enquiries with so much dexterity. as at last drew the secret from Antiochus confessed his passion for queen Strahim. passed whole days in the apartment of his patient. physicians. would hearken to nothing. and contrary to all the rules of decency and honour . or with the king her consort . and that it proceeded from love . as so many indications of a violent passion : such. Erasigthe most attentive and most skilful of all the tratus. for desires involuntary in one sens^. wards alone with his patient. by discontinu- . and never discovered the least emotion in him. and when he saw any lady enter. which was the more violent from tlie secrecy in which it remained. as a suppression of voice . but criminal in every : : whom other. cold sweat a sensible inequality and disorder of pulse . he had resolved to pine to death. and declared that he had in vain employed all his efforts to vanquish it he added. to assure himself fully of what he surmised. in which It was. that to punish himself. therefore. entirely engrossed by one object.

because The father. and easily obtained the consent of his consort and his son and that princess were crowned king and queen of Upper Asia. penetrating into the source of his patient's The remedy was much be accomplished. and even modesty. and I am not disposed to yield her up to the embraces of " And will another. by disorder . ^Julian the apostate relates. 49 and abstaining from every ing all cave of his health. as the lady he loved was not to be obtained. " to preserve the life of a son I so tenplied derly love ? Is this the friendship you profess for me ?" — — " " Let me entreat you. in the welfare of a son so dear to you. surprised and afflicted at this answer. then. and how could a and king proposal of this kind be made to a parent When next Seleucus enquired after his son's health." " that the cure of son — — . VOL. " has the remedy majesty. therefore." The father did not hesitate a moment after this declaration. but tlie application of the proper more difficult to ! Erasistratus replied.EXANDEU'S SUCCESSORS. 1 would resign both Strato" Your nice and my empire to him with all my soul !" the physician. it arose from a secret passion which could never be gratified. : a fragment of his writings still extant." rethe king. kind of food." you not part with her then. desired to know why the lady was not to be obtained ? " " Because she is my wife. VI. would you resign your Stratonice to his arms ? If you. would not consent to such a sacrifice for you expect another should do exclaimed Seleucus. that his distemper was incurable. physician gained a very considerable point. Whatever traces of reserve. to imagine yourself for one moment in my place ." replied the physician. that Antiochus would not espouse Stratonice till after the death of his fiither. depended my only on my acquiescence. my lord." said Erasistratus.AI. E . appear in the conduct of this young prince. how can " Would to it ?" God. his example shows us the misfortune of suffering an un^ In Misopog. moderation. who are a father." replied in your own hands for it is Stratonice whom he loves.

2. and advanced into Asia ]\Iinor. by an evident mistake. Ant. 9lyeen. 281. 18. 323. 1. xvii. C. 2. gave him battle in Phry* but was defeated and slain in . Seleucus made himself master of all his dominions. 4 * A. which he besieged and took . xiii. to gain the least entrance into the heart. where he propop. calls Ko^vyrz^iovj instead of 1.) and this advantage was considered him as the effect of a peculiar providence in his faby vour. 1. He The latter having passed the Hellespont. 1. c. and which is usually given him by the historians. capable of discomposing all the happiness and tranquillity of life. in order to distinguish him from the other princes of the after name of Seleucus who reigned him in Syria. Justin. the field of Cyrus. victoremque victorum ex- ignarum non humanum esse opus. therefore put himself at the head of a fine army. M. 3724. p. Ant. All the country submitted to him as far as Sardis. (for that was the expression he fit to use. ^ Seleucus being now eased of his inquietude. Po- J. in Syr. et quod majus ea victoria putabat. Porphyry is the only author who has pointed out the real place where this battle was fought. by the event of this battle. or the conqueror. 3723. . Kv^o-Ti^ity. and. mentioned by Strabo. plum futurum. non multo post fragilitatis human® se ipsum exemJustin." t A. victorious over thought conquerors themselves. sed divinum munus. which he had already assumed. Memnonis ExOros. tory to take possession of ^ Macedonia. M. gia. se Laetus ea victoria Seleucus. His greatest pleasure f on this occasion resulted from his being the only survivor of all the captains of Alexander. c. in order to check the progress of Seleucus.50 THE HISTORY OF lawful passion. in Attic. — f '^ solum titisse. J. 629. ix. 128. gloriabatur: prorsus. c. — Appian. 280. de cohorte Alexandri remansisse. cerpta apud Phot. and which Eusebius. thought of nothing but marching against Lysimachus. This last victory was undoubtedly the best justification of the title of Nicator. Pausan. p. xvii. by which means he became master of all the treasures of Lysimachus. C. His triumph on this occasion was of no long conX tinuance for when he went seven months after his vic. consequence of which.

even in the lifetime of his son. But this wretch. He and assassinate him. when it should be completed. and. The author pretends. but produced probable as 1 never engage in contests of this nature. if the commencement of cidae "' commences. des Mem. I shall confine myself to the chronology of Usher. ct Bcilc^ Lettres. to employ the same forces for his establishment on the throne of his father in Egypt. insensible of all the favours he had received. "" Tom. 51 sed to pass the remainder of his days in the bosom of his native country. which has been my usual guide. and a peculiar He had likewise a taste for poregard to religion. liad the villany to conspire against his benefactor. on whom he had conferred innumerable honours and obligations : for he had received him into his court. by adding to it the nineteen years of his son Antiochus Soter. when he became master of Asia . with Father Petau and Monsieur Vaillant. flc I'Aca^lemic des Inscrip. late dissertation of A Monsieur de la Nauze gives him a reign of more than fifty years. when he fled from his own country. a benevolence and clemency that endeared him to the people. lite literature. thirty-one years to the reign of Seleucus Nicator. This prince had extraordinaiy qualities . intending. He had reigned twenty years^ from the battle of Ipsus. by his great love of justice. .ALEXANDER'S StJCCESSORS. it may be justly said. and made it a circumstance of pleasure partition of his dominions . with him in this expedition . but began with making a and that he afterwards reunited them. without mentioning his military accomplishments. he was basely assassinated by Ccraunus. VII. He has reasons in favour of his opinion . and which assigns. that Seleucus Nicator did not entirely divest himself of the government . . and thirtyhis reign be fixed twelve years after the death of Alexander. and had treated him had also carried that prince suitably to his rank. of king was secured to him . that he distinguished himself among the other kings. from which time the aera of the Seleutitle when the one.

herself the consequences of which she feared would be fatal to and children. whom the Athenians honoured as their deliverers. to send back to the Athenians the library which Xerxes had carried away. ed. but she was apprehensive. that persisting in an obstinate refusal would be fatal to her children. in the presence of one of her confidential friends. and which he found in Persia. The friends of Lysimachus. while his sister Arsinoe and the chil- He dren she had by Lysimachus were living . with those who had served under that prince. who was well acquainted with the natural disposition of her brother. and demanded her hand in marriage and as these incestuous marriages were frequent and allowed in Egypt.52 THE HISTORY OF and glory to himself. But the more she delayed and concealed her repugnance under plausible pretexts. 1. sentiments. he called the tutelar gods of the country to witness. though they were uttered before the altars. Arsinoe placed but little confidence in these promises. and in order to remove all suspicion. xxiY» c. Th^ greatest crimes cost the ambitious no remorse. with respect to the marriage he solicited. for " Justin. protract. the more warmly he pressed her to gratify his passion . he repaired to that temple whicli the Macedonians held in the greatest veneration. embracing their statues at the same time. with the most dreadful oaths and imprecations. at the same time. and there. Arsinoe. at first considered Ceraunus as the avenger of his death. were perfectly pm-e and innocent. 2-^-4. whom she had sent to him. ° did not expect to possess the dominions of Lysimachus in peace. He also accompanied that present with the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton. as much as possible. Ceraunus feigned a passion for his sister. . and protesting. and acknowledged him for their king but his conduct soon caused them to change their . the conclusion of that affair. and had been ratified with the awful seal of religion . that his views. for which reason he determined to rid himself at once of them and the apprehensions they gave him.

to save them from the daggers of their murderers. and she invited her new spouse to reside iXrith her in her own city of Cassandria. with her robes all rent. The comic part ended here. As soon as he entered the city. The two sons of Arsinoe. who killed them in the bosom of their mother. and nothing was to be seen but altars and victims ready for sacrifice. as the completion of all her calamities. who was then sixteen years of age. and her hair dishevelled. her first husband . on that sary preparations for his arrival. Those unfortunate princes fled for refuge to the queen. and embraced them with as much tenderness as could well be expressed by the fondest of fathers. and with all the indications of the most unaffected joy and tenderness. with all the public squares and private houses. advanced to meet the king. . mournfully considering her surviving the princes her sons. she was first dragged out of the city. 53 solicitous than her o^\^^. Arsinoe felt a real joy. and Philip. and was presently succeeded by a bloody tragedy. whose welfare she was more Slie. were magnificently adorned . Lysimachus. therefore. who clasped them in her ^rms. and vainly endeavoured. and then banished into Samothrace. both princes of admirable beauty and majestic mien. with crowns on tlieir heads. when she beheld herself so gloriously re-established in the privileges of which she had been divested by the death of Lysimachus. whole army. and ordered the two brothers to be murdered. and the nuptials were celebrated with the greatest magnificence. occasion.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Instead of being allowed the sad consolation of rendering the last offices to her children. with only two female servants to attend her. who was thirteen. it being a day of so much solemnity and joy. in order to make the necesThe temples. he seized the citadel. by covering them with her body. Ceraunus placed the diadem on the head of his and declared her queen. in the presence of the sister. to which she first repaired herself. Ceraunus threw his arms round their necks. consented at last .

Sic. 3725. xxiv. J. 1. pidus ficilius quriin bisque cum paucis et incompositis. and after proceeding along the Danube. upud Photium. it could need the aid of the Dardanians to defend its fron. and then divided themselves into three bo- ministers of The dies. . All the nations near whose temtories this people approached. 1. x. p. * Ptolemy Ceraunus. they despatched ambassadors to the Gauls." Justin. arrived at the outlet of the Save. The first. * Justin. He had even the imprudence to refuse a supply of twenty thousand men. king of Macedonia. xxii. were struck with so much terror. now known by the nafne of Hungary . — * '" Solus rex Macedoniae Ptolemaeus adventum Gallorum intreiiulivit. which the Dardanians. was the only prince who was undismayed at the tidings of this formidable irruption . but called forth a distant people to be the its vengeance. 643 Memn. and thought themselves exceedingly happy in purchasing a peace with money. ad eundem. Pausan. Ant. This swarm of foreigners came from the extremity of the ocean. hyran. 279. et schol. sulting if. he advanced to meet the Gauls with a small body of undisciplined troops. in Eclogse Diod. quasi bella non difscelera patrarentur. with an inair. et xxv. Callim. 645. Exc. C. rius. under Cerethrius . as if it had been as easy for him to fight battles as it was to commit crimes. A. after it had conquered all the East by itself alone. Delum.54 ° THE HISTORY OF Providence would not suffer such crimes to go long unpunished. Gauls. commanded by Brennus and Acicho- entered Pannonia. offered him and answered. and Belgius led the third into Illyrium and Macedonia. 1. that Macedonia would be much to be pitied. finding their ov/n country too populous. that instead of waiting till they were subdued. «ent out a prodigious number of people to seek a new settlement in some other land. M. Suidas in ru?^Txt. oc- currit. parricidiorum funis agitatus. the second marched into Thrace. a neighbouring people to Macedonia. and running headlong of himself on the punishment the divine vengeance was preparing to inflict upon him for the murders he had perpetrated.

and then abandons <leprives fidence in their promises. covered with wounds. He expressed himself in the same imperious strain to the Gauls.At-EXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. with a haughty tone of trithat he would face the enemy with the chii. a battle : was fought. 55 umph. and obliged the rest to quit the country. in order to pillage the adthemselves. very inconsiderable number of Macedonians saved themselves by flight. The Gauls dispersed after this victory. before he would place any con- This answer was received with contempt by the Gauls . When he received the news of that general's is but this leader . few days after this event. under the ensigns of Alexander. observe the methods usually employed by the Deity. fixed it on a lance. and taking advantage of the disorder in which they then were. but all the rest were A made prisoners. who. who first offered him peace by a deputation. from hence. : them A to their vain imaginations. was taken prisoner by the Gauls . collected some few troops. and showed it to the enemy in derision. tiers . he replied. and we may. that he would never enter into any treaty of peace with them. he envied him the spoils of so rich a country. destroyed a great number of their men. about a century before. in case he would purchase it . one of the principal persons among the Macedonians. either slain or jacent country . had subdued the universe. in he first chastising the pride and injustice of princes them of reason and counsel. and immediately formed a resolution to have a part. conceiving this offer the result of fear. Brennus then advanced into Macedonia with : his not to be confounded with that troop other Brennus. after they had cut off his head. who took the city of Rome. and the great booty he had acquired. but. wherein the Macedonians were entirely defeated and cut to pieces Ptolemy. upon which Sosthenes.ilren of those who. to which he added. unless they would deliver up some of the principal persons of their nation to him as hostages . Upon the intelligence he had received of the first success of Belgius. and that they must likewise send him their arms.

to defend that important pass discovered the circuitous path which the army of Xerxes had formerly taken in their passage over these mountains . and some advantageous settlement. whom they chose for their commanders. Authors have not informed us what became of Belgius and his troop . Ant. M. but in all probability he was killed in the second engagement. . such numerous reinforcements. either from Illyrium or their countrymen the Gauls. C. . and they drew. The Gauls next advanced to the straits of Thermobut were stoppylae.56 THE HISTORY OF defeat. as increased their army to a hundred and fifty-two thousand foot and sixty-one thousand two hundred horse. where they overpowered Sosthenes with their multitudes. During a sedition which happened in their march. that Antigonus reigned in Macedonia. : . after the death of Sosthenes. and marched. and then laid the adjacent country under contribution. 3726. in order to pass into Macedonia and Greece. Brennus and Acichorius quitted Pannonia. and ravaged all the country. a body of twenty thousand men drew off from the main army. into Thrace. and the Greeks. J. * This desertion did not prevent Brennus and Acichorius from continuing their march . and entered Illyrium. under Leonor and Lutarius. The hopes of booty. caused a vast number of soldiers to join them in this expedition. be. after which the remains of his army were inHowever that may corporated into that of Brennus. with an intention to enter Greece ped for some time by the troops who had been posted till at last they there. where they joined those whom Cerethrius had already led into that country after which they made themselves masters of Byzantium. and the western coasts of the Propontis. his impatience to revenge his countrymen uniting with his desire to enrich himself. it only served as a new motive to hasten his march . It will soon appear by the sequel. 278. to avoid being surrounded by * A. and with this army they marched directly to Macedonia. with an army of a hundred and fifty thousand foot and fifteen thousand horse.

which crushed the Gauls by hundreds at a time and that the remaining troops were seized with such a panic* the ensuing . that before the day for them to distinguish each other. that name. Pausan. with an air of raillery. whom the danger of a temple so revered among them had drawn from all parts to preserve it from being plundered. were animated by an event in which heaven itself seemed to declare in their favour. and threw down vast fragments of the rocks. the skies were blackened with a dreadful tempest. The Greeks. passage. as caused them to mistake their owTi men for the enemy's . that when Brennus approached the temple of Delphi.ale3Ca. they were unable to sustain the shock. Other reasons are likewise assigned for . and were slaughtered in vast numbers. p. that this storm was attended der. * The an( icnts these tlioiiglit x. 6 — 8. 652 654. : . of terrors were infused into — the mind by the god Pan." p Authors have here taken an opportunity to relate very astonishing and marvellous events for they tell us. night. but when he saw that c. 1. who had more occasion for them than themselves. in order to pillage the immense riches of the temple of Apollo.ls 1. gods ought in reason to impart some of their riches to men. at the same time. that though Acichorius had joined Brennus. and that great numbers of his men were destroyed by hail and thunTo which they add. above half of the army perished by that means. Brennus advanced with the main body of the army towards Delphi. and charged the Gauls with so much impetuosity. kin-. Though Brennus had received many grew light enough wounds in several parts of his body.nder's successors. 57 the troops detached against them by the Gauls for that were obhged to retire and leave them a free purpose. by an earthquake. was lost. and employed them in a better manner. that rent the mountains. : yet none of all were mortal P Justin. in consequence of which they destroyed one another in such a manner. them and xxlv. and ordered Acichorius to follow him with the troops under his command say" that the ing.

But as through a large extent of the to hazard a battle every time he wanted provisions for his troops . After this. would readily have credited. plunged his dagger into his bosom. though it was then the winter season . who might likewise roll down upon the Gauls huge stones from the tops of the mountains. and conduct the sad remains of the army into their own country. and the immense masses of rock miraculously detached from the mountains to crush the sacrilegious troops. He accordingly sent for all the officers that could be assembled. in order to march out of Greece. amidst the confusion which reigned among them. distempers.58 THE HISTORY OF that the grand design he had formed ended only in the destruction of his army. . and make the best retreat in their power he drank as much wine as he could. and advised them to kill all the wounded men. and which the credulity of the people. and expired upon the spot. they were all destroyed. and as these were reduced to the necessity of almost always lying on the gi'ound. who are always fond of the marvellous. Acichorius took the command in chief upon himself. in a word. whose interest it was to magnify the power of their god. and chiefly with relation to the sudden tempest that arose when the Gauls approached Delphi. either by famine. and as a miraculous interposition . which the priests. might represent as a prodigy. or the sword . and of all that prodigious number of men who engaged in this expedition. and endeavoured to regain the straits of Thermopylae. he was seized with such despair. as they were constantly harassed from every quarter. not one escaped with life. without a scrupulous examination into the truth of the account. as made him resolve not to survive his losses. and shot by the enemies. Some fabulous exaggerations may possibly be blended with the other circumstances of this event . Such events are entirely natural and customary in attacks like this. Perhaps the whole might be no more than a thick flight of arrows to pass he was obliged enemy's territories. cold. by the inhabitants of the countries through which they marched.

advanced to the Hellespont. ner already represented. ^ Leonor and Lutarius. . who testified an open contempt of a Su- preme Being. even among the heathens. and the profligacy of manners which then prevailed. the first tie which connects man with God. from time to time. not from any conviction that those gods were the mere offspring of fable (for he did not think better on that subject than the Greeks themselves. believed it to be their duty to render certain The Pagans were deceived in their honours to him. in order to preserve among men We a due respect for his providence. in mere goodnecessity of it. may have caused his vengeance to be displayed from time to time against those. has been careful. and a belief of his pe- culiar attention to all their actions. and surprised Lysimachia.) but from an absolute contempt of a divinity in The idea of a God is impressed on the hearts general. But it is now time to return to the Gauls. The enterprise of Brennus was undoubtedly a sacrileas well as to gious impiety. by some extraordinary till it pleased him to afford the ministration of the Mediator. was maintained amidst all the darkness of Paganism. through all ages and in all countries. therefore. by at the appointed time. By which means the belief of that capital article. 1(5. to punish perjuries and other heinous offences in a singular manner. for he spoke and acted in the manthe Deity himself. n. of all men. them clearer lights likewise see only true God required from them. after which they made themselves masters of all the *> Liv. of this principle. we have no sufficient reason to ^lisbelieve any thing which history relates of this event. ness to mankind. in order to preserve the traces and prin- ciples of religion in their minds. and injurious to religion. 59 On the other hand. and had established themselves on the Propontis. who had formed a separate body. L xxxviii. but all acknowledged the application The Deity. that the Divine Being. to whom was reserved the instruction of mankind in that pure worship which the indications of his anger.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. even among the Pagans themselves. and they have.

and entered into the service of Nicomedes king of Bithynia. that part of Asia Minor which took from them the denomination of GalloThe canonical epistle of St Paul Graecia. one after the other. they rejoined their forces. and rejoined their countrymen in Galatia. which had threatened Mace- The remainder donia and all Greece with entire destruction. where no further mention is made of them. who had defeated the Gauls. where a reconciliation being effected between them. Antiochus. which their fathers had enjoyed. of those who continued in Thrace enafterwards in a war with Antigonus Gonatas. who gaged reigned in Macedonia. assigned to them. they met again in Asia.60 THE HISTORY OF Tliracian Chersonesus . apud Phot. A. M. finding the state of his affairs more favourable than those of his competitor. Antigonus. and Byzantium with the greatest part The latter having afterwards passed the Bosphorus. they separated from each other. C 276» . but a difference arising between the two chiefs. to the Galatians was written to the descendants of this people and St Jerom. above six hundred years after the time of which we are now speaking. but each of them raised great »^ Memnon. Lutarius continued his Leonor returned of the army. formed pretensions to that crown. and reigned for some time in Macedonia. had reigned ten years in Greece. to march along the Hellespont. after he had reduced his brother Zypetes by their assistance. Ant. declared. Those few who escaped. and regained the possession of all his father's dominions. 3728. after the fatal expedition of his father into Asia. was the first who ascended the throne . and the other the Hellespont. or Galatia. ^ After the death of Sosthenes. the son of Seleucus Nicator. and Antigonus Gonatas. the son of Demetrius Poliorcetes. either passed into Asia. or dispersed themselves into other regions. who. J. that they continued to speak the same language he had heard at . In this manner ended that terrible inundation of barbarians. for their settlement. c. This prince. and most of them were then destroyed. Treves. xix.

The forces were at first so equal. that neither party would presume to attack the otlier. by which they exAntiochus detremely incommoded their neighbours. which the Romans.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. to the time of Perseus. Ant. formed into a province of the empire. * Antiochus. VI. M. the one to himself in his new conquest. to be translated into the Greek language^ as an ornament to hi^ This is called the Version of the Septuagint. t A. Ptolemy Philadelphtis causes the hooks of the Ilolif Scripture^ preserved hy the Jews with the utmost care. were continu- making inciursions on all sides. Ant. and continued for some time in that state of inaction during which a treaty was concerted. who. and delivered the ally him the This action acquired country from their oppression. 3729. he suddenly poured his troops into Bithynia. to leave so powerful an enemy in his Instead. t The tumult of the wars. was unwilling rear. king of Bithynia. Antiochus. donia. when he was preparing to enter Macedonia. title of Soter. having thus disengaged himself from this war. 277. who was defeated by Paulus Emilius. and divested of his dominions. SECT. C. M. the last of this race. and Antiochus resigned to him his pretensions to the throne of JNIace. manner he remained in peaceable posand transmitted it to his posterity. the sequence daughter of Stratonice and Seleucus. which then became the theatre of the war. of passing the Hellespont. J. J. feated them with great slaughter. armies. 275. marched against the Gauls. in conof which Antigonus espoused Phila. In this session of it. 61 and contracted powerful alliances. espoused the party of Antigonus on this occasion. a few years after. . therefore. which a diversity of interests had kindled among the successors of Alexander through* A. C. after settling in the land granted them by Nicomedes. who enjoyed it for several generations. libra?'?/. having dispossess him. 3727. which signifies a deliverer. and the other to support Nicomedes.

The king then gave orders for discharging the children born in slavery. and was extremely solicitous to enlarge his library. that a hundred and twenty thousand Jews recovered . during the invasions of Judaea in his time . who had been reduced to a state of slavery by Ptolemy Soter. The sum expended on this occasion amounted to four hundred talents f whence it appears. and it was represented to the king. and the sum employed for this purpose amounted to above half the former. * He had sent ambassadors to that pontiff. advantageous preliminaries gave Ptolemy hopes that he should easily obtain his request from the high-priest. for their ransom. Ptolemy. t About sixty thousand pounds. but issued a decree for restoring all the Jewish slaves in his dominions to their liberty . but the affair happened to be attended with great difficulty. for him to address himself to the high-priest necessary of the Jewish nation . There was at that time a very considerable number of Jews in Egypt. with a very obliging letter About ten shillings. it became performance. did not hesitate a moment. . in order to enrich his library witli that To accomplish this design. These whose name was Eleazar. did not prevent Ptolemy Philadelphus from devoting his utmost attention to the noble library which he had founded in Alexandria. formed the design of having it translated out of the Hebrew language into the Greek. with orders to his treasurer to pay twenty drachmas * a head to their masters. their freedom. that parts of the world. while he suffered such a number of their countrymen to continue in their present servitude. or a faithful translation of their law.62 THE HISTORY OF out the whole extent of their territories. with their mothers . that there would be no probability of obtaining from that people either a copy. wherein he deposited the most valuable and curious books he was capable of collecting from all This prince being informed. who always acted with the utmost generosity. the Jews possessed a work which contained the laws of Moses and the history of that people.

received at Jerusalem witli all honours. isle of Pharos. . whether Jews. his part. others for the high-priest. and Josephus or Christians. to their work without losing time. Expenses of this nature. though very considerable. He was satisfied with their answers. The king was lary. and do a prince great honour. It is called the Septuagint for the sake of the round number 70. and the king's request was granted imaginable with the greatest joy. that is to say. Oil 63 accompanied with magnificent presents. desirous of seeing these deputies. Upon which they returned to Alexandria with an authentic copy of the Mosaic law. * their pens Austin. Clement of Alexandria. but the sacred books were translated by seventy-two persons. The ambassadors were written in letters of gold. who have employed on the subject of the Septuagint version. who particularly admired the wisdom of the laws of Moses. He adds a number of other circumstances. seventy. and other marks of his The elders were then conducted to the friendship. never ruin a state. and in seventy-two days completed the volume which is commonly called the Septuagint Version. and lodged in a house prepared for their reception. because they seem more improbable than those I have inserted. who represents himself as one of the officers of the guard to Ptolemy Philadelphus. and they were authorised to translate that copy into the Greek language.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Hi. where they were plentifully supplied with all They applied themselves necessary accommodations. The author from whom these facts are extracted is Aristaeas. with six elders of each tribe. and some others. part of which were for themselves. given them by the high-priest himself. Irenajus. and loaded them with presents. It is pretended that the writei's. in which great wisdom appeared. which I have omitted. as Aristobulus. Philo. in order proposed to each to make a trial of their capacity. and the remainder for the temple. and dismissed the seventy-two deputies with extremely magnificent presents .two in the whole . * The whole was afterwards read and approved in the presence of the king. and of them a different question. as Justin.

as it also was by those of the primitive ages. call oflPmy attention too long from my principal object. even to the minutest word. 658. : Justin. ii. that we have this translation still extant. after him. and yet that were perfectly conformable to each other in every particular. and dictated the whole to them. yet not the least difference either in the sense.64 liave THE HISTORY OF founded all their relations Aristaeas. that a translation of the sacred books from the Hebrew into the Greek. . which rendered the Scrip* Philo de vita Mosis. who guided them on that occasion. word for word. that these persons were not mere translators. or in the mode of expression which they used. and. s Philo declares. but that. cited by the sacred writers in the New Testament from the Old. I have frequently declared my resolution not to enter into any historical disquisitions of this nature. and which no one has thought lit to contest.two interpreters performed his version in a separate cell. The reader may consult the learned who has treated this subject at large. found. without all their translations the least correspondence with each other. therefore. on the mere veracity of his name is thought made in separate apartments. and would. as most of the passages in the original Greek. on the contrary. and that it is the same which was used in the time of our blessed Saviour. they every where coincided. is. which require much time and learning. are to be It still subsists. among whom it passed for a canonical translation. was to be found. All deaux. that though their translations were when the work that bears Some of be a spurious piece. but men inspired by the Spirit of God. Pri- that can be depended upon. This version. the other fathers already mentioned. these authors have to added circumstances which are generally disbelieved. 1. suppose that each of the seventy. therefore. even to a single word From whence he concludes. because they have too much of the marvellous in them. in this version. p. was made in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies . and continues to be used in the Oriental churches .

1. and the same worship and doctrines. . impetuous as his own. 22. 1. a real disease. and supported them in those regions. Secondly. where he ^fights tico battles with the Romans. a ter having overthrown His expedition into PeAntigonus. ladelphiis to the The character and conduct ofCineas. notwithstanding their divisions and jealousies. or suffering others to be so. and was evidently comprehended in the design when he delivered up all which God had in view. and most correct that was ever spoken in the world. cess. into Italy The various e^rpeditions of Pyrrhus : First. by governing his people agreeably to the rules of justice. But a disposition so active and in conjunction with a restless was incapable of being at rest of ' mind Plut. 1. p . VOL. Justin.2. most copious. tvherein he is defeated. by the instrumentality of one language. and enjoyed the sweets of peace. of which he makes himself master Jbr some time. 21. i. the finest. and from Romans to Phila- delphus. and facilitate the union of so many nations of different languages and manners into one society. and the frequent In this manrevolutions that happened among them. His third engagement with the Romans. ner did God prepare the way for the preaching of the Gospel. 65 turcs of the Old Testament intelligible to a vast number of people. became one of the most considerable fruits of the Grecian conquests . This indisposition was. a/nd then into Italy again. xviii. and ardent ambition.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. f of Sparta. in reality. SECT VIT. into Sicily. p. after he had entirely abandoned Macedonia. their wars. the East to the Greeks. itself. « Pyrrhus. which was then approaching. Heforms the siege loponnesus. p. His expedition into Macedonia. in Pyrrh. when he returned into Epirus. hut without sucThe deputation from Phithe Romans. VI. c. and which became common to all the countries that were conquered by Alexander. 390—397. Is slain at that ofArgos. Pausan. a raging fever. might have passed his days in tranquillity among his subjects.

the solid princiThis person ples and truest maxims of sound policy. J. they turned their eyes toward Epirus. he grew iusn))port able to himself. and despatched ambassadors thither. his example. named Cineas. the truth of this expression of Euripides. . 280. and been the disciple of Demosthenes. was then at the court of Pyrrhus. not only for A He to the force and eloquence of that master. and their own country not furnishing them with generals of sufficient abilities to oppose such formidable enemies. Samnites. and Tarentines. Cineas. confirmed. but for having been most successful in great deriving. that they only wanted a leader of experience and reputation . not only from themselves. In a word. and in following from country to country a felicity no where to he He therefore seized. who had employed him on embassies to several cities with whom he had negotiations to transact. conceived a warm desire and viorots. by lent passion for this war. was a man of great judgment. Messapians. through the whole course of these employments. Thessalian. from so excellent a school. and so conformable The Epito his character." > *A. tunity that offered for plunging himself into new en- gagements. were in a condition to bring an army of twenty thousand horse and three hundred and fifty thousand foot into the The joy with which Pyrrhus received a propofield. but from all the Greeks in Italy.66 THE HISTORY OF which knew no intermission. They had orders to tell him. that they had a competent number of good troops. 3724. Ant. coming the nearest was much attached to Pyrrhus. * The inhabitants of Tarentum were then at war with the Romans. may be easily imagined. with joy. the first opporfoirad. C. and by only assembling the forces of the Lucanians. with magnificent presents for Pyrrhus. was distinhaving guished from all the orators of that time. by his conduct. sal so agreeable to his disposition.M. " that the eloquence of an enemy is no less powerful than his sword . and was continually flying from huiKself in pursuit of foreign ohjects.

" have conquered all we can. that he had gained more cities by the eloquence of Cineas. what advantage shall you derive from your conquest ?" " Were the Romans once subdued. (replied Pyrrhus. conferred many honours upon him. entered into a free conversation with that prince." " But will our expeditions (added Cineas) end with the conquest of Sicily ?" " No. certainly. happiness already Why . (continued Cineas. celebrating festivals. shall be part of our future conquests. were his counsels attended to. and what prevents us now from living at our *' And when we we dispose of ourselves ! We We ! ease. an inestimable treasure. continued. Cineas perceiving that Pyrrhus was preparing to pass into Italy. and would constitute the ways happiness of a prince and his people. and think of nothing but enjoying ourselves." " Ah my lord (interrupted Cineas). should we If the gods ara stop short in so glorious a career ? to crown us with success. and employed him in the man of this character is almost important affairs. with emotion) .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Macedonia. and finding him one day disengaged from business. every province in Greece. tance of that island. making entertainments. my ancient domain. with all Africa. and in a temper not to be offended with innocent liberties. For this reason he entertained the greatest esteem for him. " Your majesty intends (said he) to march should the gods vouchsafe to renagainst the Romans der you victorious. and should we go enjoying ourselves to the utmost ? so far in search of a in our power. these would be only pleased preludes to more glorious enterprises? Carthage. how shall " !" Dispose of ourselves will live at our ease.) all Italy would then be ours.) how should we proceed next?" Pyrrhus. "Sicily will then present itself to us." " Supposing ourselves masters of that country. who did not yet perceive his drift. and you know the impor- A . will pass whole days in feasts and agreeable conversation. (replied Pyrrhus. 67 and Pyrrhus accordingly declared. than he himself had conquered by the force of arms.

but his natural ardour. that she may lose in them the remembrance of her real state. the origin of all the tumultuous employments of mankind. that was always presenting a delusive and glittering outside to his view.68 THE HISTORY OF and pay so dear for what we may now enjoy without the least trouble ?" This discourse of Cineas affected Pyrrhus. he gave him advice that was attended with many difficulties. that it would be better for him to hasten his intended happiness. either before or after he had conquered the world .^ who following remarks to live at ease when he had conquered a large proposed part of the world. in an admirable manner. more predominant. tion to what he had heard . without filling up the void in his lieart tious youth. no more is wanting than to oblige her to enter into and converse with herself" then proceeds to justify the truth of this reflecby a variety of examples \ after which he adds the " When Cineas told Pyrrhus. employments. and perhaps the life of ease re- . P5rrrhus could not be happy. wherein he has explained. in the 26th chapter oi hu ThotigkU. and of *' The all which the world calls diversion or pastime. she beholds there. afflicts her when she considers it se- This obliges her to have recourse to external dately. without going in quest of it through such a number of fatigues . and. soul (says that great man) discovers nothing in herself Whatever that can furnish her with contentment. urged him on in pursuit of a phantom of glory.. by enjoying that repose which was then in his power. but did He could make no reasonable objecnot reform him. either by night or day. and would not permit him to enjoy the least repose. Monsieur Paschal has considered this reflection of Cineas. to render her miserable. with imaginary hopeSj which is certainly false. and which seemed almost as irrational as the design of that ambition : He Each of them supposed that man was caof being satisfied with himself and his present pable enjoyments. In this oblivion consists her joy . more durable.

that he at last gained the coast of Italy.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. two thousand archers. that they expected it to founder immediately. the same course. the Messapians. from whence they w^re re]'elled with a loud roar. were capable of knowing thus thoroughly the heart of man. that nothing but his courage. but the night. All being ready. At last a strong gale sprung up from the land. and the impetuous bursting of the waves upon the coast. prevented him from sinking under it. In the mean time. soon after which a large number of flat-bottomed vessels. and the waves beat so violently against the head of the king's ship. yielded at first to the fury of the storm . arriving from Tarentum. commended to 69 his minister. always great and invincible. three thousand horse. galleys. and five hundred slingers. made it very difficult for them tc assist him . but the exertions of the pilot and mariners were employed so effectually. was cast the next morning on the shore. immediately despatched Cineas to the Tarentines with a detachment of three thousand foot . till at last the king. The vessel in which he was. Pyrrhus. therefore. and was immediately followed by his friends and guards." It is certain. but threw himself into the sea. and drove him out of his course. a violent tempest arose from the north. he embarked on board them twenty elephants. and all sorts of transport ships. after he had struggled with the winds and waves for a considerable part of the night. however. who vied with each other to save him at the haz^ird of their own lives . advanced into the open sea. wouhl have proved to him. th^t neither the philosopher nor the conqueror. Pyrrhus did not hesitate a moment in this extremity. than the hurry of all the wars less satisfactory him by and expeditions which he meditated. he set sail but as soon as he had . which happened to be extremely dark. twenty thousand heavy armed foot. the wind being then considerably abated. on whose coast the — . after a voyage of infinite fatigue and The other ships were incapable of holding danger. weakened him to such a degree. The long fatigue he had sustained.

several who had never been accustomed to so rigorous a discipline. hastened to him with the utmost speed. and regulated all the management of the war as and they walked together. as soon as he received intelligence of his apPyrrhus. after he had drawn them up in a body.TO THE HISTORY OF him all waves had cast him. He also suspended their feasts and public shows. He began with shutting up all the public gardens and places of exercise. went to meet some of his ships that had They the storm . he compelled assemblies of newsmongers. without the moderation or intermission. in it was their usual custom to indulge. and that he was then in Lucania. was extremely surprised which least it for to find the inhabitants solely engaged in pleasures. hut the cavalry they found on board escaped were very inconsiderable in number. recreations. He then treated them like one determined to be their master. Though the allies of Pyrrhus had not yet sent hira any . and the infantry amounted to no more than two thousand men. using exquisite perfumes. till he had received intelligence that his ships were safe. with two elephants. and till the greatest part of his army had joined him. when he arrived at Tarentum. that whilst Pyrrhus fought for them. with- drew from the city . about this time. they might quietly continue in their own houses. Cineas. advanced to him with his troops. solely employed in bathing. thinking it an insupportable servi- tude. Pyrrhus. where he burnt and destroyed all the country around him. In consequence of which. And they now took granted. and behaved at all musters and reviews with inexorable severity to those who failed in their duty. to render also the assistance in their power. Pyrrhus. proach. feasting. to be debarred from the full enjoyment of their effeminate pleasures. Pyrrhus was unwilling to lay them under any constraint. led them directly to Tarentum. them to take arms. where the inhabitants usually entertained themselves with news. received information that Levinus the consul was advancing against him with a powerful army. and was altogether as severe upon the In a word.

upon receiving this answer. if they should attempt to pass . to oppose the Romans. thinking it sufficient. he resolved to wait the arrival of his allies . nor feared him as an enemy. with the ble. their advanced guards. hostilities. 71 succours. whether they would consent. but this precaution was then too late. he mounted his horse. we shall see whether other circumstances will correspond with this appearance. and commit their ravages in his sight. and were encamped on the other side of the river Siris. and addressing him*' self to one of his friends who was then near him Mesaid he. advanced with and encamped in a plain between the cities of Pandosia and Heraclea . and fearing to be finding surrounded by their enemies. *^ That the Romans neither took Pyrrhjts for an arbiter. for the Roman infantry had already forded the stream. the fine order which was every where maintained. who had arrived there a few moments before. so that Pyrrhus.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. nevertheless as he thought it very dishonourahle to permit the enemy to approach nearer him. and treat- . to an amicable accommodation of the differences between them and the Greeks of Italy. When he saw the appearance of their troops. — troops of Pyrrhus. and the cavalry passed it where they found it practicahis troops. not themselves sufficiently strong. all The advanced other nations as barbarians. * The Greeks considered ed them accordingly." no means barbarous . he despatched a herald to demand of the Romans. therefore. by referring the whole affair to his judgment and decision ? To which Levinus the consul made this reply. and approached the bank. he was astonished at what he saw ." Pyrrhus. to post a body of troops on the bank of the river. and when he heard that the Romans were very near him. at that time. and the judicious disposition of their camp. to take a view of their situation."* And already under apprehension for the success of the future. were obliged to join the main army with great precipitation . before the commencement of the war. " the array of these barbarians is by gacles. he took the field with But hefore he engaged in any the few troops he had.

Pyrrhus was immediately surrounded by a troop of his friends. he closed his ranks. and bore down all before him. was amiss. This adventure taught Pyrrhus to use mose precaution than he had practised before. and obliged him to be more careful of himself. Then giving his mantle and arms to Megacles. and amidst the greatest dangers was perfectly cool. soon as he saw a great number of Roman bucklers glittering on this side of the river.72 rest of his troops. Both horses being down. he put on those of the latter. and immediately drew it up. distinguished him in a conspicuous manner . At the same time Leonatus of Macedonia killed the Italian's horse. ceed his merit. directing all his And having at last those of the king. despatched his commands with as much tranquillity as if he had been in his palace . without sparing his own person. who carried him off. . and sustain those Dming the heat of the engagement. on whose welfare that of a whole army When he beheld his cavalry give way. and began the attack. and followed him with the utmost ardour wherever he went. and the battle was obstinately disputed victory long continued doubtful. who fought with great bravery. and killed the Italian. one of the Italian horse. who received him with great intrepidity. The lustre and beauty of his arms. which were very magnificent. but wounded only his horse. and vigorously charged the Romans. singled out Pyrrhus from all the rest of his troops. — The on both sides. he aimed a furious stroke at him. which is an indispensable duty in a general. that the reputation he had acquired did not ex- For while he engaged in the battle. found a favourable opportunity. and sprung from place to place. he did not lose sight of the duties of a general . one of his friends. and his actions made it evident. THE HISTORY OF had not time to dispute the passage with the enemy. and their cavalry As advancing toward him in fine order. to reinstate what who suffered most. with a lance in his hand. own motions by ordered his infantry to advance. he depends.

which he cai-ried full speed to I^evinus the consul . who take. Pyrrhus immediately made himself master of the enemies' camp. as often his arms. Authors 73 seven times. while they were in confusion. that near fifteen thousand Romans were killed in this battle. and was on the point of The enemies wresting the victory out of his hands. in the event. holding out at the same time his hand to the soldiers. perceived the terrible effect of this mis- Pytrhus. that each army gave way retunied to the charge. and put them to flight. after he by had torn off his helmet and mantle. The was then renewed. hy changing for the preservation of his life . were so terrified. who hurled him to the ground.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. rhus saw the Romans broken by those animals. brought over several cities froin their alliance. and that the horses. and advanced within fifteen leagues of Rome. and that Pyrrhus lost thirteen thousand of his men. took a proper method Pyrriius. while the Grecian troops were struck with univertory. These spoils being borne in triumph through all the ranks. it almost proved fatal to him. instead of approaching them. he severely reproached them for their de- . and he a horseman. whom — was at last wounded they took to be the king . sal consternation and dismay. that he had slain Pyrrhus. after having made a great slaughter of them Dionysius of Halicarnassus writes. after the battle. cried out aloud. and making himself battle known to them by his voice and gestures. The Lucanians and Samnites having joined him. he immediately led up the Thessalian cavalry against them. that they ran away with their riders. and as he showed them to him. ravaged all the country around him. though. flew bare-headed through all the lines. and the elephants were chiefly For when Pyrinstrumental in deciding the victory. But other historians make the loss less on both sides. threw themselves in throngs ahout Megacles. and say. filled the whole Roman army with inexpressible All the field resounded with acclamations of vicjoy. which they had abandoned.

in order to sound their dispositions. When Cineas was introduced to the senate. and to aid them in the conquest of all Italy . instead of recalling Levinus. Cineas. and in the mean time returned to Tarentum.74 lay. Rome should have made a public treaty with that when the king. and even terrified Pyrrhus. and retire from public affairs. were not dejected at the great loss they had sustained . requiring. and even their wives. and sent presents in the name of the king. He. therefore. being sent to Rome. THE HISTORY OT? But his air and aspect made it evident. The Roman courage. When he . the forces of Pyrrhus having been considerably augmented by the junction of several of the states of Italy his allies. whose great age and loss of sight had obliged him to confine himself to his family. he acquainted them with the proposals of his master. it would be time enough to express his satisfaction with regard to them. thought it prudent to despatch a second embassy. in this conjuncture. were solely intent on preparations for a second This greatness of soul. The Romans. at the same time. an illustrious senator. who offered to deliver up his prisoners to the Romans without any ransom. in conjunction with the Taren tines alone. They had lately been defeated in a great battle. which manifested so battle. had several conferences with the principal citizens. to them and their wives : but not one would receive them. Several of the senators seemed inclinable to a peace : and this was no unreasonable disposition. no other return but their friendship. however. They had likewise every thing to dread . that he was exceedingly delighted at bottom. and a sufficient security for the Taren tines. surprised. and were on the point of hazarding another of much more importance. had defeated so well disciplined and numerous an army of the Romans. therefore. that his troops. They all replied. much steadiness and intrepidity. and to see if they would not incline to some expedient for an amicable accommodation . seemed to stand in need of the animated spirit of the celebrated Appius Claudius. and. without the assistance of his allies.

after which. honour of his country seemed to have inspired him with all his ancient vigour. and dispelled the apprehensions of the senators . the Romans would maintain the war against him with all their forces. with the " where is the spirit that suggested the bold once uttered." It is said. he caused himself to be to accept carried into the assembly. though he should even vanquish ten thousand such leaders as Levinus. that the senators were disposed persed through the offers of Pyrrhus. when we were young. who has passed his days in cringing to one of the guards of that very Alexander. when you declared. with those very troops who have not been able to secure to him a small He added many other things of tract of Macedonia !" the same nature. as might be expected from a man of wisdom and adnation. 75 understood. to avoid the enemies he has at home . took every method. either by his flight or death then. by an infamous treaty. by reasons equally solid and affecting. that if the great Alexander himself had invaded Italy. during his continuance at Rome in order to negociate a peace. that Cineas. which rekindled the Roman bravery. and whose accents rung language you through all the world . all the " glory which Rome Where. of Rome. warmth of a noble indig- : — : . ! had hitherto acquired. he would never have gained the reputation of being invincible. and who now wanders. as long as he continued in arms in their country. he might send an embassy to solicit it but that. that they were on the point of destroying. but would have added new lustre to the glory Is it possible.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and our fathers in the vigour of their age. if he should find himself disposed for peace. who " That unanimously returned this answer to Cineas Pyrrhus should first retire from Italy . that you now tremble at the mere name of a Pyrrhus. There the venerable old man. by the confused report which was then disthe city. which kept a profound silecice the moment he whose zeal for the appeared." said he. like a wretched adventurer. made it evident. from country to country. and who has the insolence to promise you the conquest of Italy.

that the examples of so many situdes enemies as they had defeated. indeed. and forming many armies as powerful as that A ! . and as they imagined he might be elated by the victory he had obtained over their troops. should teach Pyrrhus to on the enterprise he was forming . and all parts of the country. who. to study the form and constitution of their government .76 dress. and consequently it could never be alarmed at any little disadvantage . return of Cineas to Tarentum was immediately succeeded by the arrival of ambassadors sent to Pyrrhus from the Romans. The Pyrrhus received them with extraordinary marks of distinction. That the senate seemed to him an assembly of kings. and told him. They concluded reflect . and one well experienced in military affairs. said every thing suitable to the present conjuncture . and there were left in Rome an infinite number of men capable of bearing arms. that the greatest overthrows in the field were incapable of depressing the Roman fortitude. among whom was Fabricius. *' among other particulars. they represented to him the vicisand inconstancy of fortune. to THE HISTORY OF inform himself of the manners and customs of the Romans . at their audience. w'as highly esteemed at Rome as a very virtuous man. which had been newly levied. and to obtain as exact an account as possible of the forces and revenues of the republic. that he would find. and in a capacity to defend themselves. he gave the king a faithful relation of all the discoveries he had made in his conferences with the principal men of Rome. as Cineas informed the king. enemies prepared to receive him. to scrutinize their public as well as private conduct. The ambassadors. When he returned to Tarentum. which no prudence of man could foresee . he added. but that his fortune was extremely low. " I greatly fear we are fighting with a hydra. and treated them with all possible honours. at all events." Cineas. had some reason for this remark for the consul Levinus had at that time an army in the field twice as numerous as the first. with respect to the numerous inhagust body bitants who filled the streets." just and noble idea of that auAnd.

therefore. I ready to give you as much gold and silver as will raise . But I am likewise acquainted with your poverty ." When he had returned this answer to the ambassadors. and must confess. without the ransom you offer me. to supply that sole deficiency. an amicable treaty. being fully peryou above the richest citizen of am Rome that no expense can be more honourable to a than that which is employed i» the relief of great prince men. who are compelled by their poverty to lead a life unworthy of their virtue . an" swered the ambassadors to this effect Romans. that fortune. 77 their remonstrances with leaving it to his choice. he took Fabricius aside. and perfectly qualified for the command of an army . by In misplacing you in the class of indigent senators. Halicaru.ALEXANDEll'S SUCCESSORS. that I have no intention to exact any unjust or dis^ Dion. Fabricius.' At the same time. . in this particular alone. me and my prisoners. either to receive a ransom for their soldiers who were then his to exchange them for such of his prisoners of war. after your refusal of the peace I proposed. 744-— 748. If you have only in view your own real interest and mine. and I promise to restore you all my as well your citizens as your confederates. it is in vain for you to imagine that Pyrrhus will ever be prevailed upon to release so great a number of soldiers. or Pyrrhus. it is with an ill grace you demand the prisoners I have taken from you. and addressed him in the following manner : sible of your merit " : I As for you. that justice and temperance are united in your character. has treated you with injustice. I must desire you to believe. and that this is the noblest suaded. Legat. Excerpt. after a consultation with his friends. by recourse to such evasions. and that you pass for a person of consummate virtue. * purpose to which a king can possibly devote his treasures. If you reject this condition. p. order. allies. I am senam likewise informed that you are an excellent general. to employ them against me. the war you are maintaining against : trooj)s as ^ the Romans had taken from him. it is not necessary to nave Be it your care to entl.

that I am called. especially as I am now at the head of a powerful army that has already gained me a battle.78 THE HISTORY OF honourable service from you as a return of gratitude. after a few moments silence. assist me with your counsels in all my proceedings. if quality as a king to be suspected by the senate. to my own dominions . and this is the circumstance which makes me more earnestly wish for peace. As to any other causes me number particulars. and to do more good to mankind. whose liberalities may enable you to be more useful. therefore. and has never consulted the rules of moderation in any respect. you seem to be so well acquainted with it. therefore. and that T cannot in honour abandon them. since you have been informed of that from others. and what will add to your Let authority and importance in yom* own country. Fabricius. because a of other princes have openly violated the faith my of treaties and alliances. With respect also to my poverty. become my surety yourself on this occasion . in all the future events of our lives. that I have given my solemn word to assist the Tarentines and other Greeks who are settled in this part of Italy . consent to render mutual assistance to each other. me. without the least hesitation . which has hitherto assumed an air of too much inflexibility with relation to the treaty I proposed. that it would be unnecessary for me to assure you I have no money to turn to advantage. I entreat you. Make them sensible." Pyrrhus having expressed himself in this manner. but what is perfectly consistent with yoiur honour. 1 expect nothing from you. replied to him " It is needless for me to make in these terms any mention of the experience I may possibly have in the conduct of public or private affairs. and in my : : . by some pressing affairs. nor any slaves from whom I derive the least revenue that my whole fortune consists in a house of no considerable appearance . and command I want a virtuous man and a armies under me. I^et us. faithful friend . conjure you to assist me with your influence in the Roman senate. I must however acquaint you. and you as much need a prince.

where the public is extremely poor. As the rich and the poor are equally admitted to her employments.ALEXANDER'S d little SUCCESSOllS. whether Did I consider myself as a public or private person. I am the less considered. because I happen not to be of the number of the rich . Thougli did imagine my indigence a prejudice to me. that are the noblest objects of the emulation of great souls ? I am invested with the highest dignities. 79 port. She gives all necessary supplies to those whom she employs in public stations. Rome never reduces her citizens to a ruinous condition. But spot of ground that furnishes me with if you believe my poverty renders my my supcon- dition inferior to that of every otlier Roman. and if any circumstance causes me to complain. that the idea you conceive of me. and even the most sacred functions of divine worship are confided Whenever the most important affairs are to my care. and bestows them with liberality and magnificence. and offer my opinion with as much freedom as another. I assist also at the most august ceremonies. We upon an equality. no more than any other Roman. or whether you only suppose I do not possess riches. and that whether any other may have inspired you with that so yourself. I hold my rank in councils. in this particidar. 1 never are deceived. I am upon an equal footing with the richest and most powerful persons in the republic . according as she judges them worthy of confidence. differs from many other cities. she places all her citizens rich. by raising them to the magistracy. necessitous circumstances ever induce my country my to exclude me from those glorious employments. is not just. The employments 1 discharge cost me nothing of my own. the subject of deliberation. you opinion. Rome. permit me to acquaint you. and that. and private persons im- mensely are all in a state of affluence as long as the republic is so. and see myself placed at the head of the most illustrious embassies. it is my receiving too much honour and applause from my fellow citizens. because we consider her treasures as our own. while I am discharging the duties of an honest man. and knows no distinction between .

But when I impart to the republic. and even pride. I confess she has nature requires. were I to complain of fortune. ravaged a large tract of land. I them but that of merit and vate that I think myself with the rich. when seasoned by hunger I drink with delight when I and I enjoy all the sweetness of sleep when fathirst. some portion of the little I possess. I am the happiest of men when I compare am careful to cultivate it as I ought. As to my own pri-r virtue. My little field. supplies me with whatever 1 want. to the best of my ability. wherein can my conscience condemn me ? If riches had ever been the least part of my ambition. poor and unfertile as it is. and defeated the enemy in several battles we took many flourishing and opulent cities by assault . am so far from repining at my fortune. AVhy should I then complain ? It is true. the Brutii. and of all the \^arious kinds of furniture necessary for the same uses. and render my fellow citizens all the services 1 am capable of performing . whilst she supplies me with all that As to superfluities. I en- We : . which is the only advantage the rich may be envied for enjoying.80 THE HISTORY OF affairs. in a word. that I have had a thousand opportunities of amassing great sums. and to the fruits it produces. and even by irreproachable methods Could any man desire one more favourable than that which occurred to me a few years ago ? The consular dignity was conferred upon me. when I discharge all the duties incumbent on me. I content myself with a habit that tigued with toil. and I was sent against the Samnites. at the head of a numerous army. not furnislied me with any . What can I want more? lay up Every kind of food is agreeable to my palate. and find a certain satisfaction. the meanest is. the want of this abundance renders me incapable of relieving the newhen I : cessitous. in that fortune. but then she has not inspired me with the least desire to enjoy them. in my opinion. I have so long been employed in the administration of the republic. and my friends. and unjust. the most commodious. and the Lucanians. I should be unreasonable. covers me from the rigours of winter .

I still brought four hundred taevery citizen the .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. but he has latter. VOL. that there was more glory and grandeur in being able to despise all the gold oi a king. than there was in reigning over an empire.* ^ desirous the next day to surprise the Pyrrhus being Roman ambassador. at my return ? Those awful magistrates. riclied 81 army with their spoils. VI. I returned money which he had contributed to and after I had received the the expense of the war honours of a triumph. for the me to accept ? You shall keep then. that the historian furnished Pyrrhus and Fabricius with these speeches. and lead him to the place where he would be in conversation with Fabricius . Epist. ordered the captain of those animals to arm the largest of them." it for I take granted. After having neglected so considerable a booty. in imitation of Valerius Publicola. and many other great men. in strong colours. our censors. 395—397. who are appointed to inspect our discipline and manners with a vigilant pel presents you solicit if me eye. in Pyrrh. and I my and my reputation. after having despised such immense riches so justly acquired. only painted their sentiments. ISp. Fabricius was really persuaded. your riches to yourself. majusque regno j'udicavit regias opes Senec. poverty you please. posse conteoinere. G . would it now become me to accept of the gold and silver you offer me ? What idea would the world entertain of me ? And what an example should I set to my fellow citizens ? How could 1 bear their reproaches ? how even their looks. the officer was then to place him behind a hanging of tapestry. that he might "" Fabricius Pyrrhi regis aunim repulit. especially those of the For such was the character of the Romans in those glorious ages of the republic. would they not comto be accountable before all the world. of which I had full power to appropriate any part to myself . p. whose disinterested generosity of mind has raised the glory of Rome to so illustrious a height ." * " Pint. the whole lents into the public treasury. and sacrificed the spoils of the enemy to the love of glory. who had never seen an elephant.

but points Who ^ of erudition . seasoned with improving reflections. Fabricius. kind .82 THE HISTORY OF be ready to make his appearance at a certain signal. and related the particular opinions of his disciples. and said to him with a smile. and plunged in an endless variety of delights and pleasures. at table. philosophical inquiries were considered as the principal part of learning ? Are not such discourses as these. turned veiy calmly to Pyrrhus. that they never asto happiness. This was accordingly executed. equal . lity. the conversation turned upon a variety of subjects . The soft and voluptuous lives of the Tarentines might Whilst Cineas was probably occasion this discourse. with reference to the gods. not only on political systems." Whilst they were sitting at table in the evening. can move me. " Great Hercules. and presented to view the enormous animal. may Pyrrhus and the Samnites follow this doctrine. that they represented pleasure as the end and sovereign good of man. or hatred. or wrath : but maintained. cribed to the Divinity either'love. and shook the apartment with a most terrible cry. who stretched out his trunk over the head of Fabricius. as long as they shall make war with the Romans !" of us modems. turn. and the government of the world declaring. cried out as loud as he was able. for at that time. would expect to hear the conversation between great warriors. and : declined all dignities and employments. the tapestry was drawn aside. instead of discovering the least surprise or consternation. that he was entirely regardless of man- and that they consigned him to a life of tranquilwhich he passed all ages void of occupation. nor your elephant today. Fabricius. in going on with this subject. and after some conference on the affairs of Greece. as destructive To this he added. to whom such a doctrine was altogether new. Cineas introduced the doctrines of Epicurus. and the sign being given. " Neither your gold yesterday. were we to judge of the manners of the ancients by those which prevail in our age. and enlivened with sprightly replies. and the several philosophers of note.

esteemed him the more for making it and would intmst the prisoners to none but him. him a second time. on the delicacy and the admirable flavour of the wines of the provisions. the senate having ordered every prisoner to return to Pyrrhus." replied Fabricius. worthy of Epicureans. became more impatient than ever to contract an alliance with He therefore took him apart. that he might be certain they would be sent back to him. and conjured his city. a peace. auro non vinci. soul which he discovered and charmed with his manners and his wisdom.exander's successors. and celebrated the . 88 at least to those conversations. in case the senate should continue averse to They were accordingly sent to him at the • expiration of the festival. Saturnalia. and smiling . in exclamations. an unknown person came into his camp. to mediate an accommodation between the two states. with a letter from the king's physician. veneno non vincere. " I would not advise you to persist in that request. The command of the army being conferred on Fa- bricius the following year. perhaps they might be. * '' Ejusdcm animi fuit. Aii- . " and you seem to be but little acquainted with your own interest for if those who now honour and admire you. where he should hold the first rank among all his friends and captams. instead of being offended at this reply. and are passed without much expense of genius. Fabricius. after they had embraced their relations and friends. which frequently continue from the beginning to the end of the entertainment. should once happen to know me. and consent to reside at his court. who offered to take Pyrrhus off by poison. by putting an end to so destructive a war without any danger to the!nselves. if the Romans would promise him a recompense proportionable to the great service he should render them.ai. struck with admiration at the greatness in the Roman ambassador. who always retained the same * even in time of war. and other liquors ? of Pyrrhus. more desirous of having me for : their king than yourself" The prince. which furprobity and justice. upon pain of death. whispering in his ear.

8'4 THE HISTORY OF many knew pretexts for departing from them . at the same time that you repose confidence in traitors and the The information we now send you. that you are carrying on a war against people of virtue and honour. and ascertained . quem non regis. . oon aliter refugit iivitias quam venenum. qui in summa paupertate quam sibi decus fecerat. to caution letter him against that black treachery. jEpw/. was concdved in these terms : His CAIUS FABRICIUS AND QUINTUS EMILIUS. the truth of the information it contained. reworst of men. he wrote a letter to Pyrrhus. in bello innocentem qui aliquod esse crederet etiam in hoste nefas . . . quod difficillimum est." Senec. sults more from our affection for ourselves than for you . to fonii a wrong judgment both of friends and this will be your own opinion. but the Romans. or a recompense for not committing inirati sumus ingentem vinim. CONSULS TO KING PYRRHUS. was struck with a just horror at such a proposal and as he would not suffer the king to conquer him with gold. 120. as a testimonial of his He likewise gratitude to Fabricius and the Romans. again deputed Cineas to attempt to negociate a peace . For " You seem you will then be sensible. and there were some rights. through despair of terminating this war happily by our valour. he thought it w^ould be infamous in himself to conquer After some conference therefore the king by poison. with his colleague Emilius." Pprhus having received this letter. and sent back all his prisoners to the consul without ransom. boni exempli tenaeem . when you and enemies. HEALTH. non contra regem promissa flexissent . who would not accept either a favour from their enemy. have read the letter which has been written to us. which ought to be : iiishes so wlio preserved inviolable even with enemies themselves. caused his physician to be punished. for we were unwilling that your death should give the world occasion to defame us and to imagine that we had recourse to treachery.

was treated very rudely by the enemy. though they did not refuse to accept the prisoners. and . as an equivalent but as to the treaty of pacification. notwithstanding which they still maintained their The two armies. at the beginning of the action. and lost a great number of his men. But as his affairs made a second battle nehe assembled his army. whose as And another. he advanced against the Romans with the greatest impetuosity. and attacked the Romans cessary. which The advantage therewas near the field of battle. till Pyrrhus had returned to p]])irus in the same Heet that landed him and his troops in Italy." replied he. near the city of Asculum. against a river very difficult. having been driven into places where cavahy could not act." he had really lost his best troops and bravest officers. 85 the most execrable piece of injustice. But having at last disengaged himself from that disadvantageous situation. and amounted to The Romans were fifteen thousand men in the whole. exerted the utmost efforts that bravery could inspire. as well in regard to its banks as to the marshes on the sides of it. that broke through the Roman infantry in several quarthey ters. brought forward his elephants so judiciously. ever. inevitably . howvery great. ground.ALEXANDEU'S SUCCESSORS. his ranks being all in good order and well closed and as he met with a vigorous resistance. fired with implacable rage. who continued longest in the field . but when one of his officers came to congratulate him on his victory. yet returned an equal number of Tarentines and Samnites. fore seemed to remain with Pyrrhus. The troops fought with great obstinacy on both sides. and gained their camp. and the victory continued doubtful till the close of the battle. Pyrrhus. and did not cease fighting till night parted them. " if we gain " we are such ruined. the first who retreated. and regained the plain. . he was very sensible of his inability to bring another army into the field against the Romans. the slaughter became He. and he himself was wounded. they would not permit Cineas to mention it. The loss was almost equal on both sides. where he could make use of his elephants.

city of the I^eontines. and that this him to ascend the tlirone. he immediately despatched Cineas. and to give them assurances of his speedy arrival . c. and reduced at the same time to a state of slavery y Plut. c. In consequence of this resolution. Several couriers from Greece also arrive<l at his camp at the same time. he resolved for Sicily. per ccudes. he then embarked for Sicily. p. ab ipso Ducit opes animumque ferro. A by his troops. C. in Pyrrh. Justin. 397. and had the mortification to see himself in a manner destitute of all resource. M. t A. that he was at a loss to determine whicb offer he ought to prefer. i. Pausan. xviii. HoRAT. 2. with a commission to deliver Syracuse. and conduct him to a more ample harvest of glory. 398. notwithstanding the repugnance of the inhabitants. to inform him that Ceraunus had been killed in a battle with the Gauls. Agrigentum. p. and deliver them from A and the their tyrants. 278. f at that critical juncture. sent to him. But after a deliberation. xxiii. which would open him a passage into Africa. and incapable of recurring to any honourable expedient to disengage himself from an enterprise which he had too inconsiderately undertaken. from Sicily. to treat with the cities. who had the mortification to see themselves abandoned by Pyrrhus. after he had left a strong garrison in Tarentum. 3.86 THE HISTORY OF new vigour and ardour very defeat inspired them with to continue tlie war. 1. . and now it flowed so fast upon him. 22. ~ kingdom seemed to invite moment Pyrrhus then found himself in a new perplexity. and when he had inaturely weighed long the reasons that offered themselves on both sides. Ant. and to implore the assistance of his arms to drive the Carthaginians from their island. 1. & 1. * y Whilst he was revolving these melancholy thoughts in his mind. J. into his possession . 3726. * Per damna. before he was destitute of all hope. a dawn of hope and good fortune in- deputation was spired him with new resolution. in INiacedonia.

A continued series of prosperity. would be to abandon Sicily. and about two hundred ships. and they sent to purchase peace and his friendship with money and ships. and the best furnished with peohe also defeated. His insinuating and affable behaviour at his first arrival. they retained their own name there. who were now divested of all their acquisitions : AVlien he arrived in Sicily.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and as he had then an army of thirty thousand foot and two thousand five hundred horse. and having made themselves masters of Messina. and the numerous by Dionysius of Halicarnassus. and by The- in Sicily. who commanded in the citadel. . in a great battle. ple for its defence the inhabitants of Messina. and he proposed to give his son Alexander the kingdom of Italy. into which they had been received. and consent to let the Libyan sea be the boundary between them and the Greeks. he dispossessed the Carthaginians of their settlements in that island. They originally came from Italy. were a very warlike people. because they * changed. except the single city of Lilybseum . The rapid progress of his arms terrified the Carthaginians. as a kingdom to which he had a right by birth. He is called Sosistratus. f whose frequent irruptions infested all Sicily. But as he aspired to much greater things. he immediately became master of Syracuse. which facilitated his conqm^st of all Sicily. ed from them money out of the public treasury. governed that city. this prince being his son by the daughter of Agathocles . wliich was delivered up to him by * who then Sostratus. and he entirely demolished all their fortresses. 87 He also receivnon. who were called Mamertines. which was the strongest of all their places there. ed to bestow Sicily on his son Helenus. He now thought of nothing but He intendgreat projects for himself and his family. gained him the hearts of all the people . and obliged them to evacuate the city of Eryx. he answered them. which he looked upon as a certain conquest. with a fleet of two hundred sail. that the only method to obtain what they desired. though that of the city was not + The word signifies martial.

and severely punished those who neglected to obey his orders. had raised his hopes so high at that time. and A conduct so oppressive which he manner of luxury. and the government of cities.88 forces THE HISTORY OF under his command. . could not fail to alienate the affections of the people from him . after he had charged them with treasonable conspiracies against him. and principal of which was the conquest of had a sufficient number of vessels for that great expedition. whom he deprived of all the wealth they had received from that prince. exasperated at his odious government. He trious citizens of each city. or left them sole views live in all to the determination of his courtiers. in Excerpt. And as to all judicial proceedings. under pretext that the Carthaginians were also seized the most illuspreparing to invade him. He . he either decided them by his own arbitrary sentence. Of this number was Thenon. and that the Sicilians. ^ In contempt of the customs of that country. whom he continued in the magistracy as long as he thought proper. to obtain them. with respect to private property. 541. laws. and when he became sensible that he was universally hated. his power was soon changed into an insolent and tyrannical sway. but wanted mariners in order. he placed in most of the cities such garrisons as he knew were at his devotion. and all the important services he had rendered the king of Epirus. he obliged the cities to furnish him with men. different from that by at first had so well succeeded. Halic. were solicitous to shake off the yoke. and bestowed it upon his own creatures. whose were to enrich themselves by sordid gain. and other affairs of that nature. p. the commander of the citadel . he also conferred the first dignities. and profusion. on his guards and centurions. and without any regard to the time prescribed by the the first Africa. which first drew upon him the hatred of the family and friends of Agathocles. did not ^ Dionys. In consequence of these proceedings. and caused them to be put to death. and debauchery. therefore. that he thought of notliing but accomplishing the great views that had drawn him into Sicily .

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. means to quit the city. sailing Plut. xxv. : . Pausan. i. suffice to . ^ As he was embarking at Syracuse. 1. where he lost him from "" several of his ships. who had conduced most to the pro- A gress of his power in that island. which informed him that they had been dispossessed of all their lands. 4. At this juncture. 22. prince hazards all things when he loses the affection of his people. in Pynli. This. that some of them entered into a league with the Carthaginians. and preventing it from appearing a flight from Sicily. This barbarous and unjust treatment of the two principal citizens of Syracuse. as if he despaired of succeeding any longer in that island. as obliged him to fight. * The aversion which the cities conceived against him was so great. unless he would hasten to their assistance. 399. These letters arrived at a proper time for affording him an honourable pretext for his departure. in the very port. when he beheld nothing but new : insurrections and revolts kindling all around. p. c. rendered him entirely Such was odious and insupportable to the Sicilians. c." Justin. however. in order to destroy him. intended to have Sostratus seized. and were then sluit up in their cities. p. but he wanted the art of preserving them. xxiii. 89 exempt him from so cruel a policy thougli it was allowed that he had contributed more than anyHe also other person to reduce Sicily under Pyrrhus. where it would be impossible for them to sustain the war. * " Ut ad devlncenda regna invictus habebaturj ita devictis acquisitisque celeriter carebat tanto melius studebat acquirere imperia quam retinere. he received letters from the Sanmites and Taren tines. against those barbarians. the Carthaginians attacked him in such a manni r. 1. facilitated his conquest of kingdoms and provinces. which is the strongest tie that unites them to their sovereign. and others with the Mamertines. did not prevent to Italy with those that remained. 3. Justin. 1. the character of l^yrrhus the vigour and impetuosity of his conduct in the enterprises he undertook. but as he had some he found suspicion of what was designed against him.

. 3730. riches of the goddess. The goddess. by frequently harassing his troops. caused all the treasures to be replaced in the temple with the utmost devotion. represents this impious sacrilege as the cause of all the future calamities which happened to Pyrrhus. 1 8. The next day. his fleet was shattered by a violent tempest.90 THE HISTORY OF but upon his arrival there he found a great body of Mamertines. and all the vessels that were laden with these rich and sacred spoils. n. p. against the Romans. to the number of near ten thousand men. and greatly incommoded his march. and lodged them in his ship. being convinced. consecrated to Proserpine. was not appeased by this involuntary restitution . 542. in Excerpt. and held in the greatest veneration by all the inhabitants of that country. for which reason he was joined by very *» Liv. and the author who relates this event. gods were not imaginary beings. if the story may be credited. by this cruel disaster. Pyrrhus. and particularly of the unfortunate death which put an end to * rived at had suffered by this tempest. who had passed over thither before him. * A. arTarentum with twenty thousand foot and three thousand horse and when he had reinforced them with . who then wanted money was not so sci*upulous. for deserting them when he undertook his expedition into Sicily . J. and making repeated attacks upon his rearguard. says cast upon the coast of I^ocris. tliough it was certain that immense treasures were deposited within it. C. Halicarn. 1. 274. by long marches. Dionys. M. were This proud prince. as well as by strangers. who were encamped in the country of the Samnites. ^ Livy and Dionysius of Halicarnassus tells us one circumstance not very much to the honour of Pyrrhus's memory. after he the best troops he could find in that city. Ant. In Locris was a celebrated temple. his enterprises. This people retained a secret resentment against Pyrrhus. he advanced. but carried off all the extremely. however. Pyrrhus. and no one had ever presumed to violate it. xxix. that the I^ivy.

covered in this engagement. and with their pikes and darts compelled the elephants to turn their backs. the open plain. These he soon put into confusion. which spread universal terror among the rest. hefore the other had joined him and with this view he selected his best troops. but the other was overthrown by the elephants. and pushed the enemies with great vigour . he sent for the troops he had left behind him. sisting his colleague . discovered him the next morning as he was descending the mountains. to oppose the consul who was : to render him incapable of asthe other he led himself against Manias Curius. who were all fresh and under arms. as well as . great numbers of whom were slain. was of no less value to them than the For the intrepidity they disconquest of all nations. prise the consul in his camp.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and fall upon their own battalions . in some sense. and the gallant actions they performed in all the battles they fought with such an ene- my as Pyrrhus. and Manius having marched out of his intrenchments with a body of troops. in order to surThe enemy.his army into two bodies one of which he sent into Lucania. with such of his elephants as were strongest. Pyrrhus hastened to attack this last. there at that time. which. and driven back to their camp. at the beginning of the battle. in order to comhat in One of his wings had the advantage. which created such confusion and disorder. where he waited for the succours that were advancing to him from Lucania. increased their reputation. after which he began his march about the close of the evening. fell upon the first he met. however. to guard the intrenchments. and of most service in the field . In this emergency. This success emboldened Manius to draw all his troops out of their intrenchments. who had intrenched himself in a very advantageous post near the city of Beneventum. did not prevent him from dividing. that the Romans at last obtained a complete victory. and. These forces advanced in the critical moment. the other consul. and obliged them to have recourse to flight. however. and . 91 few of their troops This. and even some of the elephants taken.

'^ large body of other Gauls. courageously sustained Plut. he threw himself into Macedonia. for his impatience to pursue what he had not yet attained. 1. 23. then His intention was only to ravage the counreigned. caused him always to pass for the first of all the kings and generals of his time. c. A Pausan. 400. It must be acknowledged. rendered him incapable of preserv- ing and securing what was already in his possession. he was industrious to find out some new war for their support . and carry off a great booty . who formed the rear-guard of Antigonus. and put his whole army . c. This disposition of his made Antigonus compare him to a man who had lucky throws on the dice. he indulged the most exalted hopes marched against Antigonus himself .92 their fortitude THE HISTORY OF and confidence in their own bravery. Justin. but played his ^ men He very ill. In this manner did Pyrrhus find himself fallen from all the high hopes he had conceived. . he soon lost by his vain hopes . i. and had also seduced two thousand of Antigonus's soldiers over to his party. and caused them to be considered as invincible. with eight thoufoot and five hundred horse . attacked him in the defiles. 3. with relation to Italy and Sicily. and having received a reinforcement of some Gauls who joined him. with his valour and intrepidity. in Pyrrh. the son of Demetrius. and this acquisition was soon succeeded by the wars with Carthage. xxv. sand were not sufficient for the subsistence of these troops. but when he had once made himself master of several cities without any difficulty. that he preserved an invincible fortitude of mind. after he had consumed six whole years in those wars. This victory over Pyrrhus rendered them indisputable masters of all Italy between the two seas . try. however. But whatever he acquired by his great exploits. at length returned to Epirus. they no longer beheld any power capable of opposing them. 1. p. amidst all these disgraces . where Antigonus. in which. and his experience in military affairs. having at last subdued that potent rival. but as his revenues into disorder. and had entirely ruined his own affairs.

his efforts for 93 some time. king of the Molossians. Pyrrhus perceiving that they seemed to refuse fighting witli him. and deThe Macedonian phalanx livered up the elephants. but the troops who composed this corps were struck with terror and confusion . who was obliged to have recourse to flight. calling them each by their name. which was the same with that in the j)assage before us : the other t A city of was in Boeotia. being surrounded by bis troops. perfectly brave Pyrrhus w^as as may be judged by and valiant. but those who commanded the elephants. stretched ©ut his hand to the commanders and other officers. the son of Ampliictyon. one in Thessaly. . Let no one be surprised at this event. and with sacrilegious insolence. they began with plundering the tombs of the Macedonian kings. and by this expedient drew over to himself all the infantry of Antigonus. carried off all the riches inclosed in those monuments. The moment they took possession of the city. the following inscription on the spoils which he consecrated to the Itonian* Minerva. a people the most insatiable and rapacious after money of any. surrendered themselves prisoners. at the defeat of their rear-guard. consecrates to the Itonian INIinerva these bucklers of the fierce Gauls. near Larissa. Pyrrhus lightly passed over this infamous ac* Minerva was called Itonia. and she had two temples dedicated to her." Pyrrhus. made himself master of all the cities of Macedonia. and garrisoned their city with part of his Gauls. " Pyrrhus. exceedingly animated by this victory. under this name . Macedonia. whose remains were deposited there. from Itonus. near Coroncea. f he treated the inhabitants with great severity. after he had defeated the whole army of Antigonus. scattered the ashes of those princes in the air. in order to preserve some of the maritime places in their obedience to him. and the encounter hecame very most of tliem were at last cut to pieces and warm. on the river Haliacmon. after this victory. was all that now remained . « . and having taken possession of Mgsc.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The descendants of jEacus are still as they originally were.

rendered him unwilling to alienate their affection from an enquiry into this proceeding. J. which necessary for him to punish the delinand so criminal a connivance lowered him very quents . therefore. not only a very melancholy. of Cleomenes. p. he prevailed on Pyrrhus to march against Sparta. M. by too strict it would make new him enterprises. Cleoraenes. of the royal race. 272. 1. Pyrrh. much in the esteem of the Macedonians. his pressing occasion for the service of these barbarians. The former. the daughter of Leotychidas. 23.^and as this latter seemed to be a man of a violent and despotic disposition. either because the upon important afFau's he then had hands engaged his whole attention or that . with relation to the sovereignty. had two sons . ^ Plut. in Pausan. when he was far advanced in years. mus was arose between Areus and Cleonymus . Acrotatus and Cleonymus. Animated. & 1. This young lady conceived a violent passion for Acrotatus. and in the flower This circumstance rendered her marriage of his youth. the son of king Areus. and every Spartan was acquainted with the con ten) pt which his wife entertained for him. ^ Though his affairs were not established on so secure a foundation as to give him just reasons to be void of apprehension. 400—403. and twenty-four elephants.94 THE HISTORY OF his tion. Cleonymus. the contest was decided in favour of Areus. J 6S. who was equally transported with love and jealousy . he conceived new hopes. his father. 1. who was king of Sparta. espoused a very beautiful woman. and left a son named Areus. Ant. and Pyr- Tliis Cleonyrhus lent a willing ear to that proposal. Cleonymus the Spartan came to solicit to march his army against Lacedaemonia. p. . i. 24. C. with a burning impatience to avenge himself at once on his partial citizens and his faithless wife. for his disgrace was public. who was the eldest. iii. and engaged in him. c. whose name was Chelidonis. p. two thousand horse. 3732. but dishonourable affair to her husband Cleonymus. finely shaped. A. 4. Justin. died before liis After tlie death father. who was very amiable. XXV. a dispute. with an army of twenty-five thousand foot.

ALEXANDEll*S SUCCESSORS. in the evening. but those persons must be very thoughtless and impmdent who place any confidence in the language of politicians. and have the advantage above all other kings and princes. who had no suspicion of a siege. that they were then actually preparing his house for his reception . signed to send his youngest children to Sparta. of being trained up in so excellent a school. the Lacedaemonians deliberated . and of the absence of king i\reus. all the country around arrived. of Sparta. he assured them that no hostilities were intended by him against Sparta. he strongly disavowed in all his discourse . once neglected. who looked very night with Pyrrhus. and sincerity for weakness and want of judgment. indeed. that Pyrrhus was more intent to conquer l^eloponnesus for himself. before Lacedaemon . never return. and that he only came to restore which Antigonus possessed in liberty to those cities He even declared to him. firmly persuaded he would sup there that But this prince. Pyrrhus had no sooner advanced into the territories of Sparta. The helots and friends of Cleonymus were so confident of success. than to make Cleonymus master This. that he dethat country. 9'> These great preparations for war made it immediately evident. With these flattering promises he amused all such as presented themselves to him in his march . Cleonymus desired him to attack the city without a mo- He ment's delay. if they would permit him so to do. that they might take advantage of the confusion of the inhabitants. than he began to ravage and plunder him. AVhen night came. for when the Lacedaemonians sent ambassadors to him. with whom artifice and deceit pass for wisdom. upon the conquest of the city as inevitable. during his residence at INIegalopolis. and showed that there are favourable and decisive moments which must be seized immediately. deferred the assault till the next morning. who was gone to Crete to assist the Gortynians. and which. That delay saved Sparta. that they might be educated in the manners and discipline of that city.

in the name of the rest. and after she had uttered her complaints. prevented them prise from raising a sufficient number of men to form a front equal to that of the enemy. and engage them in the open field. or to breathe their last in the arms of their mothers and wives. with which they were then seized. at the same time. as to imagine they could consent to live after the destruction of Sparta ?" The same council gave directions for opening a trench parallel to the enemy's camp. six in depth. those sight of their country. and after they had exhorted those who were appointed for the encounter to take some repose. rushed into the senate with a drawn sword. While the men were employed in this work. by placing troops along that but as the absence of their king. had made. demanded of the men. nine feet in breadth. entreating them. but were opposed by them in that point one among thenr. whose name was Archidamia.96 THE HISTORY OF : on the expediency of sending their wives to Crete. they exhorted them to behave in a gallant manner . formed by a barricade of carriages sunk in the earth up to the axle-trees of the wheels. and the enemies began to be in women presented arms to all the young and as they were retiring from the trench they men. that by being thus firmly fixed they might check the impetuosity of the elephants. in order to oppose their approaches to the city. work The trench was which they completed before day. who were there assembled. and prevent the cavalry from assaulting them in flank. their wives and daughters came to join them. they resolved to shut themselves up as securely as possible. they proceeded to measure the length of the trench. and nine hundred in length. and the sur. by adding to each extremity of the ditch another kind of intrenchment. after they had proved When . while the night lasted. and took the third part of it for their own share in the work. day appeared. in particular. " What could be their inducement to entertain so bad an opinion of them. to consider how glorious it would be for them to conquer in the motion.

in the mean time. and beheld with admiration the undaunted bra- The young Acrotatus was him. if the city should happen to be Pyrrhus. 97 As for tliemselves worthy of Sparta by their valour. and most of them rolled into the ditch.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. to prevent her from falling into the hands of her husband. after a long encounter. and obliged to have recourse to flight. the first who saw the danand immediately hurried through the city with ger. engaging the wheels. which cost them a vast quantity of blood. The old men. very difficult to be passed. VI. witli a select band of Chaonians. they crowded and pressed upon each other. in order to draw the carriages into the adjoining river. he returned to his post amidst the universal applause of the Spartan v^omen. and fell around the chariots. nor maintain a good footing. as their ranks were broken. as rendered his design impracticable. and filed off along the trench to the place where the carbut riages were disposed. with their buck- The trench was not only but the soldiers of Pyrrhus could not even approach the edge of it. without being discovered in his approach. covered with blood. which she intended should be the fatal instrument of her death. H very of Acrotatus. Upon this sudden attack. . . to attack the Spartans in front. Chelidonis. which had been newly thrown up. and sunk to such a depth in the earth. in order to open a passage these were ranged so thick. he poured upon the rear of Ptolemy's troops. Having taken a large compass. who waited for him on the other side of the trench. The Gauls endeavoured to surmount this difficulty. because the earth. taken. When his son Ptolemy saw this inconvenience. stood on the other side of the trench. In a word. and most of the women. and prepared a cord. three hundred soldiers. they were repulsed. by dislers closely joined together. he drew out two thousand Gauls. easily gave way under them. VOL. and their troops thrown into disorder. for As and exulting in his victory. advanced at the head of his infantry. she withdrew to her chamber. because he advanced through hollow ways.

He was now within a small distance of the city. but the next morning it was renewed by break of day. The Macedonians were indefatigable in their endeavours to fill up the ditch with vast quantities of wood. where Pyrrhus commanded. the glory and happiness of Chelidonis an evident proof that the Spartan ladies were not extremely delicate on the subject of conjugal chastity. called to one of the officers who commanded at the post. but were always at hand to furnish arms and refreshments to such as wanted them. and other materials. The battle was still hotter along the edge of the ditch. at the same time. and bore down all who opposed him. and the large quantity of blood he had lost. and which was defended by the Lacedaemonian infantry the Spartans : fought with great intrepidity. at last. with his own hand. was seen pushing forwards full speed to the Those who defended this post uttered loud cries. and several among them distinguished themselves very much . and the women would not forsake them. and fell down dead amidst his countrymen. Pyrrhus. that the enemies might not be masters of his body. that he ran all But self a passage at the place . who had forced himwhere the chariots had been disposed.98 THE HISTORY OF : who extolled his valour. city. particularly Phyllius. faint with the many wounds he had received. and after having resigned his place to him. all those who attempted to force a passage where he fought . finding himself. he retired a few paces. who ran from place to place in the utmost consternation. after having opposed the enemy for a considerable time. who. and made him so furious. and also to assist in carrying oflP the wounded. and envied. when a shaft from a Cretan bow pierced his horse. which were answered by dismal shrieks from the women. The Lacedaemonians defended themselves with new efforts of ardour and bravery. Pyrrhus still advanced. which they threw upon the arms and dead bodies . and the Lacedaemonians redoubled their effbrts to prevent their effecting that design. and killed. Night obliged both parties to discontinue the engagement . on a sudden.

in expectation that the Lacedaemonians. 403—406. and were most of them wounded.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and seemed incapable of sustaining a new attack. . 271. considered his victo- many steps to greater advantages . Pyrrhus then caused a general retreat to be sounded. in Pyrrh. which soon drew him off to another quarter. Ant. Pint. and 99 with his master into the very midst of the enemies. which had scarce entered the city before king Areus appeared with two foot. the Spartans advanced in great numbers. 3733. Justin. Whilst his fell dead with him to the ground. and was convinced that he should gain nothing but wounds. i. The latter of these w as desirous of supporting himself by the favour and protection of Antigonus . The king of Epirus. 1. two of the principal citizens of Argos. but. and with their arrows repulsed the Macedonians beyond the trench. but he was diverted from this design by a new ray ^ of hope. 1. had excited a great sedition in that city. But at the very instant when every thing seemed desperate. p. which the Lacedaemonians received the same day. who had lost a great number of men. and add new ardour to his ambition. after he had made some attempts. Aristeas and Aristippus. and thought his defeats furnished him with indispensable reasons for ries as so * c. A. would be inclined to surrender the city. J. p. These two reinforcements. with an intention to pass the winter there . M. which was then reduced to the last extremity. r>. he desisted from his enterprise. with a very considerable body of foreign troops . immediately invited Pyrrhus to espouse his party. that it would be more glorious for him to take the city in spite of its new defenders. one of the generals of Antigonus arrived from Corinth. and Aristeas. did but animate Pyrrhus the He was more. 24. xxv. and in the very sight of its king. friends crowded ahout him to extricate him from the danger he was in. always fond of new pursuits. sensible. in order to frustrate his design. C. and began thousand to ravage the country. which he had brought from Crete. Pausan.

who had been detached by Pyrrear-guard. commanded by Evalfled.10® - THE HISTORY OF entering upon a new war. that he insensibly advanced to a great distance from his infantry. suffered it to be wrested out of their hands. Neither good nor ill success. he even surpassed himself. and made a terrible slaughter of the Lacedaemonians. and mi- . pursued them with so much ardour. proceeded altogether from the temerity of those who he spurred after they had gained a complete victory. Pyrrhus being informed of his son's death. immediately led up the Molossian cavalry against the pursuers . upon which his troops disbanded and The Lacedaemonian cavalry. his horse against him. Pyrrhus having thus celebrated as it were the funeral solemnities of Ptolemy by this great battle. was killed in rhus. as in a moment covered him with blood. an officer of great reputation. and having possessed himself of tlie most difficult passes. and throwing himself among their thickest troops. who were incapable of keeping up with him. by pursuing those that fled with a blind and imprudent eagerness. He continually sought Evaleus in the throng. to succour that guard. whom he overthrew in heaps upon the dead body of Evalcus. by the superior valour and intrepidity which he now displayed. and struck him with his javelin. and having at last singled him out. cus. therefore. He then sprung from his horse. cut to pieces the Gauls and Molossians who formed his Ptolemy. could inspire him with a disposition for tranquillity . to repair his losses. He was always intrepid and terrible in battles . made such a slaughter of the Lacedaemonians. and effaced the lustre of his conduct in all former battles. for which reason he had no sooner given audience to the courier of Aristeas^ reus formthan he began his march to Argos. his father. A the engagement. King ed several ambuscades to destroy him by the way. when grief and revenge gave a new edge to his courage. This loss of the bravest officers and troops of Sparta. but on this occasion. after having been in great through danger himself. which affected him with the keenest sorrow.

and to those places that were best calculated for their defence. and officers. by satiating his ligated his affliction in the blood of those who had slain rage and vengeance his son. when those animals had entered the city." inhabitants of Argos despatched ambassadors at the same time to both these princes. and without a considerable loss of The Artime. 101 in some measure. Pyrrhus was of life. All this could not be effected. with an offer to decide their quarrel by a single combat . he advanced to the walls. when they beheld the enemy in the city. He caused his son. noise. He formed camp near the city of Nauplia. was informed that Antigonus possessed the heights upon the borders of the plain. and confusion. Antigonus readily consented to this proposal. with the other at the head of his best troops. which caused them to be discovered. there were abundance of methods grown weary his ibr putthig an end to it. to enter the city In this very juncture of time. and indeed with sufficient reason. and to seize it But when he would have inwithout being perceived. Pyrrhus also promised to retire . and sent his sou as a hostage to the Argives. and to be replaced. accordingly marched that moment. but as he offered no security for the performance of his word. which obliged him to cause the towere to be taken down from their backs. continued his march to Argos. he had time to pour his Gauls into the city. and sent a deputation to Antigonus to urge him to advance with speed to their assistance. As soon as night appeared. to entreat them to withdraw their troops. and not reduce their city into subjection to either of them. amidst the darkness. without much trouble. but Antigonus con" That if tented himself with replying. gives. troduced his elephants. fled to the citadel. they began to suspect his sincerity. but allow it to continue in The a state of friendship with both.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. king Areus also ar- . and having found a gate left open by Aristeas. and sent a herald the next morning to Antigonus. and upon his arrival there. he found the gate too low.

Pyrrhus observing the disorder of his men. he thought of nothing but a timely retreat. became infinitely increased by the arrival of the troops whom his son brought to his assistance. which they were involved. as long as the place afforded him a sufficient extent of ground. but when he found himself engaged in the narrow street which led to the gate. he had left without. when Spartans as had made most haste. that his troops The permight have a free passage out of the city. who broke . and as These troops. Pyrrhus. with the greatest part of the army. having misunderstood his meaning. by this accident became then inexpressible. one of the largest elephants sunk down across the middle of the gate. He frequently called aloud to them to withdraw. to demolish part of the wall. in consequence of which Helenus immediately drew out his best infantry. had all joined each other. with a thousand Cretans. charged the Gauls with they the utmost fury. it w^as impossible for him to make himself either When day appeared. for as it was impossible for his voice to be heard. Pyrrhus hastened to sustain them. delivered a quite contrary message. little surprised to see the citadel filled with enemies . in order to clear the street. and as he then imagined all was lost. they still conAnd to complete the calamity in tinued to advance. the confusion. he sent orders to his son Helenus. but in vain .102 THE HISTORY OF many arrived at Argos. and put them into disorder. and filled up the whole extent in such a manner. son to whom Pyrrhus gave this order in great haste. but in the tumult and confusion which were occasioned by the darkness of the night. which were much whom too narrow. with all the elephants he had left. he was not a heard or obeyed. which already was very great. and then advanced into the city to assist his father. But as he had some apprehensions with respect to the city gates. appeared with a resolute mien. who was then preparing to retire the moment the other entered the place. that they could The confusion occasioned neither advance nor retire. and frequently faced about and repulsed those who pursued him .

fell directly The mass his helmet being too weak to off his head. his eyes were immediately covered with darkness. noise of this accident was immediately spread in Alcyoneus. The mother beheld the combat from the top of a house. he sprung into the throng of the enemies who pursued him . and were driven back. with great generosity. and was chilled with horror at the danger to which she beheld him exposed. he treated his son Helenus. Amidst the impressions of her agony. But he was soon discovered by a soldier. and sent them back to Epirus. however. was neicuirass with a javelin. as did also the rest of the women. one of the adverse party advanced up to him. and ward off the blow.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Antigonus. who put an end to his life by cutting Pyrrhus. The all parts. ther great nor dangerous. 103 xbrward. the son of Antigonus. head from the and rid away with it full speed to his father. she caught up with both hands a large tile. and while he was fighting with an air of desperation. One cannot refuse the title of a great captain to Pyr- . like the waves of the sea. and Pyrrhus immediately turned upon the man from whom he received it. recollecting the fate of his grandfather Antigonus. took off the glittering crest which distinguished his helmet. his hands dropped the reins. could not refrain from tears at so mournful a spectacle. the son of a poor woman of Argos. and he sunk down from his horse without being then observed. and who happened to be only a private soldier. and caused him to be known. and pierced his The wound. confiding in the goodness of his horse. took the soldier. she almost lost her senses. but met with a very ill reception for having acted in a manner so un- becoming his rank. The moment she saw her son engaged with Pyrrhus. After having made himself master of his camp and army. at whose feet he threw it . and the rest of his friends. and that of Demetrius his father. and then. and caused magnificent honours to be rendered to the remains of Pynhus. and threw it down upon upon his head.

by a person the most worthy of belief. why Hannibal . for venturing too rashly into an enemy's city. that the . and especially if we consider the glorious testimony given in his favour. He was defeated by the Romans near AsHe culum. and Hannibal's evidence must extend no farther. as he was so particularly esteemed by the Romans themselves . general also characterized Pyrrhus. had held the first rank in that country. 14. of Italy were more desirous of having him for people their master. ing. when he was asked by Scipio. he even did not display them on several occasions. pretending to vouch for its authenticity. third.104 THE HISTORY OF rhus. should represent him as the first who taught the art of encamping. by add" That he was the first who taught the art of encamping . might also enumerate a variety of other errors committed by him. from an historian whom he cites. . that Hannibal. Pyrrhus in the second. for so many years. However. placed Alexander in the first rank. 1. and himself only in the warrior. that no one was more skilful in choosing his posts. whom he thought to be the most able and consummate general. though a stranger. by deferring the attack for a few hours. qualities We ^ Liv. however. that he had a peculiar art in conciliating affection. and drawing up his troops . by not conciliating the people . He lost Sicily. The same and attaching people and this to such a degree. and was himself killed at Argos. indeed. Were not several Grecian kings and generals masters of this art before him ? The Romans. learned it from him." Pyrrhus might possibly be master of all these great to his interest but I cannot comprehend. with reference even to military affairs. n. merely from having chosen his ground ill. who. ^Livy reports. without. failed in his attempt on Sparta. XXXV. with regard to the merit of a and the best qualified to form a competent judgment on that head. these extraordinary qualities alone are not sufficient to constitute a great commander . than to be governed by the Romans themselves.

since a character of this nature seems. a continued series of uncertainty and variation . if Let us then allow him the title of a great valour and intrepidity alone are sufficient to . through natural constitution. or pass any part of his time to his satisfacThe tion. to be always exposing his person. so espidity. he was no where so little as in Epirus. which only shows strength than of that wise and attentive conduct. at different times. like a private soldier . and Greece. 105 not entirely inconsistent with the rank and duty of a great general. that Pyrrhus was deficient in not observing any rule in his military enterprises. to the least appearances of success . unless he was tilting with all the world ? reader will. and even little judgment . and who never confounds his own merit and functions with those of a private soldier ? may even observe the same defects to have been very apparent in the kings and generals of this age.ALEXANDER'S Is it StTCCESSORS. sential to a general vigilant for the safety of all. passion. frequently changing his views. without reflection. to be more vain of a and intrepersonal action. and mere incapacity to continue in a state of tranquillity. May it not also be said. in opinion. without examination. captain. than his forming his enterprises without the least thought. I hope. and ending nothing. into Sicily. forgive making use of that ex- my pression. and abandoning himself. nor must have shocked my readers more. JNlacedonia. the land of his nativity and his hereditary do- minions. habit. beginning His whole life was every thing. without the least precaution. to charge in the foremost ranks. very much to resemble that of the heroes and my knights errant of romances. on such slight grounds. Italy. who undoubtedly were led into it We by the false lustre of Alexander's successful teme- rity. like a common adventurer . and while he suffered his restless and impetuous ambition to hurry him. and especially of a king. and in plunging blindly into wars. But no fault is more obvious in Pyrrhus's character. in a word. without cause. as discover no consistency of design.

1. ii. 3731. ^ An embassy was also sent from Rome to Egypt the following year. s Ptolemy Philadelphus sent ambassadors to desire their friendship and the Romans were charmed to find it solicited by so great a king. by so noble a conduct. Ant. and return ignominiously to Epirus . and Q. C. Eutrop.106 deserve it . Fabius Gurges. J. at their audience of leave. iv. J. When we behold him in his battles. : The ly indicated disinterestedness which they displayed. they received them as they before accepted of the crowns . Cn. Ptolemy gave them a splendid entertainment. and his glory in procuring them peace and security. 3730. but before they went to the senate. 274. we think ourselves spectators of the vivacity. and martial ardour of Alexander . his happiness in making them happy. that persons of honour ought. but they went the next morning. and took that opportunity to present each of them with a crown of gold . they deposited all these presents in the public treasury. and placed them on the head of the king's statues erected in the The king having likewise public squares of the city. by the war they had maintained for six years against Pyrrhus. Liv. which they received. and made it evident. o. A. intrepidity. when they serve * A. after their arrival at Rome. Excerpt. when he really loves his people. 273. to give an account of their embassy. makes his valour consist in defending them. 1. Dion in . who. M. with Numerius. iv. Epit. sufficientthe greatness of their souls. Fabius Pictor. his brother. iv. s Liv. Eutrop. tendered them veiy considerable presents. The ambassadors were Q. THE HISTORY OF for in these qualities no man was ever his superior. Ant. iL *^ Val. 1. but he certainly had not the qualities of a good king. whom at length they compelled to retire from Italy. 1. * The reputation of the Romans beginning now to spread through foreign nations. because they were unwilling to disoblige him by declining the honom. Epit.he intended them . in return to the civilities of Ptolemy. 1. Max. C. c. M. Ogulnius.

* " De ." Val. He is succeeded by his son Antiochus. rit in this manner ? We may observe here. Antiochus Soter. This. in the noble liberality of Ptolemy. 107 \ * to the public. Peace restored between the two The death of Ptolemy Philadelphus. The wise measures taken by Ptolemy for the improvement of commerce. surnained Theos. An accommodatio)i effected between Magas and Philadelphus. The war between Antiochus and Ptolemy. The death qfPhileThe death of tceru^^ founder ^'the kingdom of Pergainus. kings. SECT. where shall we find states and who know how to esteem and recompense meprinces. how^ever. should receive a sum of money equivalent to that they had deposited in the public treasury. and one is at a loss to know. in consideration of the services they had rendered the state. and the grateful equity of the Romans. a satyric poet. says an hisBut let three fine models set before us. to have also lost that * Valerius Maximus. seem. The revolt of the East against Antiochus. The republic. revolt of Magasfrom Philadelphius.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The Greeks. senate and people came to a resolution. was an amiable contest between generosity and glory . that the ambassadors. and who enter upon employments in the state. the disinterested spirit of the torian. find men who devote themselves in such a manner to the public good. after they had been subjected by the Macedonians. and rendered dependent on their authority. without the least view of enriching themselves ? me add too. The The just punishment inflicted on Sotades. Athens besieged and taken hy Antigonus. VIII. without any interested expectations of a return . Max. The death of the former. indeed. by losing their liberty. propose no other advantage to themthan the credit of acquitting themselves well of selves. would not suffer their duty. The itself to be exceeded in generosity of sentiments. to which of the an- Where shall we now tagonists to ascribe the victory. publico scilicet ministerio nihil cuiquam praeter laudem bene administrati officii accedere debere judicantes. ^ ambassadors.

AntigonusGonatas. shall see Athens. not have failed of success. The fleet. king of Macedonia. she changes her masters. as slavery. immediately began hostilities with the siege of Athens . 268. one of his generals . in order to assault them in This counsel was very judicious. and promised to make a : descent. This is the ^ Justin. and engaged Ptolemy Philadelphus to accede to it. without doing any thing. J. but all feeble. under the command of Patroclus. c. They appear entirely changed. C. and so formidable to the . and in a manner pos^sessed of the sovereignty of all Greece. at the same time. in order to frustrate the confederacy which these two states had formed against him. king of Lacedaemon. to succour that city by land. 2. make «ome efforts to reinstate themselves in their ancient liberties. 3736. 1. and the Lacethereby formidable to the states of Greece entered into a league with the daemonians.108 <:ourage till THE HISTORY OF and greatness of soul. sailed back to Egypt. 1. had it been carried into execution : but Areus. beneath a foreign yoke and we shall soon behold her subjected to domestic tyrants. Each of these cities will. and to have lost all similitude to their ancient character. A. that was once so bold and imperious. ^ and without success. as soon as he arrived before the place. We most powerful kings. Antigonus. and could the rear. p. Ant. successively paying them the homage of the basest and most abject adulation. who will treat her with the utmost cruelty. while Areus. et in Attic. put himself at the head of an army. from time to time. being incapable of acting alone. 108. thought it more advisable to return to Sparta. Pausan. became very powerful. at last. some years after the death of Pyrrhus. Patroclus. xxvi. in Lacon. advised Areus to attack the enemy. patiently bowed down her neck. Athenians against him. therefore. therefore. . but Ptolemy soon sent a fleet thither. Sparta. running headlong into and. p. who wanted provisions for his troops. M. once so jealous of her liberty. and to prevent the consequences that might result from it. by which they had been then so eminently distinguished from other people.

J. his own sister and he had fled from Alexandria. 620. Ant. A. 3739. 12. caused himself to be proclaimed king of those provinces. in his return. dipped in the bitterest gall. Patroclus happened. Ant. 373?. and even the sacred characters of kings into the sea. Ptolemy and he were brothers by the same mother . p. he aflPected to blacken the reputation of Ptolemy by atrocious calumnies and when he was entertained by the latter. in An.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. never spared either his best friends. xiv. a poet universally decried for the unbounded licentiousHis satyric ness both of his verses and his manners. where he met with Sotades. governor of Cyrenaica and Libya. C. Patroclus thought it his duty to make an example of a wretch. C 265. respects neither rank nor virtue. tire. who had affronted his master in such an insolent manner. and then ordered him to be thrown . When he was at the court of Lysimachus. wherein he inserted many cutting reflections on his marriage with Arsinoe. J. or the most poetry worthy persons . were not exempted from his malignity. A. to save himself from the resentment of that prince. Magas. M. p. 621. by a prince from whom he never suspected having any thing of that nature to fear. Athens thus abandoned by her allies> became a prey ^ to Antigonus. He had composed a virulent satire against Ptolemy. a maritime city of Caria. and whose quill. having set up the standard of rebellion against Ptolemy his master and benefactor. "' The affairs of Ptolemy were greatly perplexed by a revolt excited in Egypt. when they are commanded by chiefs who have neitlier any subordination nor good intelligence between them. a Macedonian officer. M. who put a garrison into it. he traduced Lysima^ chus in the same manner. 267. . 1. for the latter was the son of Berenice and Philip. 13. . He accordingly caused a weight of lead to be fastened to his body. who have renounced all probity and sense of shame. who was her husband before ^ *« Athen. The generality of poets who profess saare a dangerous and detestable race of men. Pausan. to stop at Caimus. 109 usual inconvenience to whicli troops of different nations are exposed.

and a conspiracy which had been formed against him. C. therefore. who had marched an army to the frontiers. and. but fonned a resolution to dethrone him. It was then resolved. made himself master of Paraetonium. With this view he advanced into Egypt. and. Magas had so well established himself in his government by long possession. and by his marriage with Apame. king of Syria. as I have formerly observed. Antiochus Soter. a city of Marmarica. that they all perished by famine. the daughter of Antiochus Soter. and seize it for themselves. and as ambition knows no bounds. had now a favourable opportunity of attacking him in his retreat. Magas. J. upon the death of Ophelias. renewed his designs on Egypt. but a new danger He detected called him likewise to another quarter. as soon as he had calmed the troubles which occasioned his return. his pretensions rose still higher. M. Ptolemy. Her solicitation!?^ therefore. and who intended no less than to drive him out of Egypt. that he endeavoured to render himself independent. where he drew the conspirators into an island in the Nile. 264. by four thousand Gauls. whom he had taken into his pay. 3740. entirely defeating his troops . . obtained for him this government when she was advanced to the honours of a crown. in his march towards Alexandria. in order to succeed more effectually. he found himself obliged to return to Egypt. while Magas invaded him on the Ant. In order.110 THE HISTORY OF she Was espoused to Ptolemy Soter. He was not contented mth wresting from his brother the two provinces he governed. * A. except those who chose rather to destroy one another. prevented him from proceeding any farther in this expedition . that Antiochus should attack * Ptolemy on one side. to enter into his plan. and he immediately returned to regulate the disorders in his provinces. at the liead of a great army. and shut them up so eifectually there. The intelligence he received of the revolt of the Marmaridae in Libya. than languish out their lives in that miserable manner. to frustrate their design. engaged his father-in-law.

wha was destroyed by the intrigues of Arsinoe the younger. Ant J. who had relied upon a diversion to be made in his favour by Antiochus. all the divisions of the successors of those two princes. and gave treaty. repeated descents. and she accordingly took measures to destroy him. M. that in his own dominions. when he perceived his ally had not made the effort on which he depended. . amidst .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.<^- 1 8. 1. resolved upon a revolt. him so much employment in all his maritime provinces. 1 . Ill by who had secret intelligence of this anticipated Antiochus in his design. a person of great capacity. p. at the age of fourscore. but Ptolemy.C. who founded the kingdom of Pergamus. finding Lysimachus. He was an eunuch. xiii. to enter into the service of having quitted . and succeeded in his design. and the devastations made by the this princie was troops he sent into those parts. that he preserved the city. caused him to be suspected by the young queen . made him his treasurer. which happened seven months after. 624. in which his treasures were de- him served Lysimachus very faithfully in this posited. daughter of Ptolemy Soter. » Philetaerus. . p. an officer in the army of Antigonus that prince.263. and the affliction he testified at the tragical death of that prince. but his attachment to the intepost for several years : He rests of Agathocles. as I have formerly related . and had been originally a servant w ho of Docimus. to concert obliged to continue measures for their defence and Magas. with all the country around " Strabo. the eldest son of Lysimachus. He conducted his affairs with so much art and capacity. and intrusted him with the government of the city of Pergamus. Lysimachus. thought it not advisable to enter upon any action. died the following year. . 623. who was sensible of her intentions. in Att. Philetaerus. Other. 3741.S . Pausan. A. and that of Seleucus. was followed by Philetaerus. by the protection of Seleucus after which he supported himself in the possession of the city and treasures of Lysimachus being favoured in his views by the troubles which arose upon the death of that prince.

Eliac. Euseb. in Chron. the daughter of Demetrius. Strab^ 1. 1. M. and take that opportunity to seize his dominions . who succeeded his uncle. 1. Eumenes and Attahis. and obtained such a complete victory over him near Sardis. p Antiochus returned to Antioch after his defeat. Great mention is made of it in the history for the space of state. <> Pausan. Marcell.112 it. 3743. C. C. Pollio Ammian. In this year began the first Punic war. Antiochus Soter was desirous to improve the death of Philetaerus to his own advantage. Trog. Ant. 26l. 1. xiii. had a son named also Eumenes. The reader may consult Tom. and became one of the most potent states of Asia. THE HISTORY OF twenty years. xxvi. VII. as not only secured him the possession of what he already enjoyed. formerly stood. his nephew and successor. between the Romans and the Carthaginians. which continued for the space of twenty-four years. M. p. called it Nicomedia. and left him all his dominions. p. king of Bithynia. and reigned twenty-two years. who. de la Nauze affirms. from his own name. of the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions. for raising a . Q. of the Lower Empire. 262. xxi. having built a city near the place where Astacus. * M. and caused the whose name was the same as his own. 3742. and formed it into a^ which subsisted for several generations m his family. claimed king shortly after which he died. c. Memn. Ant. which Lysimachus had destroyed. P A. but Eumenes. in Gallien. J. J. " Nicomedes. Trebell. in Prologo. xxii. but enabled him to enlarge his do- minions considerably. from his mother-in-law. where he ordered * one of his sons to be put to death commotion in his absence. A. to be proother. the former of whom. He had two brothers. in the manner I have before mentioned. that there is an error in this abridgment of Trogus Pompeius. became his consort. 310. This young prince was his son by Stratonice. . raised a fine army for his defence. c. who was the eldest. because several of the Roman emperors resided there. i. 624.

and Caria. citi- Polyaen. xxvii. in Orat. viii. and even conferred upon him the title of God. M. language.. that it contained the astronomical observations of four hundred and When the Macedonians were masters of eighty years.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 1. his sister hy the father's side. Ant. to testify their gratitude for delivering them from the tyranny of Timarchus. c. 260. C. Tatian. usual to treat the reigning princes of those ages The Lemnians had likewise bestowed the same title on his father and grandfather. where. and the people of Smyrna it ! was ' were altogether as obsequious to his mother Stratonice. 255. VI. *i 113 Antiochus the son. c. p. 1. Plin. From Cos he proceeded to Athens. Timarchus revolted from in Asia Minor. Berosus made himself acquainted with their Babylon. c. who deIn acknowledgment for which. vii. and chose Miletus for the seat of his reThe Milesians. had recourse to Antiochus. his sovereign. He afterwards assumed the surname of Theos. Justin. J. was espoused to Laodice. and did not scruple to erect temples to their honour. 50. at this day. 171. 5Q. Athen. the famous historian of Babylon. signifies ferred upon him. and dedicated his history to him. from other kings of Syria who were called by the name the The Milesians were the first who conof Antiochus. s Berosus. 1. and it his go- was Pa- with the provinces of Cilicia. in Syr. vernor of Caria under Ptolemy Philadelphus. ^ * A. they rendered him divine honours. 3744. feated and killed him. he acquired so much reputation by his astrological predictions. notwithstanding the futility of his art. Stratag. Vitruv» VOr. With such impious flattery lestine. I . which God. 9. and there established a school. Appian. when he came to the crown. p. 1. who not only master of Egypt. but of Coele-syria. Lycia. flourished in the beginning of this prince's reign. Pamphylia. vi. con. p.7. and went first to Cos. 130. that the ^ 1. in which he taught astronomy and astrology. which had been rendered famous as the birth-place of Hippocrates. and distinguishes him. Griec. Pliny informs us. from this tyrant. in order to free themselves sidence.

caused a canal to be opened along the great road. and which had neither cities nor houses to lodge the caravans . Plin. L vi. 1. c. t Plin. were landed here. where the youths performed all their exercises. vii. but the port not being very commodious. that illustrate several passages in the Old Testament. by land to Rhinoeorura. where no water could be procured. India. C. in order to remedy this inconvenience. From thence they were conveyed on camels to Coptus. where they were again shipped. "" Strab. * Ptolemy being solicitous to enrich his kingdom. * A. p. 2. in order to draw this commerce into his own kingdom. Ptolemy. Josephus and Eusehius have transmitted to us some excellent fragments of this history. that of Myos-Hormos was preferred as being very near. and near the mouths of the river of Egypt. 37. thought it necessary to found a city on the western shore of the Red Sea. who transacted it by sea. Elath and Rhinocorura were two sea-ports . c. J. 815. and without which it would be impossible to trace any exact succession of the kings of Babylon. conceived an expedient to draw into it all the maritime commerce of the East . 3745. in exchange for its merchandise. M. . and from thence. the first on the eastern shore of the Red Sea. and Ethiopia.?- Ant. as far as Elath . and from this last place by sea again. and brought down the Nile to Alexandria. and the second at the extremity of the Mediterranean. Persia. and all the commodities of Arabia. from Coptus to the Red Sea lay across the passage deserts. between Egypt and Palestine. on the frontiers of Ethiopia. which. to the city of Tyre. which transmitted them to all the West. * in the Gymnasium. with a tongue of gold. and much better . " Ptolemy. which But as the was afterwards exported to the East.114i THE HISTORY OF zens erected a statue to liim. till then. had been in the possession of the Tyrians. and to communicate with the Nile that supplied it with water. from whence the He accordingly built it almost ships were to set out. 259. and gave it the name of his mother Berenice . xvii.

one for the Red Sea. ted out. as he intended to engross all the traffic between the East and West into his dominions. five with six. and some of the vessels which composed it much exceeded the common size. 257. and a peace was concluded on those terms. c. Useful as all these labours were. 3747. C. C. 20J. Idyll.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. M. 3746. his only daughter. ''This last was extremely fine. had thirty benches of oars . The number of the whole amounted to a hundred and twelve vessels. xxvi. thirty with nine . died before the execution of the treaty. I. p. xvii. Ant. two with twelve . Two of them. * Magas. xii. y Athen. v. 1. Lycia. beWith this side a prodigious number of small vessels. most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor^ as Cilicia. ciation succeeded. Justin. and the eldest son of the king of Egypt . 1. one twenty . He had as many more. y '^ Theocrit. and the other for the Mediterranean. with four and three benches of oars. king of Cyrene and Libya. fourteen with eleven . * ^. and Caria. growing very aged and infirm. however. having continued in the government of Libya. with Pamphylia. for. Athen. thirty. four rowed with fourteen . 258. Magas. and to per distances. at proof passengers. unless he could protect what he had facilitated in other reWith this view. he caused two fleets to be fitspects. 550.seven with seven . but kept in subjection. and serenteen with five. caused overtures of accommodation to be tendered to his brotlier Ptolemy. formidable fleet he not only protected his commerce from all insults . 3. 115 the edge of this canal houses were erected. as far as the Cyclades. . he thought his plan would be imperfect. Ant. J. J. and a promise to The negogive her all his dominions for her dowry. p. for instance. Ptolemy did not On think them sufficient . with the proposal of a marriage between Berenice. in particular. for the reception all necessary accommodations for them and their supply beasts of burden. as long as he lived. A. M.

in Daniel. in such an insolent and imperious manner. and reFrom that moment he solved to espouse him herself the daughter. as well as the ministers and officers of the army. where her marriage with Ptolemy was consummated. Hieron. she employed persons in Macedonia to invite Demetrius. Berenice. and even covered him with her own body. ^ Strab. after his death. M. and as he imagined that her favour raised him above all things.116 and Cyrenaica. 25 6. to attach himself to the moneglected ther . C. 1. the conspirators to the door of her mother's apartment. C. which greatly His widow Apame. his declining state of health not permitting him to expose himself to the fatigues of a campaign and the inconveniences of a camp . J. he began to treat the young princess. Toward the close of his days he ahandoned himself to pleasure. Ant. Ant. A. that she at last spirited him up to a war. where they stabbed him in his bed. as it had been concluded without her consent. p. to break off her and particularly daughter's marriage with the son of Ptolemy. the uncle of king Antigonus Gonatas. though Apame employed all her efforts to save him. . to excess at his table. that they formed a Berenice herself conducted resolution to destroy him. 37493. that her daughter and crown should be his. impaired calls Arsinoe. assuring him. to came to her court. resolved. for which reason he left the war to the conduct of his generals. M. With this view. and was productive of fatal consequences to Antiochus. 789. as will be evident in the sequeL » Ptolemy did not place himself at the head of his army. but as soon as Apame beheld him. in Daniel xvii. she contracted a violent passion for him. went to Egypt. who ^ Hieron. and Apame was sent to her brother Antiochus Theos^ in Syria. whom Justin his health. at the same time. 3748. A. 2 This princess had the art to exasperate her brother so effectually against Ptolemy. after this. 255. Antiochus. Demetrius arrived there in a short time . THE HISTORY OF for the space of fifty years. which continued for a long space of time.

and continually enriched it with resolution to carry new books. I xli. the brother of the boy. taste of that prince for those and he had the good fortune to gratify the works of art to such a de- gree. The till it Agathocles. governor of the Parthian dominions for This officer attempted to offer violence to Antiochus. 250. C. 1031. These troubles gave birth to the Parthian empire. xi. J. ^The cause of these commotions proceeded from expedition. Ant. A. 4. notwithstanding the war. a youth of the country. and presented him with twenty-five talents. C. in order to deliver his brother from the brutality intended him. daily gathered at last became incapable of remedy. in Arat. and the events not worthy of much notice. with a on the war with the utmost vigour. Pint. 117 •was tlien in the flower of his age. 58. upon which Arsaces. M. 1. M. 3750. Cod. they had Justin. has not preserved the particulars of what passed History in that campaign. * A. strength. was one of those who collected for him in Greece . Arrian. He was exceedingly curious in pictures and designs by great masters. and his distance at that time rendered him incapable of taking the necessary steps to check it with sufficient revolt. . 254. * While Antiochus was employed in his war with Egypt. 284. the famous Sicyonian. p. whose name was Tiridates . that Ptolemy entertained a friendship for him. killed him on the spot. p. or perhaps the advantages obtained on either side were not very considerable. and the redemption of such of them as were detained in captivity. Aratus. 3754. in Parth. c. but of great courage and honour. Strab. therefore. p. Ant. 515. a person of low extraction. Syncell. a great insurrection was fomented in the East.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. ^ Ptolemy did not forget to improve his library. They accordingly fell upon the governor. took the field at the head of all the forces of Babylon and the East. which he expended in the relief ef the necessitous Sicyonians. assembled some of his friends. apud Phot. and then fled ^ ^ for safety with several persons whom J.

and M. each of whom threw off the yoke at the same time by which means Antiochus lost all the eastern provinces of his empire beyond the Tigris. 3755. 1. viii. ii. that Arsaces soon found himself strong enough to drive the Macedonians out of that The province. Hieron. that Antiochus should divorce Laodice. and conducted his daughter to Justin. Their party grew so numerous. 50. secure the crown to his children by the second. M. * p. while Antiochus was amusing himself with the Egyptian war . when L. from a governor. the daughter of Ptolemy. . A. C. ^ The troubles and revolts in the East made Antiochus at last desirous to disengage himself from the war with Ptolemy. that is to say. ibid. and. then imder Antigonus. A . 45. Theodotus also revolted in Bactriana. strat. that he in his acquisitions. became king of that province . first under Euraenes. Manlius A^ulso. * were consuls at Rome . and lastly under Antiochus. Atilius Regulus. and assume the government himself. . J.lis THE HISTORY OF drawn together for their defence against the pursuit to which such a bold proceeding would inevitably expose them. and should also disinherit his issue by the first marriage. repudiated Laodice. A then. ^ Much about the same time. Polyaen. after the ratification of the treaty. & Strab. xi. by the negligence of Antiochus. from the death of Alexander. Antiochus. Ant. though she was his sister by the father's side. treaty of peace was accordingly and the conditions of it concluded between them were. and strengthened himself so effectually became impossible to reThis example was followed by all the other nations in those parts. Atilius. according to Justin. 249* In the Fasti he is called C. 1. he subjected the thousand cities it contained. Macedonians had always continued masters of it. and espouse Berenice. and had brought him two sons Ptolemy then : • embarked *^ at Pelusium. This event happened. the fourteenth year of the first Punic war. in Dan. that it new duce liim afterwards. c. next under Seleucus Nicator.

and gave orders to have regular supof water from the Nile transmitted to her . and their literal accomplishment at the appointed time. on the part of God.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. they are generally attended with calamitous and fatal events. and do according to his will. beplies lieving it better for her health than any other water whatever. a river of Syria. and not to his posterity. and are founded on such unjust conditions. 4. nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up. a maritime city. and Darius. and therefore he was desirous she should When marriages are contracted drink none but that from no other motives than political views. and shall be divided towards the four winds of heaven . xi. Behold." These words for his daughter. his kingdom shall be broken (by his death). the son of Hystaspes. These particulars of the marriage of Antiochus with the daughter of Ptolemy had been foretold by the prophet Daniel. man were spoken to Daniel. by the *' clothed in linen. 3. beside the four greater princes. his son Cambyses . Wc ^ Dan." In this part of the prophecy we may easily trace Alexan: der the Great. s Ver. " And the fourth shall be far richer than they all And by his strength through his riches he shall stir up all against the realm of Greece. and the nuptials were solemnized with Ptolemy had a tender affection great magnificence. ^ Ver. even for others beside those . 2." namely. that the reader may at once behold and admire the prediction of the greatest events in our history. h " And when he shall stand up. that shall rule with great dominion. which has already been explained elsewhere." The monarch here meant was Xerxes. who invaded Greece with a very formidable aimy. near the mouth of the OronAntiochus came thither to retes. who was then upon the throne . g " And a mighty king shall stand up. . I shall here repeat the beginning of this prophecy. ceive his bride." namely Cyrus. ^" I will now show thee the truth. there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia . 119 Seleucia.

and most of the maritime provinces of Asia Minor . king of Syria. prophet then proceeds to the treaty of peace. which has Syria to the north. Heraclea. because they were the only princes who engaged in wars against the people of God. And. iilde morte Alexandri distractum in multa regna. . who first reigned in that country after the death of Alexander. Q. w^e have already mentioned." It will be necessary to observe. the son of Lagus. Armenia. 6. and have dominion . Coele-syria. 5. Bosphorus. n. and Egypt to the south. Bithynia. k " The king of the South shall be strong. and the king of the North was Seleucus Nicator. king of of Egypt . and he that strengthened her in these times. confines himself to the kings of Egypt and Syria. such was their exact situation with respect to Judaea. and throughout all the remaining part of the chapter before us. was Ptolemy Soter. xi.120 THE HISTORY OF have already seen the vast empire of Alexander* parcelled out into four great kingdoms . that he shall be strong. ' Dan. whom he calls the king of the The exSouth. neither shall he stand. nor his arm : but she shall be The and the marriage : given up. selves together . * " Turn maximum in terris Macedonum regnura nomenque. and he that begat her. the king of Egypt. 1. actness of this character is fully justified by what we have seen in his history for he was master of Egypt. and on the All this was present to Daniel. and declares. According to Daniel. xlv. Arabia. and one of his princes . Palestine. and he shall be strong above him. his dominion shall be a great domiAnd in the end of years they shall join themnion. with : ^ Ver. Libya. Cyrenaica. » " The king of the South shall he strong. dum ad se quisque opes rapiunt lacerantes viribus." This king the South was Ptolemy. 5. that Daniel. indeed. and they that brought her. for the king's daughter of the South shall come to the king of the North to make an agreement but he shall not retain the power of the arm." Liv. without including those foreign princes who founded other kingdoms in Cappadocia. in this passage.

to which he added Thrace and Macedoritories . and his dominion more extensive . between mount Taurus and the jEgean sea . 6. " that he should be the North . The sequel of this history will show us the fatal event of this marriage. the island of Cyprus : 121 as also of several isles in the Mgean sea. xi. under these two races of kings. whom he calls PrincesThis was Seleucus Nicator. is which now and ^The prophet.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. of whom he declares." and mentions the treaty of peace. king of Syria. from mount Taurus to the river Indus and also of several provinces in As^a Minor. even some called the Archipelago . with admiration. with Antiochus Theos. as these events occur in the series of this history. cities of Greece. " of the coming of the of the king of the South. Dan." for this is the import of the " he shall be strong above him^ prophet's expression. I cannot but recognize in this place. the great persecutor of the Jewish nation. In the mean time. mentions another of the four successors to this empire. nia. This evidently points out the marriage of Berenice. In the remaining part of the chapter he relates the most remarkable events of future times. after this. that his terwere of greater extent than those of the king of Egypt . the daughter of Ptolemy king of Egypt. more powerful than the king of the South. to the king of the daughter North. which was also foretold by the prophet." It is easy to prove. the divine origin of the Scrip» Ibid. ' . and have dominion. as Sicyon and Corinth. shall be careful. to apply the prophecy of Daniel to them. the king of or Governors. and the peace concluded between them in consideration of this alliance . to the death of Antiochus EpiI phanes. that the reader may observe the exact accomplishment of each prediction. for he was master of all the East. every circumstance of which exactly happened according to the prediction before us. °^ Daniel then informs us. which was concluded on this occasion between the two kings. a little before his death.

to an uncommon degree. to the AVhat knowledge but this could. and a variety of sacrifices were offered up to appease her displeasure . in a secret but certain manner. have foreseen such a number of distinct so many different views. with which he was highly pleased. and pictures of excellent masters. that Ptolemy was the occasion of her illness. What an immense chain of events extends from the prophecy to the time of its accomplishment. Arsinoe was seized with an indisposition. 248. intrigues. a statue of Diana. in so particular and circumstantial a variety of singular and extraordinary facts. designs. in the statues. M. by his having taken her statue out of the temple where it was consecrated to her divinity. over kings and princes. and the accomplishment of his etenial decrees . in one of the Antigotemples. Orat. Ant. with so much certainty. he saw. as soon as possible. It was also accompanied with rich presents to the goddess. subject not only to the freedom of will. The ^ Libam A. what certed! hand. J. could have conducted and passions. during the time he continued in Syria. have their appointed time and place fixed beyond the possibility of failing. in order to be replaced in the proper temple. by the breaking of any single link. xi. and he Some time after his return. . to Syria. ? same point circumstances. THE HISTORY OP which a manner. at his request. both general and particular. and acquainted her. C. but they were not suceeded by any favourable effect. relate. but that of the Almighty. carried it into Egypt. and dreamed that Diana appeared to her. even those which depend the most on the choice and liberty of mankind ? " As Ptolemy was curious. whose very crimes he renders subservient to the execution of his sacred will. above three hundred years before they were transacted. nus made him a present of it. 3756. the whole would be disconWith respect to the marriage alone. Upon this the statue was sent back. but even to the irregular impressions of caprice ? And what man but must adore that sovereign power which God exercises. as well as in books . in which all events.122 tures.

splendido . 45. But a person should have no recourse to such heinous though This taste for statues. and may other great men. says Ci- cero. and more so. fpieen's distemper loss 123 was so far from abating. in because he imputed her death to his having removed the statue of Diana out of the temple. and frequently prompts him to notorious injustice and violence. worth." Id. de signis. methods. qui modus est cupiditatis. he however retained a constant and tender passion for her to the last. locupleti. and even the temples. ties of art. and that w^e know has no bounds." Cic. and left Ptolemy inconsolable at her . that she died in a short time. an a person of my rank and taste. Orat. gave her in effect. me is. of all their finest and most valuable curiosities. which suits only He name to several cities which he caused to be built. dicere praetorem in provincia homini honesto. * '^ Superbum est et non ferendum. Hoc est enim dicere : Non es dignus tu. for these exquisite pieces have no price but what the desire of possessing them sets upon them. t *' ficile est enini Etenim. n. 14. This is evident by what Cicero relates of Verres. by stripping private houses. and too far advanced in years to have any children when he espoused her . to say to a person of distinction." I mention nothing of the enormous expenses into which a man is drawn by this passion . but when a person abandons himself to it entirely. to testify how well he loved her. f Though Arsinoe was older than Ptolemy. . when indulged to a certain degree . n.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. qui habeas quae tam bene facta sunt. " You are unworthy to have such admirable piece in your possession. Dif- feceris. who practised a kind of piracy in Sicily. where he was praetor. or that statue/' * since it tune. and for" Sell this picture. own indiscretion. and rendered all imaginable honours to her memory after her death. and performed a number of other remarkable things. and other rare curiosibe very commendable in a prince. idem finem facere pretio. pictures. MesE dignitatis ista sunt. nisi libidini est estimationis. Vende milii vasa coelata. declaring. it degenerates into a dangerous temptation. it is still very shocking and offensive.

whom he had by his first wife Arsinoe. It has long been said. and the luxurious manner of life he led contributed to the decay of his health. for The want of sufficient Mahomet was suspended coffin. king of Syria. with a dome rising above it. the daughter of Lysimachus. brought upon him a languishing disorder. a famous architect in those times . his grandfather by the mother's side. which ended his days. 1. Ant. Ptolem. . xii. however. and his affliction for the loss of a consort whom he loved to adoration. that prince gave orders for beginning the work experiment. 247- *i Canon. and the moment he proposed it to Ptolemy. a different perHis son from the last-mentioned queen of that name. The name of the daughter was Berenice. 3727. He was naturally of a tender constitution. 14. Ptolemy Euergetes. succeeded him in the throne . ** Plin. Astron. and even believed. the concave part of which was to be lined with adamant. M. c. in this manner. that the body of "without delay. This design was the invention of Dinocrates. remained time . 549- A. has already been related. whose marriage with Antiochus Theos. J. without the least foun- tlation. in an iron by a loadstone fixed in the vaulted roof of the chamber where his corpse was deposited after his death . ^ He left two sons and a daughter. and the thirty-eighth of his reign. 1. eldest son. imperfect.124 ^ ^HE HISTORY OF Nothing could be more extraordinary than the design he formed of erecting a temple to her at Alexandria. C. the project was entirely discontinued. xxxiv. the second bore the name of Lysimachus. P Ptolemy Philadelphus survived his beloved Arsinoe but a short time. P Athen. for Ptolemy and the architect dying within a very short time after this resolution. in order to keep an iron statue of the queen suspended in the air. The infirmities of old age. and was put to death by his brother for engaging in a rebellion against him. in the sixty-third year of his age. but this is a mere vulgar error. p.

and his happy natural disposition had been carefully cultivated by able masters. but regulated his We propensity to those grateful amusements by prudence and moderation. particularly Callimachus. from whence both those princes have derived as much glory as could have redounded to them from the greatest conquests. Lycophron. but in such a manner. riches soon drew after them a train of and effeminate pleasures. by his love of the arts and sciences. and his The fame of his liberalities generosity to learned men. he erected public schools and academies where they long flourished in great re* . is invited several illustrious poets to his court. and that he spared no expense in the augmentation and embellishment of the library founded by his father. 125 Character and qualities of Ptolemy PhUadelphug. Ptolemy Philadelphus He dishonoured the early part of his reign. had certainly great and excellent qualities . the last of whom gives him a very high character in some of his have already seen his extraordinary taste Idyllia. SECT. he always retained a peculiar taste for the sciences. IX. the usual concomitants luxury of such high fortunes. made an ample compensation for this neglect. 1 mean Demetrius Phalereus. and Theocritus . because he had given some advice to his father. which contributed not a little to enervate his mind. not always a misfortune to a people. because those qualities were counterpoised by defects altogether as considerable. however. He. that a remissness of this nature His immense . as suited the dignity of a prince . by his resentment against a man of uncommon merit. contrary to the interest of Philadelphus. In order to perpetuate this taste in his dominions. and yet we cannot propose him as a perfect model of a good king. He was not very industrious in the military virtues but we must acknowcultivating ledge.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. at the same time. As Philadelphus had abundance of wit. but entirely conformable to equity and natural right. dt Alexandria. since he never suffered them to engross his whole attention. for books .

. if I may use that expression. and freedom in his ports. with respect to government. in this particular. into all nations . a thousand things. to make commerce flourish in his dominions . could never discourage him from persisting in what he proposed to ac- have already observed. in which attempt no prince ever succeeded more eff^ectually than himself The greatest expenses. he extracted from He each of them. as he was persuaded. in order to make it subservient to his own particular interest. His princi- pal ])oint in view was to secure to strangers all imaginable safety. that commerce was like some springs. and their lasting effects were infinitely beneficial to his kingdom. and his care to give due honour to the arts. strengthened by the principles of their first establishment. after a duration of above two thousand years opening a perpetual flow of new riches. to use the opportunity of acquiring. how This intercourse of Philadelphus with learned men. not only curious. that soon cease to flow. These were views worthy of a great prince. and as the greatest masters in every kind of science were emulous to obtain his favour. This is the inestimable advantage which princes and great men possess and happy are they when they know . drawing continually from them a return of voluntary (^ntributions uniting the East and W^est by the mn* . with- out fettering trade in any degree. the flower and quintessence of the sciences in which they excelled. and new commoilities of every kind. may be considered as the source of those measures he pursued. through the course of his long reign. They have even continued to our days. whole cities in order to protect and facilitate his intended traffic . convenience. that he opened a very long canal through deserts destitute of water and maintained a very numerous and complete navy in each of the two seas. when diverted from their natural course. We merely for the defence of his merchants. and a consummate politician. but useful and important. in agreeable conversations. . . that he built complish.126 THE histohy of loved to converse with men of learnings putation. or endeavouring to turn it from its proper channel.

self divest fer them of their conquests in a short time. . Those great conquerors and celebrated heroes. and the revolutions to which the most potent states are obnoxious. have scarce left behind them any traces of the conquests and acquisitions they have made for aggrandizing their empires . . What we have already observed. . in the history of Phi- ladelphus. is to gain the love of mankind. On the contrary. whose merit has been so highly extolled. or at least those traces have not been durable. not to mention the ravages and desolation they have occasioned to mankind. when we trace indispensable to all nations. by and inclination to cause the land to be cultivated in a better manner to make arts and manufactures flourish and to augment. Ptolemy was sensible. as the most essential duty of kings. the commerce of Egypt. his subjects. is another glorious panegyric on this prince . and transthem to others. by a thousand judicious measures. it up to its source. but of all mankind in general. . 127 tual supply of their respective wants. preferring a residence in a foreign land to the natvu*al affection of mankind for their native soil. established thus by Philadelphus. as an able politician. amidst the splendours of a throne. instead of being shaken by time. their interest and attach them to his government. the power of a prince and his kingdom. that the only sure expedient for extending his dominions without any act of violence. and become daily more useful and So that. was to multiply his subjects. with respect to the inclination of the neighbouring people to transplant themselves in crowds into Egypt.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and the most grateful pleasure they can possibly enjoy. has rather increased through a long succession of ages. and establishing on this basis a commerce that has constantly supported it- from age to age without interruption. to the latest posterity. we shall be sensible that this prince ought to be considered not only as the benefactor of Egypt. whose real strength consists in the multitude of . and to make their government desirable.

the nephew C)f0nias. Credit of Joseph. ^ soon as Antiochus Theos had received intelligence of the death of Ptolemy Philadelphus. caused Antiochus to be poisoned. c. The death of EumeneSylcing erf Pergamus. and was apprehensive that the same levity of mind would induce him to return to Berenice again. M. II. Antiochus H'lerax. vii. Justin. Seleucus is take^i p)risoner by the Parthians. who knew the variable disposition and inconstancy of Antiochus. C. he divorced Berenice. in the few visits that were paid him. I. The death of Seleucus. The establishment oftlie Parthian empire by Arsaces. to He acquitted himact the part she had occasion for. Antiochus is slain hy robhers. and Seleucus his brother. and recalled Laodice and her children. when she saw that he was dead. Max. 14. self with great dexterity . Her own children were disinherited by the treaty made As with Ptolemy . with PtoleTJie death of Demetrius. therefore. Attains succeeds him. that the issue Berenice might have by Antiochus should Laosucceed to the throne. 1. Solin. Ant. his fatherin-law. 1. in Daniel. ix. 12. Val. by which it was also stipulated. Plin. c. . to recommend his dear Laodice and her children to the lords and people. Laodice. and dice. He is succeeded hy his son Demetrius. unite against The death of Antigonus GanataSy Icing of Mace^ Ptolemy. c. Antiochu^ Theos is poisoned by his queen Laodke^- wfw causes Seleucus Callinicus to he declared king She also Ptolemy Euergetes avenges destroys Berenice aiid her son. hetioeen the two brothers. SECT. The war donia. who very much resembled him both in his features and the tone of his voice. Antimy. A. 3758. 246. their deaths hy that of Laodice^ and seizes part of Asia. taking great care. 1. she placed in his bed a person named Artemon. 1. In his ^ Hieron. gonus seizes the throne qfthatprirwe. J. c. and she then had a son. i. king of Macedonia.128 THE HISTORY OF CHAP. Aiitiochus and Seleucus. xxvii. resolved to improve the present opportunity to secure the crown for her son.

were murdered in the blackest and must inhuman manner. in the time of Daniel. prised that Porphyry." I am not sm*io retold ^ prophet Daniel had " riage. 6". VI. had the government of the provinces of Asia Elinor. K . which. should each of them be governed by kings who originally sprung from Greece ? Yet the prophet saw them established in those dominions above three hundred years before. with all tiie Egyptians who had accompanied her to tliat retreat. as predictions made after the several events to which they refer for. where she shut herself up in the asylum built by Seleucus Nicator. and enjoyed it for the space of twenIt appears by the sequel. where he commanded a very considerable body of troops. constituted part of the : Babylonian empire. xi. The kivig's : . name were issued orders. was then declarid. Laodice. neither shall he stand. not believing herself safe as long as Berenice and her son lived. first her son and then herself. concerted measures with Seleucus to destroy them also . and saw them afterwards reconciled by atieaty of peace ratified s Dan. could they possibly be clearer if he had even been a spectator of the acts he foretold ? A^Hiat probability was there that Egypt and Syria. and he that strengthened her in those times. but Berenice being informed of their design. as tributary provinces. nor his arm but she shall be given up.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. surnamed Hierax. This event was an exact accomplishment of what the with relation to this mardaughter of the South shall come to the king of the North to make an agreement but he shall not retahi the power of the arm. and they that brought her. who was a professed enemy to Christianity. by 129 which his eldest son Seleu- His death cus Calliiiicus was appointed his successor. He beheld these two kings in a state of war. vor<. escaped with her son to Daphne. that his brother ty years. and he that begat her. u})on whicli Seleucus peaceably ascended the throne. should represent these prophecies of Daniel. Antiochus. But being at last betrayed by the perfidy of those who besieged her there by the order of Laodice.

and Ptolemy. and Ptolemy not only caused Laodice to suffer death. The troops of Asia joined those of Egypt. passion at her misfortune they formed a confederacy. and sent a body of troops to Antioch for her relief. he discovered that the issue of this princess. criminal proceeding of I^aodice. who commanded them. who had made himself an accomplice in her barbarity. but the unhappy Berenice and her children were dead before any of these . but made bin self master of all Syria and Cilicia. had been her strength and support. with all the officers who conducted her out of Egypt into Syria. were so far from ascending the throne. who caused her to be destroyed. " Great God how worthy are thy oracles to be believetl and reverenced!" Testimonia tua credihilia facta sunt nimis. was as successful as he could desire in the satisfaction of his just resentment. they therefore saw that all their endeavours to save the queen and her children were rendered ineffectual. were touched with comin consequence of which. they immediately de- When tennined to revenge her death in a remarkable manner. The 5 after which he passed the Euphrates.130 THE HISTORY OF by a He also observed that it was the king arrive. and who. and conquered all . that they were entirely exterminated and that the new queen herself was delivered up to her rival. He saw her conducted from Egypt to Syria in a pompous and magnificent manner but was sensible that this event would be succeeded by a strange catastrophe. . and not the king of Syria. who cemented the union between them by the gift of his daughter. in exclusion of the children by a former marriage. and of the king her son. of Egypt. While Berenice was besieged and blocked up in Daphne. m notwithstanding all the express precautions in the trea- ty for securing their succession to the crown. soon alienated the affection of the people from them . till then. ! : auxiliary troops could arrive. who had received intelligence of her treatment. Her brother Ptolemy Euergetes was also as expeditious as possible to advance thither with a formidable army . In a word. the cities of Asia Minor.

who were more his conquest of that : devoted to their superstitious idolatry than all the rest of mankind. that Ptolemy had merited this title by actions more worthy of it. off forty thousand * talents of sil- with a prodigious quantity of gold and silver vesami two thousand five hundred statues. 7—9. and ' Dan. one of Syrian empire. who was Ptole- my Euergetes. whose solid greatness consists in the inclination and ability to improve the w^elfare of their subjects.. part of which were those Egyptian idols that Cambyses. he would certainly have subdued all the provinces of the He. however. thought they could not sufficiently express and gratitude to a king. after kingdom. root (intimating the king of the South. the son of Ptolemy Philadelphus) diall one stand up in his estate. Ptolemy gained the hearts of his subjects. . when he returned from this expedition for the Egyptians. and we need only cite the text. An All this was also accomplished exactly as the prophet Daniel had foretold. xi. who had restored their gods to them in such a manner. acquired by his conquests. . left Antiochus. 131 the country as far as Babylon and the Tigris : and if the progress of his arms had not been interrupted by a sedition which obhged him to return to Egypt.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORSf. This prince carried ver. and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the Morth (Seleucus Callinicus). to govern the provinces he had gained on this side of mount Taurus to trusted with those that lay beyond marched back and Xanthippus was init Ptolemy then laden with the spoils he had Egypt. and shall deal against them. sels. who shall come v/ifch an army. * About six millions sterling. to ^" But out of a branch of her prove what we advance. his generals. epithet of this nature is the true characteristic of kings. by replacing those idols in their ancient temples. and it were to be wished. Ptolemy derived from this action the title of Euergetes. which their veneration signifies a benefactor \ a title infinitely preferable to all appellations which conquerors have assumed from a false idea of glory. had sent into Persia. .

1. This consecrated hair being lost soon after by some unknown accident. either to make their court as well as Conon. and then dedicated it to the gods. in order to which she caused her hair to be cut off. which version is come down to is still us. Synag. composed a short poem on the hair of Berenice. a pro^ montory in Cyprus. heof the dangers to which he would be ing apprehensive exposed in the war. with their princes. under the name of the Zephyrian Venus. and when she at last saw him return with so much gloiT. took upon him to affirm. an artful courtier. at the same time. made a vow to consecrate her hair. if he should happen to return in safety. ii. and he pointed out seven stars near the lion's tail. CatullviiF^ de coma Beren. their gods. Callimachus. A*tron. that the locks of the queen's hair had been conveyed to heaven . Nonnus in Hist. shall also carry captives into Egypt. and he shall continue more And So the king of the years than the king of tlie North. Ptolemy was extremely offended with the priests for their negligence upon which Conon of Samos. which till then had never been part of " When Ptolemy Euergetes set out tion. " Hygini Poet. into Egypt. and with their precious vessels of silver. that they might not draw upon themselves the displeasure of Ptolemy. tenderly loved him. and shall return into his ovm land :" namely. his who . which any used to this day. and also a mathematician. that Several other astrothose were the hair of Berenice. . on this expediqueen Berenice. This was most probably a sacrifice of the ornament she most esteemed . being then at Alexandria. in the temple which Ptolemy Philadelphus had founded in honour of his beloved Arsinoe on Zephyrion. or nomers. who had been at the court of Philadelphus. the kingdom of Seleucus). and of gold. the accomplishment of her promise was her immediate care . gave those stars the same name. declaring. South shall come into his kingdom (that is. constellation .182 THE HISTORY OF shall prevail. which Catullus afterwards translated into Latin.

The of Asia which had revolted through the horror they conceived against him. But this dreadfiil stroke. 3759- Ant. and it was with great difficulty that they escaped naked from the general wreck. C. 3760. Appian. contr. for. f This unexpected change having reinstated him in the greatest part of his dominions. that all his conquests and successes were owing to that God who had caused them to be foretold so exactly by his prophets. and as their hatred was then changed into compassion. 244. y Justin." Ant. he was industrious to raise another army to recover the rest. . open sea. and he might conclude. for the victories he had obtained over the king of Syria . the winds and waves the ministers of his vengeance on this parricide. This effort. cities ed him sufficiently punished . 3t 135 Ptolemy. he set sail with a considerable fleet His enterprise was. Perhaps the prophecies of Daniel were shown to that prince. in his return from this expedition. no sooner received intelligence of the great loss he had now sustained. ii. by which action he evidently discovered his preference of the true God to all the idols of Egypt. than they imagin- contrary. 1. to the re-establishment of his affairs. J. his whole navy was destroyed by a violent * had made tempest as if Heaven itself. says Justin. in order to render homage to him. M. M. but when he received intelligence that Ptolemy was returning to Egypt. A. Seleucus. where he offered a great number of sacrifices to the God of Israel. by the apprehension of domestic troubles . ineffectual as soon as he advanced into the ever. c. on the ^ . * " Velut diis ipsis t A. parricidium vindicantibus. * Joseph. C. were almost the only persons who were saved. they all declared for him anew. from what they contained. howto reduce the revolted cities.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Seleucus had been detained for some time in his kingdom. xxvii. which seemed intended to overwhelm him. 2. passed through Jerusalem. and some of his attendants. 245. contributed. J. . after the murder of Berenice and her children. 1.

: by which they mutually stipulated all their to support him witli They were greatly attaclied to his from whom they probably had received many family. with as small a number of men as had been left him when he escaped from the shipwreck at sea as if. says a certain historian. and her attachment to the sacred persons of kings. in Asia Minor. : Callinicus reStratonice. After this second blow. with several other antique marbles. who cut off the greatest part of his troops. He fled to Antioch. in the reign of Charles the Second. were induced. by mere affection for Seleucus.134 THE HISTOUY OF however. and is now in the This column was area before the theatre at Oxford. and. out of Asia. the cities of Smyrna and Magnesia. Henry Duke of All the Norfolk. by a fatal vicissitude of fortune. proved as unsuccessful as the former." nee propter Justin. to form a confederacy in his favour. and also to forces. Antiochus Theos. and whose antiquity and reputation. the mother of all the rest. presented to the university of Oxford by his grandson. and I wish that in this respect the same zeal had been testified for that of Paris. extraordinary favours they had even rendered divine honours to his father. the mother of this latter. he had recovered his former power only to lose it a second time with the greater mortifica* tion. learned world ought to think themselves indebted to noblemen who are emulous to adoni and enrich universities in such a generous manner . in conjunction with the abilities of her professors. and afterwards granted them several advantageous privileges. which still subsists. They caused the treaty we have mentioned to be engraven on a large co- lumn of marble. at brought the beginning of the reign of Charles the First. The esta- blishment of a library in this illustrious seminary would Quasi ad ludibrium tantum fortunse aliud opes regni recepisset. . have rendered her worthy of being favoured in a peculiar * " manner by princes and great men. tained a gratefid remembrance of the regard these cities had testified for his interest. qiiam ut amitteret. his army was defeated by the forces of Ptolemy. natiis esset. by Thomas Earl of Arundel.

was so great. and he was always so ready to seize dity for himself whatever came in his way. an advanced age.three years . Antigonus Gonatas died much about this period. % \. that he might not have both these princes for his enemies at the same time. latronis more. who reigned ten years. The young prince was then at the head of an army in those provinces and though he was but fourteen years of age. 37^2. J. Unde Hierax est cognomiDatus nou homiuis sed accipitris ritu^ in alienis enpieii^is vitam sec* laretur." Justin. and act in concert with him. Seleucus. ^42. 135 be an immortal honour to the person who should lay the foundation of such a work. not with any intention to secure to him the enjoyment of His avihis dominions. without the least regard to justice. cum esset annos quatuordecim natus. and advanced in quest of his brother. occasionem non tarn pio animo. 243. I When Ptolemy received intelligence that Antiochus was preparing to act in concert with Seleucus against him. supra ceta- tera reo^i avidus. as he had all the ambition and malignity of mind that appear in men of vinces of Asia . he immediately accepted the offers made him. f which signifies a bird that pounces on all he finds. after he had reigned thirty-four years in Macedonia. and concluded a truce with him for ten years. He was succeeded by his son Demetrius. C. C. 3761. II A. * yet. he reconciled himself with the latter. Ant. whom he promised to invest with the sovereignty of the pro- Minor that were contiguous to Syria. at the age of eighty or eighty. puer scele- i^uia. and thinks every thing good upon which he lays his talons.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. quam ofFerebatur. ratam virilemque sumit audaciam. t A kite. that he acquired the surname of Hierax. sed. totum fratri eripere cupiens. provided he would join him with his troops. and forty-four in Greece. arripuit . Apt. but to seize them for himself. M. in the extremities to which he was reduced. : . had made application to his brother Antiochus. M. J. and made himself master of CyII * " Antiochus.

most probably some of those who had settled in Galatia. 1. c. Antiochus ^ founded his pretext on the promise which had been made him of the sovereignty of the provinces of Asia Minor. in order to check his progress. xxviii. Antiochus resolving to persist in his pretensions. as if he designed to assist his brother. * and he concealed the virulent disposition of an enemy under the name of a brother.136 THE HISTORY OF renaica and all Libya. * Pro auxilio bellum. had formed a resolution to destroy Antiochus. 1. after the death of her husband Alexander. 1. upon a confused report that Seleucus had been killed in the action. . c. and immediately passed mount Taurus. to espouse her daughter Phthia. brother. wife." . Seleucus penetrated his scheme. Justin. imploratus exhibuit. notwithstanding his victory. as a compensation for assisting his brother against Ptolemy but Seleucus. who was likewise her The first brother. who then saw himself disengaged from that war without the aid of his . after the ^ Polyb. * ii. but Olympias. 2. pro fratre hostem. it became necessary to decide the difference by arms. persuading themselves that they should be absolute masters of Asia. in pursuance of the treaty between them but his real intention was to dethrone him. The troops to whose valour he was chiefly indebted for it. in Galatia. and Seleucus refusing to allow them. retired to her brother Antiochus. Justin. engaged him. and escaped with the utmost difficulty from the enemy. Demetrius ^ first married the sister of Antiochiis Hierax . wherein Seleucus was defeated. battle A was accordingly fought near Ancyra. '^ lib. the daughter of Pyrrhus king of Epirus. These traitors. did not conceive himself obliged to perform that promise. and earnestly pressed him to declare war against her faithless husband but his attention was then taken up with other views and : employments. 131. being unable to support this injurious proceeding. xxvii. were a body of Gauls whom he had taken into his pay. p. In fact. Antiochus still continued his military preparations. Antiochus was also exposed to great dangers.

however. Valer. 3. did not prevent Eumenes from attacking them. . 241. 37(53. obliged him to make a new treaty with the Gauls. were seizthe provinces of the Syrian empire in the West. A. He entirely reduced the Gauls. 445. for though his predecessors the power. and. 1. prince of Pergamus. for that of their ally and he also entered into a league This treaty. to distribute ^11 the obliged. Strah. with his dominions. which he had before assumed. ing ^ ^ Whilst Eumenes. and laid all Asia Minor open to : The imminent danger him. J. xiii. of the army amongst them. Athen. 1. Ant. ^ Eumenes. - 624. in consequence of their to which Antiochus was then exposed. p. to his posterity. Justin. wherein he stipulated to renounce the title of their master. them both. ex Polyb.p. and then established himself so effectually in his dominions. was the first of his house who took it upon him. and as he came upon them in such a sudden and unexpected manner as did not allow them any time to recover after their fatigues. and perfectly qualified to preserve the conquests that he inherited. his cousin-germ an. death of those two princes. self to after this fortunate event. or to furnish themselves with new recruits. C. that he took upon after a reign of of king .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and died As he left no children. being desirous of taking advantage of this conjuncture. abandoned himintemperance and excess at his table. who was the son of Attalus. he obtained a victory over them. title all himself the had enjoyed after him. advanced with all his forces against Antiochus and the Gauls. This prince was wise and valiant. and transmitted it. they had never hitherto ventured to assume the title of sovereigns. for 137 Antiochus. offensive and defensive with that people. c. x. therefore. 1. which cost him but little. therefore. in full exhis own pectation to ruin division. money ^Eumenes. xxvii. his father's younger brother. Attalus. he was succeeded by Attalus. Excerpt. M. twenty years. Attalus. who enjoyed it to the third generation. was preservation.

who bore the same name. these two provinces into a kingdom. J. The treasure and up to Ptolemy. and annexed it to Parthia. M. and they mutually supported themselves in their doThe two brothers. these transactions. of this proceeding . Ptolemy caused him to be seized and imprisoned under a strong guard. . in process of time.1S8 THE HISTORY OP Theodotus and Arsaces were following their example the East. C. was soon weary of entertaining a son-in-law who became a burden to him for which reason he determined to destroy him. he was obliged to wander from one retreat to another. where he could possibly continue in safety. C. turned his arms against Hyrcania. till he was at last entirely driven out of Mesopotamia. 4. where he rather chose to . ^ The latter hearing that Seleucus had been slain in the battle of Ancyra. king of Cappadocia. however. with the most implacable warmth. had reason to repent highly offended. notwithstanding this alliance. whose daughter he had espoused. Ariarathes. became very formidable to the empire of the Romans. Ant. J. the whole would be gradually wrested from them by their com* m forces of Antiochus being exhausted by the several overthrows and losses he had sustained. 3774. Arsaces made a league offensive and defensive with his son. M. Theodotus dying soon after. 230. 226. 3778. and succeeded his father in Bactria . mon enemies. t A. for immediately after his arrival in Egypt. 1. the professed enemy rf than to trust a brother whom he had s© house. being informed of his design. c. therefore. continued the war against standing each other. he retired for refuge to Ariarathes. * Finding. which he had alHe then erected ready dismembered from the empire. Antiochus. which. * A. notwithminions by this union. avoided the danger by a speedy retreat into Egypt . Ant. that there was no place in all the empire of Syria. that while they contended with each other for the empire which their fathers had left them. not considering. He. f and detained him several deliver himself liis ^ Justin. with the shattered remains of his party. xH.

J. ATo^^^^e^vto. but none of his works have been transmitted to us. 239J. the grandfather of that prince. . to the Trojan war. might have succeeded better in time. was not attended with success for Arsaces had been allowed too much time to strengthen himself troubles his brother . Ibid. except his catalogue of the kings of Thebes in Egypt. in the mean time. 236. was obliged to discontinue his enterprise in a dishonourable manner. 139 till at last he found means years in that confinement. 3768. in voc. perhaps. with the years of their respective reigns. in his Seleucus. he had the misfortune to be assassinated by a band of robbers. which had been excited in his * ^ Suid. ^ Euergetes. 3765. and is still to be seen in Syncel: * lus. ^ He was a man of universal learning . in voc. if new commotions. to escape by the assistance of a courtezan . from Menes or Misraim. effectual endeavours to recover those territories. however. after many inusurpation. therefore. and had been educated by Callimachus. and the enlargement of his father's library at Alexanbut as a proper collection dria with all sorts of books well be made without an able librarian. he turned his thoughts to the reduction of the provinces of the East which had revolted from him. a native of the same country. M.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. M. sent to Athens for Eratosthenes. C. the Cyrenean. who was then in great reputation. upon the death of Zenodotus. This last attempt. f When Seleucus saw himself extricated from the had occasioned. but as he was quitting that kingdom. C. & A. Ant. who had held that office from the time of Ptolemy Soter. who first peopled Egypt after the deluge. his first cares were employed in the re-establishment of order and tranquillity at home and when he had accomplished this. * 'E^«Tec*^S»i5f. This catalogue contains a succession of thirty-eight kings. Zjjvo'Joto?. to could not whose care it would be likewise necessary to consign them. He. . t A. Ant. devoted the sweets of peace to the cultivation of the sciences in his dominions. Ptolemy.

quaesito simul constitutoque regno." g Justin. and became as memorable among the Parthians. 17. 4. A. for he was not only defeated. and giveth it to whomsoever he will. for many succeedbattle. ^ That the Most High ruleth in the kingdom of men. which declares. in order to suppress them. in process of time. made a new attempt. counterpoised the Roman power. xli. all future elibrts g Seleucus. to be called by his name . rabilis Parthis Arsaces. C. * " iv. who succeeded Arsaces made it an indispensable law. I. as long as the race of Ptolemy Soter governed that kingdom. which. as Cyrus had been among the Persians. and counted it an honour. had not compelled him to make a speedy return. M. Ant. & 5. or Alexander among the Macedonians. and became a barrier which all the armies of All the kings that people were incapable of forcing. ^'Dan. as soon as his affairs would admit: but this second expedition proved more unfortunate than the first . been much more supportable than their oppressive goArsaces now began to assume the title of vernment. This furnished Arsaces with a new opportunity of establishing his power so effectually. though in reality it was the first of their slavery . or Romulus among the Romans." Justin. king. c. non minus memoffuitj quam Persis Cyrus. and firmly established this empire of the East.140 THE HISTORY OP dominions during his absence. and setteth up over it the basest of men. the anniversary of this victory. 3774. for the world never produced greater tyrants than those Parthian The Macedonian kings to whom they were subjected.^' This verifies " that passage in holy Scripture. 230. but' taken prisoner by Arsaces. in the same manner as the kings of Egypt retained that of Ptolemy. Arsaces raised himself to a throne from the lowest condition of life. would have yoke. . Macedonibus Alexander. J. ing years. which they considered as the first day of their liberty. that were incapable of shaking it. in a great The Parthians celebrated. Boraanis Romulus. however. if they had continued to submit to it.

Athenion. which his predecessors liad always paid to the kings of to send to Egypt. and on his way met with it several of the most considerable persons of Coele-syria and Palestine. and was thought necessary to send a deputation to the kiiig. the high priest of the Jews. all the information he could desire. with relation to the affair that brought them to court. which then amounted to a great sum . and justice. and as he set out for Egypt before him. with a body of tronps. with an intention to offer terms for farming the great revenues of those provinces. with the queen and Athenion ' Joseph. Joseph concealed his dissatisfaction at their behaviour. was universally esteemed for his prudence.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOK& '^ 141 Onias. but drew from the conversation that passed between them. e. to Jerusalem. without losing a moment's time. had conceived a great regard for his character. . When they arrived at Alexandria. he promised to render him all the good offices in his power with the king. who were also going to Egypt. C. as a testimonial of the homage they rendered sent Athenion. had neglected Ptolemy the usual tribute of twenty talents. 3771 * Ant. A. M. they were informed that the king had taken a progress to ^lemphis. Antiq. probity. 3. without seeming to have any particular view in the curiosity which he expressed. in tiie person of Joseph. He had the good fortune to meet him as he was returning from Memphis. arrears. and Joseph was the only person among them who set out to wait upon that monarch. Joseph followed him in a short time. and to to that crown. and considered him as a person of no great capacity. xU. the nephew of Onias. The king thi eaten the Jews. 1. they treated him with little respect. who. alaim was very great at Jerusalem on this occasion. 233. and divide it among themselves. J. though in the prime of his youth. one of his to demand the payment of the courtiers. during his continuance at Jerusalem. As the equipage of Joseph was far from being so magnificent as theirs. in case of refusal. who should be commissioned to expel them from The tiieir country. & 4.

reproached them for depreciating the king's revenues in that manner. that he allowed him to farm the revenues without any other security than hia verbal promise for payment. who had been highly prein his favour by Athenion. as satisfied Ptolemy. Josepli acted in that station for the space of ten years. who had discovered. to the mutual satisfaction of the court and provinces. and invited him into his chariot. was extremely depossessed lighted to see him. His rich competitors. which put him into so good a humour. Upon being ordered to mention them. as he was certain his majesty could have no objections to. THE HISTORY OF The king. and Samaria. he asked Joseph what security he would give him for the performance of his agreement? The Jewish deputy calmly replied. and added. and offered twice as much as they had done. but being apprehensive that the person who proffered so large a sum would be in no condition to pay it. in the conversation that passed between them in his presence. Joseph. the companions of Joseph in his journey to Egypt. represented the infirmities of his great age. that a . and created in him an extraordinary esteem for the advocate who had so effectually pleaded the cause of that pontiff. Ptolemy was well satisfied to see his revenues so considerably increased . When the appointed day came for purchasing. that they would The king could not be his securities to each other. returned home in the utmost confusion. who had farmed those revenues before. Phoenicia. and allowed him a place at royal palace his table. to excuse his uncle. He ordered him an apartment in the of Alexandria. avoid smiling at this little pleasantry. offered no more than eight thousand talents for the provinces of Coele-syria. and the natural tardiness of his disposition. in such an engaging manner.142 in his chariot. that this purchase was worth double the sum they offered. the privilege of farming the revenues of the provinces. and had reason to be sensible. Judaea. by auction. that he had such persons to offer for his security on that occasion. Joseph. he named the king and queen themselves .

xxviii. having espoused the mother of his pupil. . Athen. magnificent equipage of merit. Dexij^. one of his generals. 3772.p. in an early state of minority . 3. who. died in that country by a fall from his horse. vii. ascended the throne. particuIt will. Ant. M. ^ 143 is a very inconsiderable indication nia. fore. 232. king of Pontus. named Philip. Mustm. A. about this time. and consigned Phrygia to her for her dowry. succeeded him in the throne. c. and reigned for the space of twelve years. Arsaces had always treated him as a king his confinement. M. in Macedoand left a son. 1. 3778. surnamed Ceraunus. * 1 Five or six years after this period. c. Porphyr. He was magnificent in promises. Euseb. be necessary for me to represent the present state of those two republics . aaid is in a condition to sustain wars. the former of whom. name sigiiifies in the Greet language. are now anived at the period wherein the republic of the Achaeans begins to appear with lustre in history. which occasioned his being surnamed IJoson. His wife was Laodice. that is to say. and I shall begin with that of We the Achaeans. who for some time had continued in a state of captivity in Parthia. but never gives what * This ^le promises. C. He espoused his daughter to Mithridates. One who tvill give. but extremely frugal in performance. S. King Demetrius died.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. therelarly against that of the Lacedaemonians. C. a person who promises to g. 226. Seleucus Callinicus.l53. J. ^ Justin. for which reason his guardianship was consigned to Antigonus. J. His sons were Seleucus and Antiochus .ive. Ant. A. 1. the during sister of Andromachus. and he had two sons and a daughter by that marriage.

it was either in subjection to the Macedonians. Dyme. Pharae. Oleniis. p. republic of the Achaeans was not considera'ble at either for the number of its troops. but all together not equal to a single one of considerThis republic did not signalize herself imable rank. . as umpires of the differences which subsisted between them. who had made themselves masters of Greece. or else was oppressed by cruel tyrants. in the hands of the people. love of liberty . which a single man was capable of inordinary change After troducing among them by his great qualities. that they chose them. but that is The government under those princes. 12 5-— 130. amongst all her citizens.l. Ceraunia. but derived it of its its riches. mediately by any thing great and remarkable. Tritcea. but is not successful with respect to Argos.ii. and this reThe Crotonians and Syputation was very ancient. It was composed of twelve * cities. — barites adopted the laws and customs of the Achaeans. Takes Corinth from Antigonus. for the re-establishment of good order in their cities. Mgim. He is enabled^ by the liberalities of Ptolemy JEuergetes. to say. establishment of the republic of the Achaeans^ Aratus delivers Sicyonfrom tyranny. II.144 THE HISTORY The 01^ SECT. ^ The first. *^ Polyb. the immensity or the extent of its territory. Leontiuiu. The Lacedaemonians and Thebans had such an esteem for their vijtue. The character of that young Grecian. in Peloponnesus. Bura. power from the great reputation acquired for the virtues of probity. Pellene. of this republic was democratrcal. she produced none of any dis- The sequel will discover the extrastinguished merit. * These twelve cities were Patrae. justice. after the celebrated battle of Leuctra. because. Prevails on the cities of Megara^ TraBvxne^ EpidauruSy and Megalopolis^ to accede to the Achcean league . ^giura. king of Macedonia. Helice. and in the reigns of those who succeeded them. It preserved its liberty to the times of Philip and Alexander . to check a sedition ready to break out in Sicywi.

which had long groaned under the yoke of her tyrants. VOL. C. at her head . who rants of his own them in subjection to tythat they might not withestablishing. * Toward the beginning of the cxxivth Olympiad. which then united as in former times. after him to Cassander . Sicyon was one of the first that acceded in this manner. " Sicyon. drew into their community several neighbouring cities. the father of Philadelphus. because they changed their master as often as Macedonia became subject to new sovereigns. and last of all to Antig(mus Gonatas. 280. of patriotism no longer prevailed among them. who were nominated by the cities in their but it was soon thought advisable to respective turns reduce them to one. by means of Aratus. one of its citizens.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. who received their laws. 1027—1031. we shall see acting a very great part. by placing Clinias. Their state had lost its former solidity. the republic of the Achaeans resumed their former customs. whom. and each city was solely attentive to its particular interest. left draw themselves from his authority. M. and constituted no more than one body of a republic all affairs were decided by a public council the registers were committed to a common secretary the assembly had two presidents.in Arato. about the time of the death of Ptolemy Soter. VI. Ant. were the fundamental principles of their government. * A. The good order which reigned in this little republic. The inhabitants of Patrae and Dyme laid the foundations of this happy change. and the government already began to flourish " Plut. J. all 145 the death of Alexander.p. one of her first and bravest citizens. L . : : : . and the expedition of Pyrrhus into Italy. and renewed their ancient concord. had lately attempted to shake it off. this little state was involved in The spirit the calamities inseparable from discord. with a love of justice and the public good. and becoming very illustrious. and associated themselves into their privileges. The tyrants were expelled from the cities. in the sequel. 3724. They first submitted to Demetrius . where freedom and equality.

14i6

THE HISTORY OF

in order to into his own hands, found means to tyranny Some of his relations and friends get rid of Clinias. he expelled from the city, and took off others by death : he also searched for Aratus, the son of Clinias, who was
seize the

and assume a better form, when Abantidas,

then but seven years of age, in order to destroy him ; but the infant escaped, with some other persons, amidst the disorder that filled the house when his father was and as he was wandering about the city, in the killed utmost consternation and distress, he accidentally entered unseen into a house which belonged to the tyrant's This lady was naturally generous, and as she sister. also believed that this destitute infant had taken refuge under her roof by the impulse of some deity, she carefully concealed him ; and when night came, caused him to be secretly conveyed to Argos. Aratus, being thus preserved from so imminent a danger, conceived in his soul from thenceforth an implacaable aversion to tyrants, which always increased with his He was educated with the utmost care, by some age.
;

hospitable friends of his father's at Argos. The new tyranny of Sicyon had passed through several hands in a short time, when Aratus, who began to arrive at a state of manhood, was solicitous to deliver

was greatly his country entirely from oppression. respected, as well for his birth as his courage, which was accompanied with a gravity superior to his age,

He

and a strong and clear understanding. These qualities, which were well known at that time, caused the exiles from Sicyon to cast their eyes upon him in a peculiar manner, and to consider him as their chief resource, and a person destined to be their future deliverer in which
;

conjecture they were not deceived. * Aratus, who was then in the twentieth year of his age, formed a confederacy against Nicocles, who was tyrant at that time ; and though the spies, whom the latter

sent to Argos, kept a vigilant eye on his conduct, he concealed his design so well, he pursued his measures with so much prudence and secrecy, that he scaled the
* A. M. 3752.

Ant. J. C. 252.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

147

The ^alls of Sicyon, and entered the city by night. was fortunate enough to secure himself a retreat tyrant through subterranean passages ; and when the people assembled in a tumultuous manner, without knowing
cried with a loud " that Aratus, the son of Clinias, invited the citivoice, zens to resume their liberty." Upon which the crowd flocked to the palace of the tyrant, and immediately burnt it to ashes in a few moments ; but not a single killed or wounded on either side ; the good of Aratus not suffering an action of this nature genius to be polluted with the blood of his citizens : in which

what had been transacted, a herald

man was

circumstance he made his joy and triumph consist. He then recalled all those who had been banished, who were no fewer than five hundred. Sicyon then began to enjoy some repose ; but Aratus was not fully relieved from inquietude and perplexity. With respect to the situation of affairs without, he was sensible that Antigonus cast a jealous eye on the city, and had meditated expedients for making himself master of it, from the time of its having recovered its liberHe beheld the seeds of sedition and discord sown ty. within, by those who had been banished, and was exHe imagined, tremely apprehensive of their effect. therefore, that the safest and most prudent conduct in this delicate juncture, would be to unite Sicyon in the Achaean league, in which he easily succeeded ; and this was one of the greatest services he was capable of ren-

dering his country. The power of the Achaeans was indeed but inconsiderable ; for, as 1 have already observed, they were only masters of three very small cities. Their country was neither good nor rich, and they inhabited a coast which had neither ports, nor any other maritime stations of But with all this mediocrity and seeming security.
weakness, they of all people made it most evident, that the forces of the Greeks could be always invincible, when

under good order and discipline, and with a prudent and experienced general at the head of them. Thus did
those Achaeaus (who were so inconsiderable in compari-

14^

THE HISTORY OP

son of the ancient power of Greece,) by constantly adhering to good counsels, and continuing strictly united together, without blasting the merit of their fellow-citizens with the malignant breath of envy ; not only maintain their liberties, amidst so many potent cities, and such a number of tyrants, but restored freedom and safety
to
city in the Achaean entered himself among the cavalry, and was not league, a little esteemed by the generals, for the promptitude and vivacity which he discovered in the execution o£

most of the Grecian states. Aratus, after he had engaged his

their orders

:

for

though he had

infinitely contributed

to the power and credit of the league, by strengthening it with his own reputation and all the forces of his country, he yet appeared as submissive as the meanest soldier to the general of the Achaean s, notwithstanding the obscurity of the city from whence that officer was select-

ed for such an employment.
cellent

This is certainly an exyoung princes and noblemen, when thrv serve in armies, which will teach them to forget their birth on those occasions, and to demand respect only from their exact submission to the orders of their com-

example

for

manders.
^

The

conduct and character of Aratus were the con;

He was naturally polite and obliging his sentiments were great and noble and he entirely devoted himself to the good of the state, without any interested views. He was an implacable enemy to tyrants, and regulated his friendship and enmity by the public utility. He was qualified, in many of affairs his expresparticulars, to appear at the head his thoughts just and even sions were always proper He conducted himself with a his silence judicious.
stant subject of admiration.
; :

;

;

complacency of temper, in all differences that arose in any deliberations of moment, and had no superior in the happy art of contracting friendships and alliances. He had a wonderful facility in fonning enterprises against an enemy in masking his designs with impenetrable secrecy, and in executing them happily by his patience
;

Plut. in Arat. p. 1031.

Polyb. L

iv. p.

277, 278.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.
and
intrepidity.
It

149

must, however, be acknowledged,
:

that this celebrated Aratus did not seem to be the same man at the head of an army nothing could then be dis-

covered in him but dilatoriness, irresolution, and timidity; whilst every prospect of danger was insupportable to bim. Not that he really wanted courage and boldness, but these qualities seemed to be benumbed by the greatness of the execution, and he was only timorous on certain
occasions,

and
all

at intervals.

of

his,

that

It was from this disposition Peloponnesus was filled with the trophies

of his conquerors, and the monuments of his own defeats. In this manner, says Polybius, has nature compounded different and contrary qualities together, not only in the bodies of men, btit even in their mintls ; and hence it is that we are to account for the surprising diversity we On so:ne ocfrequently perceive in the same persons. casions they appear lively, heroic, and undaunted and at others, all their vigoiu*, vivacity, and resolution, en:

abandon them. have already observed, that those citizens who had been banished, gave Aratus great perplexity. His dis<juiet was occasioned by their claim to the lands and houses which they possessed before their exile; the greatest part of which had been consigned to otlier pertirely P I

who afterwards sold them, and disappeared upon the expulsion of the tyrant. It was reasonal)le that these exiles should be reinstated in tiieir former possessions after their recal from banishment, and they made application to that effect with all imaginable imporOn the other hand, the greatest part of what tunity. claimed had been alienated to fair purchasers, who they consequently expected to be reimbursed, before they delivered up such houses and lands to the claimants. The pretensions and complaints on this occasion were vigorously urged on both sides, and Sicyon was in the utmost danger of being ruined by a civil war, which seemsons,

ed

inevitable.
this.

than

parties,

Never war any affair more perplexing Aratus was incapable of reconciling the two whose demands were equally equitable, and it
1231—1238.
A. M. 3753.
Ant.
J. C.

^ Plut. in Arat. p.

251.

150

THE HISTOUY OF

was impossible to satisfy them both at the same time, without expending very considerable sums, which he was in no condition to furnish. In this emergency, he could think of no resource but the goodness and liberality of Ptolemy, king of Egypt, which he himself had
experienced on the following occasion. That prince was extremely curious in portraits and other paintings Aratus, therefore, who was an excellent judge of such performances, collected all the works of the greatest masters which he could possibly procure,
:

them

especially those of to the king.

Pamphilus and Melanthus, and sent Sicyon was still in great reputation

and painting in particular ; the true taste of which was preserved there in all its ancient purity. It is even said, that Apelles, who was then admired by all the world, had been at Sicyon, where he frequented the schools of these two painters, to whom he gave a talent (equal to a thousand crowns,) not so much to acquire perfection in the art from them, as in order to obWhen Aratus tain a share in their great reputation. had reinstated his city in its former liberties, he destroyed all the pictures of the tyrants but when he came to that of Aristratus, who reigned in the time of Philip, and whom the painter had represented in the attitude of standing in a triumphant chariot, he hesitated a long time whether he should deface it or not ; for all the capital scholars of Melanthus had contributed to the completion of that piece, and it had even been touched by This wo.k was so inimitable in the pencil of Apelles. its kind, that Aratus could not avoid being affected with its beauties ; but his aversion for tyrants prevailed over his admiration of the picture, and he accordingly ordered it to be destroyed. The fine taste of Aratus for painting, had recommended him to the good graces of Ptolemy ; and he, therefore, thought he might take the liberty to implore the generosity of that prince, in the melancholy situaWith this view tion to which he was then reduced.
for the arts,
;

he embarked

for

Kgypt but was exposed
;

to

many

dan-

gers and disappointments, before he could arrive in that

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

151

kingdom. He had a long audience of Ptolemy, who esteemed him the better the more he knew him ; and presented him with a hundred and fifty talents for the Aratus carried away forty talents benefit of his city. when he set out for Peloponnesus, and the king remitted him the remainder in separate payments.

His fortunate return occasioned universal joy

in Si-

«yon, and he was invested with full power to decide the pretensions of the exiles, and regulate the partitions to

But as a wise politician, who be made in their favour. not anxious to engross the decision of all affairs to himself, and is not afraid of diminishing his reputation by admitting others to share it with him, he firmly refused the honours designed him, and nominated for his coadjutors fifteen citizens of the greatest repute, in conjunction with whom he at last restored harmony and peace among the inhabitants, and refunded to the several purchasers all the sums they had expended for the lands and houses they had actually bought. It has albeen observed, that glory pursues those who are ways
is
it. Aratus, therefore, who thought himself in need of good counsels to assist him in the determination of this important affair, (and persons of the greatest merit always entertain the same diffidence of themselves,) had all the honour of this affair. His conduct was infinitely applauded ; statues were erected to him, and the people, by public inscriptions, declared him the father of the people, and the deliverer of his country. These are qualities that infinitely transcend those of the most celebrated conquerors.

industrious to decline

A

even fear

success so illustrious gave tigonus jealousy, and in consequence of which, at a public enter;

An

tainment, he artfully enhanced the merit and capacity of this young man by extraordinary praises, possibly
witli

interest, or to render

an intention either to gain him over to his own him an object of suspicion to Pto-

He insinuated, in teiTns sufficiently intelligible, lemy. that Aratus having discovered, by his own experience, the vanity of the Egyptian pride, intended to attach himself to his service ; and that he, therefore, was re-

152

THE HISTORY OF

solved to employ him in his affairs : he concluded this strain of artifice with entreating all the lords of his court, who were then present, to regard him in future The particulars of this discourse were as their friend.

soon repeated to Ptolemy, who was not a little surprised and afflicted when he heard them : and he complained to Aratus of this injurious change : but the latter easily justified himself to that monarch. Aratus having been elected general of the Achaeans, for the first time, ravaged Locris, and all the territory of Calydon, and advanced with a body of ten thousand men to succour the Boeotians ; but was so unfortunate as not to arrive among them till after the battle of Chae* in which ronea, they were defeated by the iEtolians.

f Eight years after this transaction, he was elected general of the Achaeans a second time, and rendered great service to all Greece, by an action which Plutarch considers as equal to any of the most illustrious enterprises of the Grecian leaders. The Isthmus of Corinth, which separates the two seas, unites the continent of Greece with that of Peloponnesus ; the citadel also of Corinth, distinguished by the name of Aero- Corin thus, is situated on a high mountain, exactly in the middle of those two continents, which are there divided from each other by a very narrow neck of land ; by which means this fortress, when fiirnished with a good garrison, cuts off all communication, by land and sea, from the inner part of the Isthmus, and renders the person who possesses it, with a good body of troops, absolute master of all Greece. " the shackles of Greece ;" Philip called this citadel and as such, it was an object of desire and jealousy to
the neighbouring states, and especially to kings and princes, who consequently were desirous, of seizing it
all

for their

own

use.
for a

Antigonus, after having

long time, and with

* Philip, above forty years before this event, had obtained a celebrated victory over the Athenians and Thebans, near the same
place.

t A. M. 3760.

Ant. J. C. 244.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

15$

extreme anxiety, sought an opportunity to render himself master of this place, was so fortunate as to carry it himby surprise, and made no scruple to congratulate as much on this unexpected success, as on a real self Aratus, on the other hand, entertained triumph. ot wresting this fortress from him, in his turn; hopes and while all his thoughts were employed to that effect, an accidental circumstance furnished him with an opportunity of accomplishing his design. Erginus, an inhabitant of Corinth, had taken a journey to Sicyoii, in order to transact some affairs in that city ; and had there contracted an intimate acquaintance with a banker, who was a particular friend of As the citadel of Corinth happened to be the Aratus.
friend, that as

subject of one of their conversations, Erginus told his he often went to visit his brother, Diodes, who was a soldier of the garrison, he had observed,

on the steepest side, a small winding path hewn in the rock, which led to a part of the wall of the citadel which was very low. The banker was very attentive
tell

to this account, and, with a smile, desired his friend to him, whether he and his brother would be disposed to gain a large

sum

of money, and

make

their fortunes ?

Erginus immediately comprehended the bent of this question, and promised to sound his brother Diodes on that head. Some few days after this conversation, he returned to the banker, and engaged to conduct Aratus to that part of the mountain where the height of the wall did not exceed fifteen feet, adding, at the same time, that himself and his brother would assist him in Aratus promised, executing the rest of his enterprise. on his part, to give them sixty talents, if the affair should happen to succeed ; but as it became requisite to deposit that sum in the hands of the banker, for the security of the two brothers, and as Aratus was neither master of so many talents, nor had any inclination to borrow them, for fear of raising suspicion by that proceeding,
all his

and letting his design get wind, he pledged gold and silver plate, with his wife's jewels, to

the banker, as a security for the promised sura.

154!

THE HISTOUY OF

Aratus had so great a soul, says Plutarch, and such an ardour for great actions, that wlien he considered with himself, how universally Epaminondas and Phoolan had been reputed the most worthy and just men in all Greece, for refusing the presents that had been offered to them, and preferring virtue to all the riches in the world, he was anxious to surpass them, and to
refine

upon

And indeed

there

their generosity and disinterested spirit. is a wide difference between the mere

refusal of presents, and the sacrifice of a person's whole fortune for the service of the public. Aratus parted with all his fortune, and that too without its being

known,

for an enterprise, wherein he alone was exposed Where is the man, cries Plutarch, to all the danger. amidst the enthusiasm into which this amiable action

had wrought him, who can possibly be incapable of admiring so uncommon and surprising an instance of magnanimity AVho, even at this time, can forbear to interest himself in this great exploit, and to combat in imagination by the side of so great a man, who paid so dearly for so extraordinary a danger, and pledged the most valuable part of his fortune, only to procure an
!

opportunity of advancing into the midst of his enemies in the dead of night, when he knew he should be compelled to fight for his owa life, without any other security than the hopes of performing a noble action ? It may justly be remarked on this occasion, that the taste for glory, disinterestedness, and the public good, were perpetuated among the Greeks, by the remembrance of those great men who had distinguished themselves in past ages by such glorious sentiments. This is the great advantage which attends history wiitten like that of the Greeks, and the principal benefit to be derived from it. The preparations for the enterprise were thwarted by a variety of obstructions, any one of which seemed sufficient to have rendered it ineffectual ; but when all these were at last surmounted, Aratus ordered his troops He then selected four to pass the night under arms. hundred men, most of whom were imacquainted with

The trumpets that the enemies were entered the city. and cried out as loud as he w^as able. and the moon shone extremely bright.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. by up passing undiscovered. and marched at the head of his hundred men. with the utmost joy. with seven resolute young men. who received a deep wound on his head. Erginus. and he led them directly to the gates of the city by the walls of Juno's temple. in a moment sounded the alarm. giving orders to the rest to follow him as fast as they were able . as well to lessen the noise. by whom they were not perceived. fled from the place. The sky was then unclouded. and all the inhabitants crowded together at the noise. he descended into the city. from whence they started as the four men were The passing by. a dark fog rose very fortunately from the sea. w^here they disposed themselves into an ambuscade. fourth. habited like travellers. and killed three of their number. because the darkness of the night shrouded them from their view. and Aratus ascended with a hundred of his boldest troops. and time shed a thick gloom over all the adjacent parts of the All the troops then seated themselves on the city. as having already succeeded. then fixed on the w all. and killed the sentinel and The ladders were guards who were there upon duty. Aratus and men shrunk back against some walls and ruins that were near. As they were proceeding in their march. which filled the adventurers with just But in a little apprehensions of being discovered. and having drawn his ladders. with lights in their hands. from which they should not then be so liable to slip. The streets were already filled with people. and blazing with innumerable lights. passed through the gate without being perceived. : t$3 the design he intended to execute they were all furnished with scaling-ladders. who flocked from all quarters. ground. they saw a small guard of four men. In the mean time. and also . to take off their shoes. as to facilitate their ascent by the scaling-ladders. towards the citadel. which were his immediately set up in every part of the city.

which had been formerly described to The skies were then happily covered with clouds him. drew up into a close body. The three hundred soldiers whom Aratus had left without. under a bending rock which shaded them at the bottom of the precipice. they started from the place of their concealment. as if they had been planted expressly in ambuscade. at first. the clouds dispersed. not knowing which way to bend their course. which was then filled with confusion and tumult. and a great blast of trumpets. therefore. and also illuminated with a prodigious number of lights. having drawn out a considerable number of troops. however. it was impossible to distinguish the place from whence it proceeded. While he was thus : perplexed. very slowly. those three hundred men . who commanded the troops of king Antigonus. killing all who first came in to assault Aratus in his rear.156 THE HISTOHY OF on the ramparts of the t^astle. till he arrived on the spot of ground at the foot of the wall. mounted the ascent with loud shouts. and not being able to find the path which Aratus had taken. having entered the city. and fell upon him with great resolution. whilst every place resounded with confused and undistinguishable cries. Aratus was then skirmishing on the ramparts of the citadel. Archelaus. the moon then appeared in its former brightness. because he had missed the path that led to the wall through numberless windings. w'here they waited in the utmost anxiety and distress. and the moon w-as once more immersed in darkness. which it was almost impracticable to trace out. notwithstanding the alarm. and endeavoured to climb the steep rocks he made way. and the noise of the combatants might easily be heard below but as the sound was repeated by the echoes of the neighbouring mountains. Those soldiers. and with great labour. near the temple of Juno. again. and discovered all the intricacies of the path. as if a miracle had interposed in his favour . with an intention : and in his march passed without perceiving them . Aratus still continued his progress. by but when he had advanced a little beyond them.

who made a very vigorous defence. and was in great need of immediate assistance. The troops that moment desired him to be their conductor and as they mounted the . Aratus. drawn thither by their curiosity to see him. when he had effectually secured his victory. The bold and manly joy witli which this extraordinary success had inspired . joined their companions. while the midnight silence rendered the echoes much more strong and audible by which means their shouts seemed those of a much greater body of men than they really were. which was then crowded with a vast concourse of people. and redouble their ardour. till they had all disper- The laus himself. and to hear him After he had posted his Achajans on each side speak. they proclaimed their approach by loud cries. and became absolute masters of the citadel by break of day . assisted them in making ' the troops of Antigonus prisoners of war. and the Corinthians. rocks.ALEXANDER'S their way. StJCCESSORS^ 157 rest of the troops. and. so that the sun's first rays saw them victorious. and even Archewere then seized with such a consternation. The rest of their troops arrived at the same time from Sicyon . of the avenues of the theatre. to animate their friends. who continued to attack them in their retreat. which was then in the full. that they fled from their enemies. with a countenance extremely changed by his want of rest and the long fatigue he had sustained. played upon their armour. The beams of the moon. sed themselves in the city. upon which they posted themselves on the wall. This defeat was immediately succeeded by the arrival of Erginus. descended from the citadel into the theatre. in conjunction with the length of the way by which they ascended. When they at last had . after they had willingly thrown open the city gates to receive them. they charged their enemies with a vigour that soon dispersed them. to acquaint them that ing Aratus was engaged with the enemies. who had been sent by those that were fighton the walls of the citadel. he advanced from the bottom of the stage completely anned. made them appear more numerous.

with the particulars of the Achaaan league. Aratus made himself master of the temple of Juno and of the port of Lechaeum.158 THE HISTORY OF him. and then leaning his body and one knee a little against it. The moment he appeared in the theatre. exhorted time delivered to them to accede to it. habitants of Megara quitted the party of Antigonus and joined Aratus. and he. he restored Philip. however. but caused Theophrastus to suffer death. Arclielaus. in a long discourse. shifted his lance from his left to his right hand . much credit and reputation among the Achaeans. whom he afterwards sold. that as the nomination of the same man to the post of capfail to tain-general for a succession of years was expressly prohibited by the laws. horses. he continued for some time in that posture. Aratus. which. where he seized twentyHe also took five hundred war live of the king's ships. and four hundred Syrians. was obscured by the langour his extreme weakness and decay of spirits had occasioned. by repeated applauses and acclamations. by assigning the superintendence of the war to him. whom he had taken prisoner. either by his counsels or personal conduct. had never been in their power from the time of As to the captains of Antigonus. Their example was soon followed by the people of Troezene and Epidaurus. Aratus was. till then. could not Tlie inbe productive of very fortunate events. and at the same them the keys of their city. Aratus also brought Ptolemy king of Egypt. and acquainted them. enjoyed that command without any disconti- . and electing him generalissimo of their This event gained him so troops by land and sea. When the whole theatre was at last silent. elected every other year. to his liberty . he exerted all the vigour he had left. who acceded to the Achaean league. into the confederacy. in which they placed a garrison of four hundred men An action so bold and successful as this. for refusing to quit the city. in the mean time. The Achaeans kept the citadel. all the people were emulous to testify their profound respect and gratitude.

. *The Achaeans.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. p. the reestablishment of the cities in their ancient liberty. C. Ant. ii. A them 4 is derived. by which means a strict union was re- Polyb. 760. and the abolition of all kinds of tyranny . no. 242. J. 234. * A. and These were the only mothe exercise of their laws. Ant. 1. In like manner cities soon sink into ruin. but embroiled themselves with Demetrius his successor. 101. nor even the particular advantages of Sicyon. ii. ' 1 91— A. when the social bands which connect them are once dissolved but they are always seen to flourish. with an intention to destroy the Achaean league . tended entirely to the expulsion of the Macedonians out of Peloponnesus. while he continued in his employment. and perity. from whence all the vigour that supports in his mind. had the least preference and aggrandizement of the He was persuaded. 3762. All the views of Aratus. Appian.M. de bellis Illyr. C. ISO. p. J. tliat all weak cities reAchffians. who succeeded Antigonus. f He also pursued the same conduct with respect to Demetrius. . juuation : 15^ for it was evident to all mankind. tives which prompted him to oppose the enterprises of Antigonus Gonatas. and is the happy source of life. to the welfare . that neither riches nor the friendship of kings. when they become parts common preare associated by an unity of interest. p. during the life of that ])rince. his native place. semble those parts of the body which thrive and exist only by their mutual union. and improve in power and prosof a large body. caution then reigns through the whole. nor any other consideration whatever. M. 1. and all his enterprises. and infallibly perish when once they are separated as the sustenance by which they subsist is discontinued from that moment. marched to their assistance. 3770. Polyb. who declared war against them. and reigned for the space of ten years. The JEtolians had at first joined Antigonus Gonatas. forgetting on this occasion the ill treatment they had received from that people.

delivered up to the consul Fulvius the garrison they had received into and the Romans. C. and received Demetrius of Pharus. 3779. C. Fulvius Centumalus. J. that they sent an embassy to Teuta. to revenge so outrageous an inThe two consuls. as a compensation for his treacherous conduct in their favour. implored cities to * A. M. Ant . t A. into their city. to complain of That princess caused one those injurious proceedings. 232. Demetrius of Pharus. and the Arcanians in particular. Ant. § Teuta. subject to him. so called from a city of Illyria. . ^ The Romans were so offended at the piracies with this people infested their citizens and merchants. advanced into lilyria. were the petty princes who infested all the neighbouring parts . and the other to be thrown into prison. 225. set out with a commission to invade Illyria by land and sea. wha subsisted chiefly by rapine. . though their good services were repaid only with The people of Corcyra made an alliance ingratitude. J. 226*. Ant. Ant. and attacked Corcyra.160 THE HISTORY OF tageous to established between them. soon after this event. J. f Teuta reigned after the death of her husband Agron. L. The people of Corcyra. M. 228. which became very advan-* all the neighbouring cities. in concert with Demetrius of Pharus. and exercised a sort of pi- racy against all the neighbouring countries. § A. and left a young son. Poshumius Albinus. M. who readily undertook their defence . which provoked the Romans to de- which war against her. X A. Corcyra and conquered great part of the country and consignclare sult. of the ambassadors to be slain. M. had recourse to the iKtolians and Achaeans. 3772. and Cn. Agron. C. *Illyria was then governed by several petty kings. after they had reinstated their city in its former liberties. J. Scerdiledes. harassed in the manner I have mentioned. with the lUyrians. 3778. C. the son of Pleurates. reduced to the utmost extremity. named Pinaeus. 3776. These people. ed several Demetrius. who had ended his days by intemperance. with his garrison.

and they were permitted to be initiated into the great mysteries. found the dispositions of the people very favourable to his designs. and even those were The other petty kings. or pre- made upon by his promises. and made it a point of honour to restore liberty to that city.ALEXANDER'S peace of tlic SUCCESSOIIS. as a recompense for * * Plut. that the Romans should be admitted to celebrate the Isthmian games. except a few places which she was permitted to enjoy . and to whom he paid large pensions. who reigned only ten years. who beheld with regret the subjection of the people of Argos to the tyrant Aristomachus. who not to carry any arms. either intimidated by the menaces of Aratus. but the most beneficial article for the Greeks was. others of them. isr 1038—1041. They sent ambassadors to the iEtolians to communicate' to them the treaty they and Achaeans. with the same privileges as the Greeks. having death. were comprehended in tliis treaty. Romans. Aratus. p. VI. and he procured several considerable advantages for them all. in Arat. VOL. undertook their deliverance . had lately con- cluded with the lllyrians. and obtained it. whom that prince had supported with all his credit. on her engageand deliver up all Illyria. by a public decree. seemed to have been dependent on Teuta. followed their exam])le . her being restrained from sailing beyond the city of Lissus with more than two small vessels. that they might have no temptation to repent vailed of their conduct. Aratus. Several tyrants. The freedom of the city w^as also granted them at Athens. it expressly mentioned The Romans then caused themselves to be respected in Greece by a solemn embassy . and this was the first time that their power was known in that country. though none but that princess. l6l ment to pay a yearly tribute. Others were also despatched to Corinth and Athens . . and the Corinthians then declared for the first time. lost their support by his a voluntary resignation of the authority they had usurped over their citizens . after the death of Demetrius.

dreadful and he even trembled at his own shadow. was incapable of enjoying a moment's repose. who only waited for an op- No portunity of executing their bloody commission. that knew no intermission . either by night or day. who agreed to be the minister of his vengeance. but to fear for him. and he also considered the accession of so potent a city to the Achaean league. Plutarch. and had the dexterity to maintain himself in that usurpation. Aristomachus was soon after slain by his domestics and before there could be any opportu. or commander can ever have a more effectual prince guard. A - . rience in the present conjuncture. seized the supreme power own hands. nity to regulate affairs. Every circumstance alarmed him . He had already prepared assassins in all parts. That tyrant. But looking upon Aratus as a mortal into his enemy. and who had shed the blood of all those of whom he entertained any dread. even with the consent of the Argives. but ordered them to be stationed in the porticoes which surrounded He drove away all his domestics the moment he it. than the firm and sincere affection of those they govern : for. a tyrant more detestable than his predecessor. when once the nobility and people have been accustomed not to fear their prince. says he. draws a fine contrast between the troubles and anxieties of Aristippus. he feared them more than all the rest of mankind. . he resolved to destroy him by the assistance of king Antigonus Doson. who maintained such a body of troops for the security of his person. during whose life he imagined his own would always be in danger. He never permitted them to enter his palace.162 THE HISTORY OF the education he had received there . on this occasion. innumerable eyes and years are attentive to all This Aratus was so happy as to expethat passes. Aristippus. and the peace and tranquillity of Aratus. and as his life was perpetually in their power. watched round his house with drawn guard continually swords . his soul was the seat of terror and anxiety. as highly advantageous to the common cause but his measures to this effect were rendered unsuccessful at that time.

who always showed himself an tus. as Agias. and resigned the victory to the foe. * Polycrates. whose soul fortresses. *" Aratus attacked the tyrant with open force. and replaced it in its former situation the next morning. had thrown themselves with a body of the king's troops into the place. and maintain guards. however. and then retired with his concubine into an upper apartment. with the additirnial precaution of arms. as so many ramAraparts for their safety. which drew upon him a number of severe reproaches. and traps. it. Aratus. When this was let down. was however unable to make himself master of the city of Argos. . made amends for his fault in a second battle. wliich he entered by a trapdoor. left behind him a posterity which subsists. on the other hand.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. . and without losing one man.nUnuei. gates. to whom Plutarch addresses the life of Aratus. The mother of his concuterror. says Plutarch. to this day. first en- gagement. but merely by his virtue and the effect of the laws. when even one of the wings of his army had defeated the enemy for he caused a retreat to be sounded very unseasonably. wherein Aristippus. as we may suppose a man is a perpetual prey to trouble. with very little prudence or resolution in the . but acted . lost their lives. appeared in public with a plain robe and a mind void of fear and whereas among all those who possess : condition. bine removed. or restore liberty to the inhabitants . Aratus. and above fifteen hundred of his men. 163 had supped after which he shut the gate of his court with his own hands. and had two sons. wa. who had acquired perpetual power. though he had obtained so signal a victory. few escape a violent death on the contrary. and appreliension.already subsisted three hundred was and fifty years after the death of Aratus. implacable enemy to tyrants. uiter having. the ladder by which he ascended into his chamber. and the young Aristomachus. he placed his bed upon to sleep in his and slept.s one of his still lesrendants. not by the force of arms. each night. by whom the race Ci. and is still honoured and respected by all the world. He.

to such a degree by so generous an action. it became evident that the zeal he affected was no more than a plausible outside. III. and among the rest. As the Lacedaemonians will.164 THE HlSTOllY OF He sticceeded better with respect to the city of Me- where Lysiades had iisur])cd the supreme This person had none of the violent and inpower. human characteristics of tyrants. he engaged in enterprises which seemed unnecessary at that juncture. and then a third. and they deprived him of the command. and caused his city to acThat league was affected cede to the Achaean league. Lysiades was elected general a second time. in which he partly succeeds : butjinds an entire change in Sparta^ at his return from a campaign in which he had joined Aratus against the JEtolians. iu Agid. Ag-k king' of Sparta attempts to reform the state. than a false idea of the happiness and glory which he imagined inseparahle from supreme power hut he resigned the tyranny. . and had seized the sovereignty from no other inducement. was first several continually repeating his injurious treatment of a virtue so solid and sincere as that of Aratus . it seems necessary to give a brief account of the condi- tion of that people in this place. and as he at was emulous of sui*passing Aratus. for the future. p. ^ . declared war against the Lacedaemonians Aratus employed his utmost influence to oppose him in those measures. and each of them commanded alternately. 796—801. or a conviction of his error. upon the remonstrances of Aratus. SECT. He is at last condemn- ^^HEN the love of wealth had crept into the city of Plut. and executed accordingly . which concealed a dangerous ambition . galopolis. either through fear. that they immediately chose him for their general . have a considerable share in the wars sustained by the Achaeans. ed to die. and endeavours to revive the ancient institutions of Lycurgus . without the least regard to decency. but his endeavours were misinterpreted as the effects of envy. But when he was observed to act in opposition to his rival on all occasions. and.

w^as of the house of the Eurytionida?. whi. was of the family of the Agidae. .mon sent letters to Onias the high priest of the Jews. but died in a short time . and had for : he had even years made his court to Seleucus espoused a wife in Asia. and all those pleasures wliich are generally the inseparahle attendants of riches . whi^h was obtained by the latter. and had afterwards employed hi« utmost en- many deavours to introduce all the pomp and pride of princes * Joscplms relates. of whom we are now riers to treat. and the sixth descendant from Agesilaus. who daemon. after Pausanias. profusion. nor is it less difficult to reconcile the time of Areus with that of Onias. effeminacy. ral years in the palaces of the Satrapae. the son of Eudamidas. that Areus king of Lacecla:. and when these had broken down all the strong barwhich the wisdom of Lycurgus had formed. this affinity is not easily to be distinguished.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. with the view of excluding them for ever . contrary to the laws of his country. and left a young son named reigned Areus. the son of Cleonymus. Agis. in which he acknowledged an The origin of affinity between that people and the Lacedgpmonians. avarice. This prince was under the tuition of Leonidas.ch continued to the reign of Agis and Leonidas. in regard to the sovereignty. upon which Leonidas rose from the regency to the throne. this depravity and remoteness from the ancient manners of that people was most conspicuous in the conduct of Leonidas who had resided for seve. and he afterwards caused Pyrrhus to raise the siege of LaceHe was succeeded by his son Acrotatus. I have already related the dispute that arose in Sparta between Cleonymus * and Areus. and iiidolcnce. and was reduced to an abject and humble state. who defeated Mardonius in the battle of Plataeae. Leonidas. Sparta beheld herself fallen from her ancient glory and power. Though all the Spartans had been depraved and perverted by the general corruption into which the government was fallen. from his grandfather. %)arta. 165 had afterwards introduce<l luxury. seven or eight years. who made an expedition into Asia. and the eighth prince that reigned in Sparta.

He in the twentieth year of his age. and each father transmitting his part in the same manner as he had received it himself. renounced all those ensnaring pleasures and instead of testifying the least regard for the splendid vanities of dress. whose conduct had displeased him. and all the ancient discipline of Sparta. and though he had been educated amidst riches. which had been made by Lycurgus. to avenge himself on one of his sons. giving This discipline began to be disregarded the moment Sparta had ruined the Athenian govemment. this new by will to whom he pleased law effectually sapped the best foundation of the Spartan polity. possessed more gold and silver than all the other Lacedaemonians together. But as soon as this prudent institution began to be struck at. The same partition. having been preserved through all successions of descent. introduced this law. and began to abound in gold. .* and the luxury of a house re- markable for being equally voluptuous and haughty. he made it his glory to appear in a plain habit. * Plutarch informs us. *' That he should not value being king. by due force to customs established by wise laws. Epitades. this order and equality. the ill effects of those other abuses which then prevailed. from the first. however. was then Agis was the reverse of this character. ment all the branches of a state. of lands.166 THE HISTORY OF into a free country.phori. one of the P'. and the number of hereditary possessions established by him." These noble sentiments were a demonstration that Agis had formed a true notion of regal power the most essential duty and true glory of which are derived from the establish: . suspended. He even declared openly. that his mother Agesistrata^ and his grandmother Archidamia. in his own of good order in lifetime. or bequeath them after his death. and a government founded on mo=deration and justice. if it were not for the hopes of reviving the ancient laws and discipline of Sparta. by a law which permitted every man to dispose of his house and patrimony. and to re-establish the public meals. he. in some measure. baths. which had been preserved without interruption.

motives that could ensure filial respect the children of ly the veral families . This domestic inconvenience. The pretext for this change was undoubtedaugmentation of paternal authority. and with an absolute indepen- dency on their parents. malunt. merely to gratify the resentment of one man. created who had the greatest share and rendered them incapable of considering the much greater inconveniences which would inevitably result from this change. on the basis of which a state. which authorised the alienation of hereditary estates. in which every father thought himself concerned. with any new regulations which are proposed to be substituted in their stead. This proceeding is sufficient to convince us how dan* gerous it is to change the ancient laws. or community. from which the wisest institutions cannot be effects exempted how much prudence. It is indeed surprising. that the ruin of Sparta was occasioned by this new law. veteribus. as they received all alike the fortune they could expect. n. and whose pernicious strong impressions in those in the administration. that community having nothing to hope or fear. poverty prevailed through the whole city. all patrimonial possessions were soon engrossed by a very inconsiderable number of persons . The great men were daily their fortunes. 54.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. in their sesince it was not then possessed of any . nisi . It may be justly affirmed. are necessary to those who take upon them to balance and compare the advantages and : defects of ancient customs. that a such easily be induced to change 167 whole state should so an ancient and fundamental custom as this. were soon felt by the state. by dispossessing the heirs of enlarging the estates which belonged to them . in consequence of which." Liv. and experience. by ex* " Adeo nihil motum \UK \isus evidenter arguit. penetration into future events. and sunk the people into a mean and disgraceful indolence of mind . stari ex antiquo probabile est . immediately from the state. L xxxiv. and which seemed to regard good order in all families. has long subsisted . and what precautions ought to be taken against bad impressions which may arise through particular inconveniences.

He began by conciliating his uncle Agesilaus. to bring over his own mother. * Such was the state of Sparta when Agis entertained the design of redressing the flagrant abuses which then prevailed . Her was very great in the city^ by the large party of power friends. destitute of revenues. a man of great eloquence and reputation. the oppressions they sustained. by his means. these acted with ticipation in honours and dignities reluctance and indifference in wars against a foreign enemy.168 THE HISTORY OF tinguishing that ardour for virtue and glory. J. who was the sister of Agesilaus. that all the young men were disposed to enter into his views. ous. The number of native Spartans in that city was reduced to about seven hundred . trembled at the very name of Lycurgus. M. while the generality of those in years. and the vast number of her slaves and debtors self. * A. till then. 3756. in whose minds corruption had taken the deepest root. Agis then endeavoured. by changing the form of government. and reformation. to discharge them without any expense to himhoped . C. . but strongly possessed with the which was tlie very circumstance that love of riches rendered him the more favourable to the designs of He was ready to sink under a load of debts. and not many more than a hundred of these had preserved their family All the rest were a populace overwhelmed by estates. Ant. at the same time that Aratus was employing his endeavours for the deliverance of his counThe enterprise was noble. which. 248. and withdraw themselves from : . contrary to his expectation. they were only gainers by their victories constantly waiting for an opportunity to change the present situation of affairs. and Agis. and by infusing into the hearts of the people an implacable envy and aversion for those who had unjustly divested them of all their possessions. . had rendered the Spartans superior to all the t)ther states of Greece. because they were sensible the rich would be the in a word. and excluded from a parpoverty. but extremely hazardtry. He observed.

Leonidas was veiy inclinable to support the rich. Amidst the consternation which this proposal gave them. and conjured him. and were so struck with the beauty of the project. and on which many commendations were bestowed. that the plain manner of — he was endeavouring to re-establish. as they were very sensible that the Lacedae- monians had always expressed the greatest deference to their wives. this lady. who were desirous of this change. to employ his whole authority in dissuading his colleague from the accomplishment of his plan. and this proved a great obstruction to the designs of Agis. as his age gave him an ascendant over Agis. They likewise sent to all their friends. and her 169 credit gave her an extraordinary influence in When Agis had opened the most important affairs. Most of the riches of Sparta were at that time in the hands of the w omen. but divest them of all the honours and power they derived from their riches. his design to her. and represented to her the glory which for ever derive from it. that they themselves pressed Agis to enter upon the execution of it as soon us possible. affair. being then animated by the noble ambition of the young prince. but as he dreaded the indignation of the people. but when Agesilaus joined his own reflections with those of the king. immediately changed their sentiments. and employed all the arguments she could invent to dissuade him from it . than they themselves assumed in their private and domestic affairs. as well as those of would her sex with whom she was most intimate. they addressed themselves to Leonidas. whom they allowed to exercise more authority in all transactions of state. They unanimously opposed his scheme.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOUS. and had made his sister comprehend the advantages that would accrue to Sparta from the execution of such a deher family sign. would not only be destructive to all their luxurious pleasures. and exhorted them to concur with him in that Application was also made by them to the other ladies of the city. she was struck with consternation on the first glance. rightly foreseeing. he could not presume to oppose Agis in an open life so — .

wherein he took the liberty to calumniate Agis. should be parcelled out into four thousand five hundred lots. The latter portions were to be distributed to those inhabitants of the adjacent parts. 4. and likewise to Selasia. as had received a liberal education. should be reserved for the Spartans. and a general abolition of debts. but contented himself by crossing his designsby indirect measures. in the mean time. which lay within the limits already mentioned. 2. The lands which lay beyond those limits should be divided into fifteen thousand lots. who were in a condition to bear arms. Those lands. Agis. distinguished by the name of Phiditite . having succeeded so far as to cause Lysj^nder. be disposed into fifteen halls. and not disqualified for that class by any 6. to be elected one of the Kphori. which was then considerably diminished. in consequence of which proceedings. with a partition of lands. as a compensation to them for the tyranny he was preparing to usurp . . Lysander caused the people to be assembled. whose due number. 5. 3. which extended from the valley of Pellene to mount Taygetus. All the lands to be discharged from their debts. the prin1. and the promontory of Malea. should be recruited out of such of the neighbouring people and strangers. at the times of rebodily defect. past. and in the strongest terms He was secondexhorted the citizens to consent to it. who concurred with liim in his views. the least of which should contain two hundred. instead of forming citizens for Sparta. This decree being opposed by the senators whose sentiments differed from those of Agis. and were then in the flower of their age. and the largest four hundred and lastly.170 THE HISTbRY OF maiiner. he was ouly raising a body of guards for the security of his own person. they were all to observe the same manner of life and : discipline as their ancestors. He had a private conference with the magistrates. as a person who was offering to the poor the property of the rich. All these should. All debtors were cipal articles of which were these. brought into the council a decree which he himself had drawn up.

with eyes of indifference. whom was their right to prescribe laws. with entreating them not to be so far influenced by their obsequiousness to a handful of men. all his effects and estate. had exposed them to the insult and contempt of those to . the dignity of their city entirely degraded and lost. a young Spartan. what might be considered as the completion of all their calamities. in the names of themselves and all their posterity. those ancient masters of Greece. which were very considerable . -ed 171 by Mandroclides. . ever since they had been disregarded by her he then set forth : the miserable condition of the Spartans. : sented to the people. as to behold. during the time she strictly adhered to them . which had more than once declared. who even trampled them under their feet like so many despicable slaves. those mighty sovereigns by sea and land. their lands. who once had made the Great King * tremble on his throne. by the insatiable avarice of their own citizens. King Agis then advanced into the middle of the assembly. every motive that could of their illustrious the respect they owed to the memory legislator Lycurgus . the oath their ancestors had taken. that the love of riches would prove fatal to Sparta. but to recal to their remembrance those ancient oracles. to preserve those sacred institutions in the most inviolable manner. and declared.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. He then concluded. and houses. the glory and honour Sparta had enjoyed. after a concise discourse. (for he thought his example would have more efficacy than any words he could utter). consisting of large tracts of arable and pasture lands. with all the energy he could posmost affect them sihly express. and the infamous degeneracy into which she had sunk. who had reduced them to the lowest extremes of poverty and shameful indigence and. whose heart and he reprewelfare glowed with zeal for the public . besides six hundred * This was the usual appellation of the Persian monarchs. those triumphant conquerors of Asia. and occasion its toit tal ruin. but were now divested of their property. that he was determined to deliver up. into the common stock.

THE HISTORY OP * and that his mother and grandmo- ther. ** Where do you find then (retorted Leonidas) that Lycurgus ever ordained an abolition of debts. that their method of life. together with the rest of his relations and friends. who had been brought up in foreign countries. at the same time. that the city would never be safe till all strangers were expelled from its " That he was not walls. on the contrary. wonld do the same. as not to know that he had swept : away all actual and possible debts. that he had always considered him as such . so he was sensible. The magnanimity of their yomig prince astonished all the people. demanded aloud of Agis. that such a person as Leonidas. should be so little acquainted with Lycurgus. his precautions were intended against none but those who could not accommodate themselves to the manners and discipline he had established that these were the : : only persons he expelled from the city.172 talents in specie . who were the richest persons in Sparta. who. whether he did not think that Lycurgus was a just and able man. not by any hostilities against their persons. with respect to strangers. and one who had zealously consulted the welfare of his country ? Agis having replied. . jnask. but from the mere apprehension. were transported with joy that they at last were so happy as to behold a Leonidas then dropped the king worthy of Sparta. he alone would engross all the honour of that He therefore action. and opposed him to the utmost of his power for as he knew it would otherwise be necessary for him to make the same offer they had heard from Agis. who had first set the example. by banishing gold and silver from the city that. it was his firm persuasion. and had married into the family of a Persian grandee. that his citizens would not think themselves under the same obligations to him as they were to his colleague. or gave the freedom of Sparta to strangers ? Since. and corruption of * Equal to six hundred thousand French crowns." surprised Agis answered. but that when every one slioidd have equally contributed his whole fortune to the common stock.

who. that those who had opposed the decree of Agis. Leonidas was summoned to appear but as he refused to comply. and an immoderate passion for riches." then produced several examples of poets and philosophers. and Cleombrotus v/as prevailed upon. to assist in the prosecution. and entreated him not to abandon them : they likewise addressed themselves to the senators.people over the principal power in this affair. that he took sanctuary in the temple of JNIinerva called Chalcioecos . This discourse won all the common. became a supplicant with her father. for having vo- . Leonidas was so confounded at this proceeding. before they could be received and confirmed by the people . quitting her husband. and so apprehensive of the event. He maxims as Lycurgus had established." Sufficient proofs of delinquency in these particulars were produced against Leonidas. the usual time for holding it being then expired. by which " each descendant from Hercules was prohibited from woman . carried their point by one voice upon which Lysander. in virtue of an ancient law. at the same time. particularly Terpander. and it was then transferred to his son-in-law^ Cleombrotus. and the son-in-law of Leonidas. he was divested of his royalty. Lysander quitted his employment about this period. The new Ephori took this opportunity to commence a pro: who had . and Pherecydes. as they alone were qualified to examine all proposals. and demand the crown. because they taught the same to the of Agis. secution against him and Mandroclides. Thales. 173 maiincjs. might insensibly inspire the Spartans with the love of luxury and effeminacy. as being himself of tlie royal race. although foreigners. immediately determined to proceed against leonidas. and which made it espousing any foreign death for any Spartan to settle among strangers.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. who still continued in his employment. and their solicitations were so effectual. had been highly esteemed and honoured at Sparta. upon which the wife of Cleombrotus. but the rich men ranged themselves unparty der Leonidas.

and a new distribution of lands. Agesilaus had one of the largest and best estates in the whole country. they would have no cause to be disquieted by any decrees of the Ephori. expedient by the artifice of Agesilaus . should they attempt to carry their two points at the same time . finding themselves in danger of being condemned. it was suddenly obstructed by a single man. conducted thither by a sufficient guard. and even too dangerous. contrary to the laws. he ordered him safely to be . that if they would only be united with each other. who now expected to be put to the sword but not one person was : killed on this occasion and when Agis even knew that intended to cause Leonidas to be assassinated Agesilaus on his retreat to Tegaea. they but had no right to inwhen they concurred in the same The two kings taking advantage of this expedient. They then caused a band of young men to arm themselves. so great was the ly terror which then prevailed. and gave orders for releasing the prisoners . When the affair was on the point of being absoluteconcluded without any opposition. entered the assembly. that the change would be too great and violent. the abolition of debts. and at the same time was deeply involved in debt but as he was incapable of paying his creditors. who were privileged indeed to decide between them when were divided opinions. : namely. whereas. he represented to Agis. if they began vnth conciliating the landed proprietors. and even Lysander himself was won over to this Agis. one of whom was Agesilaus. and substituted others in their stead.174 THE HISTORY OF ted for the abolition of debts. in a word. and the distribution of lands. in their sentiments. they rendered themselves very formidable* to their enemies. persuaded the two kings. where they compelled the Ephori to quit their seats. and had no inclination to incorporate his estate into the common property. terpose in their affairs. by the annihilation of debts. in consequence . Lysander and Mandroclides. they would afterwards more quietly and readily consent to This specious reasoning misled the partition of lands.

who were in alliance with the Lacedaemonians. without committing the least disorder and so quietly. and guished. by which means he gained time. upon receipt of his sent Agis to their assistance. and free. Aratus. but Agesistill continued to start fresh difficulties. made the following reflection " What admirable discipline and order must formerly have been observed by the armies of Lacedaemon." The people. had sent to demand their assistance against the ^tolians. and clear a fire before. to prevent the execution of that affair . who now saw themselves discharged from all their debts. where they were piled into a large heap. when they were commanded by Agesilaus^ Lysander. 175 #f wliich all contracts and obligations were taken from the several creditors. This immediately prince set out with all possible expedition.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. who was then general of the Achaeans. that the sound of their march was hardly to be distinThe Greeks were entirely surprised. For the Achaean s. immediately after this transaction. for which reasons they testified the utmost affection for Agis. and Agesilaus cried " That he had never seen so fine with an insulting air. who had lent their money. and found out a variety of new pretexts. who. and had also written to the Ephori. returned home extremely dejected. : . The cities were charmed to see these troops pass through Peloponnesus. and also in expectation of sharing the lands at their return from this expedition . or the ancient I^eonidas : . the rich men and bankers. letters. till Agis was obliged to take the field at the head of an army. and burned to As soon as the flames mounted into the air. The generality of them were young — men in very low circumstances of life. had already assembled his troops to oppose the enemy. ashes. and carried into the public square. and the soldiers testified an incredible joy at their marching under his command. who threatened an irruption through the territories of the Megareans into Peloponnesus. and each of laus de- the kings gave orders for its accomplishment . manded a distribution of the lands.

and gathered in all the fruits of the season. and thought it not advisable to allow the enemies a passage into Peloponnesus . . who was astonished at his tions upon them conduct. set out for Sparta with his troops. though younger than any soldier in his camp !" when he was at the very time deliberating in a council of war. where their troops. and in what manner he should Agis joined Aratus near Corinth. and in their march seized the city of Pellene.176 . "The ^tolians entered Peloponnesus without any obstruction. Aratus. but added at the same time. when the welAVhen he had fare of the whole league lay at stake. without the least order. and began to contend with each other for the spoils. But the which. wherein he observes. was the effect of prudence. as he was the older officer of the two. for his disinclination to a battle ascribing that to timidity. in reality. THE HISTORY OF since they even now display so much awe and respect for their general. whether he should hazard a battle. that as the husbandmen had already carried in their harvest. but only to engage the enemy in conjunction with them for whose assistance he had been sent. in Arat. he judged it more advisable to let the enemy advance into the country. dispose his troops. by the memoirs he writ on that occasion . and general of the Achae- whereas he himself was only general of the auxiliary troops. " Pint. The officers of Aratus. he dismissed his allies. He justified his conduct. 1041. took the liberty to reproach him in sharp terms. p. instead of treating him with so much deference as Agis had expressed. . than to hazard an unnecessary battle at that juncture. determined not to enter upon an action. informed of ans . and was not come thither to exercise any command over the league. . Agis declared for a battle. vain fear of false infamy did not make him abandon his prudent schemes for the public good. after he had bestowed the greatest commendaand Agis. who were intent on nothing but plunder. immediately dispersed themselves up and down. that he intended to act as Aratus should judge proper.

and forced them to abandon it. Ant. raised and maintained a body of troops. 177 these proceedings. with the loss of seven hundred men. 3760. man. This action did him great honour. or waiting He till all his troops had joined him. but he also effectupeace ally negociated an offensive and defensive league between the two nations of jEtolia and Achaea. Aratus endeavoured to contract a friendship and alliance with the Mtolians. would not suffer so favourable an opwas no longer the same portunity to escape him. found a great change in the state of affairs. Agesilaus saved himself by the assistance of his son. called ChalPlut. VI. ^Agis. 244. who were become weak even by their victory attacked them in the very place they had so lately taken. M. when he arrived at Sparta. and. C. Agesilaus. N . in A. and entirely intent uppn the gratification of his avarice. and the two kings took sanctuary Agis in the temple of Minerva. and changed the injurious reproaches which had been uttered against him. universally beloved . p. who were great- ly irritated to see themselves abused in the hopes they had entertained of the partition of the lands. and he caused a report to be spread. his office the succeeding year. in which he easily succeeded and not only a was concluded between them. and which he had patiently suffered. he advanced with those he then had against the enemy. into the highest ap: plauses and panegyric. who was one of the Ephori. committed the greatest violence and injusWhen he found himself universally detested. which had never been carried into execution. to the general satisfaction of the people. His enemies. who served him as a guard when he went to the senate .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. that he intended to continue in . J. being no longer restrained by fear as formerly. without losing a moment's time. caused Leonidas to be sent for in the most public manner from Tegaea. who was '^ : VOL. Agid. he tice. 802—804. Several states and princes having now entered into a confederacy against the Achaeans. in order to elude the calamities with which they were threatened. and replaced him upon the throne.

and were struck with admiration at the virtue and tenderness of Chelonis. alas! shall I now resolve? While you reign for the future in Sparta. On what.17S cioecos. permit wear. and this affliction into which you see my me sunk. by the tears of his wife and children. pointing " Believe " me. who had nothing to answer to these reproaches. when I behold the husband I received from you in the flower of my youth. are not the effiscts of that compassion I entertain for Cleombrotus . and triumph over the enemies who opposed you. She had accompanied her father Leonidas during his exile. this habit of O from Sparta. continued seated in a profound silence. he left Agis. Cleombrotus. and the amiaThis unfortunate princess ble force of conjugal love. All those who were then present. but the sad remains of my grief for the calamities you have sustained in your flight I woe which now . to her mourning habit and dishevelled tresses. melted into tears at so moving a sight. whom she tenderly embraced. She had been equally unfortunate as a wife and daughter. and with an asHis wifo pect that sufficiently testified his confusion. and now returned to her husband. THE HISTORY OF and Cleombrotus in that of Neptune." said she. with her two children at her feet. and advanced at the head of a band of soldiers into the temple where Cleombrotus had fled then reproached him with great warmth for refuge. and had always adhered to the unfortunate. this dejection which appears in countenance. but was equally faithful in each of those capacities. Chelonis stood near. and for expelling them from his He own country in so ignominious a manner. As Leonidas seemed to be most exasperated against the latter. and move your soul to compassion. my father. and at the same time became a supplicant for him to her father. shall I continue to live in the desolate state to whic h you now see me reduced ? Or is it my duty to array myself in robes of royalty and magnificence. on the point of perishing by your hands ? Should he be unable to disarm your resentment. for assuming the regal power in violation of the ties of affinity between them.

and to soften my father into pity for my husband ? What indeed shall 1 apto them. but earnestly importuned his daughter to continue there. His solicitations were. and kissed her altar. had not been entirely depraved by vain glory. in my present condition. and clasped the other in her own . at her request. and. when he shall see a wife he will be punished with more was even intended by who is so dear to him expiring at his feet . after a few moments' discourse with his friends. and to reign in conjunction with himself In order to which he as. always afpear flicted and contemned by her nearest relations !" Chelonis. ineffectual. Lconidas. while with her eyes. When . she cast a languid look on those who were present. he bent all his endeavours to ensnare Agis and began with persuading him to quit the asylum to which he had retired. and not forsake a father. that severity for his imprudence. than yourself. as to spare. that even banishment itself w ith so virtuous a companion. ordered Cleombrotus to lise. 179 me to assure you. she became a voluntary exile with her husband. when she offered up her prayers to the goddess. mer. says Pluconjugal love tarch. the life of her husband. that spoke her sorrow in their tears. whom he had deposed. she placed one of her children in his arms. after my inability to inspire my husband with compassion for my father. and a boundless ambition to reign. who gave her such a peculiar proof of tenderness. at the conclusion of these mournful expressions.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. however. I will ever consent to survive hun. was a felicity preferable to the condition of a sovereign. What appearance shall I make among the Spar- tan ladies. and immediately quit Sparta . ! ! had Leonidas had expelled Cleombrotus from and substituted new Ephori instead of the forSparta. reclined her cheek on the head of Cleombrotus. and the moment Cleombrotus rose from his seat. How extremely affecting was this spectacle and how worthy the admiration of all ages is such a model of If the heart of Cleombrotus. but a daughter and a wife. he would have been sensible. for you are not to think that.

because they were sensible that his youth and inexperience. they resolved to take that opportunity to surprise him . and when he was one day returning from tl. they advanced up to him. and from thence conveyed him in safety to the temple . Leonidas no longer attempted to deceive him with plausible pretences. I must conduct you to the Ephori. and persisted in his resolution to continue in the temple. Arcesilaus. Demochares. Amphares seized Agis with an air of authority. to listen to the suggestions of Leoaidas : and that no one was so industrious as himself to spirit up the Ephori (of whose number he was one) against As this prince went sometimes from the temple Agis. they attended him in his way. that he was much more inclinable. " Agis. that his citizens had pardoned all past proceedings." At the same instant Demochares. with costly his mother and grandmother. had laid him open to the insinuations of i^gesilaus. and sometimes con- who had ducted him from the temple to the baths. was a turning which and as soon as they arrived at that comer.ence. as they and as no person came to aspreviously agreed him. because there was nobody in the street at that along.180 THE HISTORY OF surcd him. This Amphares had The hope of retaining those ornaments tempted him to betray the king. was of no long continuance. than either of his two companions. to the bath. however. nificent set of silver plate. lately borrowed of Agesistrata. and after they had em- braced him with an air of affection. continued their assiduities to him. and frequently visited the young prince. threw his mantle round his neck. for each of them was his intimate friend. while the others pushed . with his predonjinant passion for glory. him had sist him forward. . But as Agis suspected the sincerity of those expressions. several rich suits of tapestr}% and a magfidelity. led to the prison through which they passed. and cried. the niother of Agis. and entertained him with their usual famiAt the end of one of the liarity of conversation. Amphares. and dragged streets . It was even said. to whom you are to be accountable for your behaviour. who was tall and strong.

" His pretended judges then condemned him to die. " That he never should repent of so virtuous. as if he had been formally arraigned. and immediately commanded the public officers to carry him to that part of the prison. askpelled ed him. who. though death itself were presented to his view in all its terrors. 181 time. and with his own hands dragged Agis to the dungeon. where those on whom the sentence of condemnation had passed. The people. whether Lysander and Agesilaus had not comhim to have recourse to those measures . The whole street was already illuminated with innumerable tapers . were his only motives for attempting to restore the city to the same condition in which that legislator had left it. and ordered him to justify himself. they proceeded to examine Agis. and refused to be accessary to so inhuman an execution. and began to be very tumultuous. to which Agis replied. and the mother and grandmother of Agis ran from place to place. with respect to his intended innovations in the republic. Leonidas arrived at the same time with a great num- ber of foreign soldiers. so noble. and surrounded the prison . and when they had sent for such of the senators as concurred with their opinion. and glorious an undertaking. The same officer then demanding of him. pretending to have discovered an expedient for disengaging him from this criminal affair.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. that he had not acted in consequence of any compulsion . and that even the foreign soldiers turned their eyes from such a spectacle of horror. he loaded them with threats and reproaches. the Ephori likewise came thither. but that his admiration of Lycurgus. filling the air with . and a sincere desire to imitate his conduct. One of the Ephori. crowded to the gates of the prison. and threw him info privson. When Demochares saw that the officers of justice did not dare to lay their hands on Agis. they accomplished their design. whether he did not repent of that proceeding? The young prince answered with an air of steadiness. were informed of the manner in which he had been seized. were usually strangled. by this time.

than those who have condemned me. least reluctance. and be judged by his own citizens. and *' said. with aS much dignity and reputation as any lady of her time. the inhuman Amphares ordered the mother of Agis to This unhappy princess. contrary to all laws and justice. upon which he turned to him. beheld her son lying dead on the ground. and covered it with a cloth. him to permit her aged mother to attend her in that mournful visit. prison. Weep not for me. When this . I am much happier. at a little distance from him. and assured her that Agis had nothing to fear entreating her. who threw herself at his feet : he raised her from the earth. THE HISTOllY OF and entreating the people that the king of Sparta might at least have the privilege to defend himThe zeal of self." and he immediately conducted them into the . if the people should have sufficient time allowed them for assembling together. the first object he beheld was the disconsolate mother of Agis.18^ their cries." said he. the moenter the dungeon. it. lest he should be released by force that very night. who was touched with his misfortune . after which she laid the corpse by her son. who had lived to a venerable old age among her citizens. He When the executioner had performed his fatal office. the grandmother of Agis. and more to be envied. and. my friend for." When he had said these words. She assisted the executioners in untying it. as I am cut off in this manner. As the executioners were leading him to the place where they intended to strangle him. She then desired to enter the prison and see her son. the people did but animate the murderers the more to hasten the execution of Agis. he offered his neck to the fatal cord without the . " Your request. ment she came into that dismal place. as decently as she could. " is reasonable . at the same time. at the close of this tragic scene. her dead mother. he beheld tears flowing from the eyes of one of them. with the fatal cord still about her neck. As Amphares came from the prison. but ordered they entered the door to be shut the moment then commanded the executioner to seize Archidamia.

whom. pious 183 office was completed. p. It must indeed be acknowledged. : Agis having been destroyed in this manner. son. in opposition to that respect with which nature inspires the most savage people for the most sacred person of their sovereign. she cast herself upon the of Agis. is such a blemish on a nation. that the murder of the king included and surpassed them all so barbarous an execution. and y Plut. and running to the fatal cord. and under circumstances which infinitely aggravated their atrocity. as all succeeding ages can never obliterate. ." said she. and then compelled her to espouse hie son Cleomenes.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. have undone thee. and every one declared. and addressing " Since himself with a savage air to the mother of Agis. Leonidas was not expeditious enough in seizing his brother Archidamus. as she inherited a large estate from her father Gylippus. who from the door had beheld and heard all that passed. that all the blackest crimes in nature When by were here united." cried she. and after she had tenderly kissed his body " " cold lips. that from the time the Dorians had first established themselves in Peloponnesus. he carried off from her own house. the excess of thy humanity and sweet disposition. and been fatal to us as well as thee !" Amphares. the consort of that unhappy king. at least be useful to Sparta !" the report of these executions was dispersed the city. in Cleora. and we may even add too. but he secured Agiatis." said he. " " May this. the indignation occasioned this barbarity was universal. and thy too great cir- O cumspection and lenity. who saved himself by flight . and the inhabitants beheld the bodies through brought out of the prison." Agesistrata arose at those words. entered that moment. you shall share in his punishment. my son. who was not marriageable at that time : y but Leonidas was determined that the widow of Agis should not be disposed of to any other person. so atrocious and horrible an action had never been committed. " and approved the designs of your you knew. 805. with the young child she had by him.

Cleomencs ascends the throne of Sparta^ and enthe Achaoans. he did not think it inconsistent with the glory of a wise administration. joined a noble soul. but to no effect. and take several places from the enemy. p. but he had not that prince's excessive sweetness of diswhich accomposition. 805—811. IV. and gages in a war against several advantages. over wJiom he obtains He re-establishes the ancient discipline. in Cleom. at the same time. And when she at last was obliged to consent to her nuptials with Cleomencs. vantages over Aratus and the Achoeans. and that too in such a degree. him a vigour and vivacity of mind. reforms the government of Sparta^ Acquires new ad- Aratus applies Jhr succour to AntigonuSy king of Macedonia. while she related to him the great designs he had formed for the regulation of . who. which never abated she preserved for Agis. to employ some violence in reducing to compliance with a measure of public . SECT. conceived a most sincere and passionate esteem and affection for and even sympathized with her. from the first day of his marriage. the government.184j the history of likewise excelled all the Grecian ladies in beauty as She endeavoured to avoid well as wisdom and virtue. had infused into panied it. but behaved with the utmost complacency and kindness to her young spouse. hj whose aid the Achceans obtain repeated victories. ^Cleomenes had for glory. and an ardent passion with the same inclination for temperance and simplicity of manners as Agis had always expressed . that he would frequently listen to her with the greatest attention. nor the timidity and precaution on the contrary. she always retained a mortal aversion for l^eonidas . and the her in the tenderness regard she expressed for his memory. Nature. this maiTiage by all the means in her power. . which ardently prompted him to whatever appeared great and noble. Nothing seemed to him so glorious as to reign over his citizens with their own good will and consent but. 2 Plut.

and the king himself. It is also said. it was even dangerous to mention any thing of that nature. who came from the banks of the Boristhenes. and as he was sensible that few persons were disposed to * So called from Citium. grew solicitous to change the form of government . All the citizens had long been softened by indolence and a voluptuous life . who did not long sur\dve the condemnation and murder of Agis. settled in Lacedagmon. and people. utility. as Agis himself had perished by attempting to introduce it among them. had entirely neglected public affairs. 185 an inconsiderably number of obstinate and unwho opposed it merely from a view of prijust persons. the Citian. might be rendered very beneficial. was far from being satisfied with the state of afwhich then prevailed in Sparta.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. M. patience. while the whole authority was engrossed by the Ephori. that Cleomenes. Ant. who He from that time shamefully abused their power. who was still very young. J. his son Cleomenes succeeded him in the throne . and forming them to temperance. 3762. it gave him pain to consider that he had only the empty title of king. and though he was then very young. had heard some philosophical lectures at the time when Spherus. . and the aggrandizement of his family at the public exInstead of any care in disciplining the young pense. was capable of dangerous effects in a disposition naturally warm and impetuous . t A. the equality of freedom. by being grafted on a mild and moderate character. a city of Cyprus. * The Stoic philosophy. but. No person whatever had testified any regard for the public good. vate interest. was exceeding proper to infuse courage and noble sentiments into the mind . C. every fairs He individual being solely intent upon his private interest. on the other hand. This person was one of the principal disciples of Zeno. and. which he then professed. 242. f After the death of Leonidas. who was fond of tranquillity. at the same time. and applied himself in a very successful manner to the instruction of youth.

but confidence in the general by whom they were commanded. he imagined the accomplishment of it would he facilitated hy a war. whose numbers did not amount to five thousand men in the The courage of Cleomenes was so much raised whole. and this was the only point to which all his measures tended.186 THE HISTOUY OF concur with him in his views. they indeed were not When numerous. they would have nothing to fear for the future from a foreign enemy . but Aratus was so intimidated by this bold measure. but where they were. and sharp raillery from the enemy. from the very beginning of his administration. and then made a retreat . a city of Arcadia. in order to make an experiment of the Spartan courage. and therefore endeavoured to embroil his city with the Achaean s. the people of Elis. that if he succeeded in that attempt. through a persuasion. with them near Pallantium. That the Lacedaemonians never enquired after the numbers of their enemies. very fortunately for his purpose. that he assumed a loftier air amongst his citizens. and reminded them of an expression used " by one of their ancient kings. as a young man without the least experience. began to harass the Arcadians. they caused their troops to take the field under the command of Cleomenes ." He afterwards defeated . The Acha^ans marched against him with twenty thousand foot and a thousand horse. inspired them with all imaginable ardour for the war. and at the same time to make it evident. who said. by this retreat. and offered them battle . Aratus. that he prevailed upon the general not to hazard an engagement. soon after the death of Lconidas. that he despised Cleomenes. and those of Arcadia. except the Lacedsernonians. who. All the other states. which drew upon him very severe reproaches from his own troops. under Cleomenes came up the command of Aristomachus. the Ephori received intelligence of this act of hostility. Aratus. had given Sparta some occasions of complaint against them. had acceded to this league. who had espoused the party of the Lacedaemonians. had been industrious to negotiate a league between all the states of Peloponnesus.

187 the Achasans in a second encounter . after which no other person whatever sustain* sassinated. . f with ten of those who had taken arms for their defence. turned and before the enemy could have any suspicion of his design. the brother of Agis. found means to assassinate his brother Archidamus. who served him in a very seasonable manner. who had been repulsed when the encounter first began. V. a set of persons who had been chosen for that action. entered the hall with their drawn swords. that the authority of the Ephori would receive a much greater diminution. in an action near Megalopolis. viii. 51 1. and had influence enough to cause Archidamus. began to think seriously on the execution of his grand design. When he returned to Sparta. found means to save himself. to be recalled from Messene.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. at which time. and killed four of these magistrates. unhappily for his purpose. who had been left for dead on the spot. This victory was very honourable to the young king. and put a garrison into it. soon after this event. but Aratus taking the advantage even of his defeat. gained a new advantage over the Achaeans. As that prince was descended from the other royal house of Sparta. 383. he had an incontestible right to the crown . But. that Cleomenes himself caused 1. Polybius declares. in consequence of engaging too far in the pursuit of the Lacedaemonians. after his return to Sparta. whose union would enable them to counterbalance their power. and Cleomenes was persuaded. him to be as- & + This magistracy was composed of five Ephori. wherein Lysiades was slain. made himself master of that city. Cleomenes. when the throne of Sparta should be filled by its two kings. Agesilaus. the same persons who had been guilty of the death of Agis. and increased his reputation to a great degree. p. general. he concerted his march so as to enter the city when the Ephori were at supper .* Cleomenes. 1. He had imparted his design to a small number of select and faithful friends. p. like an experienced his arms immediately against ^lantinaea.

portion to each of those who had been banished. by reviving among them the discipline and equality which the wise Lycurgus had formerly established. and the lands were distributed He even assigned a agi'eeably to the intended plan. and not with leather straps buckled on. he was the first to consign his whole estate to the common stock. and. and was seconded in that action by Megistones. whom he intended to banish. by suppressing all lawful authority. The next day. as had before been the cus- tom. and from whence Sparta had derived all her glory and reputation. who was very rich. instead of consulting his own particular interest. indeed. number of citizens with persons of the best chaproper racter in all the adjacent parts. He then added. and promised to recal them as soon as affairs could be setHe then filled up the tled in a state of tranquillity. Cleomenes caused the names of fourscore citizens.188 THE HISTORY OF ed any violence . that. and not only banishing their kings. and to wear bucklers with strong handles. to be fixed up in places of public resort. and after he had convoked an assembly of the people. his whole endeavours were employed to promote that of the citizens. and raised four thousand foot. but even causing them to be destroyed without the least form of justice. and menacing those who were desirous of again beholding Sparta happy in the most excellent and most divine form of government. His next cares were devoted to the education of chil- . wliat had been already committed was sufficient. He also removed from the hall of audience all the seats of the Ephori except one. and at length all the other citizens. he explained to them his reasons for the conduct he had pursued . When he had expressed himself in this manner. representing to them in what an enormous manner the Ephori had abused their power. whom he taught to use lances instead of javelins. The rest of his his father-in-law. that the conduct he pursued rendered it sufficiently evident. where he himself was to sit when administering justice . friends. then complied with this example.

conform. but only intended to convince them. whose number was very inconsiderable. in those times. victorious over them. in the sight of the enemy not that he had any real satisfaction in such a conduct. than to let his enemies see how much he was esteemed by his troops and beloved by his citizens. to which the rest. and the old men were industrious to form and instruct them. and to avoid exasperating the citizens. which were always modest. The youths of his army passed the Though greatest part of their time in exercising themselves. Their very relaxations from those employments were devoted to instructive and familiar conversations. where his troops committed great devastations. that the new changes had not alienated the minds of the people from him. and what confidence he entertained. thought nothing could be more honourable and advantageous to him. Cleomenes. 189 dren . wherein the philosopher SpheThe exercises and public rus very much assisted him. to see of comedians and dancers in the train of other troops armies. and never rendered offensive by injurious reflections. causing public games or shows to be exhibited for the space of a whole day. soon resumed their ancient order and gravity . it was very customary.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and To these ravages he gained a very considerable booty. seasoned with fine and delicate railleries. He first advanced into the territories of Megalopolis . believing that Aratus and the Achaeans were persuaded he would not presume to quit Sparta. and regular method of life. how assured he was of being . he appointed his brother Euclidas king with him . noble. . his camp was perfectly free from all such dissolute attendants. meals most of the citizens voluntarily embraced this wise. were soon obliged to In order also to soften the name of monarch. in order to which he endeavoured to re-establish tlie Laconic discipline. which is the first instance of the administration of the Spartan government by two kings of the same house at one time. added insults. amidst the dissatisfactions occasioned by the innovations which he had introduced into the government. by this contemptuous bravado.

may pass their time very agreeably without hearing songs. as his conversation well supplied its any place . His table was extremely simple and frugal. and which had nothing in it superior to that of the meanest of his subjects. and splendid whereas the ability of gaining their hearts by the amiable power of discourse. one desire it. without guards. He appeared in a very plain habit. in which the true grandeur and merit of a : : king undoubtedly consist. in the simple and frugal life which he led. or relating some useful and agreeable piece of history . did not admire their riches and magnificence. affording. they were entirely conformable to the laws by which the wise legislator of Sparta had been careful to regulate conversations. and it is certain that those who are capable of discoursing well. This affable and engaging behaviour gained him the universal love and veneration of his people. which facilitated beyond expression his accomplishment of the great things which he performed in Greece. his interest of a prince's merit nor glory to attach men to by the attractions of riches. either by proposing curious and important questions. For those whose affairs carried them to the courts of other kings. Cleomenes himself appeared like the master who thus formed the citizens.190 THE HISTORY OF In a word. and truly No music was ever introduced there. nor did Laconic. Cleomenes never failed to enliven those repasts. seasoning the whole with a delicate vein of wit and gaiety. an affecting model of wisdom and abstinence. On the contrary. and the charms of an intercourse in which frankness and sincerity always . He thought it neither an ar- gument tables . as by his example. no such offensive manners were ever experienced in the court of Cleomenes. not so much by his discourse. and the haughtiness with which they treated those who approached them. and almost without officers the audiences he gave were as long as the people who applied to him could desire he gave all manner of persons a very agreeable reception. so much as they detested their imperious pride. without treating any body with an air of austerity.

and inspired them with such an ardour for liis service.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Ant. Cleomenes followed them thither. prevailed. ravaged the tenitories of their allies. as seemed to have rendered them invincible. had now abandoned the helm of his vessel amidst a threatening tempest. and king of Sparta. The Acha^ans having taken the field with all their troops. He took several places from the Achaans. who was considered by them as their pilot. sured the conduct of Aratus on this occasion. disposition of Cleomenes secured him the aftection of all the troops. J. and harassed them perpetually with so them to come plete victory . even by force. wherein it would have his been proper and glorious for him to have seized it into own hands. in Cleom. than to » * Plut. Idem in Arat. and advanced almost as far as Pherae. who was a Grecian by birth. M. refused that commission when he was chosen again. with intention either to give them battle. and abandoned all their champaign country to be plundered. 811. killed and took a great number of prisoners. 1044. . Aratus. extremely dejected at these severe losses. '•^ 191 was considered by him as a truly royal qua- This affable and engaging. in imitation of several great examples related in history. 228. lity. and with great justice. p. according to the rumour which then prevailed. and Timoxenes was The Achaeans were The Achaeans severely censubstituted in his stead. as he. who had usually been elected general every other year. abundance of men. and thus to have been solely solicitous to save the state at the expense of his own life. or discredit Aratus as a pusillanimous leader. especially if she should happen to be supported by the ^tolians. and encamped in the territories of Dymae. If he had even despaired of retrieving the affairs of the Achaeans. ^ much intrepidity. and began to be apprehensive of the greatest calamities from Sparta. who had fled from his enemy. 3776. A. as at last compelled to a battle. if it had not been offered to him. he ought rather to have submitted to Cleomenes. C. wherein he obtained a comfor he put their army to flight.

. 3777. but an unexpected accident which ingly happened to him prevented the interview . He imagined. and only demanded to be appointed general of the Achaean league. promising on that condition to accommodate all differences between them. and Aratus endeavoured to improve it in such a manner as to hinder the negociation from being renewed. seemed at upon them order to conclude the treaty. extinguishes all prudent reflections. The king set out accordfor that place. in first . where they were to hold a general assembly. augmented and retained for so many years. desired Cleomenes to be present at Lerna. however. 227. and was extremely dishonourable in a man * A. ties. The king * The Achaeans heing reduced determined to impose very rigid terms but afterwards despatched an embassy on his part. M. These considerations induced him to use all his efforts to dissuade the Achaeans from ac- cepting the conditions proposed to them by Cleomenes : but as he had the mortification to find that the Achaeans would not coincide with him in opinion.192 call in THE HISTORY OF the assistance of foreigners. by supplanting him in a com- mand which he had acquired. because they dreaded the bravery and uncommon success of Cleomenes. and likewise thought that the intentions of the Ijacedaemonians to restore Peloponnesus to its ancient state were very just and reasonable. Ant. he had recourse to an expedient which would not have become any Grecian. and is a malady not to he cured hy reason alone. that as he had possessed the chief authority in the Achaean league for the space of thirty-three years. especially after to the last extremithe loss of this last hattle. The Achaeans. C. as he will soon appear to have done: jealousy. and restore the prisoners and places he had taken from them. and divest him of all his glory and power. it would be very disgraceful to him if a young man were suffered. sent ambassadors to Cleomenes to negociate a peace. and make them masters of Peloponnesus. J. to graft himself upon him. who were very inclinable to accept of peace on those terms. as it were.

and then strongly insisted. and proceeded by indirect and secret methods. because he that. it lay most exposed to the incursions of the enemy. VOL. they lightly touched upon the particulars make When which related to their city. would not openly enter into a negociation of this : nor propose it as from himself. sistance of Antigonus king of Macedonia. 133—140. As the city of Megalopolis was nearest in situation to Sparta. and the Achaeans granted them the permission they desired. a proposal in the council of that city. they received audience of Antigonus. to implore the assistance This motion was immediately assented of Antigonus. 193 This was to call in the asof his rank and character. for demanding permission of the Achaeans. to.* if it should happen to prove unsuccessful. made These two citizens were then deputed to be the messengers to that proposal to the king. and the inhabitants began to be tired of the war. concealed his real views. in conformity to their instructions. and by inevitable consequence make him master of Greece. They then represented ^ Polyb. and Aratus had been careful to furnish them with sufficient instructions beforehand. u. ~ 1. two citizens of JMegalopolis. knew recourse to their professed enemy. He. therefore. he would not have advised them to have nature. p.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and that they form their sentiments of things by the standard of their own interest. that they were unable to defend themselves. He. on the imminent danger to which the king himself would be exposed. that if he had not absolutely despaired of retrieving their affiiirs. it would be making a plain declaration to the Achseans. he must inevitably incur all the odium . ^Hc had not forgotten that Antigonus had great but he was sensible cause to be dissatisfied with him that princes may be properly said to have neither friends nor enemies. VL O . however. as the Achaeans were so far from being in a condition to support them. should the alliance which was then talked of between the ^Etolians and Cleomenes take effect. Nicophanes and Cercides. whom Aratus had brought over to his scheme. like an artful and experienced politician. and besides.

fortune should prove adverse to them. that if the united forces of those two states should have those advantages over the Achaeans which they ex- pected to ohtain. They also took care to insinuate to the king. as it was evident he aspired at the empire of all Greece. ii. by declaring themselves kings. fidelity Antigonus highly approved all these representations. they must then entreat him not to be an unconcerned spectator of the ruin of Peloponnesus. which it would be impossible for him to seize. without entirely destroying the authority of the MaceTo these remonstrances they added. that if donians.194« THE HISTORY OF to him. and seized with pleasure the opportunity that was now offered him. and to render the people incapable of forming any coni^derable enterprises. This had always been the policy of the successors of Alex- own ander. terested in opposing all such states as had any inclination to retain their liberty. 131. the towering amhition of Cleomenes would never be satisfied with the mere conquest of Peloponnesus. by sow- ing the seeds of division between republics and free states. had converted the frame of their respective governments into moThey were sensible that they were deeply innarchy. and prevent their shaking off the Macedonian yoke by unit<^Polybius. and would have no cause to trouble the king with their importunities for his assistance . p. on the other hand. of engaging in the affairs of Greece. who. and the form of popular go- vernment . . that Aratus would enter into all his measures. the ^tolians should not happen to join Cleomenes. they attempted to weaken it at least. and wherever they found themselves in no condition to crush this inclination entirely. which might even be attended with fatal consequences to himself. and permit the confederacy between those two states to take effect. speaking of one of these ing their forces. and engaging them in wars against each other. and give him. in due time. <= Lib. sufficient security for his and good intentions. but if. in order to render themselves necessary to them. the Achaeans would be capable of supporting themselves with their own forces.

at the happy result of their negociation. and to press them to send for him immediately. in order to inform that people of the good intentions of Antigonus. and related all the particulars of the obliging reception he had given them with the affection and esteem he had expressed for the Achaeans. to have had no occa- and though necessity obliged . and the advantageous . offers he made them. declares. he was unwilling to have those measures imputed to him. Aratus did not fail to congratulate himself in private on the masterly stroke by which he had succeeded in his intrigue. pensions fessed enemies to liberty. they read the letter of Antigonus. that princes. to several tyrants in Greece. wherein he promised to assist them. and to find Antigonus not possessed with any impressions to his prejudice. without any interference on his part. but wished them to seem to have been concerted by the Achseans. as he had reason to It cannot therefore be apprehend. assembly tion. and every one seemed to approve of that moAratus then rose up. They concluded with desiring. and immediately despatched the same deputies to the general assembly of the Achseans. When the deputies from INlegalopolis were introduced sion for his assistance to him into the assembly. He wished. and after he had represented the good will of the king in the strongest light. indeed.* he paid large who were pro- thought surprising. that the Achaeans w^ould invite Antigonus to be present as soon as possible in their name . have recourse to that prince. provided the Acha^ans would consent to that proceedThe inhabitants of Megalopolis were transported ing. for that it should be a point o\' precipitating measures . and commended the sentiments that prevailed in the assemhe intimated to them. . and to put their interests into his hands. He wrote them an obliging letter. that Anshould so readily comply with the solicitations tigonus and demands of the Megalopolitans.195 in express terms. that there was no necessity bly. in the of their city.

t A. J. J. viii. Aratus set out by sea. . ^ A. C. f The Achaeans had then no longer time for deliberation . Cleonae. M. in Arat. :}: Ant. Ant. instead of attempting to defend the passage of the Isthmus. Pheneus. 226.M. Plut. for Cleomenes made himself master of several * of cities Peloponnesus. to the his ar- rival in person. These were a ridge of mountains which extended from the rods of Sciron. 814. citadel of Corinth to him. in the road to Attica. ^ The events of it were. in Cleom. 3778. it would then be time enough to have recourse This advice was generally approved . and it was concluded that the Achaeans should employ only their own forces in supporting the present war. to her friends. unknown and when that prince was informed of . Strab. with an army of twenty thousand foot and fourteen hundred horse. * Caphyae. to enemy all meet Antigonus at the city of Pegse. That prince advanced by long marches. veiy unfavourable to them . with the principal officers of the league. and that if any calamitous accident should render her incapable of doing so. and at last seized Corinth. however. as well on account of its advantageous situation between two seas. and rendered him the honours due to a general of distinguished rank and merit. 815. Epidaurus. and mount Cithe^ ron. C. of which Argos was the most considerable. 104?. which rendered it almost impregnable. and there was none which suited him so effectually as that. as its fortifications. he advanced to him. Pellene. 3779. Phlius. 1. his son to Antigonus among the other hostages. 225. Her- mione.196 THE HISTORY OF honour with the republic to endeavour to maintain and terminate her wars by her own forces . Antigonus was called in to their assistand they came to a resolution to deliver up the ance. without which he would never have engaged in that expedition for he wanted a place of strength. p. and to harass the enemy by :j: Plut. Cleomenes. Troezene. p. thought it more advisable to throw up trenches and raise strong walls to fortify the passes* of the Onian mountains. but not the citadel. as far as Boeotia. Aratus sent .

that the disorders which had lately happened at Argos. immediately detached Megistones with two thousand men. 3780. which could not easily be made. and were then besieging the citadel.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Aratus having received fifteen hundred men from Antigonus. for he had not provided himself with any considerable quantity of provisions. set out by sea and arrived at Epidaurus. of the king of Sparta reduced Antigonus to great extremities . * A. rather than hazard a battle against This conduct such vvell-disciphned and warlike troops. the I^acedaemonian garrison was reduced to the last extre. some friends of Aratus arrived at his camp. Cleomenes being then apprehensive that the enemies. and from thence : army by sea to Sicyon. 197 frequent attacks. by sea. C. as well as great prequire parations. he was deceived slain in a skirmish. and even to form the siege of Sparta. which would rea considerable space of time. to transport his * While Antigonus was embarrassed in this manner. for Megistones having been however. if they should happen to make themselves masters of Argos. mity. persons. one night. which would then be without defence . Cleomenes. therefore. receiving intelligence of these proceedings about nine or ten in the evening. would shut up all the passes against him . . was to advance to the promontory of Heraea. to succour his party at Argos as soon as possible after which he industriwatched the motions of Antigonus . he. as soon as he entered Argos. and found it not very practicable to force the passes defended by Cleomenes the only expedient. and to aniously mate the Corinthians. Ant. assured them. and had sent several couriers to demand immediate assistance from the Spartan army. therefore. and informed him. which would easily be suppressed. to which Antigonus could have recourse in this perplexity. J. . M. by which means they would be in a condition to ravage all T^aconia with impunity. were no more than a slight commotion excited by a few mutinous In this. that the people of Argos had revolted against Cleomenes. 224.

Antigonus. entered Corinth. which affected him as much as all his former misfortunes. in the evening. from whom he had never been able to absent himself a whole campaign. some news by messengers from Laceda^mon. as to scale several parts of the town. with reference to their children. that it had always been customary for him to make frequent returns to Sparta to The next mornenjoy the pleasure of her company. which . While he was on his march. where. and king Antigonus appearing with all his troops on the other. he resumed the management of public affairs. in the mean time. who had promised to assist him in the war. and arrived ing early at Sparta.198 thought his it THE HISTORY OF advisable to decamp. wliere he forced some of the enemies' troops' to save themselves by flight but Aratus having entered the city on one side. began cause . They acquainted him with the death of his consort Agiatis. sent to him to demand his mother and children as hostages. immediately after this retreat of the Lacedagmonians. he renewed his march by break of day. with an intention to explain himself to her. he received at Tegea. even when his expeditions were most successful . Cleomenes re. Ptolemy. of those who were most intimate with him. His mother observing his emto entertain some suspicion of the barrassment. and though he frequently went to visit her. for mothers have generally a great share of peShe ennetration. arrived at Argarrison. he never had resolution enough to enter upon the subject. whequired ther her son did not desire something from her. before the revolters had any suspicion of his apgos. and at first succeeded so far. and such was his tenderness and esteem for her. It was a long time before Cleomenes could venture to acquaint his parent with the king of Egypt's demand . and placed in it a strong Cleomenes. proach. and inarched with all army from Corinth. tired to INlantiuea. after he had devoted some moments in pouring out his sorrows to his mother and children in his own house. Much about the same time.

whatever he imagined would prove beneficial and glorious to Sparta. When she was apprised of these circumstances. was satisfied with the proposals made by that prince . she saw him weep in the excess of his anguish at that " King of Lacedaemon. and commanded the pilot to sail that moment from the port. to any part of the world. she composed her countenance. did you not immediately cause me to be put on board some vessel. with her face bathed in tears. in the name of heaven. she had expressed herself to this effect. led her infant grandson to the ship. who was then in the power of that king. melancholy parting . a few moments before she When entered the vessel. without the least fear or hesitation. or do any thing unworthy of events are in the . that no person.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and not to suffer himself to be dis- ." said she with a smile. to transact. may see us weep." When gonus. called) took her son apart. There she held him a great while clasped in her arms . but that he durst not put an end to the war without the consent of Ptolemy. having received an embassy from AntiSparta. " let us our tears. and led him alone into the temple of Neptune. without a moment's delay. and sent. because he was apprehensive for his mother. " is this the secret you wanted courage to disclose to me ? Why. when you quit the dry temple. where my person may be useful to Sparta. she recommended the liWhen berty and honour of his country to his care. For this is in our 'power hands of God. she sent express orders to her son. and she had likewise intelligence that her son Cleomenes w^as solicited by the Achoeans to conclude a treaty between them and Sparta." said she. As soon as she arrived in Egypt. her 199 he could not prevail upon himself to communicate to ? And when Cleomenes had at last the resokition " to open the affair to her. before old age consumes inaction ?" and destroys it in languor and the preparations for her voyage were comCratesiclea (for so the mother of Cleomenes was pleted. How. she was informed that Ptolemy. my son. and after she had tenderly kissed him.

Id. p. A. 223. 815—817. and several other cities Cleomenes. and Antigonus was not informed of this accident. necessity of defending Laconia. conseif he proceeded with expedition in his dewho was then at the distance of three sign. and made himself master of the place without any opposition. « till it 1. and to take it without any opposition as Antigonus had sent most of his troops into winterquarters in jNIacedonia. the king of Sparta justly supposed that the garrison of the city could not be very strong at that time. (about one hundred and twenty-five thousand pounds sterling. while he himself continued at . scaled the walls. having made himself master of Tegea. before their enemies had any thoughts of pursuing them . INIantinca. that fording it any assistance. Plut. The city of Megalopolis was very considerable at that time. Orchomenus. caspides of Antigonus which certainly no one could have expected from him. p.t>00 THE HISTORY OF concerted by his apprehensions of the treatment an old woman and a child might sustain from Ptolemy. for he arrived at the city by night. permitted all the Helots who were capable of paying five minaj (about ten pounds From this sterling) to purchase their freedom. p. Such were the sentiments which even the women of Sparta thought it their glory to cherish. Antigonus. in order to oppose them to the Leuhe then foimed an enterprise. Ant. as not being apprehensive of any in- from an enemy so weak as himself. in the mean time. to assist in the assembly of the Achaeans. with their wives and children. and even not inferior to Sparta in power and extent. Egium. J. in Arat. Cleomenes concerted measures for surprising and this city. was too 149. . and. 3781. Polyb. 104B. ii. C. . would be incapable of afsult quently. days' march from the place. nor much upon their guard. contribution he raised five hundred talents. who was then reduced to the . The event succeeded according to the plan he had projected . late to retrieve it. ^ Antigonus.) and armed two thousand of these Helots after the JNlacedonian manner. Most of the inhabitants retired to Messene. in Cleom. M.

The famous Philopoemen. and such noble sentiments.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. but had even been careful to prevent the soldiers from committing the least disorder but his anger was then inflamed to such a degree. till the moment he received their answer. hut advantageous as this offer seemed. which prohibited them from writing to any king. provided they would renounce the Achaian league. He also demolished the greatest part of the walls. to see themselves divested of all that was most dear and valuable to them. for by that name the times of which we now treat may justly be described. who made their liberties the price of his aid. that he abandoned the place to pillage. than to violate the faith they had sworn to their allies. or sending . they had subjected themselves to an imperious master. in the very dregs of Greece. who considered their inability to assist such faithful allies. by imploring the aid of Antigonus. in a word. and sent all the statues and pictures to Sparta. they could not prevail on themselves to accept it. much when we compare them with the glorious ages of Greece united and triumphant. that he would reiicquaint store them their city. Who could ever expect to discover so greatness of soul. tremely afflicted the Achaeans. who. whom we shall frequently have occasion to mention in the sequel of this history. few examples in 201 Cleomenes. sent a herald to Messene to the people of Megalopolis. as a crime for which they ought to reproach themselves. that. contributed not a little to this generous resolution. This people was soon sensible. out of a generosity of mind which has history. when even the lustre of its vicwas surpassed by the splendour of its virtues This refusal of the Megalopolitans highly enraged Cleomenes. hut rather chose to he deprived of their estates. tories ! . and enter into a friendship and confederacy with Sparta. He compelled them to pass a decree. had not only spared the city. and then marched his The desolation of the city extroops back to Sparta. with the strongest quarters in the place. and who was then at Messene. as well as of the monuments of their ancestors and the temples of their gods .

and destroyed all those which had been erected in honour of the persons who surprised the citadel of Corinth. a salutary example. without his permission . did Cleomenes * Antigonia. by having himself contributed to load his republic with shackles. and he obliged them to furnish provisions and pay for the garrison he had put into the citadel of Corinth which. were insupportable to him. whose glory. for this citadel was the very place which kept them in subjection. What. who had the meanness to call this new inhabited city * by the name of him who had shown himself its most cruel enemy a sad. . he sees himself daily compelled to descend lower. Aratus. and suffered a just punishment for subjecting himself and his country to a foreign yoke. and most inhumanly murdered a great number of the citizens. The sight of these transactions gave him the utmost anxiety but he was no longer master. was making them pay for their own chains. except one. the enormity of which no great quality. which shows that when once a person has consented to stoop to a state of servitude. merely through jealousy of his rival Cleomenes. and sold the rest into captivity. : how to stop. and. Antigonus set up in Argos all the statues of those tyrants which Aratus had thrown down. without knowing where or . After Antigonus had taken the city of Mantinea. in reality. in order to its being repeopled by them. and all the entreaties of this general could not prevail upon the king to desist from such a proceeding. can ever extenuate. in honour of Antigonus. was guilty of an unpardonable crime. They abandoned themselves to slavery in so abject a manner. at the same time. which was that of Aratus himself. nor any He acted thus shining action. . Even Aratus himself was treated with equal disrespect. and even charged Aratus with that commission. and the superiority that young prince had obtained over him by the success of his arms.202 THE HISTOHY OF an embassy. and exhibit public games. as even to offer sacrifices and libations. says Plutarch. he abandoned the place to the Argives.

Aratus. continues Plutarch. If. the meanest citizen of Sparta have been preferable to the greatest of the JNIacedonians . in the opinion of those who had any regard to the honour and reputation of Greece ? Jealousy. and was ready to sink into putrefaction . and all fore them. at least. demand of the 203 Achaeaiis. called in a stranger. it had been absolutely necessary for them to have chosen either Cleomenes or Antigonus. however. and a king who had lately reestablished the ancient discipline of that city. to appear himself at the head of a procession crowned with chaplets of flowers. to whom he had formerly professed himself a mortal enemy . in consequence of which lie filled Peloponnesus with those very Macedonians whom he had made it his glory to expel from He even threw himself at their thence in his youth. would not word. by his example. he had the baseness to . therefore. he became an abject and servile flatterer. or. nor consent that a king of Sparta descended from Hercules. a Greek or a barbarian. and to secure to them the enjoyment of their liberties. in other words. In a word. som. extinguished so difficult all those sentiments in the mind of Aratus is it to behold superior merit with an eye of satisfaction . in a for the Macedonians were considered as such if they were obliged to have a master. from a man accustomed to liberty. and rendering by these low adulations that homage to a mortal man. as Antigonus. as the sole preliminary to the he offered them. that he might not seem to submit to Cleomenes. and tranquillity. feet Achaia. which none but the Divinity offer sacrifices to can claim to a man who then carried death in his bo. as a testimony of his gratitude for so signal an honour. . but merely their election of him peace as their general ? And even that was with a view to the wcltare of their cities.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOKS. should add to his other titles that of captain-general of the Acha^ans. and so glorious a title. therefore. for he at . joining at the same time in hymns to the honour of that prince. fell prostrate bean indication of their promptitude to accomplish the commands of their imperious masters.

amidst the lustre of so many rare and ^ exciellent qualities. a man of great consumption. at the return of spring. in the opinion of the vulgar. or that. him. He conceived at the same time. but in exposing himself rashly and without reason. p. in Cleom.204 THE HISTORY OF that time was reduced to the last extremity by a slow Aratus was. all cannot form the model of virtue exempt from blame. when he would certainly be defeated . was the result of temerity and folly . 1. did not consist in hearing himself reproached. while the Spartans. and had shown himself to be an In extraordinary person. a competent judge in affairs of that nature. merit in other respects. Cleomenes. 817. but. p. that either Antigonus would be so much affected with the api^rehensions of ignominy as to hazard a battle. ^ We Plut. or resign the command of his troops to those who were less timorous than himself. who had so much of the prudence and presence of mind essential to a great general. formed an enterprise. according to Polybius. The event succeeded according to his expectations . as to be sensible that the dishonourable part of one in his station. 149- . which. without any other guard than an inconsiderable number of foreign troops . we see a deplorable instance of human frailty . the people of Argos. and that Antigonus passed the winter season with his friends at Argos. for as the whole country was ruined by the devastations of his troops. says Plutarch. would be rendered more daring and intrepid. which. and with a murmuring tone pressed the king either to give their enemies battle. 81 6. on the other hand. on the contrary. that Antigonus had sent his troops into winter-quarters in Macedonia. in their rage and impatience. But Antigonus. he made an irruption into the territories of Argos in order to lay them waste. ii. and well worthy of Greece. assembled in a tumultuous manner at the palace gate. he would lose all his reputation with the Achaeans. if he should decline fighting. however. As he was sensible that the Macedonians were dispersed in their quarters. it was concerted with all imaginable prudence and sagacity. Polyb. have already observed.

Polyb. unhappily prevented mity. 818. to zvhose throne Ptolemy Philopater succeeds. and treats that city zvith The death of that Prince. and the in quitting certainties for chance. p. Antigomtfi makes himself master of Sparta. Thefate of thefamxius g Colossus. The death of Ptolemy Euergetes.son of Demetrius. and when he had laid the open country waste. they could never sufficiently admire his manner of opposing the forces of a single city to the whole powxr of the Macedonians. ii. M. where he ravaged the country. f The Plut. 205 take and persisted in his resolution not to fight. . A. him from reinstating Sparta in her ancient power. 819. J. Antigonus put himself at the head of them. V. 358. and advanced into Laconia. notwithstanding the immense supplies which had been furnished by the king . C. and a person of the highest merit and capacity in the conduct of the most arduous affairs. marched his army hack to Sparta. A SECT. In a word. 22. A The noble generosity of those great earthquake at Rhodes. refused to fiekl. and especially when they considered that he had not only preserved Laconia free from all insults.Ibid. 1. and made himself master of several great cities.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. however. 3781. and obliged even his enemies to confess that he was an excellent general. Philop. 150—154. p. p. This they were persuaded could not be the effect of any ordinary nor of any common magnanimisfortune. abilities in the art of war.S. This expedition redounded very much to his honour. zaiierein Antigonus defeats Cleomenes^ wJio retires into Egypt. as will be evident in the sequel. princes and cities who contributed to the reparatiwi of the losses which the Rhodians had sustained by that calamity. ed by Philip. in Cleom. united with that of all Peloponnesus. the . The celebrated battle of Selasla. who is succeedgreat humanity. Macedonians and Achaeans having quitted their quarters on the approach of summer. in Ant. Cleomenes therefore led up his troops to the walls of Argos. but had even penetrated into the territories of his enemies.

who was posted so advantageously. posted his brother Euclidas on the eminence of Eva. having tlirown up a strong intrenchment at the foot of these mountains. placing. and the other that of Olympus. and planted himself on Olympus with the Lacedaemo- and a party of the foreign troops. along each bank of the river. and their situation secured them from insults in any quarter. and was sensible. and whose troops were . that he had neglected no nians. however. army. in order to view the situation of the diffisrent posts. As . as rendered all approaches to All this abated his ardour for it extremely difficult. by the manner in which Cleomenes had posted his troops. on the banks of which was the road to Sparta. a detachment of the cavalry and foreign auxiliaries. when he arrived there. in which he was not deceived. at the head of the allies. where he had an opportunity of covering his troops with a rivulet. he had fortified all the passes. He imagined. a battle. which kept the enemy in suspense how to act. saw all the passes fortified. and by throwing up intrenchments. This defile was formed by two mountains. one of which had the name of Eva. It is not easy to comprehend why Cleomenes. the latter of these two princes expected an irruption from the enemy. by posting detatchments of his troops in them. at the same time. after which he formed his camp at Selasia. Cleomenes. Antigonus. At last both sides resolved upon a decisive battle. precaution either for defending himself or attacking his enemies. They. The river Oeneus ran between them. and sound the disposition of the nations who composed the enemy's Sometimes he seemed to be forming designs. and that he had formed his camp into such an advantageous disposition. were always upon their guard. that the enemies would endeavour to force a passage into the country through this avenue. and with good reason. and caused him to encamp at a small distance.206 THE HISTORY OF His army was composed of twenty-eight thousand foot and twelve hundred horse but that of Cleomenes did not amount to more than twenty thousand men. He continued there for several days. and cutting down trees.

the event of which was to decide the fate of I ^acedtcmon. but found it extremely difficult to maintain his S])artan forces. alternately disposed. His second line consisted of Acarnanians and Cretans. to hazard a battle. Polybius indeed seems to intimate the cause of this proceeding. Antigonus detached a body of troops. He then placed himself at the head of the JVIacedonians and the light-armed foreign troops. and caused them to be supported by a thousand of the Achaean foot and the same number of Megalopolitans. and in the rear of these^ two thousand Achaeans were drawn up as a body of reserve. the one in the rear of the other. in order to oppose those of the enemy. while they secure of a free connnuiiication in their rear with were Sparta. and advanced to mount Olympus to attack Cleomenes. from whence they might easily be supplied with should resolve. and marched immediately before the JNlaceddliian phalanx. against those of the enemy posted on mount Eva. when he observes. necessity. and was not only in arrear with his foreign troops to the amount of a very considerable sum. inferior to those of the 207 enemy by one third. The armed action began at troops. When the signals were given on each side. because the ground would not admit their forming a larger front. As Cleomenes therefore was incapable of defraying the expense of this war. The foreigners were disposed into the first line. mount Eva. He drew up his cavalry along the bank of the river.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and exhorted him at the same time to come to an accommodation with Antigonus. that Ptolemy caused Cleomenes to be acquainted. consisting of Macedonian and Illyrian battalions. observing that the rear of the Achaean cohorts was imcovered. which was divided into two bodies. without tlie least apparent provisions. that he no longer would supply him with money. when the lightwho had been posted with an intention . to cover and support the cavalry of Cleomenes. we may consequently suppose that this situation of his affairs was his inducement to ventiure a battle.

the steady and equal force of its nu- merous and pointed spears. He would have attacked them as soon as they began to ascend. whom he prevailed upon to follow him. and the uniform impetuosity of that heavy body. however. Euclidas was then to engage with a phalanx. Those who endeavoured to gain the summit of the mountain. and that this was the critical moment for the charge. w^ho was on the heights. an able officer would have marched down the mountain. boldly marched up the hill to their enemies. In order to prevent this inconvenience. Philopoemen was not diverted from his purpose by this rebuff. slaughter. he attacked and repulsed that body of infantry with great . with the difficulty of ascending it entirely uncovered. They. found themselves vigorously pressed by the enemy. merely because he had never commanded. at the same time that they were charged in their rear by the foreign troops. the closeits ranks. which by its weight overthrew and bore down all before it. to have met the phalanx. but at the head of his own citizens. Philopoemen observing that it would not be difficult to fall upon this light infantry of Euclidas. who them with the utmost impetuosity. and in great danger. would have enabled him to have opened a . and rout them entirely. and had orders not to move from that post till a particular assaulted poemen and his signal should be given. Philocitizens were posted among the cavalry of Antigonus. would not so much as hear him. and was then very young and even treated what he said as absurd. The Macedonians and this operation Illyrians being disengaged by from what before had retarded their mo- tions. being threatened in front by Euclidas. and would then have harassed them on every side. who were supported by the Illyrians. immediately communicated his opinion to such of the king's officers as commanded the cavalry. whose whole ness of force consisted in the strict union of its parts.208 THE HISTORY OF immediately wheeled about and attacked tliem. The inequalities of the mountain. with such of his troops as were lightest armed and most active.

because they were sensible that the liberties of their republic would be decided by this battle. As the action took place in the sight of each sovereign. in all probability. which advanced upon him in good order. in the heat of the action. imagined. During this action. and Philopoemen in particular . and to have inter- ranks into conful-upted their march. The two kings began the engagement on mount Olympus.armed troops and foreign soldiers. the easier it pitate their troops had not reserved would be for him to preci down the steep declivity but as he for his own forces a sufficient extent . he might have improved the advantage of his post in such a manner as to have easily put them to flight. his troops were crowded together in such a manner. continued on the top of the mountain. and after he had deprived them of the only advantage they could expect from the quality of their arms and the disposition of their troops. that the higher he permitted the ene- He my to advance. as obliged them to fight on the summit of the mountain. as the enemy advanced upon him. instead of acting in this manner. they were soon defeated by their enemies. was not mortal. the cavalry of each army had also That of the Achaean s behaved themselves engaged. by putting their sion. he would also have fallen back by degrees.ALE^CANDER'S SUCCESSORS. nor attended with any ill consequences. VL p . Euclidas. the wound. with great bravery. where they could not long sustain the weight of the Illyrian arms. in order to regain the summit of the mountain. Philopoemen. he had both his thighs pierced through with a javelin . of ground for any retreat that might happen to be necessary for avoiding the formidable charge of the phalanx. and breaking their order of battle . ])assagc 209 through this body of men. had his horse killed under him. of whom each of them had about ^\c thousand. flattering himself that victory would infallibly attend his arms. and the order of battle into which that infantry formed themselves on the eminence . however. and while he fought on foot. and as his men could neither retreat nor change their ground. VOL. with their light.

that Antigonus owed his sucsome measure. The trumpets having sounded a signal for the light-armed troops to retreat from the space between the two camps. the troops vied with each other in signahzing themselves. Man all fought with the utmost vigour and obstinacy. shifting their lances at the same time. Plutarch assures us. till at last the troops of Antigonus advancing with their lances lowered and closed. and his caval- ry beginning to give ground in the plain. said. imdertaken by a private general defeat. each phalanx advanced with loud shouts. contributed to the overthrow of the wing commanded by Euclidas. and began the charge. when he saw his brother defeated. to the prudence and bravery of the young Philopoemen. and that no more than two hundred Lacedaemonians escaped out of six thousand. with only a few horse. and even contrary to the command of the general. that . One while the Macedonians fell back before the valour of the Spartans . Cleomenes. The action was very hot. not only without orders. and those who survived. captain of horse. but it ought to be remembered. as when the to man. His boldness and resolution It may justly be cess. in in attacking the light infantry of the enemy with his own troop alone. and drove them from their inThe defeat then became general. fled from the field of battle in the greatest disorder. and rank to rank. charged the Lacedaemonians with all the impetuosity of a phalanx that had doubled its ranks. and cause his whole army to march out in front. but in opposition to the superior officers. as well in parties. retreated to Sparta. were unable to sustain the weight of the Macedonian phalanx . was apprehensive that the enemy would pour upon him from all and therefore thought it advisable to level all the intrenchments around his camp. quarters : Lacedaemonians fell in great numbers. and these. Cleomenes. battle became general. the trenchments. and that drew on the This action. in their turn.210 and THE HISTORY or his army. that most of the foreign troops perished in this battle. seems to be a transgression of -3«ilitary discipline .

They opened their hospitable doors to those who returned covered with wounds from the army . No trouble or confusion was seen through the whole city. at the same time." Sparta. who had " That " in young man. and every individual lamented more the public calamity. whenever it should happen to be in his power. he would always promote the welfare of his country. on this disaster. and the delay even of a single moment might ocIt is evident casion the impossibility of its success. advised his Antigonus assuring them. nor sit down. The old men celebrated the death of their children . seizing the behaved like a great general. 211 the welfare of an army is a circumstance superior to all Had the general been present. : . who coming displeasure. but you the opportunity. he . all occasions. Every one deplored the fate which had prevented them from sacrificing their lives to the liberty of their country. though extremely fatigued but armed as he was. citizens to receive Cleomenes. that Antigonus judged of the action in this manner. that it was not himself. what his reason could be for befor when the battle ginning the attack before the signal. which seemed to have something transgressed his commands in that manner : of a savage air. Ho then retired into his own house. general like a young man. they attended them with peculiar care. and the children congratulated their fathers who had fallen in battle. No and had distinguished her citizens oil wife was seen to mourn for the loss of her husband. other considerations." said Antigonus. he himself would have given directions for that movement. and eagerly supplied them with all the ac- commodations they needed.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. than any particular loss of their own. with the utmost pleasure. manded his cavalry. but would neither drink. he assumed an air of seemand demanded of Alexander. showed that ancient steadiness and intrepidity. but a young officer of Megalopolis. contrary to the orders he had issued ? Alexander then replying. though very thirty. upon his arrival at Sparta. that whatever might be his own condition. was over.

nothing can be more dishonourable than either to live or die. that the death of persons employed in the administration of a state ought neither to be c. before Antigonus ar- rived at Sparta. I shall endeavour to be for one's self. C 22S. The death we may be induced to covet. you imagine there is any bravery in confronting death. by that action. b\it a natural consequence of their ministry. that such an action is mean and pusillanimous. him deceived. A. nor inactive . 819 Polyb. merely For my part. and declared to them. and one of their most important actions. 3781. ii. p. and went with his friends to the port of Gythium. p. having made a lively representation to him of the melancholy consequences that might attend his purposed voyage to Egypt. had prepared for that purpose.2!l2r THE HISTORY OP leaned against a column. useful to my country. He seemed to treat the inhabitants more like a friend than a conqueror . to those who had sacrificed their lives in the fields of Selasia for the liberty of Spar" " if You are cried ta. and the indignity a king of Sparta would sustain by crouching in a servile man- ner to a foreign prince. 155. in Cleora. with his head reclined on his arm . where he emharked in a vessel he for Egy])t. useless with respect to the public. took that opportunity to exhort in the strongest manner. p. 57. he suddenly quitted the house." Cleomenes. instead of being the retreat from an ac* since tion. it will be easy for us to have recourse to death. 1. . made himself master ^ Pint. Plut. to my latest breath and whenever this hope happens to fail us. to prevent those just reproaches by a voluntary and glorious death. and of the city. 4. M.^d deliherated with himself for some time on the different measures which he might adopt. if such should be then our : . inclination. xxviii. * The ancients maintained it as a principle. Ant. and sailed A Spartan. or the desire of empty applause say rather. and after he h. and to justify himself. merely through the apprehension of false shame. ought to be an action itself. that he had Justin. in Lycur^. J. 1." ^^ Cleomenes had scarce set sail.

21S HOt engaged in a war against the Spartans. and had even spirit enough ed . that he frequently repeated these expressions. this symptom was succeeded by a violent fever. tliat a war had broken out in gence Macedonia. One fatal battle obscured that happy dawn of and glory. and for ever deprived him of the hopes power of reinstating his city in her ancient splendour and original authority. that he burst a vein.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. that Sparta had been preserved by the prince who alone had the What he called preserving good fortune to take it. he was so transported with joy. for the re-establishment of the ancient laws of Lycurgus. O . bold views and enterprises of Cleomenes were the last struggles of its expiring liberty. Antigonus left Sparta three days after he had enterand his departure was occasioned by the intelliit he had received. to have it said by posterity. where the barbarians committed dreadful If this news had arrived three days sooner. that carried him off two or three years after. ravages. that the space of time. to engage in new battles in his own kingdom. but against Cleomenes. by the overthrow and involuntary retreat of Cleomenes. Sparta lost all that was valuable to her. was the abolishing all that the zeal of Cleoinenes had accomplished. and daily gathered strength. would not suffer himself to be dejected by his ill state of health. though that conduct was the real cause of its ruin. It is said. that city. " the glorious happy day !" and that he uttered this exclamation witli so much exertion. which at last ended in a deep consumption ^nd continual defluxion of humours. however. that it would be glorious to resentment. and lost a large quantity of blood . that after he had been victorious over the Illyrians. his memory. Cleomenes might have been saved. Corruption then resumed her former course. Antigonus was already afflicted with a severe indisposition. till Sparta sunk to her last declension in a very short It may therefore be justly said. which were incapable of subsisting after the abolition of those ancient laws and customs on which they had been founded. He. whose fliglit had satisfied and disarmed his He added.

221. Ant. 222. 3782. for the generality of his successors were monsters of debauchery ^ * Strab.) with which he supported himself and his friends. king of Egypt Cleomenes. f Ptolemy.M. in which there was nothing mean. 1. J. who had by He raised his own reputation. that he returned him the sceptre. by treating him with every mark of honour. arrived at Alexandria. where he met with a very cold reception from the king. openness. who was then fourteen years of age : or it may be rather said. with the utmost frugality. xvii. He also assigned him a yearly pension of twenty. in the mean time. and for having abandoned him to Antigonus. infinite degree. and even a noble pride that became his birth and dignity. C. which had only been deposited in his hand. This prince had reigned twentyfive years. when he was first introduced into his presence. reserving all the remainder of that allowance for the relief of those who retired into Egypt from Greecie. + A. and esteemed him infinitely above all those courtiers who were only solicitous to please him was even struck with confuabject flatteries. and enlarged his power to an promise to Cleomenes. and was the last of that race in whom any true virtue and moderation was conspicuous. tempered with a graceful politeness.214j the history of Some time before his death. however. p. Ptolemy was then sensible of his merit. died before he could accomplish his * The by his victory over that prince. But after he had given that monarch proofs of his admirable sense. and would re-establish him on the throne. J. settled the succession Philip. he to his dominions in favour of which ended his days. Ant. 3783. C. sion and remorse for having neglected so great a man. M. . and giving him repeated assurances that he would send him into Greece with a fleet and a supply of money. and simplicity of the Spartan manners. the son of Demetrius.four talents (about ^vc thousand pounds sterling. Cleomenes. * A. 79<5. and shown in his common conversation the generous freedom. then endeavoured to comfort and relieve .

nor even the temples of the gods. as Polybius observes. to testify. 222. a million of bushels of corn. and even to the Straits.! which form a communication with the He was succeeded on the throne of southern oceanhis son Ptolemy. 428. and not to be relief. that this earthquake spared neither private houses. and materials sufficient for ^ * Polyb. signalized themselves in a peculiar manner on that occasion. and the docks in the harbour where the ships were laid up. and the other that of Sp-acuse . C. had made prince. and the Rhodians. and wickedness. Ptolemy. . as well along the Arabian. and Ptolemy in Egypt. The two former of these princes contributed above a hundred talents. that the Syracusans thought the opportunity of relieving the Rhodians a favour and obligation conferred upon themselves. which was esteemed one of the wonders of the world. M. nor public structures. t Straits of Babelmandel. V. sumamed Philopator. sent deputations to all the neighbouring princes. It is natural to : think.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and Hiero and Gelon in Sicily. from the time of his concluding tlie peace with Syria. Egypt by ^ Some time before this. besides his other expenses. 3782. were reduced to a very ruinous condition . Adulit. and erected two statues in the public square . Ant. J. The loss sustained by it amounted to immense sums . p. one of which represented the people of Rhodes. and the famous Colossus. was thrown down and entirely destroyed. supplied that people with three hundred talents. whose character we are * to exit his principal care tend his dominions to the South. the former was crowned by the latter. Monum. 431. prevailed in favour of that deplorable city . with the arsenals. as the ^Ethiopian coasts. paralleled in history. A. 1. 215 The now describing. reduced to the utmost distress. to implore An emulation worthy of praise. Rhodes suffered very considerable damages from a great earthquake the walls of the city. which amounted to a very considerable sum. Accordingly he had extended it the whole length of the Red Sea.

Seleucus. in the six hundred and fifty-third year of our Lord) Moawyas. * and who truly merited that appellation. This Colossus was a brazen statue of a prodigious Some authors have size. for the space of eight hundred and seventy-five years . whose name was Chryseis. Mithridates. Rhodes. were desirous of sharing in this glorious act of persons humanity . The Colossus lay neglected on the ground. ceived. says Polybius. and historians have recorded. made himself master of Rhodes. that the money arising from the contributions described. affirmed. sub regno Consianiis ImperaU and Cedrenus. f Zonar. 1. furnished from her own substance a hundred thousand bushels of corn. instead of employing the sums they had repeople.f the sixth caliph or emperor of the Saracens.216 THE HISTORY OF building ten galleys of five benches of oars. already mentioned. if we only except the Colossus. as I have already observed. as well as cities. by which they enriched tliemselves. in a more opulent and splendid state than she had ever experienced before. in consequence of these liwas re-established in a few years. p. at the expiration of which (that is to say. * xiv. Chryseis signifies golden. and as many more of three benches. all which donations were accompanied with three thousand talents for erecting the Colossus anew\ Antigonus. sig- Even private nalized their liberality on this occasion. . and all the princes. besides an infinite quantity of timber for other buildings . who imagine they have done gloriously in giving four or five thousand crowns. that a lady. and given them a command to preserve that money for other purposes. amounted to five times as much as ^This the loss which the Rhodians had sustained. and sold this statue to a 1 Strab. Prusias. pretended that the oracle of Delphi had forbidden it. only consider how inferior their generosity is to that we have now beralities. Let the princes of these times. in replacing that statue according to the intention of the donors. 652.

or seven thousand two hundred quintals.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and very probahly by theft. computed hy eight quintals for each load. after a deduction of the diminution which the statue had sustained hy rust. . who loaded nine hundred camels with the metal which. . 217 Jewish merchant. amounted to more than eight lumdred and six thousand pounds.

After a short truce. in Daniel.^^ that Ptolemy had succeeded Ptolemy Euergetus. his chief minister. Battle of Raphia. Seleucus Callinicus was dead in Parthia. and afterwards puts him to death. The slwrt Ptolemy Philopator reigns in Egtjpt. p. Justin. He rids himself of Hermias. Antiochus concludes a peace with Ptolemy. v. He at last seizes him treacherously. On the other side. Hermias. 1.218 THE HISTOEY OF BOOK THE EIGHTEENTH. p. 131. in I OBSERVED Egypt. He had left two sons. C. 315. Polyb. 386. 1. who had puts him rebelled. 5778. in the preceding book. A. c. Seleucus and Antiochus and the first. iv. J. .. Ajitiochus. Antiochus subdues the rebels in the East. in which Antiochus is entirely defeated. who was the elder. surnamed tJie Great. xxix. *^ & 226. 1. 1. Ant. SECT. and possesses himself of the strongest cities in it. Hieron. I. He is succeeded hij his brother Seleucus Cerannus. The anger and revenge of Philopator against the Jews for ablest refusing to let him enter the Sanctuary. suc. reign of Acha'u. and to death. THE HISTORY ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOIIS. p. in Svriac. a war breaks out again in Syria.is Jidelity to him. Jirst removes Epigenes. M.. the of all his gene?'ah. his faPhilopator ther. He attempts to recover Code-Syria froni Ptolemy Philopato)'. He turns his arms against Acha^us. Appian.

. However. and assumed the surname of Ceraiums. * Attains. M. and kept prisoner Ptolemy. Achaeus accompanied him in that expedition. and the king was despised by the soldiers for his weakness. J. 224. two of the chief officers. and poisoned him. king of Pergamus. As for Andromachus. Ant J. His reign was short. 223. and did him all the good services which the low state of his affairs would admit. and prevented Attains from taking advantage of this accident. having seized upon all Asia JNIinor. Achaeus revenged that horrid action. his losing it entirely was. by putting to death the two ringleaders. his cousin. M. that Achaeus. and all who had engaged in their plot. He acted afterwards with so much prudence and resolution with regard to the army. in a war with Callinicus. in Alexandria. and his authority but ill established. a man of couabilities. would have lost the Syrian empire all it still possessed on that side. C. and never did any actions that corresponded witli the idea suggested by that name. Ant. and left Hermias the Carian regent of Syria. that he kept the soldiers in their obedience . the army offered the crown to Achaeus.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Seleucus dying without children. assumed the management of his afwhich his father's ill conduct had reduced to a fairs. but for his excellent conduct. What prevented either in the army or the provinces. formed a conspiracy against him during his absence in Phrygia. S19 cceded to his father's tlirone. during all his reign and part of the fol- rage and lowing. for he was a very weak prince hoth in body and mind. his mother's brother. 3780. he had the generosity to refuse it at that time. 3781. However. Nicanor and Apaturius. and several of the provinces did the same. he was taken by very low ebb. f As there was no money to pay the forces. from mount Taurus as far as the Hellespont. C. Seleucus marched against him. or the Thunder. t A. son to Andromachus. a title very little suited to his character . though he afterwards thought himself * A. which.

and forced him to confine himself within his kingdom of Pergamus. two brothers. and each declared himself sovereign in the province over which he had been appointed lieutenant. in that part of the country where he himself was. He thence to Antioch. lie sent Molo and Alexander. which was no longer in being. 222. was uninhabited. the former as governor of JNIedia. at his setting out for Asia Minor. and For his illustrious actions enjoyed it thirty-six years. sent a detachment of the army to him in Syria.220 THE HISTORY OF In the present obliged to act in a different manner. and the capital of the East. with Epigenes. Ant. but haughty. were no sooner fixed in their governments. recovered all the territories which Attains had taken from the empire of Syria. C. he not only refused the crown. where he was was now brought from when his brother died. one of the late king's most experienced generals. Achaeus. despising the king's youth. to secure the succe4Ssion in his favour. and Hermias the Carian was declared his prime minisAchaeus soon ter. Epigenes had the command of provinces the troops which were kept about the king's person . brother of the deceased king. it carefully for the lawful heir. which Polyb. Seleucus. he has been surnamed the Great. . as he had been under his brother. 336. than they refused to acknowledge him . The rest of the forces^ he kept for the service of the state. who was but in his fifteenth year. full of himself. by his ill treatment of them. A. * to be educated. instead of Babylon. 1. As soon as Antiochus was possessed of the crown. had sent him into Babylonia. p. Alexander and Molo. had much contributed to their revolt. and the latter Achaeus was appointed to preside over the of Persia. very This minister was of a cruel disposition. and punished with the utmost rigour. Antiochus. The most inconsiderable faults were by him considered as crimes. Hermias. into the East. V. 3782. where he ascended the throne. but preserved conjuncture. M. te'^ — ° in that province. of Asia Minor. He was a man of very little genius. or at least is * To Seleucia. J.

S21 nacious of his own opinion. J. and declared. in order to take advantage of the most favourable conjunctures and opportunities for acting against the rebels . or. with so inconsiderable a body of forces. in the return of their zeal and affection for him. He Merit should share with him in credit and authority. and cried. C. Epigenes was the first who spoke. to check the enterprises of Ptolemy. or rather was odious to But the chief object of his hatred was Epigenes. struck with the presence of their sovereign. and in whom the troops reposed an It was this reputation which gave the prime minister umbrage . him. and it was not in his power to conceal the ill will he bore him. : prince entirely devoted to trivial pleasures. There was little to be feared from invading a entire confidence. would not fail to deliver him up . Ant. 1. that when he should be on the spot. or turn towards Ccele-syria. that to advise the king to march in person against Molo. who had the reputation of being one of the ablest generals of his time. in an angry and selfsufficient tone of voice. that they had no time to lose that it was absolutely necessary the king should go in person into the East. ad- Polyb. and of an army. in order to consider what was to be done in the present posture of affairs . 386—39^. The real motive of his speaking in this manner was. V. his being afraid of sharing in the dangers of that expedition. but that the most important point of all was. . and whether it would be advisable for him to march in person against that rebel. p. of every kind was suspected by.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and would have thought it a dishonour to have either asked or followed another could not bear that any person man's advice. 3783. would be to deliver him up to the rebels. <»News being brought of Molo's revolt. M. A. not to give him time to fortify himself Hermias could not forbear interrupting him . Antiochus assembled his council. Ptolemy was to him a much less formidable enemy. in case he should persist in his design. * The 221. either Molo would not dare to attempt any thing in the sight of his prince. the people.

unable to make head against Molo and Alexander. and de- ceitful minister. This insinuating. artful. he there found Laodice. viz. Tliat became kings to march in person against kings.222 vice of THE HISTORY OF Hermias prevailed . and to send their lieutenants against rebels. Antiochus then saw the error he had comin not following Epigenes's advice . upon was for laying aside the enterprise against Coelein order to march with all his troops to suppress syria. sententious manner. inventive and industrious in finding out new methods to please and amuse. daughter of Mithridates king of Pontus. he would not give himself the trouble to examine strictly into them . And though he perceived several things in his conduct and counsels which gave him disgust. the joy of which was soon interrupted by the news brought from the East. He fancied he spoke wonders. " in declaring. how useless expeit rience of every kind is to an indolent prince. nor had resolution enough to resume the authority he had in a manner abandoned to him. so that Antiochus imagined he could not do without him. had been forced to retire. But Hermias persisted as obstinately as that revolt. and theremitted. by easing his prince of the weight of public business . who lives without reflection. who knew how to adapt himself to all the desires and inclinations of his master. He made some stay there to solemnize his nuptials. Being come to Seleucia near Zeugma. It is scarce possible to conceive. who had united their forces. and leave them masters of the field of battle. and the king himself marched with the rest of the army towards Coelesyria. with orders to carry on the war against Molo . ever in his first opinion. the command of part of the troops was given to Zeno and Theodotus. So that acquiescing again in his opinion on this occasion (not from conviction but weakness and indolence). in an emphatic. he content<?d himself with sending a general and a body of ." Antiochus was so weak as to acquiesce again in Hermias's opinion. had had the cunning to make himself necessary. who was brought thither to espouse him. that his generals.

into which the enemy drew him by stratagem. of which they. that he was obliged to march back. that it would have been most advisable to have marched at first against them. and so well defended by Theodotus the jEtolian. finding it not possible for him to advance farther. The general he sent on occasion was He conjured the king not to lay aside the . and devote their whole care and study to a war. had advanced into Coele-syria. Epigenes. He assembled his council. by this means. to prevent their having time to fortify themselves as they had done. in wliose commission it occasion. Hermias. and serve under liim. as far as the valley lying between the two ridges of the mountains Libanus and Antilibanus. This victory opened to the rebels the province of Babylonia and all Mesopotamia. .ALEXANDER S troops into the East tion of Ccele-syria. to whom Ptolemy had confided the government of this province. he behaved with haughtiness to the other officers. 223 and himself resumed the expeditliat Xenatas was ordered. that the two former generals should resign to him the command of their forces. and his only merit was. and again debated on the rebellion. and with boldness and temerity to the enemy. Raised to an employment to which his vanity and presumption could never have emboldened him to aspire. which. if neglected. might terminate in the ruin of the empire. that the same reason ought to make them more expeditious now. Antiochus. in the mean time. He found the passes of these mountains so strongly fortified. There is no doubt but the news of the defeat of his troops in the East hastened also his retreat. began to exclaim against Epigenes in the most opprobrious terms on this the Achaean. In passing the Tigris he fell into an ambuscade. He had never commanded in chief before. and himself and all his army were cut to pieces. after saying. possessed themselves without any opposition. who thought himself affronted by this discourse. added. The success was such as might be expected from so ill a choice. his being tlie prime minister's friend and creature. SUCCESSORS. in a modest tone.

through shame . vTo TTJi uvTH Kv^ioq. finding that all resistance would be in vain. : fection for Epigenes by absence. sui non erat domimis. maligniinte. after the noise their quarrels had made. and Antiochus himself was much dis* It was unanimously resolved to march with satisfied. comforted him. well knowing that princes soon forget the virtues and services of a man removed from their sight. This unlucky accident threw the king into the utmost consternation and anxiety . Circumvmtiis et jyrceoccupatus ceconomiis. seeing the king in such perplexity. who was perfectly sensible how necessary the presence of a general of Epigenes's experience and ability was in so * But. the general opinion. as the good of the service might require. it would no longer be possible for them to act in concert in the operations of the war. el ohsequiis. abandon it. where the rendezvous was fixed. dustriously contrived to besiege. They had scarce set out. but at the same time earnestly besought Antiochus not to take Epigenes with him in this expedition. and in a manner gain possession of suggesting to him by all manner of methods. Hermias. His view in this was. Hermice. nKTjv ^etTTiisnc. when a sedition arose in the army on account of the soldiers' arrears. to begin by lessening Antiochus's esteem and afenterprise of Coele-syria. and seemed more ardent zeal to than any body for hastening its execution. watch'e^uuh KuxoiiSiiceg. such as him pretended plans of economy. grew immeHe came over with great diately quite another man. the utmost speed against the rebels and Hermias. and promised to pay immediately the whole arrears due to the army . This is a literal translation. Accordingly the troops set out towards Apamea. et custodiis. This proposal perplexed the king very much. . as Hermias had inimportant an expedition.224 THE HISTORY OF affirming that he could not without evincing a levity and inconstancy entirely unbecoming a prince of his wisdom and knowThe whole council hung down their heads ledge. because. and indeed the danger was imminent.

and adulation. VL U . Accordingly. one of the chiefs of the rebels. how few would be otherwise with regard to an all-powerful minister. Alexis bribes one of Epigenes's domestics . Having in this manner made himself master of the nobles by fear. to the prime minister. by gifts and promises. 225 and bribing his affection by obseing his every action. As Epigencs's disgrace extended only to his removal. which he employed effectual means. and at the same time the highest indignation. or otherwise Epigenes. The other replied that he was ordered to inspect his papers. by whose means they had been . the sole disto prevent penser of his master's favours Hermias orders this man to despatch Epigenes. who thanked Epigenes for having formed a conspiracy against the king. examined. it was far from satiating his vengeance . but the soldiers. and. and. was put to death. a search being made. who were apprehensive of the same fate having received all their arrears. and communicated to him the methods by which ! Some days after he might safely put it in execution. . The king. governor of the citadel of Apamea. This letter seemed to have been written and subscribed by Molo. at the bare wght of the letter. expressed his astonishment. he was apprehensive that he might obtain leave to return. was entirely at his devotion . and thought themselves highly obliged were very easy. imagined that the charge had been VOL. engages him to slide a letter he gave him among his master's papers.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. paid. Alexis. and prescribes him the manner. the forged letter was found and without being called to a trial. Alexis went to him. to what he required . indeed. In consequence of this. and asked whether he had not received a letter from Molo ? Epigenes. and as it did not calm his uneasiness with regard to the future. surprised at this question. longer his own master. and of the army by their pay. all the courtiers. he marched with the king. and Epigencs was accordingly ordered to reThis event surprised and terrified tire to Apamea. that unhappy prince was no (juiousness The king therefore consented. though with the utmost reluctance.

Ant. he spent some time there in . . Artabazanes by name. giving the orders necessary for re-establishing his authority in the provinces which had revolted. and which is now called Georgia. they first killed their mother. passed that river. and for settling all things on their former foundation. the remains of the vanquished army submitted to the king. that the rebel. After this victory. Finding their affairs desperate. forced Molo to come to an engagement. are princes ! Although the season was now very . he marched against the Atropatians. Such was the end of this rebellion. M. another of their brothers. to prevent their falling into the hands of the conqueror. C. J. This being done by persons whom he appointed for that purpose. in despair laid vioHis brother Alexander was at lent hands on himself that time in Persia. afterwards their wives and children. who only reprimanded them in very severe terms. he in the mean time sent them * Upon into winter-quarters in the neighbourhood. How unhappy.226 fully THE HISTORY OF However. and gained so complete a victory over him. who escaped out of this battle. and afterwards pardoned them. the return of the spring he marched them to- wards the Tigris. 220. He then sent them into Media. and at last despatched themselves. which proved the ruin of all who engaged to take in it : a just reward for all those who dare up arms against their sovereign. brought him the mournful news. and how much to be pitied. far advanced^ Antiochus passed the Euphrates. under the command of those to whose care he had committed the government of that province and returning from thence to Seleucia on the Tigris. who inhabited the country situated to the west of Media. who was so greatly terrified at Antiochus's approach at the head of * A. assembled all his forces and that he might be nearer at hand to open the campaign very early the next spring. Their king.tied thought and dumb. was a decrepit old man. 3784. seeing all lost.. but fear kept them all tongue. otherwise . the courtiers proved against him. where Neolas.

in hopes that. however. and who had assumed an absolute authority over him. It was well known that he dreaded inspecting the truth . had free access to him. after his deatli. He therefore warned Antiochus to take care of himself. and that to prevent it. by the ill conduct of his prime minister. he began to open his but was himself afraid of his minister. the avenues to which were all closed against them. 219. C. At last. mind how he might despatch Antiochus . took a proper time to represent the general discontent of his subjects. 1. and that. 22^ ^ victorious army. that the queen was delivered of a son. on w^hom eyes he had made himself dependent. and the danger to which himself was exposed. and who. Hermias. J. and insolence had made him odious to all men.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. by his employment. in whom tiie king reposed great confidence. he might reign with unlimited power. Ant. his physician. at first. lest the same fate should attend him as his brother had experienced in Plirygia . which proved a subject of joy to the court as well as revolved in his tlie army. and that he abandoned to Hermias's cruelty all who dared to speak against him. was well pleased with transferring the burden of public affairs from himself to Hermias. p News came at this time. the indolence of this prince's disposition. he should certainly be ap. 399—401. and conchided a peace on such conditions as Antiochus thought proper to prescribe. by taking advantage of . Apollophanes. 3785. who fell a victim to tlie ambition of those on w4iom he most relied that it was plain Hermias was hatching some ill design . The people groaned under a government. portable. p. V. in his pointed guardian of the young prince His pride name. from that moment. who. which the avarice and cruelty of the prime minister had rendered insupTheir complaints did not reach the throne. Till now he had been an utter stranger to the injustice and violence which Hermias exercised under his name. No one dared to inform the king of the oppression under which his people groaned. A. . not a moment was to : ^ Polvb. M.' that he st^nt and made his submission.

had governed. V. as has been already observed. It has been very justly said. The king. having so happily re-established his afthe East. is to deliver them from the tongues of flatterers. and carried Hermias with him to bear him company here taking him to walk in a solitary place. p. on all occasions. . he was universally hated and this hatred displayed itself more strongly in Apamea than in any other place for the instant the news was so universally fVtested. These were real services. Such is the use he ought to make of the free access which his sovereign vouchsafes. with ^reat cruelty and violence and whoever dared to oppose either his opinions or designs. all the citizens rose with the utmost fury. ly. in whom he could repose the greatest confidence. which an officer who attached to the person of his king. of whom not one had the courage to hazard his fortune by telling him the truth. but thoughts to any person. marched back his army ^i fairs in P Polyb. This haughty and cruel man out the whole empire. Accordingsome small distance from the army. Antiochus. : brought of his death. Accordingly. 1. may and ought to perform. not knowHe was extremely well pleased tlint his physician had given him this advice . was sure to fall a victim to his resentment. upon pretence of being indisposed. and the silence of good men. he caused him to be assasHis death caused an universal joy throughsinated. he removed to . where none of his creatures could come to his assistance. and the confidence with which he honours him. had begun to entertain some suspicions of his chief minister. Antiochus was surrounded by courtiers whom he had Irnded witli his favours. . and concerted measures with him to rid himself of a minister hfid not revealed his ing whom to trust. . and raised to the government of the several provinces persons of merit.228 be is THE HISTORY OF lost. and so dangerous. and who has a sincere affection for him. 401. and stoned his wife and children. that one of the greatest blessings which God can bestow on kings.

and fortified himself strongly in them. : He spent it into winter. who had lately usurped the sovereignty of Asia Minor. 314—319. for re-establishing entirely the one was against safety and glory of the empire of Syria and the other against to recover Coele-syria Ptolemy.ALEXANDER'S into Syria. p. and every state solicited very earnestly his alliance. he caused himself to be declared king. report was spread at the court of Antiochus and with that that he intended to usurp the crown him . A . Ey his valour and good conduct he had recovered them all from Attains. He soon became one of the most powerful monarchs of Asia. Ptolemy Euergetes having syria.quarters. iv. view held a secret correspondence with Ptolemy. '' ^ Polyb. and Antiochus was not a little incommoded by such a neighbour. seized upon all Coele- in the beginning of Seleucus Callinicus's reign. had appointed him governor of all the provinces of Asia Minor. we have already seen in what manner he refused the crown which was offered and had after the death of Seleucus Ceraunus it on the head of Antiochus the la^vful monarch. This prince had two other very dangerous enterprises still to put in execution. This was evident in a war which then broke out between the Rhodians and the Byzantines. not. . placed who. Whether these suspicions were well grounded or. SUCCESSOllS. as was before related. 1. taking the crown which he had refused before. - 229 quent the ensuing campaign. With respect to Achseus. and. a tribute. on the operations of and put . he thought it advisable to prevent the evil designs of his enemies. to reward his fidelity and services. Such a series of success drew upon him the envy of the nobles. king of Pergamus. the king of Egypt was still pos- sessed of a great part of that province. who had seized upon those countries. of the year in Antioch. Achaeus. therefore. in holding frethe remainder councils with his ministers. on occasion of a tribute which the latter had imposed on all the ships that passed through the straits.

with whom he was engaged in war. whom . that it would be a great oversight should they march into Coele-syria. M 37«5. This was a very agreeable present to Achaeus. Ant. These w^ere the two dangerous wars he liad to sustain . V. 2^9. his father. After weighing all things maturely. p. requesting that he might be set at liThe king. and Achaeus had all the honour of it. and to take off the new tribute which had occasioned the war. at the earnest sohcitations of the inhabitants of Byzantium. which of them he should undertake first. J. the king's physician. readily granted the Ilhodians their request. and made the Byzantines lose all hopes. and to bring him over to Andromachus. brother to Seleucus had married. whom they then only menaced in the strongest terms and accordingly all the forces were ordered to assemble in Apamea. as it was in his power to furnish him with considerable succours against Antiochus. The Rhodians sent a deputaprisoner in Alexandria. and the subject of the deliberations of his council was. was at that time Laodice. Apollophanes. they thought of an expedient to disengage Achasus from the Byzantines. in order to their interest. and this re- port threw the ilhodians into the utmost consternation . In the extreme perplexity they were under. it was resolved to march first against Ptolemy. tion to Ptolemy. : be employed against Coele-syria. Tliey thereupon consented to reinstate things upon their former footing. as well as Prusias king of Bithynia.230 THE HISTOHY O* which was very grievous the to the Rhodiaiis. Thus a peace was concluded between the two states. In a council that was held before the army set out. berty. » It was against that prince and Ptolemy that Antiochus was resolved to turn his arms. and put Andromachus into tlieir hands. and leave behind them Seleucia in the hands of the enemy. wliom they had engaged on their side. Achgi'cat aeus. Q. 1. and so near the capital of the em^ Polyb. represented to him. who was very glad to oblige Achaeus. 402—409. A. before they attacked Acha?us. had promised to assist them . because of trade they carried on in the Black Sea. .

had expected greater things from his valour and king. he seized that city. to which h'dd been an eye-witness. and ruining all their trade . This being done. have seen how he had repulsed him the year before . the court of Egypt had not been satisfied with Those who governed the his services on that occasion. was the harbour of Antioch. to give an account of his conduct. he could not forgive the insult which had been offered to him by this unjust accusation. governor of that province under Ptolemy. where Theodotus the Jiitolian.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. The luxury and effeminacy of the whole court. Antiochus marched with diligence into Coele-syria. It is true that after his reasons had been heard. and to open the campaign with the siege of Seleucia. he was acquitted. heightened still more his r He could not bear lion and resentment. and drove the Egyptians out of it. were persuaded. its cutting off entirely their communication with the sea. strongly urged by Apollophanes. that it was in his power to have done something more. for Seleucia being situated near the mouth of the Orontes. to avenge the death of his sister Berenice. which had kept possession of that important Among many inconplace full twenty-seven years. and sent back to his government. Accordingly the whole army marched thither. near the mouth of it. 1 . one was. and was so exasperated at the affront. that he resolved to revenge it. veniences to which it subjected the inhabitants of Antioch. and put a strong Egyptian garrison into it. nevervigorously theless. 231 His opinion brought over the whole council. and is but five leagues below. and was threatened with no less than losing his head. We . However. Accordingly he was sent for to Alexandria. invested it. When undertook the invasion already Ptolemy Euergetes mentioned. took it by storm. determined the king and council to follow his plan. promised to put him in possession of the whole country. by the evident strength of the reasons which supported it . which suffered grievously ATI these reasons being clearly and by that means. pire. for this city stands on the same river as Antioch.

taken Ptolemais. . he had poisoned his father. surnamed Philopator. and Magas his only brother. After he had got rid of all those who could either give him good counsel or excite his jealousy. he was at length forced to abandon them. And. he besieged him in it . but preserved hisr fidelity to that The instant therefore that Theodotus had prince. Sosibius. to be put to death. however. brutality. Jn these two cities were the magazines which Ptole* This word signifies a lover of his father. Theodotus could not bear to be dependent on such -resolved to find a sovereign more of his services. and therefore mentioned to invite him thither. Nicolaus. than he seized upon the cities of Tyre and Ptolemais. and immediately despatched the courier above people. he abandoned himself to the most infamous pleasures and was solely intent on gratifying his luxury. by antiphra* He sis. and the court imitated but too It was thought that exactly the example he set them. one of Ptolemy's generals. desert Ptolemy. declared for king Antiochus. and one whose sole view was to support himself in power by any means whatsoThe reader will naturally imagine. it would be impossible for fancy to conceive more abominable excesses than those in which Philopator plunged himself during his whole reign . who was advancing to the aid of Theodotus. by which means Antiochus took possession of Tyre and Ptolemais. and the most shameful passions. a court. However. publicly caused Berenice his mother. His prime minister was . in such ever. that. whose gates were opened to him by Theodotus. worthy Accordingly. the power of women had no bounds. he was no sooner returned to his government. though he was of the same country with Theodotus. whence he was. possessed himself of the passes of mount Libanus to stop Antiochus. and defended them to the last extremity.2S3 THE HISTORY OF the idea of being dependent on tlie caprice of so base and contemptible a set of people. indeed. would not. a man every way qualified for the service of such a master as Philopator .

The latter was not satisfied with Asia Minor. p. He up for the use of his : the inhabitants used to lay the country under water. to agree to a four During the interval of this truce a treaty was negociated between the two crowns. and at last he possessed himself of Damascus. he abandoned that project. of which he was already master . and Antiochus for reducing Acha?us. and others submitted to him . The last action of this campaign was the siege of Dora. had been so well fortified by Nicolaus. in order to make the necessarypreparations for carrying on the war . after having deceived Dinon the governor of it by a stratagem. 1. that it would be impossible for him to advance into Egypt at that time. whither the king intended to march hy land. iv. ' Polyacn. and to disTo check his ambiof all his dominions. 15. V.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. " 1. . possess tious views. in the neighbourhood of mount ^ Carmel. He seized upon some fortresses. howwith the view of invading Egypt on that side ever. heing informed that this was the season in which had laid sail. 409—415. This place. the capital of that pro\dnce. with a fleet of the command of these ships to gave forty Diognetus. the only view of both parties was to gain time. who was ordered to sail to Pelusium. in which. Ttiy 233 army. c. it was necessary for Antiochus not to be employed on the frontiers. or engaged in remote conless in him quests. proposed to him in the of Ptolemy. ochus appointed Theodotus the ^tolian governor of all the places he had conquered in this country. by opening the dikes of the Nile. Ptole- ^ my had occasion for it. and employed the whole force of his arms to reduce the rest of Coele-syria. his admiral. but had no view than to dethrone Antiochus. a maritime city. which was strongly situated. and consequently. and this served as an honourable pretence for marching back his army to Seleucia on the AntiOrontes. He therefore was forced name months truce. Poiyb. that it w^as impossible for Antiochus to take it. however. where he put it into winter-quarters.

by the superiority which the advantageous posts he oc. after the death of Antigonus. cupied gave him. 218. in order to act against Nicolaus appointed Gaza for the enemy on that side. in the partition of Alexander the Great's emIn pire. . Samaria. whither all the neces- sary provisions had been sent from Egypt. put to sea with the fleet. Cassander. in those provinces which were the occasion of the war. that like it which Antiochus opposed absolutely. had been Coele-syria. Ptolemy laid claim to them by virtue of their having been assigned by this treaty to Ptolemy On the other side. Ant. for a king Ptolemy to espouse the party of rebels. his great grandfather. and therefore that they were his right. Selencus. * A. tiochus pretended that they had been given to Seleucus Nicator . Perigenes. campaign. 3786. the time of the truce elapsed . * During these contests. In the mean time Antiochus was not inactive. C. and Judaea. the admiral. Nicolaus the iEtolian had given so many proofs of valour and fidelity in the last nothing being concluded. he being heir and successor of that king in the empire of Another difficulty embarrassed the commisSyria. where he seized all the and the sea. alleging was a shameful and infamous thing. that Ptolemy gave him the command in chief of his army. but made every preparation both by sea and land for a viHe gave the command of his fleet to gorous invasion. and countenance revolt. the rendezvous of all his forces. between Ptolemy. AnSoter.M. and charged him with every thing relating to the service of the king. From thence he marched to mount Libanus. Ptolemy would have Achaeus included in the treaty. by passes between that chain of mountains which Antiochus was necessarily obliged to pass firmly resolved to wait for him there. the main point was to know to whom Phoenicia. J. given. and it became necessary to have recourse again to arms. sioners. and Lysimachus. in which neither side would yield to the other. in the battle of Ipsus. and to stop his march.23Jj THE HISTORY OF this treaty.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.
his admiral, and Diogiietiis, The fleets land forces.

235

Jiis

put himself at the head of on both sides kept along

the coast, and followed the army ; so that the naval as well as land forces met at the passes which Nicolaus

had

seized.

Whilst Antiochus attacked Nicolaus by

land, the fleets also came to an engagement ; so that the battle began both by sea and land at the same time.

had the superiority but on land had the advantage, and forced Nicolaus to Antiochus retire to Sidon, after losing four thousand of his soldiers,
sea neitlier party
;

At

who were either killed or taken prisoners. Perigenes followed him thither with the Egyptian fleet ; and Antiochus pursued them to that city both by sea and land, He found, with the design of besieging them in it.
however, that this conquest would be attended with too many difficulties, because of the great number of troops in the city, where they had a great abimdance of provisions, and other necessaries ; and he was not
willing to besiege
fleet to
it

in form.

He

therefore sent his

After having Tyre, and marched into Galilee. made himself master of it by the taking of several cities, he passed the river Jordan, entered Gilead, and possessed himself of all that part of the country, which was formerly the inheritance of the tribes of lleuben and Gad and half the tribe of Manasseh.

now too far advanced to prolong the which reason he returned back by the campaign ; river Jordan, left the government of Samaria to Hippolochus and Kereas, who had deserted Ptolemy's serand he gave them ^ve vice, and came over to him thousand men to keep it in subjection. He marched the rest of the forces back to Ptolemais, where he put
season was
for
;

The

them
^

into winter- quarters.

again opened in spring. Ptolecaused seventy thousand foot, five thousand horse, and seventy- three elephants, to advance towards Pelu«ium. He placed himself at the head of these forces, and marched them through the deserts which divide Egypt from Palestine, and encamped at Raphia, be-

The campaign was

my

^

Polyb.

1.

V. p.

421—428.

A. M. 3787.

Ant. J. C. 217-

2S6

THE HISTORY OP

tween Rhiiiocorura and Gaza, at the latter of which cities the two armies met That of Aiitiochus was more numerous than the other. His forces something consisted of seventy- two thoyisand foot, six thousand He Hrst enhorse, and a hundred and two elephants. within ten furlongs, * and soon after within five camped All the time they lay so near one anoof the enemy. ther there were perpetually skirmishes between the parties who went to fetch fresh water or to forage, as well as between individuals who wished to distinguish
themselves.

Theodotus the iEtolian, who had served many years under the Egyptians, entered their camp, favoured by the darkness of the night, accompanied only by two He was taken for an Egyptian so that he persons. advanced as far as Ptolemy's tent, with a design to kill him, and by that bold action to put an end to the war ; but the king liappening not to be in his tent, he killed liis first pliysician, having mistaken him for Ptolemy. He also wounded two other persons and during the alarm and noise which this attempt occasioned, he esca;

;

ped

to his
last

camp.

the two kings, resolving to decide their quarrel, drew up their armies in battle array. They rode from one body to another, at the head of their lines, to animate their troops. Arsinoe, the sister and wife of Ptolemy, was not content with exhorting the soldiers to behave manfully before the battle, but did not leave her husband even during the heat of the engagement. The issue of it was, that Antiochus, at the head of his right wing, defeated the enemy's left. But whilst hur-

At

by an inconsiderate ardour, he engaged too warmin the pursuit ; Ptolemy, who had been as successful ly in the other wing, charged Antiochus's centre in flank,
ried on

which was then uncovered
possible for that prince to
officer,

;

who saw which way
*

old the dust flew, concluded that
relief.

and broke come to its

it

before

it

was

An

the centre was defeated, and accordingly made Antiochus observe it. But though he faced about that inHalf a French
league.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.
slant,

237
;

be came too

late to

amend

his fault

and found

the rest of his army broken and put to flight. He himself was now obliged to provide for his retreat, and retired to Raphia, and afterwards to Gaza, with the loss

and four thousand taken would now be impossible for him Finding prisoners. to maintain himself in that country against Ptolemy, he abandoned all his conquests, and retreated to Antioch with the remains of his army. This battle of Raphia was fought at the same time with that in which Hannibal defeated Flaminius the consul on the banks of the
of ten tliousand
killed,
it

men

lake

Thrasymenus

in Etruria.

After Antiochus's retreat, all Coele-syria and Palestine submitted with great cheerfulness to Ptolemy. Having been long subject to the Egyptians, they were more attached to them than to Antiochus. The conqueror's court was soon crowded with ambassadors from all the cities (and from Judaea among the rest) to make
their submission,

and

to offer

him

presents

;

and

all

met

with a gracious reception.
y Ptolemy was desirous of making a progress through the conquered provinces, and aipong other cities, he He saw the temple* there, and visited Jerusalem. even offered sacrifices to the God of Israel ; making at the same time oblations, and bestowing considerable gifts. However, not being satisfied with viewing it from the outward court, beyond which no Gentile was allow^ed to go, he was desirous to enter the sanctuary, and even as far as the Holy of Holies ; to which no one was allowed access but the high-priest, and that but once The report every year, on the great day of expiation. of this being soon spread, occasioned a great tumult. The high-priest informed him of the holiness of the
y

Maccab.

1. iii. c.

1

.

*

The

third book of Maccabees,

whence

this story is extracted, is

not admitted by the church among- the canonical books of" Scripture, any more than the fourth. They are prior, with regard to the order of time, to the two first. Dr Prideaux, speaking of the third book, says, that the ground-work of the story is true, though the author has changed some circumstances of it, by intermixing fabulous
incidents.

238

THE HISTORY OP

place ; and the express law of God, by which he wa& forbidden to enter it. The priests and Levites drew

together in a body to oppose his rash design, which the And now all people also conjured him to lay aside. places echoed with lamentations, occasioned by the idea of the profanation to which their temple would be exposed ; and in all places the people were lifting up their

hands to implore Heaven not to
all this opposition,

suffer

it.

However,

instead of prevailing with the king, inflamed his curiosity the more. He forced his only as far as the second court ; but as he was preparing way to enter the temple itself, God struck him with a sud-

which threw him into such prodigious dishe was carried off half dead. After this he left the city, highly exasperated against the Jewish nation, on account of the accident which had befallen him, and loudly threatened it with his vengeance. He accordingly kept his word ; and the following year raised a cruel persecution, especially against the Jews of Alexandria, whom he endeavoured to reduce by force to wor-

den

terror,

order, that

ship false deities. ^ The instant that Antiochus, after the battle of Hslphia, arrived in Antioch, he sent an embassy to Ptolemy, to sue for peace. The circumstance which prompted him to this was, his suspecting the fidelity of his

people ; for he could not but perceive that his credit and authority were very much lessened since his last defeat. Besides, it was high time for him to turn his arms towards Achaeus, and check the progress he made, which increased daily. To obviate the danger which threatened him on that side, he concluded that it would be most expedient for him to make a peace upon any terms with Ptolemy, to avoid being opposed by two such powerful enemies, who, invading him on both sides, would certainly overpower him at last. He therefore invested his ambassadors with full powers to give up to Ptolemy all those provinces whicli were the subject of their contest, i. e. Coele-syria and Palestine. Coele-syjia included that part of Syria which lies be-^

Polyb.

1.

V. p.

428.

Justin.

1.

xxx.

c. 1.

Hieron, in Daniel,

c.

H.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.
tvveen the mountains
all

239
;

Libanus and Antilibanus

and

the country which anciently was the inPalestine, lieritance of the children of Israel ; and the coast of these two provinces w^as what the Greeks called Phoenicia. Antiochus consented to resign up all this country to the king of Egypt, to purchase a peace at this juncture ; choosing rather to give up this part of his dominions,
truce was therethan hazard the losing them all. fore agreed for twelve months ; and before the expiration of that time, a peace was concluded on these terms. Ptolemy, who might have taken advantage of this victory, and have conquered all Syria, was desirous of putting an end to the war, that he might have an opportunity of devoting himself entirely to his pleasures. His

A

want of spirit and effeminacy, it had been possible for him to have been so successful and at the same time they were displeased at his having concluded a peace, by which he had tied up his hands. The discontent they conceived on this account, was the chief source of the subsequent disorders in Egypt, which at last rose to an open rebelsubjects,

knowing

his

could not conceive

how

;

lion

Ptolemy, by endeavouring to avoid a fowar, drew one upon himself in the centre of his reign own dominions. ^Antiochus, after having concluded a peace with
:

so that

Ptolemy, devoted his whole attention to the war against Achaeus, and made all the preparations necessary for At last he passed mount Taurus, taking the field. and entered Asia Minor with an intention to subdue it. Here he concluded a treaty with Attains king of Pergamus, by virtue of which they united their forces against their common enemy. They attacked him with so much vigour, that he abandoned the open country to them,, and shut himself up in Sardis, to which Antiochus layHe often ing siege, Achaeus held it out above a year. made sallies, and a great many battles were fought under the walls of the city. At last by a stratagem of Lione of Antiochus's commanders, Sardis was taken y goras, Achaeus retired into the citadel, where he defended him^

Polyb.

1.

V. p.

444.

A. M. 3788.

Ant.

J. C.

2 1 6.

240
self, till

THE HISTORY OF
fact is

This

he was delivered up by two traitorous Cretan^, worthy of notice, and confirms the truth of the proverb, which said, that the " Cretans were liars and knaves." *
^

Ptolemy Philopator had made a treaty with Achaeus, and was very sorry for his being so closely blocked up in the castle of Sardis and therefore commanded Sosibius to relieve him at any rate whatsoever. There was
;

then in Ptolemy's court a very cunning Cretan, Bolis by name, who had lived a considerable time at Sardis. Sosibius consulted this man, and asked whether he could not think of some method for Achaeus's escape. The Cretan desired time to consider of it and returning to Sosibius, offered to undertake it, and explained to him He told the manner in wliich he intended to proceed. him, that he had an intimate friend, who was also his near relation, Cambylus by name, a captain in the Cretan troops in Antiochus's service that he commanded at that time in a fort behind the castle of Sardis, and that he would prevail with him to let Achaeus escape that way. His project being approved, he was sent with the utmost speed to Sardis to put it in execution, and f ten talents were given him to defray his expenses,
;
:

case he succeeded.

and a much more considerable sum promised him in After his arrival, he communicates the affair to Cambylus, when those two miscreants agree (for their greater advantage) to go and reveal their de-

sign to Antiochus. They offered that prince, as they themselves had determined, to play their parts so well, that, instead of procuring Achaeus's escape, they would bring him to him, upon condition of receiving a considerable reward, to be divided between them, as well as the ten talents which Bolis had already received.
; Antiochus was overjoyed at this proposal, and promised them a reward that sufficed to engage them to do him that important service. Upon this Bolis, by
^

*

Polyb.

viii. p. Kpjirs; «ti -^ivTTxt, KctKci H^iet,
1.

522—531.

St Paul. Epist, ad Tit.

i.

12.-

t Ten thousand French crowns. Ant. J. C. 21 5. X A. M. 3789.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

241

Cambylus's assistance, easily got admission into the castle, where the credentials he produced from Sosibius,

and some other of Achseus's friends, gained him the entire confidence of that ill-fated prince. Accordingly, he trusted himself to those two wretches, who, the instant he was out of the castle, seized and delivered
This king caused him to be imbeheaded, and thereby put an end to that mediately war of Asia ; for the moment those who still sustained the siege heard of Achaius's death, they surrendered; and a little after, all the other places in the provinces of Asia did the same. Rebels very seldom come to a good end ; and though the perfidy of tliese traitors strikes us with horror, and raises our indignation, we are not inclined to pity the unhappy fate of Achaeus, who had made himself deserto Antiochus.

him

ving of
^

It

it by his infidelity to his sovereign. was about this time that the discontent of th^

Egyptians against Philopator began to break
to
it

out.

Ac-

occasioned a civil war; but cording Polybius, neither himself nor any other author gives us the particulars of it.

Romans some time and Cleopatra (doubtPtolemy less the same queen who before was called Arsinoe) to renew their ancient friendship and alliance with Egypt. These carried as a present to the king, a robe and pur* chair and to the queen, an ple tunic, with an ivory embroidered robe and a purple scarf Such kind of presents show the happy simplicity which in those ages prevailed among the Romans. « Philopator had at that time by f Arsinoe, his wife
'^

We also read in

Livy, that the

after sent deputies to

;

•^

'^

Polyb. 1. V. p. 444. Liv. 1. xxvii. c. 4.
Justin.
1.

A.

M. 3794.
M. 3795.

'-APnt. J.

C. 210.

«

XXX

c.

4.

A.

*

This was allowed in

Rome

Ant. J. C. 209^. to none but the highest officers

uft

the state.

t Justin calls her Eurydice. In case he i» not mistaken, this queen had three nam 'S, Arsinoe, Cleopatra, and Eurydice. But Cleopatra was a name common to the queens of Egypt, as that of Ptolemy was
to the kings.

VOL.

VI.

R

24t
and

THE HISTORY OF

sister, a sati called Ptolemy Epiphaiies, who suc^ ceeded him at five years of age. ^ Philopator, from the time of the signal victory which he had obtained over Antiochus at Raphia, had abandoned bimself to pleasures and excesses of every kind. Agathoclea his concubine, Agathocles the brother of that woman, and tlieir mother, governed him entirely. He spent all his time in gaming, drinking, and the most infamous irregularities. His nights were passed

and his days in feasts and dissolute reForgetting entirely the duties and character of a king, instead of applying himself to the affairs of state, he valued himself upon presiding in concerts, and his skill in playing upon instruments. The * womea of every thing. conferred all employThey disposed ments and governments and no one had less authority in the kingdom tlian the prince himself. Sosibius, an old artful minister, who had been in office during three
in debauches,
vels.
;

reigns,

was at the helm, and

his great experience

had

made
deed

hin) very capable of the administration ; not inentirely in the manner he desired, but as the fa-

vourites would permit him to act ; and he was so wicked as to pay a blind obedience to the most unjust com-

af a corrupt prince and his unworthy minions. Arsinoe, the king's sister and wife, had na power or authority at court ; the favourites and the prime minister did not show her the least respect. She, on her side, was not patient enough to suffer every thing without murmuring ; and they at last grew weary of her The king, and those who gocontinual complaints verned him, commanded Sosibius to rid them of her. He obeyed, and employed for that purpose one Philammon, who, without doubt, did not want experience in such cruel and barbargus assassinations. This last action, added to so many more of the most
^
^

mands

Justin.

1.

A. M. 3797.
'

XXX. c. 1 & 2. Polyb. in Excerpt. Vales. Ant. J. C. 207.
c.

1.

xv.

xvL

8 Liv.

1.

xxvii.

4.

Tribunatus, praefecturas, et 'lucatus mulieres ordinabant ; nee Justin. quis^iiam in regno suo minus^ quain ipse rex, poterat."

* "

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

243

flagrant nature, displeased the people so much, tliat Sosibius was obliged, before the king's death, to quit his

He was succeeded by Tlepolemus, a employment. young man of quality, who had signalized himself in the army by his valour and conduct. He had all the voices in a grand council held for the purpose of choosing a prime minister. Sosibius resigned to him the king's which was the badge of his office. Tlepolemus seal, performed the several functions of it, and governed all the affairs of the kingdom, during the king's life. But though this was not long, he discovered but too plainly that he had not all the qualifications necessary for duly He had neither supporting so great an employment. the experience, ability, nor application of his predecessor. As he had the administration of all the finances, and dii^osed of all the honours and dignities of the state, and all payments passed through his hands, every body, as is usual, was assiduous in making their court to him. He was extremely liberal but then his bounty was bestowed without choice or discernment, and almost solely on those who shared in his parties of pleasure. The extravagant flatteries of those who were for ever crowding about his person, made him fancy his talents superior to those of all other men. He assumed haughty airs, abandoned himself to luxury and profusion, and at
;

last

grew insupportable to every one. wars of the East have made me suspend the relation of the aflairs that happened in Greece during

The

their continuance

:

we now

return to them.

SECT.
tle

declare against the Achoeans. BatAratus. The Achoeans have recourse of Caphyce hy to Philip, who undertakes their Troubles break out defence. in Lacedxjemonia. The unhappy death qfCleomenes in Egypt. Two kings are elected in Lacedcemonia. That republic joins with the JEtolians.
II.
lost

The jEtoUans

The
^

iEtolians,
of,
1.

speaking
Strab.

^ particularly in the time we are now were become a very powerful people in
Polyb. p. 331

X. p. 4-50.

&

746.

Pausan.

1.

x. p.

650.

founded and built by a fratricide. from this speech. They added. ^ Polyb. That haughtiness appeared in the answer they the Romans. 272—292. a people whose arms had extirpated the Gauls. and were entire strangers to the laws of peace or war. which they said was in its origin a shameful receptacle of thieves and robbers. as much by their valour as their virtue and descent . and showed themselves zealous defenders of the public liberty against the Macedonians. and other neighThey led much the same life upon bouring countries. and intrepid in They signalized themselves particularly in the war against the Gauls. 1. in Arat.244 Greece. and despised the Macedonians. and Antigonus. and that at a time when the latter made the whole earth tremble. ^ From the time that Cleomenes of Sparta had lost ^ his kingdom. who made an irruption into battle. land as pirates do at sea. 1049. That therefore the Romans woulddowell to beware of provoking the^tolians against them . But. the highest contempt for Rome. or Justin his epitomizer. The reader may. Plut. . xxviii. they were perpetually engaged in })lunder and rapine. THE HISTOUY OF Originally their territories extended from the river Achelous. by his victory * at Selasia. The increase of their power had made them haughty and insolent. they did not consider any gain as infamous or unlawful . form a judgment of the ^tolians. c. 1. that is. They expressed. and formed by an assemblage of women ravished from the aims of their parents. when they sent ambassadors to order gave them not to infest Acarnania. p. to the strait of the gulf of Corinth. of whom much will be said in the sequel. Wholly bent on lucre. ^« iv. Thessaly. Justin. in process of time. that neither Philip nor Alexander his son had been formidable to them . They were very much inured to toils. they had possessed themselves of several cities in Acarnania. that the iEtolians had always distinguished themselves in Greece. they had not been afraid to reject his edicts and injunctions. p. if we may believe Trogus Pompeius. Greece. and to the country of the Locrians. surnamed Ozolae.

having assembled the Achaeans. and imagined that affairs would always continue on the same foot. but. and laid waste the territories of the INIessenians. Ac* cordingly. as he was nominated to succeed him the following year. had laid their arms aside.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. despising Philip because of his youth. the inhabitants of Peloponnesus. exasperated at this perfidy and insolence. because his year was near expiring . Peace was insupportable to them. if He imputed to might be. Antigonus had kept them in awe. they marched into Peloponnesus sword in hand. he took no ad. and entreated that his actions might be examined with less His humility on this occasion rigour than indulgence. Aratus. that the battle him was not this his fault. 221. However. whose vi- gour and strength had suffered by repose and inactivity. he asked pardon . he took upon himself the command five days before the due time. * A. J. 3783. however been wanting in any of the duties of an able commander. and seeing that Timoxenes.tolians often gave him opportunities to distress them. the remembrance of his defeat had exceedingly damped his courage . who were tired by the first wars. whose fury now turned against his accusers . Aratus was charged with being the cause of this deand not without some foundation. and totally neglected military discipline. changed the minds of the whole assembly. and nothing was afterwards undertaken but by his advice. and prevented them from infesting their neighbours . endeavoured to gain time. 245 had in some measure restored the peace of Greece. he had declared. accustomed as they were to support themselves wholly by rapine. He endeavourloss of the ed to prove. at that time captain-general of the Achaeans. The iEtolians meditated taking advantage of this indolence. so that he behaved as a wise citizen rather than as an able warrior and though the ^^. . he was defeated near Caphyae. in a great battle fought there. after his death. Ant. as it obhged them to subsist at their own expense. M. feat. in order to march the sooner to the aid of the Messenians.€. that.

as might enable him to govern with wisdom the great kingdom to which he was heir. had. to form himself under his eye. Accordingly. finding soon after that he had been imposed upon. he gave audience to the ambassadors of ^ J Polyb. But the courtiers. in hopes that the affection he bore Aratus. in order to have the sole ascendant over their young prince. he had treating with the Achaians. and resolved to be guided by his counsels only which was manifest on several occasions. the sole means to banish for ever from princes that calumny. in Some time before. and the confidence he had in him. sent him into Peloponnesus. that young prince returned into Macedonia with the highest sentiments of esteem for Aratus. whose interest it was to remove a person of Aratus's known probity. and by his counsels. Macedonia. p. And indeed Antigonus. raise up and arm against persons of the most consummate virtue. 292—294. and the most favourable disposition with regard to the welfare of Greece. but siifFered that people to lay waste the whole country almost with impunity. entreated Philip to keep well with Aratus. and to follow his counsel. made that monarch suspect his conduct and prevailed so far. and sometimes money. Aratus gave him the best reception in his power . because they had declared When that prince arrived from for king Philip. and to call in king Philip to their assistance. . The Achaeans were therefore forced to apply to Macedonia again. would incline that monarch to favour them. as to make him declare openly against Aratus. which impunity.246 THE HISTORY OF vantage of them. treated him with the distinction m rank . and particularly in the affair of Lacedaemonia. one of the Ephori and a great many other citizens were killed. at his last Tnents. in one of which. Nevertheless. That unhappy city was perpetually torn by seditions. and endeavoured to instil into him such principles and sentiments. due to his . he punished the informers with great severity . Philip afterwards reposed the same confidence in Aratus as he had formerly done. . above all things.

him by many . to entreat him not to men or money. and contented himself with punishing the principal Such an instance of moauthors of the insurrection. in the beginning of his reign. «47 for them. The ^tolians. » Cleomenes was at that time in Egypt but as a horrid licentiousness prevailed in that court. Cleomenes led a very melancholy life there.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. every kind. and the king regarded nothing but pleasures and excesses of also sent to He aid the ^Etolians either with . deration and wisdom in a king who was but seventeen years of age. and the havoc they had made. Nevertheless Ptolemy. he did not always use of them. cities. was very diligent in making the necessary military preHe endeavoured to strengthen himself by parations. J. and admitted : "" * Piut. that he should treat that city as Alexander had treated Thebes. Philip now marched back his forces into Macedonia and whilst they were in winter. 294—299. had made use of Cleomenes for. complaints were made to cities against the ^Etolians . on his mother's account. But the king rejected that proposal with horror. C. who. However. he contracted a stricter amity with Cleomenes. and elected Scopas their general. on the other side. M. was greatly admired . had great authority and power over the soldiery. p. In Sparta at Tegaea. and ratified in the general assembly of the Achasans. p. iv. and accordwar was unanimously declared against them. in Cleoiu. colouring their delays with false and specious pretences. king Ptolemy. and every one was persuaded. A. Ant. ingly This was called the war of the allies. the aid of his allies. several were of opinion.quarters. prepared for war. 820—823. 1. whither he had sent the council he held there. Polyb. which began much about the same time that Hannibal was meditating the This decree was sent to all the siege of Saguntum. 220. as he was afraid of his brother Magas. . the principal contriver of the broils they had raised. few of whom answered his views . "^ make the same Being arrived at Corinth. that it was owing to the good counsels of Aratus. 3784.

they awed the kings of Syria Coile-syria both by sea and land. or Maronea. either at home or ing. because Antigonus and Seleucus. the posts and harbours which lie along the coast from Pamphylia to the Hellespont. declaring. own dominions.548 THE HISTORY OF into hits him most secret councils. p. possible whilst they had the command of Ene. which served them as barriers. dared to approach him . on the contrary. he imaPtolemy's there would be no way to get rid of them. disdained to give himself «Polyb. They .l. was what employed the attention of his predecessors. As the most considerable cities. from thence they had an eye on the princes of Asia. at their death. in which means for Cleomenes getting rid of his brother were devised. but and suspicions soon returning. that a king cannot have any ministers more zealous for his service. both wliom he despised on account of their tender age. ''After this he thought himself secure fondly concludthat he had no enemies to fear. nor those who had employments in the state. Being possessed of and Cyprus. or more obliged to aid him in sustaining the weighty burthen of government. even more than the fears . and the places in the neighbourhood of Lysimachia. and even on the islands. and so many strong places. were subject to them . That. In this security he devoted himself entirely to all sorts of pleasures. than his brothers. How would it have been for any one to move in Thrace and Macedonia. Neither his courtiers. and affairs of their of cities that lay at a still greater distance ? With so extensive a dominion. was tlie only person who op}>osed the scheme . and he would scarce deign to bestow the least attention on what passed in the neighbouring kingdoms. This advice prevailed for that time . their own kingdom was secure.v. therefore had always great reason to keep a watchful eye over what was transacting without doors. but gined by taking away the life of him that occasioned them. however. had left no other successors but Philip and Antiochus. 380—385. which were never interruptei\ by cares or business of any kind. abroad . Ptolemy.

and : his its strong and weak side. he solicited earnestly therefore implored the king to favour him with troops With and warlike lie stores sufficient for his return. would be making an enemy of him. pose that he could have no great of Antigonus's death. Antigonus was dead. after having refused him in so contemptuous a manner. But Ptolemy was too much engaged by his pleasures. Besides. who at that time had great authority in the kingdom. for. to give so bold knowing king in the and enterprising a prince leave to depart. Finding could not obtain his request. On the other side. For these reasons. They believed such an expense would be useless . Sosibius. his only pleasure such dispositions. one . . assembled his friends . tious conquest of Greece. the reader will easily supesteem for Cleomenes. and seeing a great many parts of the kingdom separated and at a great distance. He try. which an enemy might have a thousand opportunities of invading. that trouble 24^ wine and women being and employment. his holding the utmost contempt. that the Lacedaemonians were united with the latter against the Achaeans and Macedonians. and be allowed to embrace the favourable opportunity for repossessing himself of his kingdom. to lend an ear to Cleomenes's entreaties. not to furnish Cleomenes either with a fleet or provisions. and that all things seemed to recal him to his native counto leave Alexandria. after having made an expediCleomenes. who would certainly. from the death of Antigonus. it was not thought proper to grant Cleomenes the fleet and other succours which he desired.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. his having thoroughly studied the state of the kingdom. all foreign affairs had seemed to them of no importance. he desired that he at least might be suifered to depart with his family. this council were apprehensive that as as there was none to oppose that prince. The instant the latter had news that the Achaeans were engaged in a great war with the JF'itolians. and in this council a resolution was formed. would become a very formidable enemy to Egypt what increased their fears was.

but going abroad. Ihey killed the governo. i7' down tb.r"J''' .\' ^''^ ^^^^^^ at bmv Retail Shu and strongly barricSoed rf ^''^^ f«"nd them to all ""^ ^««t hopes. speaking of those of may depend.^IT1 "" ^I^l^'' 5" *''^' ^''^ to el "«" '""& seize "w™ T"" ^ "'tlTA''''' aiflicd<L gainst "s Se^^ f" to the streets. .and tbt despair of Ptolemy bTfo^c'e of ats" to 'V''' V'^ "' him. ran up and recover their exhorting a^Ki'^'""'™ the T^'^^' "P«» f 21. where 1^"^' '"™V^'^» '"t" of the debate. ^ ^"™' ^hich only could suggest. appy pnuce's name. by means of I an '"'J^'^'f A ^vas not even safe to allow hSflfiTl "P'"'""' tl'-t it L take up arms in your favour no longer : on a ficti^ roborated b"y a leTte^ tate men^. he nrevaUed ["s person." '^''"''" '^^^ " Cleo- first -TTf"' •" ^"^ y«" Th^"'' j '* "^^'^ Do^of P''-^^^' ^^'^-^ in hitherto done. bJtno"^ "^'^ them.^50 THE HlSTORr OF **^ word which Cleomenes adtf ^''^^'"^''^^^"•Iria."°* P'^'eeiveany with those '" '^""^ert friends who used to . his muul In a council.tf^r "''"'. of the ! '"^° noblemen who cime to oppose !b^^' ^"'^ ^'""^ "'her '•an to the citadel with afterwards ^"u^ the prisoners / L^. thit upon tL " P. the prime mlnkL fe "'"4*'^^ «"''ject est this prince should raise In ''?"'^"^ ^^' fears " the ^«" " foreign soldiers. with he had the libertv ''^ ^ nf '"""^ T'''"'' his friends.' e«d of his aTdSanct "^'^ ^^^P^^t "«"S of s"^ ^^^'^-' ^'""-Lt^Ssit into populace liberty^.. he formed. to die a death ^'orL ^"''J^'='« calamities. and to imprison bt™ he might maintain hfm £ SeS?"' ^'^^' t^ey will Sosibius hesi- '- ?.

1." Annal. ut palam fieret quibus flagitiis impares essemus. . against all the laws of reason and justice. * " Jubit Plato. saying only these words : " Ah my dear children. the only favour she brought asked was. and remedy disorders by degrees. his having. quantum probare civibus tuis possis vim : neque parent! neque patrise afFerre oportere. was only cutting off the heads of a hydra . 251 they terminated it in a tragical and bloody manner. The king caused reigned sixteen years over Sparta. and ordered his mother. 9« ad Famil. to avoid the infamy Thus died Cleomenes. is. was certainly very laudible in itself : and both had reason to think. When tliat unhappy princess was to be put to death. in which medicines would only acceleperate rate death ? And have not f some disorders gained so great an ascendant in a state." Cic. quaui hoc Tacit. 1. adsequi. she presented her neck to the executioner. by running upon each other's swords. I cannot say whether Plato's maxim * should not be adopted here. quern ego auctorem vehementer sequor. a circumstance which admits of no excuse in Cleomenes. and all tlie women who attended them.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. ^But they began with them . childfeu. to what a place did you come !" The design of Agis and Cleomenes to reform Sparta. Tantuna contendere in republica. that nothing should be attempted in a free state. that to attempt a reformation at such a time would only discover the impotency of the magistrates and laws ? But. diseases. 1. after having of punishment. However. iii. to pretend to reform abuses one after another. but what the citizens may be prevailed on to admit by gentle means . murdered the Ephori. that she might die before her children. t " Decebat omittere potius pr«valida et adulta vitia. ! and revive its ancient discipline. vk. 53. a torment more grievous to a mother than death itself: after which. his body to be hanged on a cross. to the place of execution. and therefore that it would be absolutely necessary to strike at the root of the evil. Epist. and that violence Ave there not some desshould never be employed. c. that in a state wholly infected and corrupted as that of Sparta then was.

p. which openly opposed Philip. indeed. as soon as news was brought of his death. of the tyrants of Sparta. and had always preserved the highest esteem and veneration for him. immediately after. * " Post mortem Cleomenis. 304. and more unworthy of a king and which at the same time seemed to give a sanction to those tyrants. a conduct absolutely tyrannical. They soon had reason to repent their choice. they proceeded to the election of kings. t A . by giving each of them a talent. f which was putting the crown to sale at a very low price. p During the three years that Cleomenes had left had not thought of nominating kings." thousand crowns. 1.252 THE HISTORY OP in order to gain success to his enterprise . Sparta. and committed the most enormous vioand lences in the city. iv. the citizens from the hopes they entertained that he would return again . n. which was in direct opposition to all laws. And. unworthy of a Spartan. fuit. and till then had never had an example. and with him they have begun . had presided in this election . 1. They first nominated Agesipolis. none of whose ancestors had reigned. they caused Sparta to declare in vour of the jEtolians. The factious party. P fa- Polyb. But. but who had bribed the Ephori. descended from one of the royal families. who afterwards inflicted such evils on Lacedsemonia. xxxiv. 26. and appointed his uncle Cleomenes his governor. Cleomenes himself has been called a tyrant by some * the series historians. a child. qui primus Tyrannus Lacedsemone Liv. Afterwards they chose Lycurgus.

SECT. had come to Corinth. 253 Varimis expeditions of Philip against the eneAcha'ans. 171—174. had bestowed on him several of As the chief the cities they had conquered in Illyria. n have already related. and the JEtdians on the other. which at last is concluded. according to the articles agreed Philip embraced with joy this of revenging himself for their perfidy. A peace is proposed betzveen Philip and the Achaeans them. and that there war had been unanimously declared We against the i?^tolians. Prudent retreat of' the of that Prince. iv. he could not forbear pillaging the cities and territories subject to them. Apelles. his prime minister^ abuses his confidence in an extraordinai-y inanne7\ Philip makes an inroad into /Etolia. 1. ' 1. had sailed. We had declared at first. Punislunent injticted on Tlie conspirators form new cabals. Inroad of Plidip inio Laconia.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Therviw taken without opposition. iii. The king returned afterwards to Macedonia. 3785. beyond the city of Issus . 285—305—330. whose ally he was. in whose favour he upon between them. The j3^tolians. 219. iv. 294—306. by refusing to give him a certain share of the spoils they had gained at the taking of Cynethium. where their general assembly was held. as well as Scerdiledes. Ant. on one side. a petty the Achaeans. A. J. king broken their engagements with him. that Philip king of Macedon being called in by the Achaeans to their aid. Polyb. Philip brought over Scerdiledes to the alliance with He was. Punishment of those who had occasioned thein. when the Romans were removed. p. p. which was a direct infraction of the chief article of the treaty concluded with «» Polyb. mies III. Besides. . Tumults in the camp. have already seen that the Romans. C. had of Illyria. revenue of those petty princes had consisted hitherto in the plunder they got from their neighbours . as has been observed. p. to make the necessary preparations for carrying on the war. Excesses of PhiUp'^s soldiers in that city. Demetrius. on the same design. M. opportunity ^ Demetrius of Pharos joined also with Philip. Lib.

as 1 have said before. 33. but the contrary faction caused the decree It was to be reversed. who thereupon sent ambassadors to him. they engaged in the war a little after. xxii. The city surrender^ ed to the Romans. and Demetrius spent He was the remainder of his days with that monarch. sent to their The Acarnanians joined them very cheerfully. . was at ^ Liv. on this occasion. no way answered the hopes which had been naturally entertained. but at the same time rash and inconsiderate in his enterprises . the Romans declaredf war against Demetrius. quently were most exposed to the inroads of that people. n. considerable war. a valiant and bold man. and besieged him in Pharos. though they incurred great as they lay nearest the iEtolians. who meditated at that time the design which broke out soon after. paid no regard to their demand. and his courage was entirely void of prudence and judgment. son of the great Aratus. who received him with open arms. dispossessed him of his strongest fortresses. from whence he escaped with the utmost difficulty. ^miUus the coiisul attacked him with great vigour. The people of Epirus did not show so much good will. and seemed desirous of continuing neuter nevertheless. and consedanger. 1. This offended the Romans very much. Messenians. Deputies were also sent to king Ptolemy. Polybius praises their fidelity exceedingly. For these reasons. and they joined the ^^^tolians. for whose sake that war had been begun. Demetrius. being on the point of engaging in a allies. demanding Demetrius to be delivered up. of their employing their whole first The force to carry it on.254 THE HISTOUY OF queen Teuta. However. to desire him not to assist the jEtolians either with troops or : money. The Achaeans. Philip. The Lacedsemonii'fns had declared at first for the Achaeans . fled to Philip. Aratus the younger. being dispossessed of all his dominions. that Agesipolis and Lycurgus were elected kings of Sparta.

and greatly animated his forces. and gave the enemy time to make preparations. 330—336. made dreadful havoc. gave him orders whither to march them. ^ Philip marched from Macedonia with fifteen thousand foot. and arrived at Corinth. Philip. laid waste all the open country. : : of the ^ summer in Larissa. to tlie north of that kingdom. this did not hinder Philip from J^tolia. and have defeated them but. as was Scopas of the iKtoliaiis. whom the jEtolians had just before nominated their general. obliged him to return thither. Having crossed he arrived in Epirus. He then danians. At his departiue he promised the ambassadors of the Achaeans to return soon to their His sudden arrival disconcerted the Darassistance. They did more. 1. Had he marched directly against the iEtolians. p. . which employed him forty days. that the Dardanians intended to make an inroad into his kingdom. * Euripidas. advanced into Macedonia. He there ordered the elder Aratus to attend him. and did not spare even the temple of Dodona. iv. at the request of the Epirots. Dorimachus. * These were a people bordering on Macedonia. entered Epirus. and returned in a very short time laden with spoils this action did him prodigious honour. 325—330. though it was now the depth of winter. p. had not the news he received. he laid siege to Ambracia. and by a letter to his son. returned to Thessaly. and seizing on a great number of imentering Ht^ would have entirely conquered portant fortresses. had left Larissa. at the head of a body of ^tolians. Caphyse was to be the rendezvous. 255 that time supreme magistrate of the Achoeans. Scopas. and put a stop to their enterprise. who commanded the forces this year. without any one's having had the least notice of his march. and wait his coming up. In the mean time. and eight hundred horse.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Polyb. lip's arrival. with an intention to pass the rest Tliessaly. However. who knew nothing of Phiwas then marching a detachment of above " Polyb. * it. he would have come upon them unawares. iv. 1.

339of Arcadia. on account of the Olymsolemnized there every four years . to lay waste the territory of Sicyon. daring attempt. or even could. Formerly this terri- some other marched to This territory was very sacred. and the inhabitants of the country were in a flourishing condition. p. attack them Philip. as well from its natural situation. ^ Among the several courtiers of king Philip. A prince who in this manner is truly great. and to give them the strongest proofs of his zeal and : affection for their interest.256 THE HISTORY OF Elis. selves been the occasion of their losing that privilege. he Elis. having joined Aratus the younger with his forces at the rendezvous appointed. which he also gave to his allies. after which booty. Apelles "^ * Polyb. . rich and populous. assuring them that there was nothing he desired more than to oblige them. As it w-as the depth of winter. Here Philip got a very considerable with which he enriched his troops. and all They except a hundred were either killed or taken prisoners. and all pic games the nations of Greece had agreed not to infest it. after possessing himself of cities. fell into the hands of Philip. for the city was thought almost impregnable. or But the Eleans had themcarry their arms into it. first the city. Philip gave it very generously to the Acha3ans. for. lie retired to Olympia. besiege it. the want of ammuniton and provisions very much facilitated the taking of that city. and afterwards the citadel. in order to lay it waste. however. did it with success . 338. From thence. because. ta whom it was a most important post. and does honour always acts to the royal dignity. marched towards * in order to This was a very Psophis. the inhabitants were under no apprehension that any one would. surrendered after making some resistance. they had engaged in the tory had been deemed wars of Greece. as from two thousand natives of the fortifications which had been added to it. A citv iv. The king. J. like other states. As they were very far from expecting to be besieged.

heightened by a noble and majestic air. VOL. astonished at the rapidity of his conquests. rious treatment. The Achaeans. easy elocution. and to finish the picture. a valour. a sweetness of temper. indeed he posextolling his excellent qualities. and a desire to please . by leaving them only the name and a vain shadow of liberty . into his head. he enjoined Apelles never to lay any comin concert with their general. a beautiful aspect. overjoyed at the favour which Philip showed them. sessed those which can endear a king to his people . Accordingly. and an experience in war. which struck the beholders with awe and respect . an intrepidity.ALEXANDER'S SITCCESSOUS. he caused them to suffer every kind of injuAratus complained of this to Philip. to reduce the Achaeans to the same condition as that in which Thessaly was at that time . which he employed wholly He had taken it in oppressing individuals and states. and to accustom them to the yoke. but : y Polyb. that is. 257 held the chief rank. to subject them absolutely to the commands of the ministers of Macedonia. y Philip having possessed himself of Aliphera. and had therefore deserved to be entirely disgraced. and had a considerable influence on the mind of his sovereign. and And. affability. such as a lively genius. as too frequently happens on these occasions. a happy memory. and at the orders he had given for their peace and security. he would give such orders. which far exceeded his years so that one can hardly conceive the strange alteration that afterwards appeared in his morals and behaviour. that nothing of that kind should happen for the future. who was highly exasperated upon that account . VI. 1. and an unaffected grace in all his actions . the greatest part of the people of that country. S . iv. he very much abused his power. and weary of the -^tolian tyranny. 339—343. were continually bestowing the highest encomiums on that prince. This was behaving with an indolent tenderness towards a minister who had so shamefully abused his master's confidence. which was a post of great strength. p. whose governor he had been : but. submit- mands on the Achaeans. and accordingly assured him.

and for this purpose he sent privately for all those who were his secret enemies. Having dispossess him of it. for whom the king had a very particular regard. ^ Philip. avarice. p. w^hich drew after them. pretending that he had a better right to the crown than Lycurgus. and retired to Achaia. and ignominiously subjected to a kind of tyrants. After this. and especially of their introducing gold and silver into Sparta. and that he had failed in his attempt. ^^^-^34^9* . the lust of power. Seeing. ^ Idem. effeminacy. the Lacedsemonian. engaged in his party about two hundred citizens. and marched directly towards Lycurgus's house. he ^ Polyb. to get rid of him . he hinted that so long as Aratus should enjoy any authority in the republic of the Achaeans. pride. luxury. in all his conversations with him. now filled with tumults and insurrections. being arrived at Argos. intending to kill him but Chilo hearing the tumult. at . resolved to and to set it on his own. however. was an invincible obstacle to his project. whose very name formerly she could not endure. At this time. he had made his escape. formerly so jealous of its liberty. 34. iv. spent the rest of the winter there. all 2 THE HISTORY OF Thus he soon made himself master of Triphylia. and in whom he reposed the highest confidence. immorality. he sentenced himself to banishment.258 ted to his arms. It is surprising to see Sparta. and exhorted the citizens to recover their liberty . if possible. on whose head they had placed it. He therefore resolved. the greatest promises. 1. But sign Aratus.4. Such were the effects of their having violated Lycurgus's laws. 343. by insensible degrees. that he could make no impression on them. and mistress of all Greece till tne battle of Leuctra. he entered the city in a forcible manner. Chilo. and used his utmost endeavours to gain them the prince's favour. then went into the great square of the city. the same time. and all those vices which are generally inseparable from riches. killed the Ephori who were at table together. making them. Apelles had not yet laid aside the dehe meditated of enslaving the Achaeans.

and reinstated him entirely in his friendship and confidence and perceiving that after this step his aflairs flourished visibly. he again had recourse to Aratus. and all things were hastening to their ruin. The new friends enforced these reflections. were he to raise to the chief administration of affairs some person who might be entirely dependent on him. having neither merit nor experience. he then might act as sovereign. he did not perceive that he degraded himself in the most ignominious manner . as is commonly the Eperatus. that Philip would have been undeceived for ever . Upon this. A person was post. nothing was well done. thus chosen entirely unworthy of the case in all forced elections. after such evident and repeated proofs on one side of Aratus's innocence. This idea of despotic power pleased the young king and indeed it is the strongest temptation that can be laid in the way of princes. Implicitly devoted to the will of his prime minister.ALEXANDER'S (Philip) would have subject to their laws . who was his direct new enemy. excluded . and refined on the arguments of Apelles. and obliged them to make choice of Eperatus. such as those of Greece. whose election Aratus had supported and gained. Philip. nothing being more disgusting to free assemblies. he would not make use of any . and have been fully sensible which of counsel but that of Aratus. Accordingly he went for that purpose to ^gium. Q59 no power and would be as much and usages as the meanest of their citizens whereas. grandeur and glory. SITCCESSORS. on whom the blame fellj became sensible that very pernicious counsels had been given him. as of the only man to whom he owed all his . and that his reputation and power increased daily. in public affairs. and on the other of Apelles's black malice. instead of being himself governed. than the least attempt to violate the freedom of elections. and prevailed so far by his promises and menaces. was uniAs Aratus intermeddled no longer versally despised. . where the assembly of the states was held for the election of a : general . Who would not imagine. that he got Philoxenus. and govern others.

as he ought to have done. it was laid before the public council. firmly persuaded. that. though outwardly he pretended to have his interest very much at heart that he alone had kept Amphidamus from enforcing. and pro- . to command a strict enquiry to be made into the several articles of the accusation. even added. In consequence of this. to the inhabitants of Elis. new proof of this soon appeared. in making his the king. however. and leave to them the decision of it. and as he had engaged to do. and that they should omit none of the methods used and prescribed in establishing a fact before fail to get him condemned. that so unreasonable a refusal was owing to the ill services which Aratus did him clandestinely. that the king would lay this affair before the council of the Achaeans. he required. or rather impudence. from whom he pretended to have heard the several particulars laid to his charge . was so just. will show. and till then to suspend his judgment. and that with such an air of assurance. This was what he wanted . that it was a justice which a king. as might have disconcerted the most virtuous man. and named several The king. that Apelles should be obliged to produce his witnesses . that jealousy never dies but with the object that excited it. As the inhabitants of Elis refused the advantageous conditions which Philip offered them by one Amphidamus. him. however. he should He not Aratus. began by beseeching give credit to the several things laid to his charge . especially. owed to a person accused. The king thought Aratus's demand very just and reasonable. and that princes sel«dom overcome prejudices that are grateful to their authority. not lightly to defence. by the influence he had there. more than any other man. Apelles hinted to liim.260 THE HISTOKY OF the twa had the most sincere zeal for his service ? The sequel. and on this the offers wliich the king made them foundation he invented a long story. : : A as to insist upon his prime minister's repeating these accusations in presence of the man whom he charged with them : and this Apelles did not scruple to do. witnesses of its truth.

Besides Apelles. indeed. Two of these noblemen. However. and who would be as much devoted to his views as he could wish them. gain their ends. Antigonus had a])pointed them by his will. and at the same time enjoyed the king's confidence. However. there were four other persons who divided the chief offices of the crown among them. and found that there was not the least ground for the charge. but no punishment was inflicted on the calumniator. Now the prime minister wanted to give their employments to noblemen on whom he could entirely rely. his courage. Accordingly. Taurion and Alexander. but as to the other two. and begged the king himself He complied with to take cognizance of this matter. and speak of him as a man worthy of the king's more intimate confidence he did this in the view of detaining him at court. to ployment. says Polybius. and assigned each of them his emHis principal view in this choice was. Leontius and Megaleas. Aratus's request. in order to remove those who g4ive him the least umbrage. prevent those cabals and intrigues which are almost unavoidable during the minority of an infant prince. : whither Philip was come to settle some aff^iirs. he endeavoured to undermine their credit by other methods than those he had em: for. the time and Apelles did not prepare to give in his how.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. he had not the same ascendant over them. would it have been possible for proofs him to do that ? An unforeseen accident brought Amphidamus. Aratus snatched the opportunity . and Alexander had the command of the guards. would applaud his merit. his exApelles perience . This impunity emboldened him the more so that he continued his secret intrigues. and procuring the government : . passed on. and employ sometimes praise and sometimes slander to : Whenever Taurion was mentioned. by a kind of chance. to the city of Dymae. mised it 261 should be complied with. were entirely devoted to Apelles . courtiers ployed against Aratus have the art of moulding themselves into all shapes. Aratus was pronounced innocent. Taurion presided over the affairs of Peloponnesus.

that Philip having discovered that he had been more than once imposed upon. and which required the presence of the person invested with it) for one of his creatures. that afterwards. because they thereby should infallibly divide the enemy's forces.talents a month. + Seventeen thousand crowns. had restored Aratus to his favour and confidence. that his post might he given to some person who w^ould be dependent entirely on him. 360. what was the result of all these secret machinations. p. which had been appointed on his accoimt. and even endeavoured to render his fidelity suspected. Fifty thousand crowns. J. On the report he made of the state of his exchequer. the king debated in council on the operations of the ensuing campaign.M. and of the urgent need in which he stood of money to maintain his forces. the instant his troops sliould set out upon their march. 350. in order to remove him from court. V. with regard to the side on which they : :j: Polyb. as long as he should carry on the war in person in Peloponnesus. 1. . he went to the assembly of the Acha^ans. It was resolved to act by sea. When the troops returned from their winter-quarters. and even direct his criminal designs against the king himsel£ ^1 before observed. Supported by his credit and counsels. a resolution was * passed to furnish him with fifty talents. C. to meet at Sicyon. and ten thousand measures of wheat and. and met with the treatment he was preparBut we shall first see him commit the ing for others. -218. Ant. with three months' pay for his soldiers. from the uncertainty they must be under. and were assembled.37S6. Whenever Alexander was the subject of the discourse^ he lost no opportunity of representing him in the most odious colours to the king. they should furnish him with seventeen j.262 THE HISTORY OF of Peloponnesus (a place of great importance. He only hints in this place. that Apelles was at last taken in his own snare. * ^ tA. Polybius will show hereafter. blackest and most abominable injustice towards Aratus.

Laeedaemonia. Whilst the king. who was best acquainted with. and to force him. to throw himself into the arms of a minister. he went to Chalcis. took secret measures to all the king's designs. and Elis. His view was to make himself necessary to his sovereign . Had he exerted would certainly have been the city * An island in the Ionian sea. As the Macedonians had worked with in«redible ardour. from its situation. would be of great advantage to him. mies. and there. himself ever so with his troops. by the ill posture of his affairs. and as enabling him to in&st the territories of his eneHe caused his military engines to be advanced. and then retired. who was now returned to Corinth. was training his Macedonians in the several exercises of the sea. arrived the second day at Patrae . 26S should be attacked. As for himself. when presently great part of the wall would fall down.service. as his orders were punctually obeyed by every one. and not his own. his two confi(!fants. . and from thence having landed at * Cephalenia. Leontius was commanded defeat ! to mcmnt this breach little. Philip having put to sea. to dig out the earth under the very foundation of the walls. and mines to be run. he laid siege to Paleis. Apelles. to behave with negligence in the employments with which they should be intrusted. and then actually in the administration of them. a city which.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and thereby reduced him to such necessity. and Was exasperated to see the counsels of Aratus followed. to which the miners afterwards set fire. they and supported the walls with great wooden propped beams. When they were got to it. Philip was to make war on the inhabitants of iEtolia. that he was forced to pawn his plate to subsist himself and his household. he stopped the convoys of money which were sending to the king . One of the ways of making breaches was. they very soon made a breach more than thirty fathoms wide. How villanous was this with Leontius and Apelles prevailed Megaleas. as a place of arms . who found his influence lessened. upon pretence of having some affairs to transact.

The Messenians represented. that as it would be impossible for Philip to return. on the contrary. having raised the siege. assembled his council. The Acarnanians. and be ready for marching. and that Dorimachus would be prevented from making an irruption into Macedonia. as the winds would be directly contrary at that time. and after a march of about sixty furlongs. and came a little before day-break to Limnaea. by this double diversion. and the king. intendrest. who did not expect to be so suddeidy attacked. the enemy had sent Lycurgus with some troops into Messenia. and He army some time then marched and arrived . from thence entered the gulf of Ambracia. to oblige Philip. that the whole country might be laid waste without the least resistance . Having provided for the lugent necessities of the Messenians. and at once overpower Lycurgus. to rid themselves of the greatest part of their baggage. he went from Cephalenia. that in one day the forces might march from Cephalenia into their country. at day-break at the river Achelous. Deputies had arrived soon after from the Acarnanians and Messenians. from the time of the cowardly attack at Paleis. and Dorimachus with half of the army into Thessaly. Philip. In the left the baggage under a strong afternoon. set out from Limnaea . sp that he was repulsed. who. Immediately he commanded the soldiers to take some refreshment. and Philip was obliged to raise the siege.^64) THE HISTORY OF taken: but he attacked the enemy very faintly. which was then improvided with troops declaring. he halted. to give his for refreshment all night. Philip having guard. urged him to march directly into ^Etolia. Leontius enforced this advice very strongly. had begun to suspect : Leontius. to debate on which side he should turn his arms. acquiesced in the advice of Aratus. to lay aside his enterprise. Aratus did not fail to declare in favour of the latter opinion . The moment he began it. lost a great number of his men. His secret reason was. by which means the campaign would be spent and nothing done. he therefore would be forced to stay there. arrived the second day at Leucadia.

The next morning it was resolved that the most valuable effects should be carried away . and marches directly to Thcrma?. as well for the worship of the gods. in which the jEtolians every year held their fairs and solemn assemblies.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. because of the advantage of its situation. Leontius advised the king to halt for some time. instant. to give the -^tolians time to prepare for their defence. that as the soldiers had been fatigued with the length of their march. which had been transacted was just. But how great was their surprise. as for the election of magistrates. amounting to upwards of fifteen Hitherto every thing thousand. it would be proper for them to take breath . pregnable. Aratus. and the remainder. giving for his reason. among which were some ! . in reality. on the contrary. when. and began to suspect him. and agreeable to the laws of war. ^65 uig to fall suddenly and unexpectedly upon Thermae. conjured Philip to seize the favourable moment. The who was already offended at Leontius. the Macedonians pitched their camp. and that knowing Leontius's advice was manifestly traitorous. they set fire to it. the MtO' lians used to leave their richest effects and all their wealth there. and set out on his march that king. the best were laid by for service. and that no enemy had ever dared to approach it . tore down all the offerings which hung on them. that opportunity is swift-winged. imagining they were very safe. they saw Philip enter it with his army After having taken immense spoils in the night. but. They did the same with regard to the arms which hung on the galleries of the temple . But the Macedonians did not stop here. As this city was thought imrocks. Transported with fury at the remembrance of the wild havoc which the iEtolians had made in Dium and Dodona. were burnt to ashes. through a very rugged and almost impervious road cut between very steep This was the capital city of the country. at the close of the day. they set fire to the galleries of the temple. sets out immediately. crosses the Achelous. and having piled up the rest of the booty at the head of the camp.

The horror with which the sacrileges committed by the jEtolians at Dium had inspired Philip and his allies. so far from extending his rage to the temples and sacred things. The statues. . without doubt convinced them that they might revenge it by the commission of the like crimes and that However. and possessed himself of Sparta. TsTot satiswith burning the roofs. and other sacred places and what is stiU more worthy our admiration. and treated them with the highest testimonies of kindness and friendship. who had plundered and burned most of the temto the temples : . which he razed to the ground. of which there were at least two thousand. great number of them were broken to pieces . They Remember Dium : Dium sends you this. so far from being forgetful of the veneration due to the gods. Antigonus. taken from the very family of the prince whose conduct he here censures. Alexander the Great. in his war with the Persians. Polybius. took care not to suffer his soldiers (even through imprudence) to do the least injury . and who defeated the Athenians at Chaeronea. ordering Antipator to convey their bones to Athens. by fied A their form or inscriptions. to whom the royal family owed all its splendour. to represent gods. they razed the temple. did not even make those he had conquered feel the effects of it on the contrary. he restored to them the form of government which they had received from their ancestors. he cites three great examples. made them sensible of his power and victory by no other marks than his beneficence restoring their prisoners .t66 THE HISTORY OP of exceeding beauty and prodigious value. support his opinion. in the height of his fury against Thebes. says they were then making just reprisals. And lastly. To Philip. after having defeated Cleomenes. were thrown down. . wrote the following verse on the walls . king of the Lacedaemonians. and giving clothes to such of the prisoners as were most in want of them. the reader will allow me to think otherwise. without ransom himself taking care of the dead. and those only spared which were known.

but rather to save both. dropped from the skies . so well had : . that Phimindful of the examples his ancestors set him. to break statues. showed no great he acted like an excellent captain.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. that we ought to declare war. and similar omaments of a city. but only to oblige such people to acknowledge and make amends for their taults. These are the sentiments of a soldier and a heathen. he part took so large a compass. strove to show that he had succeeded rather to their in Greece. The true end of war is not to involve in the same ruin the innocent and the guilty. had lip. was to go and surprise the Thermae. He goes through the defiles without meeting the least obstacle. army. taking advantage of the absence of of the iEtolian forces. in order to lessen the strength of the enemy. indeed. moderation and magnanimity. Some rivers were to be passed it was necessary for him to make the utmost haste. and enters Theras if he had mae. to burn temples. and prevented their seizing some passes of the mountains and defiles in which he might have been stopped short. to capture men and ships.any prejudice. places It were to be wished. city of Philip. Though His regard for religion. continues Polybius. -oles 26? Alexander spared and reverenced all dedicated to the worship of the gods. and turn short upon iEtolia by a swift counter-march. in pieces . and things of a like nature. This Philip does without To lighten his listening to the advice of traitors. than to their empire and The laws of war. It is not merely to ruin and destroy those who have done us injury. certainly nothing but the wildest and most extravagant fury can be capable of such violence. to carry off the fruits of the earth. nor will contribute to the defeat of the enemy . conqueror to demolish towns and citadels . as left the enemy in doubt with regard to the place he intended to attack . To conceal his design. and increase his own : but to destroy what neither can do him . to fill up harbours. frequently oblige a power. on this occasion. view in putting to sea. he leaves his baggage. in case we desire to be thought just and equitable .

^ . and to Aratus for having ability to sug- When Philip. to possess a general of this character though frequently contrary to his own taste and opiand to let himself be guided by such wise coun. yoimg prince prudent. finding himself in repose and security. than in executing them himself How happy is it for a . versed by long experience. thinks it equally glorious nion ! to Philip for suffering himself to be guided by such good counsels. long exercised in all the arts and stratagems of war. able. An enterprise so well concerted. he offered sacrifices to the gods by way of thanksgiving. can on. had given ^ to Plut..268 THE HISTOUY OF ^ he concealed and hastened his march. . p. in forming and in giving success to them by extraordinary enterprises. and chief agent in it afterwards. who had marched back the same way he came. that his talents lay more in conducting a warscarce doubt (and like stratagem. as he had been the first dently enough) contriver of so noble a project. to be able to appreciate the worth of these qualities . surpasses the abilities of so young a prince as Philip . . and all the glory of ^ it is reflected upon the monarch. of which the enemy do not seem to have had the least suspicion. and executed with We Polybius seems to insinuate it evithat Aratus. To secure it. so secretly carried so much wisdom and despatch. to be perfectly sensible of their high value . 1049. in Arat. was arrived at Limnaea. and seems to characterise a veteran warrior. as it I have already were. . entirely baffled all the efforts of the enemy. the person whose advice directed it vanishes. observed. for the success they ^ gest them. to be docile to his advice. It was accordingly charged at two different times however. his rear-guard particularly would be attacked. his bold counsels. he had seized upon several important posts expecting that at his coming down. Plutarch. the prudent precautions he had taken. and habituated to all the parts of the art of war . . sels After the happy success of an action. who enforces what I have now said. was also the soul. His retreat was full as extraordinary.

He did not venture to attack them. crowns. laid a fine of twenty talents * on Megaleas.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. had engaged in an enterprise Doriagainst the Messenians. who had led a considerable body of iEtolians into Thessaly. till he was got into his tent." answered the king. they vented their animosity against Aratus in the most insulting and most But words were not all . Every one soon perceived that they did not share with the rest of the company in the joy which so successful an expedition must naturally create." says " as to he. wlio were as strongly affected as himself with the glory he bad acquired. their rising from the banquet. at shocking railleries. 36*5—372. ter he gave security for the fine laid ou Megaleas. but it proved abortive. after venting a deep Some days afsigh. p. found troops there ^ ready prepared to give him a warm reception. persuaded that the young prince would be frightened at seeing so great a body of men. the Spartan king. and to oblige Philip to raise the siege of Paleis. who was then set at liberty. Who During Philip's expedition against iEtolia. he left the king's tent in a rage. " has bee*n so bold. forced him to hasten thither to de^ * Polyb. 269 his arms. Leon tins. heated with the fumes of wine. machus. Lycurgus. The news of Philip's inroad into J^^tolia. and the noise reaching the king. ran with a crowd of soldiers to the king's tpnt . army was in an uproar . so that. I^eontius and Megaleas were the only persons who heartily repined at the good fortune of their sovereign. prison This terrified Leontius . he caused an exact inquiry to be made into the affair . During the wbole entertainment. V. lay hands on Megaleas and throw him into " ?" I. Twenty thousand . they threw stones at him The whole all the way. in order to go and succour his allies. and for that reason be prompted to change his resolution. hearing of what had happened. and fired with anger. 1. with an intention to lay waste the country. and threw him into prison. in a lofty tone. and made a splendid banquet for his officers. for. Being com6 into the king's presence.

and to incline . resolved to make themselves formidable. having employed all the clandestine methods possible. which he had fixed for the rendezvous of his The Spartans having heard from public report allies. by employing the authority they had over the forces.270 rHE HISTORY OF But though he made the utmost expedition. The faction formed by Leontius. to be at peace with the ^tolians . to draw off their affections from him. began his march. to dispose them to it. at their going away. . what had passed at Thermae. terest. to avoid prolixity. Philip displayed. Here he found ambassadors from Rhodes and Chios. Philip marched his army with almost incredible diliHaving left Leucadia with his fleet. arrived on the twelfth day at Tegea. and therefore charged them. were truly alarmed when they saw that young victor in their territories. who came to offer him their mediation. and to attach them The greatest part of the to their own inarmy had staid in Co- . and being gence. The king dissembling his real intentions. in or- He der to go from thence to Phocis. and. had flattered themselves. where he intended to- engage in some more important enterprise. Some actions took place between the two armies. where he was not expected so suddenly. . that those secret practices had not been as successful as they . he laid up his ships in the harbour of Lechaeum. arrived at Corinth. he returned by the way of Argos to Corinth. he arrived too late the Macedonians having already quitted it. and Ptolemy. and did still wish. to remove and destroy all those who either opposed or were suspected by them and seeing with grief. afterwards landed at Lechaeum. on all occasions. told them that he had always wished. even to their sovereign. and taking abundance of spoils. After laying waste the whole country. who also was one of Philip's principal officers. fend his own country. in which Philip had always the advantage but I shall omit the particulars. both parties to peace. a bravery and prudence far above his years and this expedition did him no less honour than that of jEitolia. landed his troops. ^Iegaleas. . passing through Argos.

and forget all that was past. . linth j:avc 271 that the absence of the king . by employing chastisements at an unseasonable time. nor the ancient law relating to the distribation of plunder been observed with regard to them. a speech intermixed with gentleness and severity. it was not easy . and break to Immediately a great pieces the tiles winch covered it. he left Lechgeum in great haste. had filled all employments with their creatures . designs. and carry as to force the gates of the king's palace. lest he sliould inflame the minds of the people. he did not think it advisable to come to an open rupture. that it would moters of this insurrection be more prudent to appease them by gentle methods. he went back to Lechajura. that. In the trouble and confusion which reigned at that time. had the command of the forces. highest posts in the kingdom . But after this insurrection. . had acquired a kind of unlimited power over all orders of the state . The young men. where. that nevertheless justice done them. fired by these seditious discourses. some declared that it would be necessary to seize and punish the proand others. principal courtiers. sembles the Macedonians in the theatre. of which Philip having He then asnotice. for the sake of the public weland they exposed themselves to the greatest toils had not been dangers of war . had governed it during his minority . . The king was still young so that his authority was not entirely confirmed in the minds of the people and Those who were against him enjoyed the soldiery. and during a long time had employed tlie most insinuating arts to gain their affection. In so delicate a conjuncture. them a favourable opportunity for executing their They represented to the light-armed troops.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and had divided the whole administration among themselves. tumult broke out in the city. plunder the houses of the their fury to that excess. and to the guards. in. divide themselves into bands. to be very well satisfied and having expretending horted his forces to union and peace. For this reason he stifled his resentment. and they imagined. he makes them sensible of their fault. fare.

but persuaded. being still young. to give him notice of the danger That in. that the instant he appeared before his sovereign he would not fail of taking his opinion in all things. and the who enjoyed any employment. which gave him very great uneasiness. Leontius. after so had recourse to Apelles. minister. which he was going to enter as usual. had disposed of all things in the most despotic manner. honours to be bestowed. and to urge his presence immediately. Ptolemy. According to him. the king. In all the cities of Greece.272 for THE HISTORY OF to execute in Phocis the schemes him he had pra* jected. and Megaleas. and endeavoured to make his irresolution and servitude but the : him throw off king concealed his thoughts. during his stay in Chalcis. Aratus was frequently urgent with him to exert himself on this occasion.) stopped him short . When he arrived in Corinth. who commanded the flower of the troops. the officer who attended at the gate. but obeyed arroimplicitly the dictates of his ( Apelles's) will. and attended by a large body of officers and soldiers. lost all hopes. not and did not discover his resolutions to any knowing how the king was disposed toward him. and by that means was universally odious. or favours to be granted. Philip had long before been apprised of this conduct of Apelles. Apelles. He magistrates of Macedonia and Thessaly. thus received with pomp and splendour. made their reto him alone. advances directly to the king's palace. hastened from Chalcis to the support of Leontius. However. as having full power to act in every thing as he should think fit. gated to himself the management of all affairs. had no manner of power. Leontius having now fruitless attempts. Apelles engrossed and transacted all : things. body. scarce ports officers The the least mention was made of the king for whether any resolutions were to be taken. Apelles. judgments passed. (having been instructed before. affairs to be regulated. engaged all the young men to go and meet him. He many sent courier he was upon courier. on the contrary.

of the highest. not supported by foundations or strength of its own. but he excluded him from the council. trates offered him a house . which he had engaged to see his majesty at so him that uncommon a reception. : . T . or from some remains of esteem and gratitude for his guardian and governor . he ordered him to retire to Corinth. still continued occasionally to converse with him. and told 273 was busy. the magisper with him. thought of nothing but how he might best secure himself by flight. and left him some other honours of that kind . . 19VI. The king. and at last withdrew in the utmost confusion. The shining train he had caused to follow him vanished in an instant and he arrived at his own house followed only by his domestics a lively image. VOL. * " Nihil potcntise renim raortaliura tam instabile ac fluxum est.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. of what happens in the courts of kings the fate which the most powerful courtiers ought to few davs suffice to show their most exalted dread. and from the number of those he used to invite to supOn his arrival at Sicyon. which one moment are state and fall. xiii. or whether he did not think his power sufficiently established to exert it in an extraordinary manner . whom he never quitted. and the next are reduced to the extremes of misery and universal disgrace. and spent whole days in his company. at the will of him who reckons with them as princes please to extend or withdraw their favours. now the prime minister was disgraced. * Nothing is so transient and frail as a borrowed power. quam fama non sua vi nixae. and the next of the most inconsiderable value. Like counters. leaving Leontius bound for twenty talents. A : his accomplice pay. and accordingly withdrew to Thebes. Megaleas. says Polyand of bius. Annal. today they enjoy the greatest credit. c." Tacit. whether he was unwilling to drive Apelles to despair . he dehberated for some time liow he ought to behave. 1. As for Apelles. but he preferred that of Aratus. Astonished which he nowise expected. sensible of the storm he himself might expect.

that if Leontius were charged with some new crime for which he deserved to be imprisoned. upon reading these letters. himself set out immediately for that place from Lechaeiim. directed by Megaleas from Phocis to the iEtolians.) but that in : case Leontius was imprisoned only for the twenty talents.tolians. in which that traitor exhorted the ^tolians not to entertain the least fear. that Philip was in the utmost distress for w^ant of ammunition and provisions . and to galeas Leontius sent sound the disposition of the troops. however. word of this to the infantry over which he had com. they insisted that nothing might be decreed against him but in their presence that if he refused them that favour. he did not stay He two days' sail. at the same time he sent to Thebes. he caused him to be thrown into prison reason of which was. ambassadors from Rhodes and Chios. Philip accepted of the truce. to which he added expressions highly injurious to the king. they offered to pay that sum among them. judging Apelles the chief author of them. seized both him and his son . there arrived from ^tolia. which were ordered to march elsewhere. During this interval. and arrived there after then received letters. This testimony of their affection did but inflame the king's anger. upon pretence of their being employed upon some urgent octhe casion.274 THE HISTORY OP his Having removed Leon tins from command of the guards. to obhge him to pay pretended the twenty talents for which he had engaged for Mebut in reality to secure his person. Philip. after having prevailed with the j^^tolians to consent to a thirty days' truce. with orders for Megaleas to be proceeded against there . importing. to negociate a peace with the i^^. . and hasten the death of Leontius. should look upon this refusal as a contempt. . and they a signal insult . desiring them to send their plenipotentiaries He to Patrae. who that moment sent a petition to the kingj. (such was the liberty the Macedonians had the privilege of using with their king . and wrote to the allies. manded. but to continue the war . They assured the king that the ^toHans were inclined to a peace.

and oppression were daily renewed. on the contrary. on the mind of the young king. tle after 275 but laid violent hands on himself. that he even stood in fear of him. on one side. had. and that « Polyb. . that they had to do with a young imexperienced king. 377. but at the time shut his eyes to all his master^s faults. 1. he per- ceived into what hands he had fallen. litApelles and his son were also put to death. more than once. 376. for his trial.ALEXANDER'S SVCCESSORS. the ^. esteem. on the other. which he never laid aside. A may gain over the mind of a young sovereign. discovered. and confidence for Apelles . at the head of the council of regency established by the This double title of guardian and governor late king. judgment. that in wisdom and resolution he w^as a man. over which the prime minister had gained such an influence. had proved to them. had made Apelles assume an air of authority and command over his pupil. They had flattered themselves. p.tolians wished earnestly that the peace might be concluded . all this made no impression. respect. V. he was arrived to more mature years. or penetration. and ambihad been Philip's guardian. I do not know whether history can furnish us with a more remarkable example of the ascendant which a favourite tion. and" the repeated complaints against them rendered the government odious and insupportable. and his declared hatred of all such of the king's subProofs of jects as were most capable of serving him. same had the mean jealousy which He Apelles entertained of conspicuous merit of every kind . ^ In the mean time. and as such Apelles He had been intrusted with t]\e care of his education. and were quite weary of a w ar. inspired the young prince (as might in order to satiate witli impunity his avarice naturally be expected) with sentiments of regard. When Philip did not want genius. However. and. The reader has seen how extremely difficidt it was for the king to break this charm. and achis extortion cordingly believed that they might amuse him as a child . but Philip. or but a very slight one. in which all their expectations had been fmstrated.

He gave the Macedonians leave to turn to go by the way of Thessaly. All these incidents happened at the time that Han>nibal was encamped on the banks of the river Po in : Italy . * where he found Ptolemy. had sent his troops into winterIt was then also that I^ycurgus. to take up their winter-quarthen coasting Attica along ters in their own country the Euripus. ced aemonia. and the conspiracy of Apelles and Leontius. who perplex and embroil the king's alTairs. the only conspirator that survived. to continue the war. king of Laquarters.276 THE HISTORY GP they had behaved like children in all their enterprises. as soon as it was known that the It suspicions raised against him were all groundless. But having heard of the insurrection of the troops. The auxiliary troops. now winter. Philip returned to Macedonia. who were come to the rendezHe them set sail on his revous. they postponed the day on which they were to meet at Patrae. had assenibled in the night. . antl caused sentence of death to be passed upon hiu) in an assembly of Macedonians. joyfully seized the opportunity with which the enemies themselves furnished him . . and invested his house. to Philip. he was recalled a little after. after having subdued the great- est part of Coele-syria. and Antiochus. in order to seize his person. in hop( s that some sedition would break out at court. fled with his whole family. and receiving no succours. who. Corinth. being Eperatus was by this time universally despised by nobody obeyed his orders and the counand defenceless. he went from Cenchrsea to Dem^trias. and engaged the allies. fled to JFAoWsl. But Lycurgus. quently coidd scarce furnish their quota. having some notion of this. the payutent (>f whose arrears was put off from * A maritime city of Thessaly. However. dreadful havoc was made try being open in it. and consethe Achseans . The cities being abandoned. wished for nothing more ardently than to break off the conferences upon the peace. on a false report that this king designed to embroil the state. were reduced to the last extremity. in order to secure himself from the anger of the Epliori.

Philip made the same answer as before. 217. and even Larissa. V. from whence the iEtolians used to make continual inroads. M. He quitted it in the beginning of the spring. and the most advantageously situated for making incursions from Dardania into Macedonia so that having possessed himself of it. Khodes. for the at Argos. * After taking that city. and also from Ptolemy. manner he was nians. in reality. was not very desirous of peace. pacity of the general and the reader has seen in what Happily for the Acha. and the elder Aratus was appointed to succeed him. All this was owing to tlie inca. but he did not desired . and that Hannibal was master of the open country. Here ambassadors came again to him from Chios. .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. »A. he had very little to fear from the Dardaelected. to propose the concluding of a peace. with great bravery. . had taken Bylazora. day bers of 277 to day. but at last the besieged. and that they had only to inquire of the Mtowhether they also were inclined to it. 4>35. a courier arrived from Macedonia. 3787. He afterwards set out with his favourites. and the defence was equally vigorous . he marched again towards Greece.ans. He judged it would he proper to lay siege to Thebes of Phthiotis. that it was what he very much lians. J. 1. surrendered the city. ^ Philip. the time of his command was almost expired. Philip secured Magnesia and Tliessaly. By this conquest. Philip. in his journey to Macedonia. the greatest city in Peonia. near the lake Thrasymenus. served as they were paid.C. p. The king showed f Nemaean games Polyb. care to declare himself. and Byzantium. and at the same time commit great waste in the territories of Demetrias. PharThe attack was carried on salus. fearing they should be taken by storm. Ant. and carried off a great booty from the ^tolians. with advice that the Romans had lost a great battle in Tuscany. Whilst he was viewing one of the combats. and great numthem deserted.

would obey him no less afterwards . tliat he ought to disopportunity engage himself as soon as possible from the iE. successful in his exploits. bold. already subjected into Italy.278 this letter to strict THE HISTORY OF none but Demetrius of Pharos. quite depressed and discouraged by their ill success in the present war. the news of which he had then received. would not fail to follow their example. in order to invade Illyria. as to discover only such of them as suited his interest (a very rare and valuable quality in so young a prince). that there was no occasion for long conferences. that every one should continue in possession of his conquests and to this they assented. in order to negociate a peace and at the earnest desire of the iEtolians. he did not express too great an inclination for peace. by the ambassadors of the confederate powers. and who besides was sprung from a family which had always flattered itself with the hopes of universal empire. This peace con: . Such counsel could not but charm a king in the flower of his youth. Nevertheless. that the Achaeans had joined voluntarily. and afterwards cross He added. he must begin by conquering Italy . enterprising. . though he now therefore only caused the alearnestly desired it. he soon arrived in the lied states to : neighbourhood of that city. The rest of the articles were soon agreed upon so that the treaty was ratified. that if he was desirous of making himself master of the whole world. and that he ought not to delay a moment. that Greece. He be told to send their plenipotentiaries to Naupactum. that after the defeat of the Romans. and governed his thoughts in such a manner. and with the utmost cheerfulness. The first article which the king caused to be proposed to the JiLtolians. the time was come for executing so noble a project. giving him The latter took this charge not to speak of it. to represent to him. and all retired to their respective countries. in his cause . as he was master of his temper. All parties were so weary of the war. in all respects. at the head of his troops. was. which suited no prince better than himself. a noble ambition. that the ^Etolians.tolian war.

279 Olympiad. breathing only the same sentiments. they should all in a manner join hand in hand. that it would be a great blessing from the gods. enforced his opinion by arguments that deserve a place here. J. C. and the defeat of Antiochus near Raphia . In the first separate conference held in presence of the king and the ambassadors of the confederate powers. all these events happened in the third year of the 140th * the present juncture. if. instead of attempting to ruin the Greeks. who on their part would be invio: lably attached to him in all his enteqmses . : versed in the maxims of policy. wished. 217. would not confine themselves to the empire of Italy and Sicily . they ought to unite toand watch over the preservation of all Greece that. and to give the enemy an easier opportunity of defeating them. as he had hitherto done. Agelas of Naupactum. disconcert all the projects which foreign^ * A. ought to keep a strict eye on the dangers with which they were threatened that this prince would have nothing to fear. and which Polybius has thought worthy of being related at He said that it were to be length in his history. as if it was his own kingdom : that by this means he would acquire the love and affection of the Greeks. the battle lost by the Romans near the lake Thrasyracnus . . if. to be sensible of the necessity of such an union.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and. and especially Philip. 3787. by their fidelity to him. that at eluded by Philip and the Achaeans with the ^^^tolians . to secure them from the insults of the barbarians. but would doubtless extend their projects much further : that all the Greeks in general. that the conquerors. they need but turn their eyes to the formidable armies of the two powerful states actually engaged in war: that it was evident to every one who was ever so little least. he would labour as much for their welfare as his own. in gether. Ant. But if this was not possible. that the Greeks would never make war upon one another . who was one of them. whether Carthaginians or Romans. M. and unite their whole force. and exert himself as vigorously in the defence of all Greece.

he were desirous of taking the field. every thing seemed to smooth the way for universal that. but directed all their views and attention towards Italy. at different intervals. by the state of their respective countries. who. and keep an eye on the events of the war in Italy that. it was very much to be feared. he need but turn his arms towards the West. Philip. and executing some great enterprise . had reasons to be dissatisfied with the conduct of Philip or Attalus. nor to determine : : their affairs in a manner agreeable to themselves. of which the Romans will soon render themselves absolute masters. that it would then be no longer in their power to take up arms. from the Romans.280 ers THE HISTORY OF : might form against his kingdom that if. and direct their motions. no longer addressed Antiochus or Ptolemy for protection they no longer turned their eyes to the south or east. Sometimes ambassadors were sent to the Carthaginians. All those who. whenever he might think proper: that. which is a clear prediction of what was to happen afterw\ards to Greece. when they were to make peace or war. from that time. did the same soon after. neither Greece. Nothing can be more judicious than this speech. nor the other powers of Greece. and the inhabitants of the islands. : Some also came to Philip. in case he had any difference with the empire Greeks. This is the first time that the affairs of Italy and Africa influence those of After this. or as they might judge most expedient. were afraid he should come and add to the . provided he would only put himself into a condition for seizing : successfully the first opportunity that should present itself. to treat of peace. instead of barely acting upon the defensive. he should leave the decision of it to another season that he ought especially to be careful to preserve to himself the liberty of making war or peace with them. and at other times to the Romans. regulated their conduct. The Asiatics. in case he should suffer the storm which was gathering in the West to burst upon Greece. but fixed them upon the west. knowing the enterprising genius of that prince.

considerable victory over him at Apolhnia. *A. at a time when the defection of their ancient .M. that he had been despatched by Philip to conclude an alliance and friendship with the Romans . imagined that he was particularly interested. & 38.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The principal of the ambassadors. as well as with the senate and people of Rome. and that he had orders to execute with the consuls. Xenophanes by name. who was then encamped near Luceria. Tlie JEtolians con-^ ties. « Liv. He sent ambassadors to that general. after Hannibal had gained three victories successively. which the sequel of this history will now show us. SSy 34. The war between the Carthaginians and the Romans. Romans gain a Philopwmen signalizes 8 himself. Levinus. xxiii. he did not yet perceive clearly which of * But those powers it would be his interest to join. he was indeed very well pleased to see the Romans and Carthaginians at war but. but unhappily they fell into the hands of the Romans. He clianges his conduct. now called the he heard. Attains^ king of Pergamus. king of Macedon. by the rumours Gulf of ^^enice. is 2S1 what SECT. that Hannibal had marched over the Alps. 1. . and he hesitated no longer.3788. overjoyed to find. They were carried to Valerius Levinus the praetor. Philip. n. Machanidas Various expeditions a tyrannical pozcer at Sparta. as his dominions were separated from Italy only by the Adriatic Sea. confusion and perplexity of their affairs . The Philip concludes a treaty with Hannibal. as the event was doubtful. all his doubts were removed. His breadi offaith and irregulariHe causes Aratus to be poisoned. drew the attention of all the kings and nations of the earth. more \rho were the two greatest powers at that time. 216. J. Ant. When which were spread. without being in the least disconcerted. and the Laeedamonians^ accede to it. C. answered with a resolute tone of voice . elude an alliance with the Romans. tisitrps of Philip and Sulpitius the Roman praetor^ in one of which IV.

Being arrived at and fled to Hannibal's camp. The Carthaginians were known by their air. and annexed to his dominions. their language. and gave them sirous of escort for their safety. and the islands lying towards Macedonia. were stipulated by this treaty. should be enjoyed by Philip. treated making the ambassadors with all possible respect. sent ambassadors to Philip. and that both the cities of the continent. Poly bins tion is made of a great number of omits a great number of particulars. according to Livy. the treaty. condition in which the affairs of the Romans In the and still more by (attacked so vigorously by Hannibal) then were. so powerful as Philip. without expressing the least perplexity or ^ Polyb. the purport of which was as follows : " That king Philip should cross into Italy with a fleet of two hundred sail. they escaped. on the other side. at the conclusion of the sea and land war.2821 allies THE HISTORY OP had become so general. which. they should cross into Greece. and there make war against any power the king should nominate . For. must necessarily alarm them prodigiously. that in this treaty. and they set out with those of MaI observed elsewhere. express men: : ^^ tions. deities of the two naand witnesses to the oaths with which the ceremony was attended. so powerful a monarch dean alliance with the Romans. where they concluded a treaty. who set out together. and lay waste the sea-coasts . whole of which is preserved by Poly hi us. . and should assist the Carthaginians with his forces both by that the latter. The ambassadors. the cedonia. should possess all Italy and Rome . as present at this treaty. L viL p. occasions that the Roman grandeur But was it is on such chiefly conspi- cuous. Upon them were from Hannibal to Philip. the discovery of a new enemy. were unhappily discovered and intercepted by the Romans. for his ratification of this treaty . their dress. and a copy of found letters The ambassadors were carried to Rome. 502—507. an Campania. Xenophanes's lie would not do him the same service as before." Hannibal. and that Hannibal should have all the spoils that after the conquest of Italy.

they took all the measures necessary for carrying on this new war. He first seized upon the city of Oricum. Liv. informed of what had befallen his ambassadors. as out of hatred to the Romans. and by that means surprise the enemy when they should least expect it. and frequently would start from his sleep. I V. he put to sea. the thou^its of which haunted him day and night . commander of the fleet that lay before Brundusium. Q^hilip was now wholly employed on his great design Demetrius of Pharos of carrying the war into^ Italy. ^ During the winter . 1. which increased season. and covered with sweat. but to transport his forces into Italy with the greater expedition. 40. . xxiv. The success of his arms. with him. which he thought it would be impossible fo^ him to recover by any other It was by his counsel that he had concluded a means. not so much out of zeal for the interest of that prince. having advice of it. n. i7. and still kept matters in suspense. kindled an ardour in him. in order that he might peace devote his whole care and attention to this war. Valerius. sels for .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS* 283 iliscouragcment. situated on the western coast of Epirus. and the remembrance of the great actions of his predecessors. with most of his enemies. Accordingly he made the build a hundred or a hundred and twenty vesIllyrians daily. & 445—447. and after having exercised his Macedonians for some time in naval discipline. was naturally lively and ardent in all his enterprises. he thought of fitting out not with the view of venturing a battle with the Romans. was continually urging him to that enbeing terprise . who was still young. Philip. sent a second embassy to Hannibal. so that even in his dreams he spoke of nothing but of war and battles with the Romans . and brought back the treaty. in the highest agitation of mind. which was more successful than the fonner. 439. ^ . who had dispossessed him of his territories. for this he was not in a condition to do . But these disappointments prevented their forming any enterprise that year. a fleet him . This prince.• Polyb. the hopes Demetrius gave him.

the instant he heard this news. weighed anchor immediately with ness for sailing Philip had reinforcement to the aid of Apollonia. p. The king himself. where he foimd all the soldiers asleep. The Macedonians. 518. fomenting all his passions. the next day. found it very difficult for him to escape to his ships. * they all endeavoured to save themselves by flight. Philip. and sent a large .284 THE HISTOHY OF all the ships in readiretook. and arrived in the camp. to please him. who commanded this reinforcement. an ahle and experienced officer. that the grandeur of a king reigning with unlimited power. 1049—1052. being informed of this. because the sea lay between them and the enemy. Nevius. than the body of an army. This prince. after setting fire to his ships. and suggesting consisted in making * to him. to shut up Philip. were perpetually lavishing their encomiums on him. Valerius. and entered the city in the night unperceived hy the enemy. in which left hut a slender garrison. p. quires. 519- . viii. 1. Nevius. ^ For some time. had begun to change his conduct and character . who. in Arat. And now the neglected cries of those who were first attacked awaking the rest. who seemed more like prisoners disarmed and plundered. to wliich Philip had laid'siege. marched silently out of the city in the night. Oricum. had all the precautions wliich the rules of war and the exactness of military discipline represcribe. having landed his troops at the mouth of the river Aous. and this change was ascribed to the evil counsels of those about him. had sent his fleet towards the mouth of the river. who staid at Oricum. who till then had been admired for many of those qualities which form the great prince. Polyb. marched through a hy-way . . returned by land to Macedonia carrying with him the sorrowful remains of his troops. whp was but half awake and almost naked. The soldiers crowded after him. upon which Apollonia stands. and three thousand of them were either killed or taken prisoners. and in his subjects pay a blind implicit obedience to Plut. imagining they were very secure. finding it impossible for him to advance forward.

however. Being arrived at Peloponnesus. not only vvith pride and haughtiness. ]\ressenians. his will. to despatch him secretly during his absence. he pulled off the mask. and therefore he charged Taurion.) which. whose very absence reproached him with all his iiTegularities. Philip. and kept no terms even with himself: for he was not ignorant of his connection with his daughter-in-law. he ahandoned himself entirely to ly. hut with cruelty and injustice . whose suhtle poison generally corrupts the best princes. some noise. as formerfame in view. and one would have concluded. As it was impossible but that this rupture must make . His horrid command was obeved. would have But this abated his pride. One would have imagined that the defeat before Apollonia. and the respect paid to his virtue. he till then had displayed. and wisdom. and made loud complaints against it. thought it high time to break entirely with a prince. and i?ooner or later destroys the great hopes wliich had been entertahied of them. was exceedingly shocked at so flagrant an injustice.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and softened his temper. his riot and excesses of every kind . he treated cities and states. as it was not iu his power to revenge it. one of his confidants. (a subject of the greatest grief to him. that only was resolved to revenge. he used every effort to over-reach and surprise the this prince allies. whom the greatest crimes now cost nothing. Aratus's great reputation. 286 Instead of the gentleness. He had before but now he begun to retire insensibly from court . and having no longer. . on his subjects and the affront he had received from his enemies. who was a man of the greatest honour and probity. But his artifices being discovered. soured it . in covering him with shame. would not suffer Philip to employ o})en force and violence . that it would not be of service to him to inform him of his ignominy. Aratus. he had not once hinted to his son from the consideration. resolved to rid himself of a troublesome censor. the too common effect of flattery. who no longer valued his people. and laid waste the :v\hole country. moderation. . a little after his defeat.

and at one of these entertainments. being then captain-general for the seventeenth time. crowned with chaplets of flowers. and were preparing such a magni. They made choice of the highest part of the where they buried him as the founder and preserver of it. invited him several times ta dinner. .tS& for THE HISTORY OF Taurion having insinuated himself into Aratus*® familiarity and friendship. as it gives less notice. and cloth- ed in white robes. the fruits of royal friendHe died in this manner at ^^gium. which place was afterwards called Aratium. happening to spit blood before a friend who was in the room with him. and singing hymns and odes in honour of the deceased. two solemn sacrifices were offered him annually the first. poisoned him .iiccnt mausoleum to his memory as might be suited to the glory of his life. he bore it patiently. not with a violent and immediate poison. and carried it in pomp to Sicyon. crowned with chaplets of flowers. that is. and the chief chorister. they went and fetched the coi*pse from ^Egium. " Aratus knew very well the cause of his illness but as complaints would not be of any service to him. and seeing that his friend was surprised. It must be owned. dancing before it. Behold. and a great part of the inhabitants. But the Sicyonians obtained that honour for their city. city. and is the more dangerous. he said. on the day that he freed the city from the yoke of tyranny. walked in procession round the altar. The Achajans desired to have him buried in the place where he died. and worthy of his great services. where Aratus was born . One day only. as a common and natural disease. at the head of the young men and children. without once murmuring. fol- lowed this procession. During the sacrifice. !" ship my dear Cephalon. and changing their mourning to festivity. choirs of music sung odes to the lyre . In Plutarch's time. which sacrifice was called Soteria. but with one of those which lights up a slow fire in the body. about three hundred years after. The senate.day. consumes it by insensible degrees. and : the other on his birth. that Aratus was one of the greatest .

who made themselves masters and tyrants of it and this. had long desired to possess himself of Lissus . The inhabitants. who were very numerous. and very fit to conceal an ambuscade. got rid of him. Finding that force would not prevail. but as the remedy and period of his his jealousy of But he was fully : miseries. punished for it. he posted the flower of his troops. The next day he assaulted another part of the city. and who affected to add outrage to cruelty. and when he was in his senses insomuch that. men 287 of Ins time. though he was at that time very young and in the bloom of life. and by which it became one of the most powerful states of Greece. but by those which destroy reason. and so strongly castle. had they been done voluntarily. which was attended with success. that it was thought impregnable. About this time Philip engaged in an expedition against the Illyrians. in calling in to the assistance of that commonwealth the kings of Macedonia. At last they made a fu™ 1. during the night. .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOKS. his death was considered. by the manner in which Philip treated him. being become completely wicked. but "^ He it would be impossible for him ever to take the which was so happily situated. Cleomenes king of Sparta. defended themselves with great bravery . believed Polyb. viii. and for some time. as would have reflected eternal infamy on him. in some meait was he snre. was an effect of . Here. fortified. the success was equal on both sides. 519—521. and by that means made him commit such abominable actions. as the founder of the Achaean republic at least who brought it to the form and splendour it : preserved so long afterwards. and craze the brain . he had recourse to stratagem. in that he observed a s])ot covered with trees. However. he committed a considerable error. as we have before observed. says Plutarch. not by mortal poisons. and may "be considered. The city was separated from the cattle by a little valley . p. not as a misfortune with regard to himself. Aratus his son met with a still more deplorable fate: for that prince.

the Romans would force them to return to their alliance. And now. ° M. the inhabitants. most of them came out. He added. and would oblige them. not only to restore such fortresses as they had taken from the Mto- whom from his interest. he extolled the great generosity with which the Romans behaved towards their allies. C. w^hose power would. and after having brought them over to his views. as praetor. and their constant fidelity.288 rious sally. had been allotted Greece and Macedonia for his province. n. territories but even give them cause to fear for their own that with regard to the Acarnanians. . and being desirous of sharing in the plunder. in private conferences. Valerius Levinus. the signal agreed upon being made. as they would be the first people in that part of the world who would have concluded an alliance with them that Philip and the Macedonians were dangerous neighbours. : : lians. 2 11 . Ant. seeing Philip retire. A. it to detach some of his al- the iEtolians were the most powerful) He therefore began by sounding. xxvi. he went to the general assembly. and carried it without great resistance. There. 24—26. who had broke with the ^Etolians. and proving it by their taking of Syracuse in Sicily. that the ^tolians might expect to meet with so much the better treatment from the Romans. THE HISTORY OF and charged the besiegers with great vigour. after expatiating on the flourishing state of the Romans. and joined The garrison of the castle. the soldiers who ambuscade attacked the castle. imagined that his defeat was certain . J. which surrendered a few days after. be of the most fatal consequence to them that tlie Romans had already humbled their pride. lay in In the mean time. on the same conditions which had been prescribed to them when they were ad: » Liv. the fugitives faced about. and Capua in Italy. M. in all probability. He was very would be absolutely necessary lies (of sensible that. the disposition of the chief men among the people . in order to lessen the forces of Philip. 1. and pursued the inhabitants as far as the city. 3793.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

289

mitted into it ; or, in case of their refusal, would make them submit to the i^tolians by force of arms. Scopas, who was at that time chief magistrate of the jEtolian state ; and Dorimachus, who, of all the citizens, had the greatest credit and authority ; strongly enforced the arguments and promises of the praetor, and laid still greater stress upon the grandeur and power of the Romans, because they were not obliged to speak as modestly on those topics as Valerius Levinus, and the people would be more inclined to believe them than a foreigner, who spoke for the interests of his country. The circumstance which affected them most was, the hopes of their possessing themselves of Acarnania. Accordingly, the treaty was concluded between the Romans and the
people of Elis, of Lacedaemonia, AttaPergamus, Pleura tus king of Thrace, and Scerdiledes of Illyria, were left at liberty to accede to this treaty, on the same conditions, if they thought proThe conditions were, " That the jEtolians should per. declare war as soon as possible against Philip that the Romans should furnish them, at least, with twenty-five galleys of five benches of oars that such cities as should be taken from ^^tolia, as far as the island of * Corcyra, should be possessed by the iEtolians, and all the spoils and captives by the Romans that the Romans should aid the jEtolians in making themselves masters of Acarnania that the iEtolians should not be allowed to conclude a peace with Philip, but upon condition that he should be obliged to withdraw his troops out of the territories of the Romans, and those of their allies ; nor the Romans with Philip, but on the same terms." ImiEtolians.

The

ins king of

:

:

:

:

mediately hostilities commenced. Philip was dispossessed of some cities, after which Levinus retired to Corcyra ; fully persuaded that the king had so much
'

business, and so many enemies, upon his hands, that he would have no time to think of Italy or Hannibal. Philip was now in winter- quarters at Pella, when advice was brought him of the treaty of the iEtolians. To be the sooner able to march out against them, he
* Corfu.

VOL.

VI.

U

290

THE HISTORY OF

endeavoured to settle the affairs of INIacedonia, and to secure it from any invasions of its neighbours. Scopas, on the other side, made preparations for carrying on the war against the Acarnanians, who, though they saw it would be absolutely impossible for them to oppose, at one and the same time, two such powerful states as the iEtolians and Romans, yet took up arms out of despair, rather than fiom prudential motives, and resolved to sell their lives as dear as possible. Accordingly, having sent into Epirus, which lay very near them, their wives, children, and the old men who were upwards of sixty ; all those who remained, from the age of fifteen to threescore, engaged themselves by Oath never to return except victorious denounced the most dreadful imprecations against such among them as should break their oath ; and only desired the Epirots to bury, in the same grave, all who should fall in the battle, with the
;

following inscription over them

:

Here lie the Acar-

nanians, WHO DIED fighting FOR THEIR COUNTRY, AGAINST THK VIOLENCE AND INJUSTICE OF

THE iETOLiANS.

Full of courage, they set out direct-

ly, and advanced to meet the enemy to the very frontiers of their country. Such resolution terrified the who had also received advice that Philip was Italians, already upon his march to aid his allies. Upon this returned home, and Philip did the same. they In the very beginning of the spring, Levinus besieged * He gave Anticyra, which surrendered a little after.

this city to the i^tolians, keeping only the plunder for

himself

Here news was brought him, that he had been nominated consul in his absence, and that P. Sulpitius was coming to succeed him as pr^tor. o In the treaty concluded between the Komans and ^.tolians, several other powers had been invited to accede to it and we find that Attains, Pleuratus, and
;

The iEtolians Scerdiledes, accepted of the invitation. exhorted the Spartans to imitate those princes. Chleneas, their deputy, represented in the strongest terms
o

*

Polyb.

1.

A city

Ix. p.

561—571.

of Achaia in Phoci? .

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

291

to the Lacedaemonians all the evils which the Macedonians had brought upon them ; the design they had always harboured, and still entertained, of enslaving all Greece ; particularly the sacrilegious impiety of Philip, in plundering a temple in the city of Thermae ; and his horrid treachery and cnielty to the Messenians.

He

added, hensions from the Achaeans, who, after all the losses they had sustained in the last campaign, would think it a great happiness to be able to defend their own country ; that with respect to Philip, when he should find the yEtolians invade him by land, and the Romans and Attains by sea, he would not think of carrying his arms into Greece. He concluded with desiring the Lacedaemonians to persist in their alliance with i^.tolia, or at least to stand neuter. Lyciscus, the representative of the Acaraanians, spoke next, and declared immediately in favour of the Macedonians. He expatiated on the services w^hich Philip, and afterwards Alexander the Great, had done Greece, by invading and ruining the Persians, its most He put the Lacedaeancient and most cruel enemies. monians in mind of the gentleness and clemency rath
ta.

tliat

they had no reason

to be

under any appre-

which Antigonus had treated them, when he topk SparHe insisted upon the ignominy, as well as danger, of suffering barbarians, for so he called the Romans, to enter Greece. He said, that it was worthy of the Spartan wisdom, to foresee from far the storm already gathering in the West ; and which would certainly break, first upon Macedonia, and afterwards upon all Greece, which it would involve in ruin. *• From what motive did your ancestors (continued he) throw into a well the man who came in Xerxes's name, to invite them to submit themselves to, and join with, that monarch ? Wherefore did Leonidas your king, with his three hundrecl Spartans, brave and defy death ? Was it not merely to defend the common liberties of Greece ? And nov/ you are advised to give them up to other barbarians, who, the more moderate they appear, are so much the more dangerous.

Let the iEtolians

(says he,) if they please, disho-

292

THE HISTORY OP
:

Hour their selves by so shameful a prevarication this, indeed, would be natural for them to do, as they are utter strangers to glory, and affected with nothing but sordid But as to you, views of interest. Spartans, who are born defenders of the liberty and honour of Greece, you will sustain that glorious title to the end." The fragment of Polybius, where these two speeches

O

what was the

are reported, goes no fartlier, and does not inform us result of them. However, the sequel of

the history shows, that Sparta joined with the j^^tolians, and entered into the general treaty. It was at that time divided into two factions, whose intrigues and disputes, being carried to the utmost height, occasioned great disturbances in the city, (^ne faction was zealous for Pliilip, and the other declared openly against him : the latter prevailed find it was headed by Machanidas, who, taking advantage of the feuds which infested tlie commonwealth, seized upon the government, and made himself tyrant of his country. pP. Sulpitius and king Attains being arrived with their fleet to succour the ^tolians, the latter were flushed with the most sanguine hopes, and the opposite party filled with terror ; especially as Machanidas, the tyrant of Sparta, was already invading the territories of the Achseans, whose near neighbour he was. Immediately the latter people and their allies sent a deputation to

We

king Philip, and solicited him to come into Greece, to The defend and support them. Philip lost no time. ^tolians, under Pyrrhias, who that year had been appointed their general in conjunction with king Attains, advanced to meet him as far as Lamia. * Pyrrhias had been joined by the troops which Attalus and Sulpitius had sent him. Philip defeated him twice and the JEtolians were forced to shut themselves up in Lamia. As to Philip, he retired to Phalara f with his army. During his stay there, ambassadors came from Ptolemy king of Egypt, from the Rhodians, the Atheni;

P Liv.

1.

xxvii. n.

29—33.

Polyb.

1.

x.

p.

6l2.

A. M. 3796.

Ant.

J. C. 208.

*

A city of Thessaly

in Phthiotis.

t

A city

of Thessaly.

alexandeh's successors.
ans,

298

and the inhabitants of Chios ; all with instructions tht'ir utmost endeavours for re-establishing a to It lasting peace between Philip and the iEtolians. was not so much out of good will towards the latter, as from the uneasiness they were under in seeing Philip
ii«e

engage so strenuously in the affairs of Greece, v/Jiich might render him more powerful than suited their inFor his conquests over the iEtolians, and their terests.
confederates,

paved the way

ior his

making himself

Greece, to which his predecessors had always aspired, and even gave him access to tiiose cities (out of Egypt) which Ptolemy possessed. Philip, however, suspended the debates on the peace, till the next assembly of the Achaeans ; and in the mean time When granted the ^Etolians a truce for thirty days. he came to the assembly, the -^tolians made such very unreasonable proposals, as took away all hopes of an accommodation. Philip, offended that the vanquished should take upon them to prescribe laws to him, declared, that in coming to the assembly he had not depended in any manner on the justice and sincerity of the ^^tolians, but that he was very glad to convince his allies, that he himself was sincerely desirous of peace, and that the ^Etolians were the only people who oppoHe set out from thence, after having left tour sed it. thousand troops to defend the Achaeans ; and went to Argos, where the Nemaean games were going to be exhibited, the splendour of which he was desirous of aug-

master of

all

menting by

his presence.

While he was

busied in solemnizing these games,

from Naupactum, and landed Sulpitius having between Sicyon and Corinth, laid waste all the open Philip upon this news left the games, marchcountry. ed with speed against the enemy, and meeting them laden with spoils, put them to flight, and pursued them to their ships. Being returned to the games, he was received with universal applause and particularly because he had laid down his diadem and robes of state, and mixed indiscriminately with the rest of the spectators; a very pleasing as well as soothing sight to the inhabiset out
;

294
tants of free

THE HISTORY OF

cities. But as his unaffected and popular behaviour had gained him the love of all, so his enormous excesses soon made him odious. It was now his custom to go at night into people's houses in a plebeian dress, and there practise every kind of licentiousness. It was not safe for fathers and husbands to oppose him on these occasions, in which they would have endangered their lives. Some days after the solemnization of the games, Philip, with the Achaeans, whose captain -general was Cycliadus, having crossed the river of Larissa, advances as far as the city of Elis, which had received an iEtolian garrison. The first day he laid waste the neighbouring lands ; afterwards he drew near the city in battle array, and caused some bodies of horse to advance to the gates, to induce the iEtolians to make a sally. Accordingly they came out ; but J^hilip was greatly surprised to find some Roman soldiers among them. Sulpitius havkig left Naupactum with fifteen galleys, and landed four thousand mo, had entered the city of Elis in the night. The fight was very bloody. Deof the cavahy of Elis, seeing Philomophantus, general poemen, who commanded that of the Achaeang, advanced out of the ranks, and spurred toward him with The latter waited for him with the great impetuosity.
*i

utmost resolution ; and preventing his blow, laid him dead, with a thrust of his pike, at his horse's feet. Demophantus being thus fallen, his cavalry fled. I mentioned Philopo^men before, and shall have occasion to speak more particularly of him hereafter. On the other side, the infantry of Elis had fought with advantage. And nov7 the king, perceiving that his troops began to give way, spurred his horse into the midst of the Roman foot. His horse being wounded with a javelin, threw him. It was then the battle grew furious, both sides making extraordinary efforts ; the Romans to take Philip prisoner, and the Macedonians to save him. The king signalized his courage on this occasion, having been obliged to fight a long time on foot, in the
.9

Plut. in Philop. p. 360.

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

295

midst of the cavaliy ; and a great slaughter was made At last, being carried off* by his in this engagement. and remounted on anotlier horse, he retired. soldiers, The king encamped about five miles from that place ; and the next day, having attacked a castle, in which a great number of peasants, with all their flocks, were retired, he took four thousand prisoners, and twenty thousand head of cattle of all sorts an advantage which might console him for the affront he had lately received
:

at Elis.

was brought him, that the bar; upon which he immediately set out to defend his comitry, having left with the allies a detachment from his army of two thousand five hundred men. Sulpitius retired with his fleet to iEgina, where he joined king Attains, and passed the winter. Some time after the Achaeans gave the iEtolians and the people of Elis battle near JVlessene, in which they had the advantage.
instant, advice

That

barians had

made an

incursion into Macedonia

SECT.

V.

Education and great qualities of Phihpcemen,

of whom large mention will be made hereafter, was of Megalopolis, a city of Arcadia, in Pehad received an excellent education loponnesus.

Philopcemen, ^

He

through the care of Cassander of Man tinea, who, after his father's death, out of gratitude for the important services he had received from him, undertook to be
guardian and governor to his son Philopcemen. When he was past the years of childhood, he was put under the care of Ecdemus and Demophanes, citizens of Megalopolis, who had been scholars to ArcesiThe scope of philaus, founder of the New Academy.
losophy in those days was, to prompt mankind to serve their country ; and, by its precepts, to enable them to govern republics, and transact the greatest affairs of state. This was the inestimable advantage the two
philosophers in question procured
'

Plut. in Philop. p.

Philopcemen, and 356^361,

296

THE

HISTOllY OF

thereby rendered him the

common blessing of Greece. indeed, as it is said that mothers love those children best which they bring forth when advanced in as having given birth to Philopoemen in years, Greece, her old age, and after having produced so many illustrious personages, had a singular affection for him, and
And,
took a pleasure in enlarging his power, in proportion as
his

fame increased. He was called the last of the Greeks^ as Brutus was afterwards called the last of the
to imply,

Romans ; undoubtedly
ancient glory.

that

Greece, after

Philopoemen, had produced no great man worthy of her

Having formed himself upon the model of Epaminondas, he copied admirably his prudence in debating and resolving upon affairs ; his activity and boldness
in executing ; and his perfect disinterestedness : but as to his gentleness, patience, and moderation, with regard

and divisions which usually break out in a these he could never imitate. certain spirit of state, which resulted naturally from his headcontention, strong and fiery temper, had qualified him better for
to the feuds

A

the military than political virtues.
indeed, from his infancy, the only class of peohe loved was soldiers and he took a delight only ple in such exercises as were necessary to qualify him for the profession of arms ; such as fighting in armour, And as he seemed, riding, and throwing the javelin. his muscles and stature, to be very well made for by wrestling, and some particular friends advised him to apply himself to it, he asked them, whether this exer-

And,

;

contributed to the making a man His friends could not help answerthe better soldier ? ing, that the life of the athletae, who were obliged to observe a fixed and regular regimen ; to eat a certain food, and that always at stated hours ; and to devote a certain number of hours to sleep, in order to preserve their robustness, in which the greatest part of their merit consisted ; that this way of life, I say, differed entirely from that of soldiers, who frequently are oblicise of the athletae

ged

to submit to

hunger and

thirst, cold

and heat, and

ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

297

liave not always fixed hours either for eating or sleeping. From thenceforth he conceived the highest contempt for

the athletic exercises ; looking upon them as of no service to the puhlic, and considering them, from that instant, as unworthy a man of any elevation of soul, happiness of talents, or love for his country. The moment he quitted his governors and masters, he entered among the troops which the city of Megalopolis sent to

make

incursions into Laconia, in order to
off

plunder and bring

And

in all these hiroads,

from thence cattle and slaves. he was ever the first that

marched

troops in the field, he used to employ his leisure in hunting, to make himself robust and nimble ; or else used to

out, and the last who came in. During the intervals in which there were no

spend his hours in cultivating the ground, having a fine estate three miles from the city, whither he used to retire

very frequently after dinner or supper.

At

night

he would throw himself on a bed of straw, like one of The next morning his slaves, and thus pass the night. he used to go with his vine-dressers, and by day-break, work in the vineyard, or follow the plough w ith his peaAfter this, it was his custom to return to the sants. and employ himself in public aflPairs with his friends city, and the magistrates. Whatever he got in war, he expended cither in horses and arms, or employed it in ransoming those of his fellow-citizens who had been taken prisoners. He endeavoured to increase his estate, by improving his lands, which of all profits is the most lawful and was not satisfied with barely visiting it now and then, and merely for diversion but devoted his whole care to it persuaded that nothing is more worthy of a man of probity and honour, than to improve his own fortune, provided he does not injure that of his neighbour. I must entreat my readers, in order that they may form a right judgment of what I have here said of Phi; ; ;

lopoemen, to convey themselves in imagination back to the ages I am speaking of, and to call to mind with what industry all well-governed nations, as the Hebrews,

that . . no writer having ever painted valour in such strong and lively colours. plication on the spot. and excite to great exploits and that poet abounds with ideas of this kind. he did not read them all without sider as great nothing but contempt . and went to guide the plough and oxen. with the same hands which had just hefore vanquished and defeated their enemies.29S THE HISTORY OF Persians. Of all the great ideas in Homer. Pliilopoemen was very fond of the conversation of philosophers. After he had read the precepts and rules of the Tactics. but such only as could contribute to his improvement in virtue. distinction. It is universally known that the Romans. and Romans. after having gained signal victories. According to our customs and way of thinking. the exercises above-mentioned are very low and contemptible. called the Tucfics. retiu:ned immediately to their farms. but used to make the apfor in his marches. but it is our misfortune that they shoukl be thought so. and theory to and he had very little regard for those books practice . what really in itself deserves and it affixes. whence they had heen elected to command armies . But the other works in which Philopcemen delighted most. of Evangelus. or furnish a rapid and transient amusement. and the high esteem in which such exercises were had in those ages. that words should always have reference to actions. on the contrary. : is. Greeks. he sought and jretained such only as exalt the courage. applied themselves to the tilling of land and manual labour. to things of solid beauty and real greatness. by corrupting our manners. he did not value the seeing demonstrations of them in plans drawn upon paper. the art of drawing up troops in battle array and the histories of Alexander the Great for it was his opinion. an idea of contempt and meanness. that are written merely to satisfy a vain curiosity. were those . has vitiated our judgments. and alighted from the triumphal car crowned with laurels and glory. in the field he used to observe exactly the position of the hills and : . Luxury. and read their works with the greatest satisfaction however. It makes us con- and valuable.

made him very advantageous offers to attach him to his service. Crete served him as an excellent school . However. he went into Crete. and greatness of soul he displayed on that occourage casion. that he refused them . among whom he did not find the least order or discipline. attacked Megalopolis. so great was his love for his country. But he could neither dissemble nor suffer such remissness. he would discourse on them with those in his company. the several valleys . some months after. so that he made a great progress. all the irregularities which battalions and squadifferent forms and figures drons are obliged to take by rivulets. He signalized himself no less. to which he himself had been witness. ditches. to improve himself in the military art. He himself therefore went from city to city. animating them with promises of reward. warlike disposition. and inured to most severe pline. that immediately upon his arrival he was The first thing he did appointed general of the horse. was in his thirtieth year He when Cleomenes. with so much renown. extremely temperate. exhorting particularly all the young men. he returned among the Achajans. However. which not only requires great subjection in the man who devotes himself to it. which oblige them to close or extend . and after having reflected seriously on these particulars. was to inquire into the state of his forces. expert in combats of every kind. and defiles in themselves their way. in the battle of Selasia.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The king of jNIacedon. and acquired a perfect knowHe there found men of a very ledge in that science. as he did not choose to pass his life in indolence and inaction. not to mention that he had naturally an aversion to a court life. charmed with such exalted merit. 29^ of the ground . disci- We After having served for some time in the troops of that island. where Antigonus gained a famous victory over the same Cleomenes. and sometimes employing severity and punishment when . king have seen what of Sparta. but deprives him of his liberty. inspiring them with sentiments of honour. which was engaged in war.

with regard to the strength and ardour of his attacks . was the first who raised the Achaean league to the exalted pitch of glory and power which it attained. address. But Aratus made them formidable. in places whore the greatest number of spectators was likely to be found. he roused the courage of the Achaean s . or from the front to the rear. The success of his enterprises was. all the squadrons together. by uniting and allying them together and his design was. and in which he commanded the horse. . he soon made all his soldiers so robust. and and. moving spontaneously. and finding they were able to make head alone against their enetain. jected his state to them. the last we mentioned. aflPability. that this cavalry was only one individual body. he gained great honour . to form one body and one power of all Peloponnesus. which. to the left. that he was not inferior to any of the private soldiers. what indeed was congentleness of demeanour sidered as a defect in his politics. as to his prudence. would have become invincible. which at length sub.300 ^HE HISTORY OF he found them rehellious and uiigovernahle. and courageous. or similar sports. . or of each trooper were performed with so much skill and ease. ks he was a great cap- and had come off victorious in all his first battles. . nor showed less wisdom and prudence than the oldest either of and most experienced generals and that therefore he was equally capable either of fighting or commanding. . But the instant Philopoemen assumed the reins of government. that the several evolutions and movements. expert. to the right. because they were divided. Aratus. not owing so much to his courage and intrepidity. that a spectator would almost have concluded. He exercised and reviewed them often or made them engage in tournaments. and it was said universally. by this union. indeed. By this practice. Before his time they were despised and weak. singly. at the impression of one and the same will. In the battle fought near the city of Elis. and at the same time so ready and nimble. to the friendship he contracted with foreign princes. and every city among them was studious of nothing but its peculiar interest.

for he imagined that it would not be possible for him completely to eradicate their He began by violent fondness for dress and ornament. to restrain . and their arms. jnies. by inspiring them with a love for another kind of magnificence.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. infallibly induces luxury . viz. coats of mail for horsemen. and this was to curb and restrain their luxury. gave them stout ed them with helmets. and to enervate it by their soft insinuations. to distinguish themselves by their horses. instead of hovering and flying about like lightarmed troops. This ardour had an even on their women. and all which they emliroidered. and excessive profusion and expense. Eut. jackets for the soldiers effect . a groat number of improvements in the of the Achaean troops. armlarge and strong shields . and inspires all those who take a pleasure in gazing upon it. Expense in all other things which attract the eye (says Plutarch). breathed into them a strong desire to defy the greatest dangers. lances . He afterwards endeavom*ed to effect another improvement. with a secret effeminacy and indolence the senses. and other accoutrements of war. I say. who rather skirmish than fight in line of battle. which He obliged them to use had a great many defects. The only things now seen in their hands were helmets. breast-plates. SOI he obliged them to shake off the yoke of foreign powers. and greaves . which they adorned with plumes of feathers tinged with the brightest dyes. substituting a different object in their place. who now spent their whole time in working for their husbands or children. which was much more difficult as well as more important in one sense . that . and changed the mandiscipline ner of drawing up tlieir forces. conspiring to seduce the mind itself. and thereby accustomed them to fight vigorously and gain He made ground. their arms. en: The chanted and dazzled by these deceitful charms. bare sight of these tilings inflamed their courage. and a kind of impatience to fly in quest of glory. on the contrary.

in order to defend their arms. 1001. \lt argento et auro politis armis ©maret. et quo tenaciores eorem in praeli© essent nietu damni. and not the strength of those who wore them. that Brutus. non ccelatum auro argentoqile. who. was persuaded that the richness and splendour of the armour and weapons which soldiers have always in their hands. Papirius. p. the famous dictator." Sueton. Ccesar. with a very liberal hand. However. c. through fear of losing arms of so gi'eat value. and this he did not only for pomp and splendour. The same author tells us. I must not omit observing. exalt the courage of those men who are naturally brave and ambitious . This was also the opinion of * Caesar. simul et ad speciem^. differMithridates. * . 496. only great man who had this ^ Plutarch observes. in Jul. arms. which they look upon as a precious and honourable possession. was his bestowing on them. or on their bodies. by defeating the Samnites. •^ ed in opinion from them. p. but that they might act with gi*eater courage in battle. Quippe ilia praedam verius q^uam araaa Plut. * " Habetat tarn cultos milites. and began to consider them as the riches of the conqueror.302 THE HISTORY OF is magnificence. woidd not allow among his soldiers such arms as were gilded and enriched vsdth precious stones . C?* + " Horridum militem esse dehere. that the circumstance which gained Sertorius the affection of the Spaniards. so signally avenged the affront which the Romans had received at the Furcse Caudinae. gold and silver to adorn their helmets and enrich their shields. who had accustomed his officers to shun what was superflu- ous on every other occasion. that generals. whose object courage. not the. animates and exalts Philopoemen is way of tliinking. said f to his troopsr. * Plut in Brut. who always gave his soldiers arms that glittered with gold and silver . taught by his misfortunes of how little advantage splendour is to an army. and engage such as are of a covetous temper to exert themselves the more in fight. in Lucullo. i?ed ferro et aniniis fretum. no less renowned than those we have mentioned.

seeing luxury prevalent and established in his country. and there arose a kind of emulation among them". all On the other side. he himself exercised and formed them very carefully in in itself. but make a most hidazzle the eye before the battle deous appc^irance in the midst of blood and slaughter. and their arms. who. In this opposition of opinions. * " Aciem hostium uuro purpuraque ful*'entc m intiieri jubebat. gold and These ornaments than arms. et imbeilibus leraiuis aiirum prsedam non anna ^estantem. And A same idea of the richness and magnificence of the arms of the Persians. the youths were very attentive to the instructions he gave them concerning military evolutions. silver are rather s])oils . though much more ponderous than beesse . that * Alexander the Great entertained the his glory and pride. the parts of military discipline. They were wonderfully pleased with the manner of drawing up in order of battle. iii. deformia inter san^inem et vulnera." Liv. because they conceived. viri eripetent. they would be the more difficult to break .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. nitentia ante rem. it does not become me which of those great men had the most just But we cannot but admire the skill thinking. Thesoldier's ornament is his valour the rest is always rich enemy falls a prey the consequence of victory. . It is to the conqueror. how poor soever he may be. became him . 1 ix. and that steel and bravery ought to form was proper indeed. 10. whrch he taught them ." Q. well known. added he. that \vhere the ranks were so very close. . After Philopoemen had accustomed the young men to make their splendour consist in that of their arms. c. et omnia ilia victoriam sequi: et ditem hostem quamvis pauperis victoris premium esse. n. 1. but contentto decide way of ed himself with directing it to an object more laudable and more worthy of brave men. that it SOS for a soldier to appear with a rough that ornaments of gold and silver ill and stern aspect . Irent. Curt. and address of Philopoemen. 40. which should execute them with the greatest ease and promptitude. Vir- tutem esse militis decus. did not think it advisable to attempt to banish it entirely .

and to imitate him in all those things in which he can be imitaOur young noblemen are full of courage. as is consistent with our manners . and do not want talents and qualities vivacity. ted by them. for sound philosophy. which was once natural to us. and for this reason they panted to try them. and a fondness for false splendour. Our manners being unhappily turned. capable of raising them to the highest pinnacle of greatness . were they to imbibe in their early years an inclination for studies of a solid kind. and zeal for sentiments the war which has broken out so suddentheir prince in Europe. . that true greatness does not consist in surpassing others merely in pomp and profusion. is a convincing proof of this. towards cffisminacy. and still more their behaviour in Italy and on the Rhine. Were the youth among our nobility educated like Philopoemcn. but in distinguishing themselves by solid merit . and to see them imbrued in the blood of their enemies. which alone can form great men in : any profession. the many illustrious generals which the last age produced were they to put themselves under the tuition of those who are now the oniament and glory of our nation : and would they once duly consider. I mean. and blunt the edge of that valour of ancient Gaul. through a taste which prevails almost universally. genius. enervate our courage in our most tender years. and polity . It must be confessed that Philopcemen. I cannot too strongly exhort young officers and noblemen to study diligently so perfect a model. in what light soever we view him.304 THE HISTORY OF fore. and luxury . became much more easy and light in the wearing. because they took greater delight in carrying them on account of their splendour and beauty. pleasures. of honour. were they to propose as models for their imitation. but then they sometimes want a manly and vigorous education. were they. so far. They have fire. the admiration of things trifling in themselves. love of their country. and a noble pattern for the imitation of all who embrace a military life. is a great captaiu. and to which they fly with incredible arly dour. in . history.

how illustrious a set of officers. VI. on the other side. would France produce the breast of the Achaeans with this arinspired How much were it to be wished dour and emulation. having appointed Larissa. in valour as well as birth. solid. for simplicity. 5—8. M. Lemnos with their fleets. A. in our armies this taste of the ancients. SECT. Liv. command- One single and heroes. (and why should we not hope it?) that some one of our ers. as the rendezvous for his army. great in would revive all things. 305 a word. which together iimounted to sixty galleys. 207. A We have already said. a city in Thessaly. Philip. " . and promised to furnish them with such succours as the present juncture and the necessity of their affairs might require. X. and king Attains. advanced tow^ards Demetrias. X . 1. without omitting any of the means which conduce to their perfection in it . kept his pro- He mise. digression Various ea-peditions of PhiUp and Sidpitms. in winter quarters at soon as spring appeared they quitted them. to study it in all its branches. 1. and acquire the true scope and design of it. p. xxviii. to secure them from the attacks of the reenemy. ! man ))rinces. that he might be able to oppose the enemy either by sea or land. frugality. and direct the taste of the French nation to things truly beautiful. whither the ambassadors of the allies came from all parts to implore his aid in the imminent danger to which they were exposed. n. J. and just ! All conquests would be infinitely short of such a glory. of Polylnus upon signals made hyjire. had continued As Sulpitius the proconsul.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. He and made his troops march thither from Larissa. to make it their delight and gloiy to perfect themselves in the art of war. Polyb. Philip gave them a and sailed to favourable reception . which lies very near it and then returnpaired to Scotussa. and generosity. and sent bodies of soldiers into different places. 612—614. Ant. C. 3797- VOL.^ that iEgina. VI.

* in which the sea does not ebb and flow seven times every day. succouring spect to Chalcis. having the sea-side. too late. who commanded it for Pliilip. but Plator. And in order to enable himself to give seasonable succour to such of his allies as should he attacked. Philip advanced vdth incredible diligence to its aid. and besides. which Sulpitius besieged immediately The signals were made after the taking of Oreum. signals hereafter. * " Haud alia infestior classi static est. quie& uavibus datur. and in the little island Peparethos and placed. sicut fuma fert. he fixed signals in Phocis. Sulpitius perceived that he had made an imprudent attempt. surrendered it to the besiegers. itself. there and the commander. in modum venti nunc hu. and laid siege to Oreum. that Philip had purposely made the signals might not have an opportunity of But the same did not happen with reit. He treacherously inaccessible to the offers of the proconsul.306 THE HISTORY OF ed to Demetrias. but irregularly. The proconsul and king Attains advanced towards Euboea. vehit monte praecipiti devolutus torrens rapitur. and was able to hold out a long time . situated on the Euripus. . whilst the waves roll on all sides with so much impetuosity. if sum EiiHpi. Euboea. Attains besieged Opus. non septies die. in Achaia. prepared for a stout defence. a city situated not far from among the Locrians. and was so wise as to desist imThe city was strongly fortified in mediately from it. in that part where he lay." Liv. a& (says Livy) is commonly reported. that they seem like torrents rushing down from the mountains . at fixed and stated hours. one of its chief cities^ It was defended by two castles strongly fortified. . teraporibus terrae praealtis ab utriuset fretum statis re- cipiocac. that he might have speedy notice of the enemy's march. a very lofty mountain of Thessaly. Itanec nocte* aec die. on Tisaeuni. so that ships can never ride there in safety. Nam et venti qne montibus subiti ac procellosi st' (iejiciunt. sed temere. that famous strait. deaf and very seasonably . and of the places he might I shall explain the nature of these design to attack. men to observe them." nunc illuc versa mari.

returned towards Asia. The before he arrived at it and he city had been just taken might have surprised Attains. who were employed in preparing for the solemnization of the Olympic games. he concealed his uneasiness from the assembly. which w'as held at iEgium. whicli is certainly a prodigious day's E*a?ch for Philippus niaerebat et angebatur. who designed to attack the people of Elis. after having taken some small cities. and spoke with an air of confidence and resolution. Philip pursued him to the sea-side. However. the instant he . had not the latter. that fleet had done the same. in quest of the enemy he added. cum ad omnia ipse raptira tauien se rei in tempore occurrisse . but advice being brought that tlie ships of the Romans and king Attains had sailed away. Attains having retired to Oreum. n. that he did not know which side used the greatest despatch whether himself in flying to the aid of his allies. : confession that they thought themselves inferior to liira in strength . fortune. and Sulpitius to the island of Mgina. Having called the gods and men to witness. f " isset. the Spartan tyrant. However. he always came too late to put his projects in execution . that though he employed the utmost diligence. xxvin. retired with great precipitation. Philip f was truly grieved to find. . he would say. and frustrated the project of Machanidas. where he expected to find the Carthaginian fleet. that he hoped soon to gain * So Livy has an army.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 1. tiulli it . 307 plundering heard of his approach. nevertheless. . Philip. 8. taking a pleasure in bereaving him of every opportunity. ct rapientem omnia ex t>culis elusisse celcritatem suam tbrtunam. who was employed in the place. or his enemies in avoiding him by flight that this was a tacit . repaired to the assembly of the Achaeans. on all occasions. and received advice there that Prusias king of Bithynia had entered his territories. and to join it with his own . and in frustrating all his inc\irsions and expeditions." Liv. that he had never neglected any opportunity of marching out. marched upwards of * sixty miles in one day.

which is tory he was writing. but to dwell a lit'^ '^ As * " Polyb. as to excuse in- my trodiu'ing a digression. the method of making signals by fire. in his account of the particulars above and which he has copied almost word for word related. xxviii n. a part of the art of war. Digression qfPolyhius on signals made hyfre. ut ignibus procul su])lirtis. The enough suhject which Polyhius here treats in itself. that will not he of great length. says Polyhius. et Peparethum mittit. if he finds it teI shall dious. he returned into Macedonia. 5.* mentions these signals niadc by fire: but then he only hints at them. This speech greatly encou- After having given the necessary orallies. 1. 614—618. and military signals. and shows to how great a perfection. Phocidem atque Euboeam. I believe it will be proper not to pass over them superficially. I is curious and with the history am Ik sides. qui loca altu eligeunde cditi ignes apparerent ipse in Tisaeo (mons est in altitudinem ingentem cacuminis ecliti) speculani posiiit. they had carried all the branches of tliat noble art. in : Philippiis." Liv. ut ad omnes hostium motus posset occurrere. to carry on the war against the Dardaniaus. because. momento temporis ac- ciperet. rent. p. and the astonishing progress they had made with respect to the construction of machines of war. Polyhius. ubi quid molirentur hostes. though of great use in war. from Polyhius. it is so closely connected now relating. belongs properly to the" history of the Greeks . as would evidently demonstrate his superiority. different kinds of ^mour. repeat it almost literally as I find it in Livy. and which the reader may pass over. si^n\im. 1. . has hitherto not been treated with any accuracy. raged the ders. this was consequently a suhject which did not r( late so immediately to the hisBut this use of signals. as they were iiot invented by the Eon an s. X.308 THE HISTORY OF SO complete a victory over them. and made some expeditions of no great importnnce. the judicious reflections they had formed upon every thing connected with it.

greatest part of them by this method. or are then actually taking place. treason. war. as events are insignals should be agreed upon various. and accordingly had But an agreed upon such signals as might denote it. Plane nesciebam te rei militaris tarn peritum esse Lib. which require immediate consideration and a For speedy remedy. reddiderunt. tie 309 in order to give my readers a more idea of it. it was very easy to make known. one of Pyrrhus's counsellors. that a fleet was arrived at Oreum. or at Chalcis because the parties whom it concerned had foreseen this event. a horrid murder committed in a city. 25. Pyrrhus also wrote on the same subject. hut especially in upon that head. that opportunity is of great advantage in all things." Epist. He on the art of war. wrote a treatise made an JElian. it is not possible to agree upon a signal for such events . ix. Whether transactions have happened but a little before. be very easily made known. perfect It is a truth universally acknowledged. not to depart from the present history. Pyn-hi te libros et Cineae video Jec- titasse. abridgment of Tact. * /Eneas Aristotle. *' Cineas. as happen but too often. unexpected insurrection. necessary FoiTnerly this method of giving notice was of very little advantage. it was impossible to communicate the finitely As for instance.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. at * Peparethos. Summum Cicero mentions the two last in one of his epistles. Now. cap. me ducem literic tua. at places distant three or four days' journey from where they happened. : as it is i^^neas. cannot be signified by a beacon. and which cannot be foreseen . because of its too great simplicity. this kind of events. Pactum. 1. * who wrote a treatise on the duties of a ge- neral. impossible to foresee. it was necessary that certain and. and sometimes at a still greater distance and by this means the aids may be obtained in time. notliingcan be more conducive to that end than signals made by fire. and such like accidents. by this method. they niay. . among the several things which have heen invented to enahle men to seize it. ad Papir. endeavoured to complete what was wanting on was contemporary with it. For. in order to make use of it.

in proportion as they empty themselves. that as these vessels are equal. or as he himself sed. Provisions : : : : .) They next ^x. This being done. who would give signals to one another upon aftkirs of importance. and a and a half wide. and to examine whether all things correspond and agree together. and the sticks descend lower in the vessels. in the middle of this cork. had propo- Those. with their sticks thrust through them. by an uniform execution on both sides. these vessels. each of the two vessels must have a little tube or cock of equal bigness. the two vessels must be carried to the two places where the signals are to be made and observed : water is poured in. the events. the pieces of cork. which must be of equal size in both This stick must be divided into portions. They then must take pieces of cork. exactly equal in breadth and depth : and they need be but four feet and a half deep. says he. it will be proper to make the experiment first. very distinctly marked. On ano: A ther A BODY OF INFANTRY HEAVILY ARMED ARE ARRIVED HITHER. On a third Infantry lightly ARMED. proportioned to the mouth of these vessels. must be laid upon them. THE HISTORY OF but he was far from succeeding so well as could have been wished. which are foreseen as probable to happen in the war that is carrying on. of throe inches each. On a fourth A body of cavalry and INFANTRY. Now it is plain. On another Ships.SIO this occasion . a stick. For example. are written down in these intervals. the corks will sink. (that they may sink with ease to the foot bottom of these vessels. in one of these interbody of vals the following words may be written HOJiSE ARE MARCHED INTO THE COUNTRY. Then the two vessels must be filled with water . and the corks . to let out the so and on till all water in equal proportion. Then. When this is well ascertained. must first prepare two earthen vessels. But to be more certain of this exactness. in order that such events as generally happen in war may be written on them. and the cocks must be opened. of which the reader may now judge. but not quite so wide.

though these are points of the highest importance . nor the quantity of provisions. if every thing has been executed exactly and equally on both sides. what part of the country they are in. and which had been agreed upon. it nevertheless was too vague and indeter- minate. they must have been foreseen. (This first signal is only to ascerThen tain that both parties are ready and attentive. when they are not told . there would be no possibility of writing in a on a piece of stick. that is. stick where the event of which notice is to be given is written. Besides. before these several particulars could be written on the stick. "both will read the same thing. how many For ships are arrived. Although this method differs from that which was practised in early ages. how will they know what to do. and 311 sticks are put in the vessels. and on the other is maker immediately what side the correspondent signalstops the cock of his vessel. or other light. nor in witat part of the country they are? How can a party either confidd in or doubt their own strength ? In a word. and looks written on that part of the stick which touches the mouth of the vessel .) the torch must be taken away. the inscription on the stick is nowise exact and circumstantial. and the cocks set run\Vhen the interval. then the man vvho gives the signal lifts up his torch at . till such time as another is raised by the party to whom it is directed. According as any of the events which are written on the sticks shall happen. and even though they could may happen be foreseen.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and how can succours be sent. how could notice be pected given of it according to this method ? Add to this. which was altogether impossible. which must be held aloft. is raised. when any unexaccident should happen. A torch. whe^ it is not known how many enemies are to be opposed. in which men agreed only upon a single signal which was to denote the event the other party desired to be infoimed of. that. It does not tell how many horse and foot are them all come. on which occasion. shall be fallen to a level with the mouth of the vessels. that part of the ning. that For it is impossible to foresee all the accidents war .

He must do the same to the right hand.3121 THE HISTORY OF how many ships. after which the lights must be removed. to make the other party read. five letters in each column. whilp others ascribe it to Democlitus. These several preliminaries being arranged. and these must be fixed on a board. however. to point out to the person who receives the signal. are come from the enemy ? The last method was invented by Cleoxenus. actness. from which of the colunnis he must take The is who to them down in proportion as they shall be pointed out to him so that if it is the first column. the information we want to acquaint them The person who gives the signal. The board must be set up near to this instrument . in their natural order in five The twenty-four letters columns . and these he must hold aloft till the This first signal other party has also shown two lights. is only to show that both sides are ready. and always to the left. the man make the signal must begin by showing two torches or lights . the cepted. if the second. and so on. which letter in the column he must obThis both parties must agree serve and write down. letters. from top to bottom. in order that he may know by one of them the right. who continues the This fixes every circumsole speaker upon this head. . to write . shall hold up with. we have brought it to perfection. The next point is. torches to his left. and enables us to give notice of whatsoever hapstance. and to the * The figure of it is annexed at the end of this little treatise. which will have but four. he shows two. in this alphabet. last ex- alphabet being disposed in this manner. upon between them. in order to denote to the correspon<lent party. says Pohbius. and by the other the left of him who is to answer. This method is as follows : of the alphabet must be taken and divided into five parts . is great care and expens. and each of them taken his post. or what quantity of provisions. he only holds up one torch . the man who gives the signal must have a * geometrical instrument with two tubes. The only thing required.

to denote the column to which it belongs . or Kretans. By this method. Afterwards four torches must be held up to the left. and for this * The words is t This are disposed in this manner in the Greek. it will be necessary to choose such words as will express what is here said in the fewest letters " * a hundred have deCretans. which is in the second column. before they will be able to be very quick and exact in the operain order that the torches. to inform the person who receives the signal. a K. I will suppose. it is well known. and that wJien they are to be lowered. the first time. . that " hundred Cretans. The reason why two sets of lights are used is. which shall be lifted up over it.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. may spread a strong. then two to the right. they will give exact notice but it must be practised a long time. because every letter must be pointed out twice . who. ri<^lit 313 and and left a solid must be raised ten feet broad. clear light . as serted. Two torches must therefore be lifted to the left. serve the rules here laid down. for instance. A : tion. possible. about the height of a man . and the second." which expresses the very same idea in much fewer letters. The first letter is a K. to show its place in order in the column pointed If the persons employed on these occasions obout. was a great soldier and politician. to denote that the letter sought for is the fifth of the second column. every event that comes to pass may be communicated in a fixed and determinate manner. f which is in the fourth column . that is." First. or Kretans. to denote that this letter is the The same must be obsecond of the fourth column. served with respect to the rest of the letters. All things being thus disposed on eacli side. are gone over to the enemy. that advice is to be given. be lifted up to the right. This is what is proposed by Polybius. that he must Five torches are then to look into the second colunm. the capital letter li in the Greek tongue. The following is the manner in which this information will be given. to point out the P. tlicy may be entirely hid behind it.

ii. Avith speed." Pausan. commissioner of the dedicated to the king. appointed to many We he had spent tedious nights in that uncomfortable post. " The art of making signals both by sea and land. ex proximis castellis eo concursum est. at the distance of two leagues (in as short a space of time as a man could write do^vn and form exactly the letters contained in the advice he communicated) an unexpected piece of news that took up a page in writing. * in the Commentaries of Julius Caesar. In all ages and nations. also find. men have been very desirous of finding out and I cannot say what this it success met with . and that this circumIn the fabulous times. that the very day the city should be taken. y for recei\ing or these. and had each arrived at a place of safety. 130. word. pamphlet was lent me. They might be improved and put in practice on a great many occasions. he would give notice of the kept his victory by fires kindled for that purpose. employing methods and of principal. they informed one another of it by signals made by fire . ignibus significatione C^f. ut ante Csesar imperaverat. . printed in 1702. and entitled.314 THE HISTORY OF reason his hints ought to be valued. it is related that when they escaped by flight. p. 1. by the Sieur navy at Aries. that he communicated several times. at his setting out for the Trojan expe- had promised Clytemnestra. Gall. Hypermnestra excepted. who had spared Lynceus. which takes its He name from watch that prince . declares that he himself used the same method. dition. in which the sentinel. * " 1. tacta. ii." A The pamphlet was JMarcel. signals communicating news by fire are one of the when the fifty daughters of husbands in one night. Agamemnon. nor what but in my opinion such discoveries as these ought not to be neglected. Danaus murdered all their stance gave rise to the festival of torches established in Argos. as appears from the tragedy of iEschylus. These signals were employed in a mountainous country. V Celeriter. This au- thor affirms. Bell. for this signal. new invention was.

in his remarks on the seventh book of Caesar's wars in Vigenere. * . such news as it was necessary to transmit to a great distance and that advice could be communicated from Athens to Susa (upwards of a hundred and fifty '- We . Whenever any extraordinary event happened in their country. which is not altogether Decimus Brutus defended the city of improbable. an infallible method for establishing a speedy and safe communication between all the counHe required but ^\e days for tries subject to him. looking upon this oiFer as a mere chimera. per coelum eunte nuntio ?" ^ Ccel. besieged by Antony. for the experiment might have been made with trouble to himself. and vciy justly little . c. so that the massacre of the liomans in Orleans at sunlise. rejected it with contempt however. xviii. by drawing lines round the city. 1. leagues). they gave notice to one another by repeated shouts. which arrived pigeons. to w^hose feet he fastened letters. 8. and layHowever. through his hereditary kingdom. et vigil obsidio. vii. atque etiam retia amue prsetexta profuerc Antonio. by their voices. Pliny relates another method.eight hours.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. It is preare told of a much shorter method. says Pliny. It is also related that a * Sidonian proposed to Alex- ander the Great. relates this without citing directly the author. or they stood in need of immediate succour. Brutus employed ing nets in the river. was known by eight or nine o'clock in the evening in Auvergne. Modena. and his most remote conquest in India but the king. who communicated to one another. 37Rhodig. when he carried the war into Greece. who kept him closely blocked up. and prevented his sending the least advice to the consuls. 1. had posted a kind of sentinels at proper distances. he : : soon repented * it. Caesar gives us an account of another 315 in use method amongst the Gauls. c. which were catched from place to place . t •/ Quid vallum. Of what use. f w^ere Antony's intrench* Plin. Gaul. so great a distance as that between giving notice. tended that the king of Persia. in forty. forty leagues from the other city. in safety wherever he thought proper to send them.

mathematical professor in the royal college. by signals made by fire. Chevalier. and fly to Aleppo. * Twelfth part of an inch. when the new courier took his route through the air ? Travellers relate. ^\q or AB and two or three inches thick. who have young ones at Aleppo. for communica- and ting advices at a great distance. a fellow-member with me. when ships arrive in that harhour. and three or four feet long. there must be driven in very strongly. the pigeons take wing. of the surface of each of these pieces. half or two inches distance from these lines. soar to a great height. of equal breadth and thickness with The sides of the beam. where the letters are taken from them. these cross pieces of timber must be exactly parallel. mentioned by Polybius. two cross pieces of actly perpendicular wood. and exactly perpendicular. EF. and their upper superficies very smooth. Letters. Description of the inHniment employed in signals made hyjire. and exactly in the middle of the length of each cross piece. whose upper part. sliall . Mr the figure of the instrument. this being done. and my particular friend. to add the following explication of it. they make use of pigeons. The same method is used in many other places. CD.816 THE HISTORY OF him ? nients and sentinels to Of what service were all the nets he spread. and ^\q. or six * lines in diameter. . is a beam about four or five feet long. that to carry advices from Alexandria to Aleppo. has been so gogd as to delineate. a right line must be drawn parallel to their sides and consequently these At an inch and a lines will be parallel to one another. the extremities of it are. At well dove-tailed and fixed exin the middle. are fastened about the pigeons' necks. In the middle six inches broad. at my request. which must be cylindrical. In this manner I conceive to have been constructed the instruments described by Polybius. or feet . containing the advices to be communicated. an iron or brass screw (2).

In the middle of the beam must be made a round two inches in diameter.'>) of about an inch round. There must also be placed towards the end. (. on the side of the observer. which are used to draw maps. with their })lates about these screws. Q.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. about half an inch . These two tubes must be fixed on two plates of the same metal. and thereby will extend six inches beyond it at each end. in diameter so that applying the plates on which these tubes are fixed. They must be a foot longer than the cross piece on which they are fixed. CD. This machine may be called a rule and sights. theodolites. solid metal. and the other horizontal. according to the different distances of the places where tlie signals shall be made. in tiie middle of whose length shall be a small convexity these pieces On GH. hole. upon the cross pieces of wood. it may not receive any reflected rays. and at the other end must be placed two threads. in order that they may not shrink of warp. a perforated ring. in order to direct them on the boards or screens P. through which the observations are cylinders made. in order that when the eye is applied to one of their ends. the aperture of which must be about three or four lines . The tubes must be blackened vvithin. and formed of some hard. EF. this hole must be exactly filled by the projecting and C}'lindrical part of the screw (2) which w^as fixed in it. foot AB . These tubes must be exactly cylindrical. crossing one another in the axis of the tube. the one vertical.even geometrical squares. and round which it turns as on its axis. and . and in such a manner as that those tubes may turn. and in such a nmnner as to prevent its play^ The head of the screw may extend some lines beyond the superficies of the plates. 317 or eight lines above the superficies of these proj^ct seven cross pieces. though it differs from that which is applied to circumferentors. which supports the whole machine. must be placed two hollow tubes or IK. in which must be fixed the LMNOP. In the middle of this part {:i) must be a hole exactly round. behind which the signals by fire are made.

in . but large wide-spreading fires of whole loads of straw or wood . 4. and he who receives it. they were not discovered or improved till the last centiury. : However. to explain the manner how Polybius's idea might be put in execution. that it is of use. 3. more leagues distance. Q. signals torches. in making signals by fire . according as tlie distance between the places where the signals must be given and received is greater or less. Those instruments would have made the signals in question visible at a much greater distance than bare tubes could have done but 1 still doubt. which are to denote the right and left hand of the man who gives the signals. as he supposes. but it has the same use. must each have a similar instrument . according to the method proposed by Polybius. 6. whether they could be employed for the purpose mentioned by Polybius. In my description of the preceding machine. The person who makes the signal. soever this machine be. or give notice how long time it could hold out a siege.318 THE HISTORY OF take plans and surveys. but I do not pretend to say. that a city besieged might communicate its wants to an army sent to succour it. ought to be greater or less. for it is certain that how large and 5 made by or a. which is an essential circumstance. consequently. at a greater distance than two or three leagues. for giving signals at a considerable distance . boards or screens of a prodigious size must be employed. will not be seen at 5. such torches must not be made use of. according to the circumstances of the observation. The two boards or screens P. Telescopes were not known in Polybius's time . or to display or hide the fires. which is to direct the sight. I am of opinion. all I have endeavoured is. the man who receives the signal could not distinguish whether the signals made are to %te right or left of him who makes them. to hide or eclipse them. as can be lifted up and down with the hand. &c. otherwise. and nearer or farther distant from one another. To make them visible at a greater distance. and.

but inclining them to virtue . and support with honour both their fame and He insisted strongly on the care they ought to his. and tliat. with this employment. especially when his actions cor- at the breaking who were respond with his words. The Romans. take.M. and those too of little merit . xi. not of the beauty and magnificence of their dress. 3798. ^In the first. * somuch that these up of the assembly. which became women only. all dressed were pointed at . wholly employed in the war with Hanwhich they resolved to terminate. Philopamen. intermeddled nibal. but of the good condition and splendour of their arms. in- VII. 319 order that proper measures might be taken . diet^ e Plain in little 1. Philopoeraen was appointed captainAs soon as he was invested general of the Achaeans. Some instances of his avarice and cnielty. and did not molest them during the two following years. tyrant of Sparta. This was the character of his dress. on tlie other side. in zvhich the Allies on both sides are included. he took very * care of his body. . A general peace concluded betiveen Philip and the Rmncms. 629—^)31. Philopcrmen gains a famous victory near ManThe high esteem tinea^ over Mnehanklas. and exhorted them to second his zeal with courage and warmth. very little with tliat of the Greeks. the army sent to its aid might communicate its designs to the city besieged. Polvb. His speech was received with universal applause. C. for then resist it is scarce possible to bis exhortations.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. especially by the assistance of telescopes. an object worthy of men. and frugal in hi& In conversap. intent upon their own glory and the good of their country. J. he assembled his allies before he took the field. in which that general is hekl : Nahis succeeds Machanidas. A. 206. which was tlie highest in the state. SECT. magmificently so great an influence have the words of an illustrious person. Ant. not only in dissuading men from vice.

indeed. the and embe- ing a model of what every body else ought to do. life. tyrant of Sparta set out upon his march at daybreak. he took the field. &c. and posted to the right and left on the same line. and fully persuaded. p. 631—637. at the jMachanidas. 1. was in the centre. He assembled the gave in eveiy place. the state would never suffer any loss. At the same time. and the necessary orders in them. his conduct to speak . And he was not obliged to ploy a great many words to persuade. cond. and raised troops. acquainted them with every thing people that was necessary to be done. p. Engines to discharge durts or stones. in the highest admiration of Philopcemen. The sethe Achaean horse. consisting of three bodies out of the city. The assembly being dismissed.320 tion THE HISTOUY OF he suffered patiently the ill temper of when they used contemptuous others. ^ * Polyb. composed of heavy-armed foot. but a little more advanced. tyrant of Lacedaimonia. Philopoemen marched his army in The first. After spending near eight months in making the various preparations for the war. the light infantry composed of foreigners . all returned to their respective cities. brought ^ to give him battle. was watching^ head of a powerfid army. Plut. slightest expressions of his were heard with respect. whose words as well as actions had charmed them. beyond which his troops extended at each Philopa^men prepared The end. of the plain. during hi& least offence to any one. He immediately visited the several cities. immediately believed. . 36l. at the head of the heavy-armed infantry. was posted to the right. in Philop. and behind them chariots laden with cata* and darts to sustain them. It appears by the pultae. for himself. that as long as he should preside at the head of affairs. that ran along part sequel. nothing but the truth and. he was particularly careful never to give the It was his study. that before him lay a ditch. xi. for an opportunity to The moment advice was subject all Peloponnesus. even expressions : and. of his arrival in the territories of Mantinea.

in a moment the foreign were universally engaged on both sides . the foreigners in the tyrant's army had the advantage . 1. xxxr. Most of them were even not heard . that they were sufficiently inclined of themselves to fight with incredible ardour. their numbers and dexterity. flying up and down the ranks of the infantry. cuirassiers. encouraged his men in few but energetic words. foreigners.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. were 52t of II- The third. as if he intended to begin the battle by charging the right wing but when he was advanced to a proper distance. and. and the enemy in view. and themselves restored to a glorious and immortal liberty. but caused the Tarentine horse to begin the battle with great vigour. lightwith Philopoe- AH neral.his soldiers. and to lead on his Taren tines. giving them the su* The Tarentine horsemen had each two horses. he did not give him time for it. was very furious. that general. in order that it might extend to his right. composed on the left. Philopoemen plainly saw that his design was to break his infantry. The light-armed soldiers advancing : the battle approaching. to cover it. VOL. by overwhelming it with darts and stones however. a little after to n. VI. some * Tarentine armed troops. as troops in this attack they fought man to man. and advanced to the ditch. lyrians. Liv. horse. In a kind of transport they animated their ge- men at their head. on a spot where they had room enough to engage in. 28. that the time was come in which their enemies would be reduced to an ignominious captivity. : sustain them. and form a front equal to the left of the Achaeans and. At last. and. Machanidas marched his infantry in a kind of co^ lumn. acquired by experience. he caused all the chariots laden vdth catapultae to advance forward. he on a sudden made his infantry wheel about. for he was so dear to. Y . and they reposed such confidence in him. the battle was a long time doubtful. he endeavoured to make them understand was. The time for heginning . Machanidas was forced to do the The first charge same. and pressed him to lead them on to battle.

without order or discipline. after having given way. which indeed is but too frequent on these occasions. only in proportion to the skill or ignorance of the generals who command. farther orders. By this movement he divided the centre of the enemy's He then commanded infantry from his right wing.* the Megalopolitan. fear alone would not have carried them to the gates of the city. was solely intent upon taking advantage of the errors which the enemy might commit.S2S periority. or losing his presence of Philopoemen. by charging in front that instant with his infanit try the centre of that of the enemies. THE HISTORY O^ The Illyrians and cuirassiers. those who were flying . could not withstand so furious a charge. so far from mind. which is otherwise in the original. ill desponding at the success of the first charge. and taking the same time in flank with his victorious wing. which cannot reasonably be contested. who sustained the foreign soldiers in Philopoemen's army. about a mile from the field of battle. and at the same time directed Polybius. like a young man. Polybius the historian was not bom at that late * The . and for that reason cannot be too strongly guarded against. as if. (French) translator of Polybius mistakes this officer and here intro«hices him speaking . Accordingly they were guilty of a great one. takes the first cohorts. at and thereby terminating the whole affair. and fled with the utmost precipitation towards the city of Mantinea. commands them to wheel to the left. who upon this defeat had retired to his infantry in the centre. to rally all the Illyrians. and pursues. after the left wing was routed. Philopoemen. to be hurried away by the fire and impetuosity of his soldiers. That the events of war are generally successful or ini fortunate. They were entirely broke. says Polybius. till fbr onr historian. and at their head marches and seizes the post which Machanidas had abandoned. Machanidas. On this occasion. instead of improving that advantage. suffers himself. Philopoemen seemed now lost to all hopes. these cohorts to stay in the post they had just seized. appeared the truth of a maxim.

to post himself on the flank of the infantry in his centre. with these forces. cuirassiers. because it was dry and had no hedge and besides. or their own soldiers. hurried along the side of the ditch. Thia was the decisive point of time which Philopoemen had long awaited. To complete the glory of this action. or that they did not value the ditch. Machanidas. no sooner saw the fled . they were ashamed not to go on. When they r whether that from being so near the eneup my. and city. were quite dispirited. Machanidas himself. great numbers of enemy above them. . neverthekss. and foreigners. levelling their pikes. 8^ ranks. which makes the error the more ex . they rushed into the ditch at once. but in vain. who. it. enemy in their return from the pur- infantry.s they could. because the advanced ranks were pushed forward by those in the rear. immediately were left in the ditch. to force . to check the suit. it now remained to prevent the tyrant from escaping the conqueror. being no longer able to retire. perceived that his army fled and being sensible of his error. elate with the success of their right wing. finding it impossible to pass the bridge. His troops. dreadful shouts on the Lacedaemonians. fell with sounded. and.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. in order to find a place his where he might pass time. The latter. indeed that this person had the same name. and thereupon he orders the charge to be His troops. had broken their ranks. Philopoemen knew him by his was a native of the same cu sable. he endeavoured. who at their descending into the ditch. than they them way tlirough the Achaeans. advance with their pikes lowered towards the first But now the Lacedaemonian Achaeans as canie to far as the hrink of the ditch. without quitting the flying. perceiving that the enemy were masters of the bridge which lay over the ditch. had drawn off* and to avoid the fury of the conqueror . having been killed either by the Achaeans. on his return. without waiting for the signal. This was Philopoemen's only object. and endeavoured to save themselves as well a. as the rest had done. It is true it.

indeed. gave new courage to the victorious Acha?ans. that should Machanidas attempt to make his army pass the ditch. which laid him dead in the ditch. . which statue they afterwards placed in the temple of Apollo at Delphi. and being now masters of the field. The baggage and arms were also takeH by the Achaeans. and in carrying . or a concurrence of circumstances. The tyrant's head being struck off. They pursued the fugitives. that this signal victory must not be ascribed cither to chance. as some have imagined. found a part of the ditch which nnght easily be hav^ng crossed. but the Lacedapmonians lost not less than four thou^ sand. and continues his reflections) Philo])amen had covered himself with the ditch not to avoid coming to a battle. the very next day they encamped on the banks of the Eurotas. in order to stop the tyrant. be should change his resolution. The conquerors. Polyliius justly observes. after giving the necessary orders to his officers. claps spurs to his horse. and carried from rank to rank. And.324 THE HISTORY OF piirple mantle. who were still inore numerous. hurled his javelin at him. : and entirely defeated or if. which springs forward That very instant Philopoemen in order to leap over. without including the prisoners. but because. duct of their general. he had reflected. in abandoning victory to the enemy without daring to come to a battle. like a judicious man and a great soldier. The Achaeans did not lose many men in this battle. struck with admiration at the con*. entered the city with them. he pas- The latter sed the ditch. and the trappings of his horse : so that. before he had examined it. his troops would certainly be cut to pieces. and break his order of battle through fear. erected a brazen statue to him in the same attitude in which he had killed the tyrant . to whom the victory was entirely owing. but entirely to the abilities of the general. with incredible ardour. from the beginning (it is Polyhius who still speaks. being stopped by the ditch. that he would be thought the most unskilful of generals. who had foreseen and made every necessary disposition for this great event. as far as Tegaea.

Philopoemen. the several steps of the commanding officers. in not desponding or losing courage when his left wing was routed . 3799. had inspired them. without ever breaking or disordering He afterwards went into the theatre. piad. ol>serve and the the several orders they give.ALEXANDER'S off SUCCESSORST. and having then no employment for his forces. to show with what dexterity. all filled with the highest veneration for their general. battle of Man tinea. 205. than the ignominy of having renounced it. and made them perform their usual exercises. S^ no other marks of his enterprise. very s})lendidly clothed. e. one may follow. sentiments with which their glorious battles and success. which the musicians were disputing for the prize in their art. It appears to me that these small battles. all of a graceful stature. and fired at the same time with a martial intrepidity . being elected general of the Achaeans a second time. who lived about the 95th OlymOne of his pieces was entitled. with the eye. iu their ranks. i. caused his phalanx. and agility. Pylades the musician. accompanied by those youths in their coats of arms. . for that reason. The Persians: * A. may be of great service t ) who are one day to command armies . to pass in review before all the Greeks. and in the flower of their age . and this is those one of the chief advantages resulting from the study of history. where there are not many -combatants on either side. Polyhius also higlily applauds the presence of mind and resolution of Philopoemen. errors they commit. upon account of the festival. under this illustrious general. they performed the several military movements. The very instant that this flourishing troop of youths ^entered with Philopoemen. J. t This was a dithynimbic poet. in the assembly of the N^msean which were solemnized this year after this famous games. 3^8 years before Christ. who was singing to his lyre the Persians of f Timothe- M. * It is related that. C. Ant. and in which. strength. the precautions tlu y take. as it were. hut in having made that very defeat an occasion of his gaining a glorious victory.

eyes upon Philopoemen . well knowing that he was the only general whose presence the enemy dreaded. And indeed. and a battle was to be fought. the same disposition appeared in the Achaean league. and their pristine glory . the whole league revived. or more solid glory for a general or a prince. and whose name alone made the enemy tremble. or even compare. immediately the deputies of the confederate powers would be discouraged. than to see himself esteemed. as we find young colts are always fond of those they are used to. and the moment he appeared. more affecting. so greatly did a general. and raising shouts of joy. like Philopoemen. in the manner Philopoemen was ? Is it possible for any man to be so void of taste and sound sense. The instant they were to embark in a new war. beloved. furniture. increase their confidence. struck the whole At the same time all the Greeks cast their assembly. humanly speaking. THE HISTORY OV happened accidentally to : repeat the following verse The wreath of liberty to me you owe. that they should revive those ancient times. as to prefer. buildings. says Plutarch. they are restive. and turn their eyes in quest of Philopoemen . and the ridiculous expense of their tables ? Philopoemen affected magnificence more than . if any other general was appointed. and that in case any other person attempts to mount them. the pretended glory which so many persons of quality imagined they derive from their equipages. Can there. and clapping their hands. The grandeur of the poetry being finely expressed by the singer. by the army and by nations. and inflame their courage. so strongly were they persuaded of his great valour and abilities. and revered. and were ready for action . who had an exquisite voice. they called to mind the glorious ages of triumphant Greece . be more pleasing. soothing themselves with the pleasing hopes.326 US. and prance about with their new rider . to the honour which the exalted qualities of Philopoemen acquired him.

to strengthen his tyranny. He had taken into his pay a great number of foreigners. Philopoemen. He was not satisfied with banishing the citizens . but then he placed it in what it really conthe clothing his troops splendidly . Sparta did not recover its ancient liberty by the death of Machanidas. and confirm his power. who lived in the midst of them as their protector and king . and even the private men in acting thus. and capable of perpetrating the blackest crimes for gain. to shake off the yoke of slavery. though dressed in a very plain habit. all plunderers and assassins.xiiLp. a still greater tyrant than the former . studious of nothing but to make itself new chains. in the beginning of his government. For that purpose he made it his particular care to destroy all the remaining Spartans in that republic. that they could not find any secure asylum. was not desirous to undertake any foreign expedition . with a wants both public and private . employing them as his attendants and guards. by its indolence. them . was looked upon as the greatest and most magniticent general of his time. The tyrant had been extirpated.674. who had been banished their country for their crimes. tliey sists SifJ^ do . He banished from it all such as were distinguislied for their quality and wealth. supplying. some werf city. seemed. or to support its old ones. or make the least effort. even in foreign countries. but employed his whole endeavours in laying the solid foundations of a lasting and cruel tyranny. distributing money seasonably to encourage the officers. all their : formerly so jealous of its liberty and independence. This kind of people. flocked round the tyrant. and gave their estates and wives to the chief shall speak of these persons men of his party. 67& .l. the only consequence of which was its changing one oppressor for another. he acted such a manner. to slavery. and now abandoned We m *Polyb. ^ Nabis. Machanidas was succeeded by Nabis. providing good horses and shining arms . yet the Spartans did not show the least spirit. but not the tyranny. hereafter under the name of the Exiles.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. That unhappy generous hand.

he proceeded no farther. and for the good of the public. he invented a machine which may be called an infernal one. The pretended Apega embraced the unhappy wretch. case the person spoken to was wrought upon by his words. In this manner did the tyrant put many to death." Apega was the name of his wife. and hear? It is astonishing that in such a city as Sparta. he would first converse with him in the kindest and most gentle terms. from whom he could not otherwise extort the sums he demanded. concealed under the clothes. and breast of this machine. on the danger with which the whole countiy. where tyranny was had in the utmost detestation . so far from restraining men ing their groans . clasped him to her bosom. the great sums he expended for the worIn ship of the gods. to extort money from him. Every time that he sent for any person. and laying hers round his waist. the number of foreigners he was obliged to keep in pay for the security of the state . Nabis. this being all he wanted : but. merely to torture his fellow. whilst he uttered the most lamentable cries. and Sparta in particular. and exactly resembling his wife. raised her from her chair. where men thought it glorious to confront death . and led her to the person.328 THE HISTORY OF . Would one believe that a man could be capable of contriving. if he was refractory.creatures. the arms. was menaced by the Achaeans . and to feed his eyes and ears with the cruel pleasure of seeing their agonies. The hands. taking her by the hand. butcherd in their journey by his emissaries and he re- called others from banishment. he would say. folded him in her arms . were stuck with sharp iron points. in cold blood. representing a woman magnificently dressed. such a machine. Besides these barbarities. Probably the talent of persuasion is not mine . and refused to give him mo" ney. with no other view but to murder them. where religion and the laws. The machine was made to perform these several motions by secret springs. but I hope that Apega will be able to persuade you. He no sooner uttered these words than his machine appeared.

if he consented to have an interview with Sempronius. made a peace with Philip. king Attains. of Bithynia. Sempronius the proconsul arrived with ten thousand foot. contrary to the express words of the treaty of alliance. Nabis the Spartan t)Tant. who now was returned to Macedonia. when P. The Epirots also. king Acamanians. 1.-^'^tolians. Pleuratus. 12. C. a The king caused Prusias. M. who were their Scarce was the only refuge. to be included in it . 1 say. finding themselves neglected by that powerful people.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. xxix. and went to Epirus. and Epirots. Ant. successor to Machanidas. Thessalians. and the Athenians. The . « Liv. that so horrid a monster should be suffered to live one day. to exhort him to agree to a general peace . the people of Elis. the Messenians. J. a thousand horse. employed in a more important war. n. . hinting to him. 204. 99$ as among us. that he might have leisure to settle the affairs of his kingdom . the Achaeans. seemed to arm them against all who were enemies to liberty . « I have already observed. Philip. tired with the length of the war. In this manner the war of the allies was terminated by a peace which was of no long continu- would easily agree ance. A. treaty concluded. had intermeddled very little with the affairs of Greece. and He was very much offended thirty-five ships of war. The king was with these overtures. sent deputies (with the proconsul's leave) to Philip. it is astonishing. that they might be able to carry on the war against Carthage with greater vigour . greatly pleased As both parties were desirous of peace. they upon the conditions. that the Romans. at them for making this peace without having first obtained the consent of the Romans. Boeotians. treaty was soon concluded. that they were almost sure. and the Romans included the people of Ilium. and the Romans. 3800.

He had taken advantage of the troubles in which the wars of Antiochus with Ptolemy and Achaeus had involved him. VIII. . son to him who founded dispossessed him. the and the ceilings. marched towards the East. The history of the wars in Greece obliged us to interrupt the relation of the transactions in Asia. A. 1. S97--602. being covered with silver or gold porticoes All the tiles were of silver. that empire. as for the strengtii of the produces. Parthia. ^Antiochus. to reduce those provinces which had revolted from the empire of Syria. and columns which sustained the and piazzas. was their king. when Antiochus entered this kingdom. he receives advice of Ptolemy Philopat(yr''s death. of which the Parthians had just before Arsaces. M. Ant. and the great quantity furnishes all Asia with those beasts and its pastures are so good. 3798. and the rest plundered by Antigonus and Seleucus Nicator. 212. the joints. The edifices of this city surpass in richness and magnificence all others in the world. as will for its extent. . king's palace is seven hundred fathoms round. At his return to Antioch.work was of cedar and cypress. and the soldiers found in it a great number of silver beams. and had conquered Media. the ^ Polyb. and therefore we now return to them. Media men. the temple of iEna was still surrounded with gilded columns. The greatest part plates. C. Ecbatana is its capital city. says Polybius. This country. Though all the wood. that the neighbouring monarchs send their studs thither.330 THE HISTORY OF SECT. is the most powerful kingdom number and of horses it in all Asia. of these rich materials had been carried off by the Macedonians under Alexander the Great. yet not the least piece of timber was visible . He began by Media. Nevertheless. X. Hyrcartia^ and as far as India. after the death of Achseus. The glorious expeditions of Antiochus int9 Media. having employed some time in settling his affairs in Asia Minor. p. J.

was converted into specie. and especially as no water can be found in those parts. in spite of the difficulties which he imagined would impede the wells. Arsaces expected that Antiochus would advance as temple . but no one. J. a true story is related by the inhabitants of the country. a country so barren as that which lies near it . or about six hundred tliousand pounds All this stei*ling. The inhabitants. whence a great quantity insomuch that at this time. having M. tiles. animated these promises. do not know from what springs the subterraneous rivulets flow that supply them with it. spared neither labour nor expense to flows. On this subject. foreseen this. 3793. for stopping up But Antiochus. From the account he gives of the prodilabour employed. and a great many of silver. with his numerous army. except those that know the country. gave to those who should raise water in places where none had been before. he gave orders Ant. can find them. * When Arsaces saw that Antiochus was crossing the deserts. by stone aqueducts built under ground. C. those who make use of these waters. It were to be wished that Polybius. none appearing on the surface of the earth. says Polybius. and stamped with Antiochus's image . as far as these deserts . had been more circumstantial here. There are indeed rivulets and springs under ground . . * A. which Polybius calls wells. the whole amounting to four thousand talents. far as this that the Persians. when they conquered Asia. but he never imagined that he would venture to cross. and the methods employed by Arsaces to stop them. and the vast sums expended to gious complete this work. we are led to suppose that water had been conveyed into every part of this vast desert. with openings at proper distances.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. sent 21 1. who generally is diffusive enough. convey water under ground from mount Taurus. his march. and had explained to us in what manner these subterraneous canals (for such were the wells here spoken of) were constructed. 3S1 a few golden bricks. the profits arising from such places to the fifth by generation inclusively.

M. and beat the party that came to stop them. As he he re-assembled troops. xli. in the plains. and to make the preparations necessary for carrying on the war. which he divided into as many bodies as there were attacks to be made. 3795. and drive him entirely out of the provinces. judged that it would be extremely difficult to reduce so valiant an enemy. The army passed the deserts. g retired. which was the capital of Hyrcania. 1. f However. in order to regulate the affairs of the province. 8 Justin. where he was as successful as he had been the year before in Media Arsaces was forced to retire into Hyr: where he imagined that by securing some passes of the mountains which separate it from Parthia. where by length of time he had so strongly established For this reason. which posted itself near these wells. Ant. J. as soon as the season would permit. and checked their progress with the utmost bravery. entered Media. which at last formed an of a hundred and twenty thousand foot and twenty army thousand horse. it would be impossible for the Syrian army to disturb him. 209* . after cania. c 5. In the mean time Arsaces was very busy. attacked all those posts at the same time with his whole army. A. He then took the field against the enemy. * The year following he entered very early into Parthia. upon which the inhabitants surrendered at discretion. Antiochus took the field and.332 THE HISl^OBY OF a detachment of horse. drove Arsaces out of it. and marched to besiege Seringis. incredible difficulties. and took the city by storm. After many engagements. Antiochus staid there the rest of the year. t A. Having besieged it for some time. Ant. J. C. which seemed almost at an end. he began to listen to the himself. he at last made a great breach. Antiochus perceiving he gained no advantage. : . His resistance protracted the war. 210. and recovered all that province. and He afterwards reassembled them soon forced them all. C. 3794. he was mistaken for. M.

651. that Bactria had thrown off the yoke of the Syrian empire under other monarchs long before him . 3796. 1.. who represented to him. We what manner Theodotus had disunited Bactria from the empire of Syria. turned his arms against have already shown Eutliydemus. in which it was stithat Arsaces should continue in possession of pulated Parthia and Hyrcania. in which he plainly perceived that it would be impossible for him to dethrone He therefore gave audience to Euthydethis prince. upon condition that he should assist Antiochus in recovering the rest of the revolted provinces. that the war he was carrying on against their sovereign was not just that he had never been his subject. This son had heen defeated and dispossessed by Euthydemus. cover Bactria but they all were rendered ineffectual by the valour and vigilance of Euthydemus. and preserved it as the reward of a just They also insinuavictory. At last he grew weary of a war. and consequently that he ought not to avenge himself on their king. 207. J. which. 652. battles his horse was killed under him. ted to him that the Scythians. Ant. 620. & . X. being attended with only the loss of some of his teeth. Antiochus displayed his bravery In one of these in the most extraordinary manner. Polyb. 3797. who maintained for a long time a war against Antio^ The latter used his utmost endeavours to rechus. J. and left it to his son of the same name with himself.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. was in . 33S overtures which were made him for terminating so tedious a war. M. however. p. mus's ambassadors. and he himself received a wound in the mouth. M. A. king of Bactria. C. C. p. * At last a treaty was concluded. not dangerous. xi. after this peace. f Antiochus. because others had rebelled against him . During the course of this war. 621 . A. Ant. a brave and prudent man. 208. that he possessed this kingdom by right of conquest over the descendants of those chiefs of the rebellion. observing both parties : h * t 1.

he promised him one of his daughters in marThe riage. elephants from him. Ant. other articles of the treaty were put into writing. He liance with the king of that country.S799. 205. S800. t A. which was one of the articles of the peace. had quite was naturally strong and * A. by this time. thence into Carmania. Having received all Euthydemus's elephants. C. afterwards into Drangiana. acquired him the character of a wise and valiant prince. after having spent The vigour of his enseven years in this expedition. and at last arrived at Antioch. ed from thence into Arachosia. and the air of majesty agreeable conspicuous in his whole person. advice was brought him of the death of Ptolemy Philopator. establishing his authority given him.$$4f THE HISTORY OF barians might very possibly dispossess both of it. Ant. and entered India. and that should they persist obstinately in disputing for it. J. the winter in the latter country. M. was grown quite weary of so unprofitable and tedious a war. and granted his father the title of king. C. he passed mount Caucasus. J C. and the alliance was confirmed by the usual oaths. and the prudence with which he had conductterprises. . and Mesopo- and good order He tamia. amounted to a Euthydemus had hundred and in all those provinces. M. M. and then renewed his al. J. Ant. From f passed thence he returned by Persia. his conversation. and for this reason he granted them had weakened themselves by this war. and judging. To confirm and sent his son to Antiochus. . Babylonia. 204. were preparing to invade Bactria with great fury . which. ed the whole war. that he was worthy of a throne. 20(5. 3798. by his mien. * This reflection made an impression on Antiochus. t A. those bar- such conditions as ended in a peace. with those He also received He marchfifty. little after bis arrival at Antioch. and made him formidable to Europe as well as Asia. Euthydemus gave him a gracious reception ratify it. which by and excesses. who. That :|: A prince. his intemperance ruined his constitution.

and reigned but seventeen He was succeeded by Ptolemy Epiphanes his years. MB who He died. vigorous. gon. . when he ascended the throne. as generally happens to those ahandon themselves to pleasure. hefore he had run lialf He was little more than twenty years old bis course.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. then five years old.

of Philip against the Athenians^ He is The The unbesieges Abydos. and their creatures. in or- der that they might have time to carry off all the money. M. after in the preceding riots Book how Ptolemy Phiand excesses. qftliat city. against Sulpitius the consul I RELATED lopator. AttaluSy and the Rhodians. 20^. As the only persons present when that monarch expired were Agathocles. I. c. SECT. p. . 3800- Ant. SEQUEL OF THE HISTORY OF ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. they concealed his death as long as possible from the public. 712— 7'^0. happy fate Philip. xv. Antiochus subdues Palestine The war Code-syria. Ptolemy Epiphanes succeeds Ph'ihpator hlsfatfier kingdom of Egypt. Polyb. The Romans become ymmg king. 1.^ his life.. 2. They also formed a plan to maintain themselves in the i Justin. XXX. 1. in the I. A. worn out with had closed having reigned seventeen years. jewels. J. Romans declare war sent into Macedonia. and other valuable effects in the palace. CHAP. his sister. Antiochus and Philip enter into to an aUiance and guardians of the invade his dominions.336 THE HISTORY OF BOOK THE NINETEENTH. C.

The populace exposed their dead bodies to all the indignities possible . who. They imagined this might be easily done.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. He imagined that by this weak artifice. At last they informed the public of the king's death. dragging them through the streets. whom he pointed out to them and had recommended him to . were brought before the king. This Agathocles. and the posterity of the founders of Alexandria. Z . and all their creatures. named Ptolemy Epiphanes. but the artifice was too gross. or of those to whom the same privileges had been granted. the fidelity of the Macedonians that for this reason he was come to implore their assistance against Tlcpolemus. All their relations and creatures met with the same treatment. who was then but five yearsold. Agathocles. begins by imploring their protection for the young king. and that in consequence he might easily obtain the regency . and tearing them to pieces. sacme authority they 337 had enjoyed under the late king. Tlepolemus would be immediately despatched. whom he held in his arms. and Agatlioclea his sister. and (Enanthe his mother. had meditated a deHe added. who had succeeded Sosibius in the ministry and accordingly they concerted measures to despatch him. them. in his expiring moments. in which Agathocles. He tells . after shedding abundance of tears. The young king was taken out of their hands. and * Polybius wives this name to the Alexandrians who were descended from the Macedonians. and at brought the same time offered to produce them. witnesses expressly to prove his treason. that his royal father. as he was well informed. and all three put to death as by his order. and seated on the throne in the Hippodrome. his sister. last attempt recalling to their remembrance their other crimes. Agathocles. his sister. VI. were present. all the inhabitants of Alexandria rose against them. After which. * Immediately a great council of the Macedonians was assembled. if they could but take off Tlcpolemus. that he had sign of usurping the crown. had committed him to the care of Agathoclea. by usurping the regency during the minority of his son. and the people immediately swore the destruction of . VOL.

Id. 159. 1 ^ L xv. iu. J. of Cleomenes king of Sparta . being returned from Cyrene to Alexandria two or three days before this tumult broke out. which the distractions of the city gave them. who abuse the confidence of their sovereign to oppress the people . they broke open the door of the house where he was. Accordingly. Ant. but which does not effect the reformation of those who resemble them. he shoidd have supported himself so long in it. and killed him with clubs and stones. 64. He made no scruple of committing the blackest crimes. but it is cerform tain that he lived to a great age. and lastly. the usual and just end ol those unworthy favourites. and taking this opportunity. till otherwise provided for. of Arsinoe It is surprising that. the ladies of honour of that unfortunate queen had immediate notice of it. The care of the king's person. standing the inhumanity and cruelty of his administration. 380U . Antiochus king of Syria. they resolved to revenge their mistress's death. notwithdaughter of Berenice. 707 & 708. 203. the assassin. whom the laws of humanity and justice enjoined ^ Polyb. p. and Philip king of Macedonia. and of Arsinoe daughter of that Lysimachus . as he had passed above ^No minister threescore years in the administration. and were ready to assist him on all occasions. had discovered the strongest zeal for the interest of that monarch. Philammon. of Berenice mother to Ptolemy Philopator . no sooner was he dead. who had been hired to murder Arsinoe. History does not inus whether the father was still alive . p. in Excerpt. M. provided they conduced to his ends. was given to Sosibius. A.^38 THE HISTOKY Ot' not one of them was spared . of Magas son of Ptolemy. p. and of Berenice daughter of Magas . Polyb. son to him who had governed during the last three reigns. leaving behind him an infant. was ever more cunning or more corrupt than this Sosibius. and at last come to a peaceable end. C. during the whole reign of Ptolemy Philopator. 1. Yet. Polybius imputes to him tbe murder of Lysimachus son of Pto- lemy.

in less than two campaigns. and not satisfied with burning their temples. over whom he gained an inconsiderable advantage. p. One would be tempted. Ant. them HOt 3S9 to disturb in the possession of his father's than they immediately join in a criminal alkingdom. For. in Excerpt. and. Cyrenaica. like tyrants. as ought in all succeeding ages to deter others from following their conduct. A. J.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Libya. 29*. Polyb. M. the capital of his kingdom. endeavoured to gloss over their crimes with some specious pretence . ring. though of the same species. that to of fishes. and excite each other to take off the lawful heir. Diod. and divide his dominions between them. he demo>" " Polyb. and made such an example of them. whilst are meditating to dispossess a weak and helpless they infant of his kingdom. but so far from doing this. to accuse Providence of being indifferent and insensible to the most horrid crimes . 380^. With this view. p. Providence raised up the Romans against them. Philip was and Egypt . but it fully justified his conduct. 66. by punishing those two kings according to their deserts . "^During that time. ed Coele. " The next year he attacked Attains. by piece-meal. had they.Syria and Palestine . But all his efforts in that city being to no purassaulting pose. the latter entertiochus all the rest. continues the same author. made an entire conquest of those two proTheir vinces. opposite to the city of Miletus. C. p. Vales. ib. 70 ib. and reduced their successors to almost as great calamities as those with which they intended to crush the infant king. would not have been quite so glaguilt. their injustice and cruelty were so bare- them was applied what is generally said that the large ones. who entirely subverted the kingdoms of Philip and Antiochus. . says Poly bins. with all their cities and dependencies. he turned his rage and fury against the gods . liance. Philip was engaged in a war against the Rliodians. at seeing the most sacred laws of sofaced. 202. and Anto have Caria. and advanced as far as Pergamus. ciety so openly violated. prey on the lesser. in a naval engagement near the island of Lade. & 73.

n. He was not more successful against the Rhodians. and two thousand Macedolost nians and confederates. Philip ascribed all the glory of this engagement ta himself. XV. them might remain. 3803. 1. M. Ant. n. The character of tha. SGS. 1. A. « Polyb. I6. the ill success of this battle did not make Philip to be despond. 733—739. he ventured a second battle off the island of Chios. p. He was highly afflicted upon it. The Rhodians and Attains threescore and ten. that not the least footsteps of. But though he assumed the best air he could. Cios. o Nevertheless. There were killed. 709—711. whose inhabitants are called Cianians. and not be dejected by disappointments. .340 THE HISTORY OF lished their statues. Attains had united his fleet to that of the Rhodians> and Philip was defeated with considerable loss. he had taken his station even among the wrecks of his enemies. J. but to overcome difficulties by inflexible constancy and perseverance . xvi. Polyb. xxxi. p. p. a barbarity with which he is often reproached. 18. Liv. in his army. This prince had never lost so great a number of men either by sea or land in one day. and was forced to abate much of his former vivacity. and could neither conceal it from others nor himself. and that for two reasons . the cruelties which Philip exercised over the Cianians . with seven hundred Egyptians.t prince was unshaken in his resolutions. C. and accordingly he continued the war with fresh bravery. that having repulsed Attains to the shore. was a small city of The governor of it had been raised to that Eithynia. L I Liv. 745. and even pulled up the stones from their foundations. xii. xvii. about this time. broke to pieces their altaiss. 31. xxxi. he had taken that prince's ship. 1. he was sensible of his great lost. Strab. the particulars of which have unhappily been lost. and the second. the first was. that having cast anchor near the promontory of Argennum. I am not certain whether we may not date. but sixty men. 1. p. three thousand Macedonians and six thousand allies . Polyb. Having already fought them with but indifferent success. 201. were taken prisoners.

so that he was This city is in Asia. and particularly the Rhodians. in the assaulting and defending of cities. Philip marched afterwards to Thrace and the Chersonesus. number of the inhabitants suffered the most cruel torments. that Abydos must be a city of great importance. this manner. which shows. where several cities surrendered voluntarily. post by the yEtoliaiis. who were allies and friends to the inhabitants of Cios. who used to bestow all posts and preferments on their most worthless citiwhich to zens. the rest were reduced to a state of captivity. The distance between these two cities was about two miles. or the administration of their political affairs. and made those who were possessed of it. on the narrowest part of the Hellespont. Polybius seems to ascribe its destruction to the imprudence of the Cianians themselves. The great city was in all probability taken by storm. king of Bithynia. 341 who with Philip. We find that he at that time were in alliance besieged it at the re- quest of his son-in-law Prusias. A them was worse than death . masters of the communication between the Euxine sea and the Archipelago. as even to persecute those who ventured He adds. and the city was the veiy foundations. which might be said at length. on the side of the be- . was omitted in this siege. that a people. However. and stands forced to besiege it. plunge voluntarily into the greatest calamities . that the ruin of the most powerful states is solely owing to the ill choice they make of those to whom they confide either the command of their armies. The reader will suppose. Nothing of what is generally practised. Abydos shut her gates against him. This barbarity alienated razed to the iEtolians from him. and even refused to hear the deputies he had sent. and opposite to the city of Sestus in Europe. who act in to oppose them. and that it is surprising they do not correct themselves in this respect by the experience of all ages . and to follow so blindly their pernicious opinions in every thing. as it commanded the straits. No place was ever defended with greater obstinacy. who pretended to have received some insult from it. now called the Dardanelles.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS.

as had been sent them by the Rhodians and king Attains. in which they chose fifty of the wisest and most ancient of the citizens. that all the women should be shut up in the temple of Diana. to animate them to defend the city with the utmost vigour : secondly. offering to surrender their city upon the following conditions That such forces. in transports of despair. or consumed by fire. and it was with the utmost difficulty that the besiegers saved them. that the : Abydenians had only to choose. and that the Macedonians were carrying their mines under the inward one. and the Trireme of the Cyzicenians. Confiding in their own strength. but who at the same Quadriremes were galleys with four benches of remes those with three. and all the children. and carry all the rest of the valuable effects into the * Quadrireme of the Rhodians. assemble together. were in danger . the besieged. Even the ships. and Tri- .342 THE HISTORY OF sieged. which had been raised to supply the place of the other. in the Gymnasium : that they then should bring into the great square all the gold and silver in the city. and did not despair even of defeating the enemy. the machines of war no sooner came forward. to have risen to fury and brutality. This report being made. that the slaves should be made free. the Abydenians also defended themselves for some time with great courage. with the clothes they then had on. with their nurses. another assembly was called. first. or continue to defend themselves valiantly. But finding that the outward wall was sapped. On the land side. should return to their respective sovereigns under his safe conduct . Philip answering. than they immediately were either dismounted by the balistae. and consider what was to be done. the deputies retired. whether they would surrender at discretion. they repulsed with the greatest On vigour the first approaches of the Macedonians. This resolution having passed unanimously. on which they were mounted. They came to this resolution . * oars. they sent deputies to Philip. and that all free citizens should retire whithersoever they pleased. the side next the sea.

and those who had escaped. as marched first to the breach. or forced out of their hands. Things beto this dreadful extremity.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. agreed. and rethe instant the wall should fall. left off countermining. sword in hand and after having sacrificed the victims. they obliged the priests and priestesses to pronounce before the altar. and which at that time displayed itself to their imaginations in all This being done. the besieged. till they made them entirely despair of the event. yet when night separated the combatants. the breach was quite covered with the dead bodies of the Abydenians . set fire to the two galleys laden with their effects. Accordingly. and not only made use of their swords and javelins. were so overwhelmed with fatigue. over the heaps of the slain. and such parts of their Iwdies as were uncovered. that the instant they saw the enemy master of the inward wall. they solved. that they could scarce support themselves. to fly to the breach. they would kill the women and children. after their arms were broken to pieces. knocked down some. Such Abydenians. but. and broke the sarissae or long spears of others. they rushed headlong upon the Macedonians. unable to bring themselves to execute the dreadful resolution that had been taken. that though Philip had perpetually sustained with fresh soldiers those who had mounted to the assault. fought with fury. . two of the prining brought cipal citizens. true to the oath they had taken. he was still doubtful with regard to the success of the siege. fought iu the breach with such unparalleled bravery. and they were made to take an oath in presence of all the inhabitants. the greatest curses on : . they took an oath either to conquer or die. 846 time had vigour enough left to execute what might be determined . When night had put an end to the slaughter. the inward wall tumbling. and had received so many wounds. and throw into the sea all their gold and silver which they had heaped together then sending for their priests. and fight to the last. those who should break their oath. its horror. and with the pieces struck their faces. that to save their wives and children.

This embassy was sent on various accounts. some were running to strangle them. all which it will be proper to The fame and glory of this people had just explain. Philip marched into the city. that he would allow three days to all who were resolved to lay violent hands on themselves. Philip. and none escaped this murderous expedition. those who had lost their lives in fighting for their country. to implore his mercy. and open the gates to him. importing. C. They thought it would be degenerating from . pierced with grief. an ambassador from the Romans to Philip arrived. hy day-break. some were smothering their wives and children. but their resolution was fixed. He was in hopes that. as had been agreed. whilst others again were precipitating them from the tops of houses in a word.344 THE HISTORY OF all their priests they should send to Philip. whom despair had made furious and distracted. Ant. without the least opposition. death appeared in all its variety of horrors. M. while the greatest and part of the Abydenians who survived. should they survive them. by the victory which Scipio gained over Hannibal in Africa . and seized with horror at this spectacle. Accordingly. others were plunging them into wells. * little before the city surrendered. Among these illfated citizens. and seized. .citizens. before been spread through all parts of the world. A * A. during this interval. But now he was greatly terrified with the spectacle he saw. The individuals of every family killed one another. stopped the soldiers. 201. priestesses. next morning. all the rich effects which the Abydenians had heaped together in one place. they would change their determination . for delivering up to the enemy those whom they themselves had de- voted to death with the most dreadful oaths. and especially against the priests and priestesses. but those whose hands were tied. vented millions of imprecatiqns against their fellow. was surrendered to Philip . and published a declaration. 3803. J. the city. clothed in their pontifical habits. who were eager for plunder. or were otherwise kept from destroying themselves. and others stabbing them with their own hands .

c. ji. for that otherwise they should be forced to declare war against them. 2. 345 an event that so gloriously (with regard to the Romans) terminated the second Punic war. that Philip. and was certainly meditating some great design. and the regency of his dominions during his minority . XXX. & 18. &L xxxi. arrived at Abydos. who. and to inform the Romans. 6. Max. vi c. that the declaring so generously in favour of an oppressed infant monarch. and hearing of the siege of Abydos. declaring. 1. was soliciting several cities of Asia to take up arms. and to enjoin them not to infest the dominions of their royal pupil. This was a fresh motive the three ambassadors. either in person or by his deputies. not hesitated in accepting the guardianship . 1. and in consequence had appointed three deputies. xxxi. who were ordered to acquaint the two kings with their resolution. was making a just and noble use of their power. Lir. soon be engaged in war with those two princes. had had recourse to the llomans for protection. 1. At the same time there arrived in Rome ambassadors from the Rhodians and from king Attains. of which the empire of Egypt at that time conIt was not difficult to foresee. It was the interest of the Romans not to suffer the power of Philip and Antiochus to increase by the addition of so many rich provinces. which For these reasons. with one of whom they already had some differences. for hastening the departure of Being arrived at Rhodes. Valer. 1. that the late monarch at his death had recommended them thus to act. e. 1. that they would sisted. and offered them the guardianship of the king. at the very time that the city was upon the point of being surrendered. Every reader will perceive. they sent to Philip the youngest of th^ir colleagues. p Tlie court of Egypt. named iEmilius. -^milius acquainted P Justin. . 2 & 3. they had threatened much greater. to complain also of the enterprises of the two kings . as has been observed.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. being in so much danger from the union that had been formed between Philip and Antiochus against their infant king.

and made him prime * '' minister." (for age. and Philip having taken that city. Ego autem primum velim vos foederum apud memores in animo servare est facere. mihi quoque pacem. quam quas Jiahenda iEtas. et forma. Polybius informs us that this ambassador had really a " and fine person. left a strong garrison in it. to superintend the education and person of the : young monarch. I hope to show. He appointed Aristomenes the Acamanian. that the empire of Macedonia does not yield to Rome either in valour or reputation. xxxi. that he was ordered.'* mecum . nor to invade any part of Ptolemy's dominions . For my part. exalt to a prodigious degree. in the name of the senate. " " But. interrupting him. 1 wish your pride your republic may observe punctually the treaties it has concluded with me but. pursuant to the instructions he had received from the senate at his setting out . ut quam Romanum Si bello laceaseritis. ^milius seems to have gone into Egypt. That. the Romans would proclaim war against him." says he to the ambassador. to exhort him not to make war upon any of the states of Greece. This Insueto vera midire. in case 1 should be invaded by it. whilst the two other ambassadors went very probably to Antiochus. offended at the bold" Your ness of such an answer addressed to a king : " your beauty. Philip endeavoured to show that the Rhodians had occasioned the rupture. n.346 THE HISTORY OF Philip. 18. did the Atheand Abydenians attack you first ?" Philip. iEmilius. 1. et super omnia Romanum regent esseL nomen te ferociorem facit. and returned to Macedonia. but to refer to a just arbitration the claims which he had upon Attalus and the Rhodians. in the name of the Romans. and settled every thing to as much advantage as the state of affairs in Eg3^t would then admit." says iEmilius. assumed the guardianship of Ptolemy. but that if he refused. being arrived at Alexandria. he would continue in peace .* who nians had not been used to hear truth. reg-num Macedonum nomenque haud minu^ Liv. ferodor orafio visa est. nobile bello sentiatis. provided he acquiesced with these remonstrances.) especially the Roman name. inquit." The deputy withdrew from Abydos with this answer.

not knowing that it was forbidden. a brought upon Thus. mind the trouble which Pyrrhus had them. and were joined on that occasit)n by the ambassadors of the Rhodians and king Attains. had entered with the crowd into the temple of Ceres. n.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and be in a condition to give immediate aid to the allies. He had infringed the conditions of the treaty of peace concluded with him three years before. 1—3. who might become formidable. . and gave them a body of forces. in order to examine matters nearer at hand. 1. with only a handful of Epirots. and returned home laden with spoils. with which they entered Attica. people very much inferior to the Macedonians. as guilty of impiety and sacrilege. Though their fault proceeded entirely from ignorance. ordered as pleased all the ambasValerius Levinus. at whom they were very much offended. after sadors. at so cruel a treatment. the forces of Philip laid Attica waste. Acarnanians. and acted with the utmost prudence and fidelity in the employment conferred upon him. very busy in Asia. ended the war against Carthage. who gladly embraced this opportunity. and a report was spread that he was at that time This made the Romans uneasy. ravaged the whole country. n. my. they were immediateThe ly massacred. making such an answer M. to advance towards Macedonia with a fleet. iln the mean time. 847 Aristomenes had grown old in the court of Egypt. they imagined having called to it who advisable to prevent the enterprises of this new enein case they should The senate. xxxi. 14. " ^ Liv. in not ceasing to infest the allies who were included in it. He had just before sent troops and money to Hannibal in Africa . at the time when the great mysteries were solemnizing there. ^ The Athenians carried their complaints against this enterprise to Rome. The Romans only sought for an opportunity to break with king Philip. the pretence of which invasion was as follows : Two young men of Acarnania being in Athens. justly exasperated had recourse to Philip. the propraetor. Ibid. give him time to increase his strength.

The Achoeans. Philip had not laid siege to Athens in person. 3804. 1. Ibid. Philip loses a battle. xxxi. SECT. to whom JNIacedonia had fallen by lot. J. At the very time it assembled to consider that important affair. the Romans war against Philip. The II. Claudius Cento. n. A. C. they had no time to lose. who set sail that leys. but deputed one of his lieutenants for that purpose . xxxi. and implored He detached a squadron of twenty galhis assistance. leys. S^O^ Ant. which brought advice that Philip was upon the point of invading Attica in person. Flamininv^ succeeds him. and that in case they were not immediately succoured. the Roman senate deUberated seriously on what was to be done in the present juncture." whom . ^ Liv. sul. he would infallibly make himself master of Athens. jEtolians wait for the event. They also received letters from Levinus the propraetor. by which they were informed that they had the strongest reasons to believe that Philip had some design against them and that the danger being imminent. selves. declare for the Romans. Sulpitius the conAccordingly. M. 1. of which he had been dispossessed by Aristomenes. 200. instant. Phocis. 5. revived the drooping courage « » Liv. n. the prime Various expeditions of the consul into minister of Egypt. 22—26. Here he was soon informed that Athens was besieged. C. having entered the Piraeeus. Expeditions of the consul Sidpitius in Macedonia. resolved to proclaim P. and from Aurelius his lieutenant. Ant.M. and soon arrived there. the consul had sent to succour Athens. 14. No considerable transaction happens during his government. having himself taken the field against Attains and the Rhodians. . n. 200. A.S48 « THE HISTORY OF In the mean time. commanded by Claudius Cento. in older to declare themVillius succeeds Sulpitius. J. * Upon this news. after long debates. with his galof the inhabitants. Antiochus recovers Codesyria. a second embassy arrived from the Athenians. put to sea with an army.

the instant he heard of the disaster which had befallen that confederate city. whither he did not think it advisable to pursue them. and ruining whatever came in his way. city. cut the whole garrison to pieces . Philip. called * Hemerodromi. He would certainly have treated Athens in the same manner. finding the sentinels asleep. However. Philip arrived a few hours after. and especially on such temples as stood without the city .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Perceiving that his stratagem had not taken eifect. still burning and half ruined. had not carried the news of it immediately to Athens. attacked them with vigour. on the places for the public exercises. as considering themselves remote from danger. 549 was not satisfied with placing the city and the counround it in a state of security but as he had been try informed that the garrison of Chalcis did not observe the least order or discipline. not sparing either the tombs or the most sacred places. Philip. but to view the mournful spectacle presented by that city. and having killed several of them with his own hand. setting fire to every thing. they were gone . They day. entered it without molestation . who perceived the king's troops from the eminence where he was posted. marching at the head of his army. set fire to the public magazines which were full of com. But he wreaked his vengeance on the country seats. he returned to the Piraeeus. repulsed them back into the city. he resolved to attack the The Athenians had draw^n up their soldiers in order of battle without the walls. in hopes of surprising the Romans. at the gate Dipylos . where the inhabitants were all asleep. and after carrying on board his ships the immense booty he had amassed. and. if one of the couriers. but before day-break. so that he seemed to have come for no other purpose. He near the city before day. as the Lyceum. arrived . tvere so called for running a great number of miles in one . and to the arsenal that was well provided with machines of war . flew thither. he sailed out with his fleet. who was then at Demetrias.

by their laws. Philip offered to undertake alone the management of that war. and the hopes of Philip were again defeated. eluded the proposal. except that he completed the demolition of such temples. who presided in the assembly. The great object which both parties had in view. to debate on any subject but that for which the assembly had been summoned. 1. He made a second attempt upon Athens. whilst he was fighting for them. They therefore broke up. that he might not leave the places behind him without defence. he went thither. who laid waste the open country. Cycliadus. who was returned into Mace-. was to engage the iEtolians on their side. 37-^32. and Corinth . after having resolved upon the war against Nabis . then proceeded towards Corinth. very much that they should furnish him with as They were bis. donia. he added a condition which abated it joy. They perceived that his design was to draw out of Peloponnesus all the Acha?an youth. as remained in that country. ^ The consul. in order to make himself master of it. when hearing that the Achseans held their assembly at Argos. Chalcis. w^io had succeeded Machanidas. which succeeded no better than the former. that it was not allowed. where his project also proved abortive. under the command of Apustius the lieutenant. After this expedition. . who was encamped between Apollonia and Dyrrachium. statues. and took several small cities. and infested the whole country with his incursions. sent to Macedonia a considerable detachment. n.350 THE HISTORY OF inarched from hence with a view of surprising Eleusis. Philip. : many troops as were necessary for garrisoning Oreum. he retired into Boeotia. and engage it in the war against the Romans. carried on his military preparations with prodigious vigour. xxxi. They were now » Liv. He He deliberating how to act in regard to Nathe tyrant of Sparta. and valuable works. by observing. and his proposal was received with universal However.

we. Capua . 351 goin^ to hold their general assembly. by the consent of the Ra- mans. that the ^tolians should observe strictly the conditions of the peace which they had concluded three years before with Philip . the Romans. he wlio was deputed by Philip spoke first. to which Philip. having then experienced how useless their alliance with the Romans was He instanced several cities. and we hope that you will The Athenian ambassadors. and the most venerated tombs . had possessed themselves. They began by displaying. the impious and sacrilegious fury which Philip had exercised on the most sacred monuments of Attica. but against the manes of the dead and the majesty of the gods. In this same assembly three years since you concluded a peace with Philip : the same causes still subsist act in the same manner. than by the wide distance of land and sea. ners. or Macedonians. same country. not only against men. and the living. having been more barbarously used by those who had left it to be inhabited in this condition. who are of the neighbours have met with. upon pretence of sucpeople couring them. it would be ridiculous in us to expect more humane treatment from them than their Among us. slight disputes may arise of little or no consequence or duration. " If foreigners. but with foreigners. All he re* quired was. whether iEtolians. which separate us from them. having neither senate. on the most august temples. That iEtolia and all Greece must expect the same treatment. their man-. " who differ from us more by their language. the last city especially.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOllS. should dispossess us of this country. which was no longer Capua. as Greeks. of which that to them. at war. with barbarians. of a city. than if they had entirely destroyed it. but the grave of the Campanians. and their laws. Acarnanians. as it were. as Syracuse. They concluded . and who speak the same language. spoke next. Tarentum." says he. in an affected manner. sent their ambassadors ." . and the skeleton. or magistrates . and shall for ever be. if Philip should have the like occasion. inhabitants. are. as if he had declared war. and Athenians.

the murders committed by him on his own family and his friends his infamous debaucheries." says the ambassador. But. This gives you an opportunity of returning to our friend- ship and alliance. The Roman ambassador. on the other side. w^hich. but the Roman clemency. and was restored to its liberty. we are going to turn the whole force of our arms against Macedonia. you were obliged to submit to whatever conditions the victor was pleased to prescribe . . However. whose power that of the gods alone could equal. having now put an end (thanks to the gods !) to the Carthaginian war. as they were nearer neighbovu's to Macedonia. all facts more immediately known to the persons whom he then addressed. whilst we. unless you should choose to perish in-^ . because the vanquished might depend on He represented in a short.S52 THE HISTORY OF with conjuring the iEtolians to take compassion on Athens. neglected a war which you had renounced. Possibly you may observe in your own justification. under the auspices of the gods. which were still more detested than his cruelty . addressing himself to the " we jEtolians. and you have concluded a separate peace with him. that seeing us employed in the war against the Carthaginians. and of the Romans. that the only circumstance the Romans had to fear was. employed in affairs of greater importance. had been allowed a peace. that the too great mildness and lenity which they exercised towards those they conquered. with respect to the treatment which Rome had made the conquered cities suffer and adduced as an example to the contrary. and pathetic speech. to confine my speech to w^hat relates directly to you. the criminal actions of Phistrong lip. and being awed by fear. engaged in the war against Philip. so just a war as that proposed ta them. after having refuted very circumstantially the reproaches of the Macedonian. would prompt other nations to take up arms against them. the instance of Carthage. declared. but just before. . with " no other view than to defend you . and to undertake.

but each sent out a detachment upon the As both consisted discovery. 2 A . caused their dead bodies to be brought into the camp. were killed on the spot. declare for the strongest party. had a quite contrary effect.ALEXANDER'S Romans. in order that the whole army might be eyewitnesses of the honours paid to their memory. and ad* ready begun it. VI. The spectacle." StTCCESSORS. he represented the affair as too important to be determined immediately. entirely of chosen troops. By this artifice he eluded the effect which the assembly would otherwise have had . would contribute very much to gain him the affection The of his soldiers. y In the mean time. Nothing is less to be relied upon than the sentiments and dispositions of the vulgar. and boasted his having done a very essential service to the republic. Without seeming inclined to either side. n. Hitherto he had engaged in a war with none but Greeks and lllyrians. and then He had entered Macedonia. Neither party knew which way the enemy had marched ." Quod VOL. king. xxxi. the j^^tolian praetor. but the consul had al- and thirty-five of the Romans. which Philip imagined would animate the soldiers. and excite them to behave gallantly in his service. videbatur facturum. and required time for a more mature deliberation. a bloody skirmish ensued. id metum pigritiamque incussit. rather than conquer with the' Damocritus. who employed scarce any other weapons y Liv. Forty Macedonian troopers. Philip was preparing for a vigor* ous war both by sea and land . $53 gloriously with Philip. 33 39* "Nihil tam incertumnec tam inaestimabile est * — quam animi mul- titudinis. Philip also took the field. and the two parties met. persuaded that the care he should take to bury those who had lost their lives in this skirmish. vanced towards the Dassaretae. that he had been bribed by Philip. it might wait the event before which now (he said) took up arms. plainly perceived It is said^ that this speech would gain all the voices. promptiorcs ad subeundam omnera dimicationcm Liv. and the victory was doubtful. 1. and damped their courage.

on an eminence which he* fortified with good ditches and strong intrenchments. in spite of all the insults and reproaches of Sulpitius. who had never yet seen the Roin a regular battle. the one half horse and the other ber. Philip. On the third day. javelins. made by the Spanish sabres. near the city of Athacus. not the camp of barbarians. * That what he saw was . he took guides. * The sasae words are ascribed to Pyrrhus. was terrified at the Being informed by some deserters of the place where the enemy had halted. he cried out. and for that reason But when the wounds they made were not so deep. and after allowing them a day's repose. with no less prudence. The consul and the king were quiet for the first two days. an ambuscade . and lay close in his camp. inflamed the courage of the Roman soldiers. These two advantages. which the king had laid for them. and drew up his troops in order of battle. which he did not think proper to accept. and heads separated from the bodies. They avoided. and lances . and put the other to flight. . mans engage himself. and plainly perceived against what kind of enemy they were to act. the one gained by open force and the other by stratagem. consisting of twenty thousand and posted himself at a foot and four thousand horse little above two hundred paces from their camp. saw the bodies of their comrades covered with deep they and wide gashes. being afraid of coming to a general battle. they were terrified at the sight. he led them out and offered the king battle. foot against whom the Romans opposed an equal numwho had the advantage. Sulpitius came out of his camp. whole arms cut off. The consul marched them back into the camp. shoulders lopped away. detached against the enemy a body consisting of but fifteen bundled men. The king sight. Surveying from the top of the hill the order and disposition of the Roman camp.354 THE HISTORY OF than arrows. who charged him with meanness of spirit and cowardice. and marched thither with his army. each waiting till the other should make some movement.

because such as fled w^ere intercepted by the king's forces . The warmest engagement was where the king himself commanded. and skirmishes were fought in different places at the same time. and marched them in a hollow The troopers. he detached part of them against the foragers . growing bolder on that account. lost their way at first. persed up and down. This happened directhe saw great numly as Philip had foreseen. formed almost an army not to mention that these troops. being prodigiously animated by the presence of : . Z5B foraging. whom the Cretans followed as fast as it was possible for infantry to march. wliere As themselves all the foragers dispersed over the neighbouring country in sepa- The king at first lay close in his inrate platoons. the consul drew off* to ther. When and rode full speed to post himself between the Romaa camp and the foragers. trenchments. dividing his forces. called Octolophus. There. being deceived by the shouts and cries which echoed from different places. bers of t)>em spread over the plains. by the great number of the horse and foot that composed it. At last the melancholy news of the slaughter arrived in the Roman camp upon which the consul ordered the cavalry to march out and succour their comrades wherever they could . as if afraid of venturing out. being dissquare against the enemy. nothing during which. ordering them to cut to pieces ail who should come in their way. as for himself. . he quitted his camp on a sudden with all his horse. And now was seen on all sides but blood and slaughter . the Romans did not know what was do- ing out of their camp. about eight miles distance. might for that reason be less vigilant. in order that thfe enemy. where two armies lay so near one anowould be very daiigeroiis. whilst he himself seized all the passes by which they could return. and those who guarded the passes killed a much greater nxmiber than the others detacJied in pursuit of the enemy. and which.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and advanced towards a village. he made the legions quit the camp. Many of these parties fell in with the enciriy.

against enemies dispersed and in disorder. but the man himself. this day soldiers who fled. who were all in disorder. Philip. forget and neglect what passes in the rest of the army. perceiving the Roman enfaced about. Philip had not lost a great number of men in this action. many lost their lives in flying not by the sword alone. In an instant the face of the battle was quite changed . where he had been given over for lost. enemy. of a victory which they had in their fell. and with the utmost vigour. But. in order to their avoiding the like error. multitudes were going to attack him. . those who pur- now the sued before. with their The king himself was in very horses. not only the but perhaps the success of the whole war. were swallowed up. and numbers We hands. and pushed their horses against the signs. in order to bury . as several plunging into morasses. who had advanced with their officers. eoBtsul. had not a trooper leaped that moment from his horse. for having been thrown by his horse. was killed by the enemy. in the mire. came having last to the camp. and wliich they might have secured. after taken a long compass round the fens. but he dreaded coming to a second . now flying in their turn. led in close fight. by abandoning themselves to a rash and inconsiderate ardour. great danger which had received a severe wound. and mounted him on it . have already seen on many occasions. they fell into the midst of the Roman And cohorts. present battle. and Many were kil. It is certain that. gorously. to desire a suspension of arms. fighting in a compact body. had they not pursued the Romans so vi- might have decided. and suffer themselves to be deprived. and was afraid lest the conqueror should advance to attack him He therefore despatched a herald to the suddenly. solely intent upon pursuing the enemy. being unable to keep pace with the troopers who fled. and the Cretans. that battles are often lost by the too great ardour of the officers. and it cannot be too strongly inculcated on those of the military profession. through an imprudent desire of glory.S56 THE HISTORY OF the king. who. killed great numbers of them.

without noise. n. that ^ Liv. the orators had gained so ^reat an ascendant over the minds of the people. consoled himself for his ill success against the Romans. after laying waste all these difficulties.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. ubi oratio plurimum poUety favore multitudinis alilur. and came into the Piraeeus. tuiii prsecipue Athenis. the entrance of which he fortified with ditches. in order to choose their side. The consul. eloquence was all-powerful. ibi 39—43. Philip having defeated them on seveHe also defeated the Dardanians. and part of the following day. 1. Upon this. where succour. The ^tolians. ^ In this campaign the Roman fleet joined that of Attains. the country. to conceal his march from the Romans. tered himself with the hopes of intercepting him at some passes. «» Ibid. to the great joy of The hatred they bore to Philip. ^ Sulpitius began his march the next day. who was at dinner. 44—47. no longer hesitated to declare for the Romans. from whence he had set out in the beginning of the campaign. sent word that he should have an answer on the morrow. who only waited the event. n. marched his army back to ApoUonia. the instant it was dark . intrenchments. 357 the dead. having left a great number of fires in his camp. had entered his country dming his absence . which the Athenians. fear had forced them to dissemble for a long time. and the Athamanians followed their example. quod genus." Liv. set out. and having got a whole night's march before the consul. xxxi. and seizing upon several fortresses of importance. Philip. now broke out immoderately. cum in omnibus liberis civitatibus. and great works of stones and trees . at the sight of so powerful a In a free city * like that of Athens. but the patience of the Romans was superior to The consul. who ral occasions. Both nations made some incursions into Macedonia. * '' Nee unquam desunt lingujE promptae ad plebem concitan- -dam . he thereby put it out of his power to pursue him. and with these small advantages. but with ill success. . not knowPhilip had flating which way the king had taken.

should likewise be enacted against Philip. their armies. 49. whilst he made preparations the ensuing campaign. they now lavished encomiums. ^nd all that belonged to them. S805. sacrifices. after which Attains and the Romans separated. Ant. would be grateful to the people and that whosoever should dare to say or do any thing in favour of Philip. 199- . at their request. for carrying b Liv. ^In Rome the year following. 3.e people. new consuls being cho- sen. should also denounce imprecations and curses of every kind against Philip. J. should be declared jmpure and profane : that the priests.M. without any formality. beladversus Philippum gerebant. and fleets. was exceedingly anxious with regai*d to the Success of the war he had^mdertaken. honours. and priests. Villius had Macedonia on Philip. might be The last killed on the spot. attacked and took several fortresses and small islands. xxxi. <?stablished in honour of them. ordained that all the and images of Philip and his ancestors should be destroyed that the festivals. : tremes. and homage of every kind on Attains and the Romans. To this decree was added. their allies. clause was." Liv. at its leaving Pirseeus. Here ih. which at that time were their only strength. for his province. or against the decrees in question.l. that whatever mightbe afterwards proposed. his children. n. against the JMacedonians in general. A. shoidd be abolished: l^at every place where any monument had been set up. and went into winterquarters.358' they: THE HISTOUY OF made tliem form whatever resolutions they pleased. C. which tended in any manner to dishonom* and bring an odium on Philip. n. his kingdom. every time they offered up prayers to the gods for the Athenians. Besides his having to deal with powerful and formidalum * " Atlscnicnses quidem Uteris verbisque. that whatever had been enacted against the Pisistratidas. xxxii. The fleet. In this manner the Athenians * made war against Philip by their decrees and ordinances. & 1. his forces both by sea and land in a word. Carrying all things to ex. statttes : cr inscription engraved relating to them. quibus solis valent.

who Rohim a man Haughty and terrible to all his inferiors. as a strong tie. he was afraid that the hope of protection from the Romans. He up the city to the had fled to Philip. all which had made the government odious to them. by sacrificing Heraclides. would rebel against To obviate these dangers. He was in such great credit and autho« ^ Polyb. had attached him to himself in a particular manner. for attempting to deliver finding of sense. 1. where he had exercised the meanest and most contemptible offices. He was of very mean extraction. and did not make the least scruple to forfeit his promise. which was to be renewed But could he possibly look upon this cereevery year. would draw off many of his allies from him him. of a lively genius. Heraclides. thence. 672. whom the people hated and detested. 673. . he gave up some cities to the Acha^ans. who had neither probity nor honour. p. religion. and bom in Tarentum. uneasy at. As their love and affection. and at the same time he sent ambassadors into Achaia. a daring spirit. nor show the least veneration for the Supreme Being. mans. and trusted him with all his secrets . From his most tender years he had prostituted himself in the most infamous manner. 859 ble enemies. when he himself professed an open violation of all oaths. and government.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. a fit instrument for a prince. was born with all those qualities which constitute the consummate villain. and all that mankind ^ consider as most sacred ? he endeavoured to recover one of his ministers and confidants. . and at the same time so insatiably ambitious as not to scruple the commission of the blackest crimes. says Polybius. to make the allies take the oath. thinking to attach them the more strongly to his interest by this unexpected generosity . xiii. he behaved with the meanest and most groveling adulation towards his superiors. on account of his rapine and grievous oppressions . and had been banished from to the JNIacedonians. his and that the Macedonians. dissatisfied with. and one capable of keeping the mony confederates in their duty .

nor whether he came to the end his crimes deserved. : ^ Liv. which they now employed against Philip their common enemy that they should think it an obliga. because the consuls did not enter Macedonia till very late . he therefore was at full liberty to recal his forces . he Tity with Philip. who. who remonstrated to him. was to command the fleet. and Macedonia falling to him by lot. these being two different families. the Romans sent ambassadors to the former. that Attalus had lent them his troops as well as ships. that. with Lucius his brother. J. to dissuade him from molesting Attalus. and the rest of the time was spent in slight skirmishes. he did not follow the example of his predecessors.S60 THE HISTOUY OF same author. but set out from Rome at the opening of the spring. Ant. 1. At last the king caused him to be seized and thrown into prison. A. that as nothing could be more just and reasonable than Attalus's demand. by the leave of the senate. * Plutarch calls him Flaminius^ but it is an error. any more than the foregoing. that the Romans never intended to incommode their allies in any manner but that they would employ all their influence with Antiochus. Accordingly. Nothing considerable was transacted during this campaign. . xxxii. or to carry off convoys. 198. or to permit king Attalus to recal his troops. certain passes. bius on this subject. Antiochus attacked The Attains very vigorously both by sea and land. 3806. 9—15. They entreated the Romans. ambassadors of the latter king came to Rome. C. At the beginning of this year. either to force * ^ T. M. n. in Attalus's name. by the universal discontent which his injustice and oppression occasioned. and informed the senate of the great danger to which their sovereign was exposed. either to undertake his defence mth the forces of the republic. The senate made answer. history does not inform us what became of Heraclides. according to the almost ruined a powerful kingdom. Quintius Flamininus having been nominated consul. which occasioned an universal joy amongst As we have only a few fragments of Polythe people.

gThe administration of Alexandria. A. c. that he recovered several cities. . 43. whither he brought (besides the glory of own « Liv. upon the approach of winter. lioB. that he left . returned to Alexandria . Polyb. Scopas had formerly enjoyed the highest posts in his country. to recover those cities of which Aristomenes had dispossessed him. and was thought to be one of the bravest and most experienced generals of his time. * He sent Scopas into iEtolia with large sums of money. C. in c. J. to levy as many troops as possible . These remonstrances hcing made to Antiochus. but was disappointed. that it was such kings as were confederates and friends to the Romans should he at peace with each other. C. if iitting that 361 he would not invade that prince . 3804. 3805. M. Joseph.ALEXANDEU'S SUCCESSORS.J. retook Judaea. Dan. p. he immediately drew off his forces from the territories of king Attains. to defend himself against the invasion of the two confederate kings. When the time for continuing in his employment expired. Ant. e Hieron. sent Scopas into Palestine and Ccele-syria. a good reinforcement for the Egyptian army. threw a garrison into the citadel of Jerusalem. I. in the war which had broken out between him and Attains king of Pergamus. 3. and for this purpose he raised the best troops he could. and engaged in the service of the king of Egypt Scopas had such good success in his levies. so it. to endeavour to recover those provinces. 200. 60.199. laid aside his designs against that prince. The Romans had intrusted this general with thfe administration of Egypt. The instant he had. and. A. at the request of the Romans. Ant. n. he had flattered himself with the hopes of being continued in This gave him disgust. ^ M. 1. Excerpt. seeing Antiochus employed in Asia Minor. xxxi. he marched in person into Coele-syria. The first thing he had endeavoured was. Antiq. that he brought six thousand soldiers from iEtolia . xii. xi. He carried on the war there so successfully. the jEtolians being ^ This at that time looked upon as the best soldiers.Etolia.

subjected all Palestine and Coele-syria. He was forced to fly to Sidon. . after which he returned to Alexandria. and Scopas was obliged to accept of the ignominious conditions above-mentioned . 1. . ex Pplyl). 3. ^8Q6. Liv. 72. Excerpt. ^^ campaign was owing principally to Anlittle resistance which He no sooner arrived there in person. &c. and deliver up the keys of all their cities . xii. naked and disarmed. n. Ip.-87'8^ Exc. and content himself with having his life spared. J. and accordingly. near the source of the river Jordan. ^The instant that the Jews. they came very zealously to meet him. A. Antiq. who was returned with an army. Antiochus besieged him in it. he was forced to surrender the city. xxxii. the govern- ment of Alexandria had employed its utmost efforts to relieve him in Sidon. than the face of things changed immediately.*p. ^ Antiochus went from thence to Gaza. But Antiochus made such judicious arrangements. p. he abandoned the plunThis being done. Joseph. that being in absolute want of provisions. 1. where he shut himself up with the ten thousand men he had left. he secured der of it to his soldiers. 1. had been sent to raise the siege. 1. that all their efforts were defeated. n. 77.562 THE HISTORY OE his victories) exceeding rich spoils taken in the conquerfind by the sequel. ex Polyb. xii. Excerpt. 0. Scopas. who at that time had reason to be displeased with the Egyptians. great We success of this tiochus being absent. knew that Antiochus was advancing towards their country. }/[. ^ ^ Joseph.* Ant. IQS. 8. that the ed countries. xxxiii. having taken the city. c. Leg. was defeated at Paneas. in a battle wherein a great slaughter was made of his troops.C. Antiq. c. and victory declared in his favour. and three of the best generals at the head of the choicest troops of the state. where he met with so strong a resistance as exasperated him . and when he came to Jerusa^ Liv. and to the had therefore been made. and reduced him to such extremities. and returning back. However. the passes through which the troops were to come that might be sent from Egypt .

having thus subjected all Coele-syria and Palestine. c. ed them a great many privileges . * " To the " To the strangers scattered throughout Pontus. 1. by a particular decree. Hieron. its founder. by reuniting to it all that his predecessors had ever pos- and particularly Seleucus Nicator. especially in the gospel times. to make the like conquests in Asia Minor. for succeeding in his deto prevent the Egyptians from molesting him in sign. in his eastern expeditions. in c." whom we shall afterwards find so numerous. paid him all kinds of honour. i 1. and Bithynia. and keep the country in peace. have been made on account of who would have forced his way ^Antiochus.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and enacted. that when a sedition broke out in Phrygia and Lydia. * "* Joseph. he so many sent two thousand Jewish families to quell it. Galatia. had received services from the Jews of Babylonia and Mesopotamia. Antiq. S. Asia. and granted them a variety of From these Jews. Cappadocia. xii. would be necessary. descended many of those * who were persed or scattered abroad. and assisted him in driving out of the castle the soldiers which Scopas had In return for these services. on the very day of their sessed." 1 Pet. twelve tribes which are scattered abroad. resolved. They are thus called by St James and St Peter. transplanted extraordinary favours." Jam. to raise the empire of Syria to its pristine glory. " disat this time. the priests and elders came out in pomp to meet liim. a prohibition left in which seemed thither. . and depended so much on their fidelity. he sent Eucles the Rhodian to Alexandria. that no stranger should be allowed access to the inner part of the temple . to oiBPer his daughter Cleopatra in marriage to king Ptolemy but on this condition. '" As it . l^is new conquests. Antiochus. and that then. i. 1. xL Daniel. The great object he had in view was. 363 lem. visibly to Philopator's attempt. Antiochus grantit. that they should not celebrate their nuptials till they should be a little older . at a time that he should be at a distance from his kingdom. if possible.

For this reason. because there was but one narrow steep path in it. as this would bring him to a wide smooth road. a river of the country of the Taulantians. overwhelmed them with : * A. was obliged to have recourse Accordingly. several slight skirmishes again to arms. whatever might be the consequence. and had carried his conquests without molestation. the treaty was concluded and ratified . with him Lucius his brother to command the fleet. and afterwards retreating by steep craggy ways. he found Villius encamped in presence of Philip's army. C. between P^pirus and Illyria. I observed that Quintius Flamininus (by either of which names I shall call him hereafter) had sent out from Rome as sooh as he had been appointed consul. and to force the passes. The Romans. suffered him to carry on * I now resume the affairs of Macedonia.364 THE HISTORY OF marriage. . for a long time. were greatly annoyed the Macedonians having planted on all these rocks catapultae and balistae. M. Being arrived in Epirus. the first thing he did was to consider and examine the situation of the country. were fought in a pretty large plain . Philip having in vain made proposals of peace . hurried on by the fury of the battle. this pass he therefore was advised to take a large compass. and that the enemy were masters of the eminences . pursuing them to those places. he would give up those provinces to Eg^^t^ as his daughter's dowry. he was afraid to move too far from the sea. Having taken upon himself the command of the forces. had kept the passes and defiles along the banks of the Apsus. As seemed impracticable to an army. he resolved to go over the mountains. the Macedonians coming down in platoons from their mountains to attack the enemy. cut in the rock. 198. But. in an interview between him and the consul. from whence he had all his provisions. J. who. besides that he must have employed too much time in this circuitous march. 3806. This proposal being accepted. Ant. and the Egyptians. in which they could not agree upon terms. relying on his promises.

seeing themselves attacked both in front and rear. and promised to guide him to the top of the mountains. are struck with a panic. with a most dreadful noise and at the same time fall : upon the Macedonians. During these three days.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. whom the Romans had chained together for fear of a surprise. who. he turned off towards Macedonia. some shepherds. stones 365 and arrows. and having perceived on the mountains a great smoke. victors plundered their camp. The Romans redouble their efforts. Philip had marched at first towards Thessaly . who fed their sheep in these mountains. a person of the greatest distinction among the Epirots. he marches directly against the enemy. at day-break. Charops. not above two thousand of them were killed. Great numbers were wounded on both sides. and still fighting hand to hand against those who guarded the passes. that they knew a by-way. that it was impossible to pursue them far. came and told Flamininus. he caused his whole army to stand to their arms . the paths being so craggy and The steep. However. in three days at farthest. who secretly favourFlamininus having such a voucher. But on the fourth. led the detachment. perpetually exposed to the darts of the Macedonians. and halted at Tempe. and seized their tents and slaves. and repulse the enemy with great vigour into the most craggy ways . They brought with them as their guarantee. The latter answered from the heights. that he might be the better able to succour such cities as should be besieged. Matters being in this state. but being afraid that the enemy would follow and attack him again there. sends a general with four thousand foot and three hundred horse. in order that they might be heard by their comrades on the mountain. These shepherds. the consul contented himself with only a few slight skirmishes to amuse the enemy. which was not guarded . The consul marched by EpiruSj but did not lay w^aste . and fly with the utmost speed. and night separated the combatants. making great shouts. which was the signal agreed upon between them. ed the Romans.

Eretria and Carystus. . and in the name of Attains. l6-— 25. he had a greater regard to their present disposition. provided they would declare for the Romans. Charops excepted. cius. reinforced by those of Attains and the Rhodians. Elatia was the only city that shut her gates against him . and made so stout a defence. carried this message. although he knew that all the persons of the greatest distinction in it.366 THE HISTORY OF the country. The three united fleets were upon the point of laying siege to Corinth . the Rhoand the Athenians. as they submitted with great cheerfulness. and to deliver it up to them. a port of Corinth. the Roman fleet. than to their past fault . a conduct that won him entirely the hearts of the Epirots. was also active. so that he was obliged Whilst he was carrying on this to besiege it in form. he thought proper to offer the Achseans to make Corinth enter again into their league. They took two of the chief cities of Euboea. and. before he began it. detained him a long time. to induce the. iVtrax. they were in still greater " Liv. abandon Philip. the Lacedaemonians. garrisoned by ^lacedonians . The consul having marched into Phocis. that he at last was forced to leave " it. a city he besieged. The iEtolians and Athamanians had . however. and From thence he marched conciliated their affection. n. However. 1. . In the mean time. their perpetual enemies. xxxii.Achaeans to dians. after which. most of the cities surrendered voluntarily. and join the Romans. The Achaeans gave them audience in Sicyon. The Achaeans were very much at a loss in regard to The power of the resolution it was necessary to take. on the other side. he meditated an important design and this was. kept them in awe . into Thessaly. had opposed the Romans. the three fleets advanced towards Ccnchrea. his brother. and he already taken several cities in that country made himself master of the most considerable of them. Ambassadors sent in the consul's name by Lusiege.

But no one rose up . spoke as " follows : What then is become of that warmth and with which you used to dispute. dread of the Romans. after the resolution should be once taken ?" \ These reproaches. either for or against Philip and the Romans. could not prevail with any one of the members to give his opinion nor even occasion the least murmur. because no people greater had been so cruelly treated by him . great favours from the Macedonians . continued in a deep silence. and all. but Philip was suspected. 367 received. the least noise in this assembly. on account of his perfidy and cruelty .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. if the love of your country cannot loose your tongues. from time immemorial. the Rhodians and Philip the Athenians were appointed to speak last. the herald. oblige you to speak . as was the : —They had custom. at your tables. and afterwards those of Attains. These speeches took up the whole day. that you were ready to cut one another's throats ? And now. gazing upon one another. especially as there is none of you but knows that it will be too late. and very lately. Such was the disposition of the Achajans. and they were afraid of being enslaved by him. when the war should be terminated. Upon this Aristaenus. that all those who intended to speak might begin. and they gave a long detail of his injustice and cruelty in regard to them. The Roman ambassador spoke first. so that the assembly was put off till the morrow. in order that the assembly magistrate might not break up without doing business. virulence against the king. All the members being met. you are mute Surely. in an assembly summoned for no other purpose. in the name of the magistrates. . ought not the party zeal which has biassed each of you in private. and made by the principal magistrate. chief of the Achaeans. gave notice. after hearing the speeches and arguments on both sides. though so very numerous. and in your conversations. and composed of . in order that they might refute what They spoke with Philip's ambassador should advance. vigour. about Philip and the Romans . though so judicious and reasonable. which generally rose to so great a height.

and Attains.368 THE HISTORY Of the representatives of so many states. I possibly might act as you do . meaning is we see nothing here belonging to Philip. should have advised you. laden with the spoils of Euboea. lay waste Phocis and Locris with imlip. or dares to speak his thoughts. Is no one among you surprised to hear those who are not yet our allies. or that they should not be dismissed without some answer. are so many counsels they give. since not one among you is will- ing. that the speeches of the ambassadors which yesterday. Every body Cotf-^ tinued dumb and motionless. desire our friendship and alliance and they request us to assist them in their war against Phi. arises from the disparity of their strength and situation. with regard to the common in-Was I a pri^ terest. and the next he insists upon our observing a strict neutrality. Now. unless you authorise by a decree ? But. vate man. to take up arms in favour of the . the Rhodians. and let us we heard On the other side. whereas the Roman fleet now lies at anchor near Cenchrea. it is not either modesty in Philip. how will it : me be possible for me to make any. I perceive plainly that you v^ant courage more than counsel. but his ambassador . but being the chief magistrate of the Achaeans. at the risk of danger to himself. it is my opinion. who are but at a little distance from the fleet. demand more than he who has long been one ? Doubtless. The Romans. not for their own interest. since not one among you dares to speak his sentiments. You are surprised that Cleomedon. and sealed and ratified by an oath one moment he requires us to join with him. but purely for ours . in so fearful and reserved a manner. the latter puts us in mind of the treaty which we concluded with him. This difference in their sentiments. : weigh them matiu-ely. which prompts them to act and speak as they do. and the consul and his legions. " Chiefs Aristaenus then spoke again to this effect of the Achaeans . My *. nor temerity in the Romans. punity. Philip*^ ambassador. either that the ambassadors should not have been allowed a seat in our assembly. let us suppose for a moment.

do you.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. weakness in us. at the head of their armies. was it fear. believe. he suffered Nabis and the Lacedaemonians to ravage our lands without any opposition. Cleomedon. In my opinion. he would not have any answer to make. the Romans. that defiles of Epirus. If. last year. YI. much less would he be This we experienced able to give us any real succour. and every part of docs he suffer Elatia to be Phocis and Locris ? Why Why Why Why besieged at this instant ? Was it superior strength . at that time employed in affairs of he greater importance. and the Romans . gave their allies little or no aid. that it is possible for us Achaeans. ought to keep them from providing for their own safety ? If he was actuated by fear. instead of coming and defending us in person (we who are his ancient allies. we should require Philip to defend us against Nahis. and give made him abandon the to the enemy those insuup perable barriers. in consequence of the which he lays treaty in question. The Romans. to go and conceal himself in the most remote part of his kingdom ? If he has voluntarily abandoned so many allies to the mercy of the enemy. to make head against the Roman arms. Now. or his own will. and the mighty promises he made us. and by an ambassador . he ought to forgive the same If he has been forced to it. to which the Macedonians have been obliged to submit ? No comparison can be made between the past and the present war. the Lacedaemonians.) did he suffer against Nabis and the Romans ? Eretria and Carystus to be taken ? has he abandoned so many cities of Thessaly. but they themselves. Cleomedon seemed evidently to contradict himself in every part He spoke with contempt of the war of his speech. pretending it would have the same against success as that which they had already made with Phithen does he implore our succour at a dislip. invade TOL. tance. when. they . and of the oath on such stress. notwithstanding the express words of our alliance. which they sustained sixteen years in the very heart of do not send succours to the jEtolians. that they have put an end to the Punic war. SG9 ting against the Romans. 2 B Italy.

plundered his camp." This speech was followed by a great noise and mur- muring throughout the whole assembly. did nevertheless force him from it. suppose that we are not treating with Philip. almost in fortresses belonging his sight. The medium which is propoof our standing neuter. some applauding it with joy. the strongest I will take it for granted. before we would declare ourselves. let us ourselves have suffered from him. called Demiurgic were no less divided . so evidently adverse to our safety and preservation ? In case Nabis and his Lacedaemonians should come and invade us by land. and from whom we all have received the greatest services . when I assure you there is no medium. must either have the Romans for our friends or for our enemies . would he make a demand like that which has been insisted on to-day. Thessaly. an offer. would be the highest folly. prey to the conqueror. and others opposing it with violence. is not true . and the excesses of Philip. and slight so favourable an occasion. that we even ought to bury in everlasting oblivion the injuries we In a word. Believe what I say. which will never return.570 THE HISTORY OF Quintius. or shall we be able to defend ourselves ? Past transactions point out to us what we must expect hereafter. that the crimes which he committed in Attica do not any way affect us. celestial and infernal . sul whom they have sent against him. will infallibly render us a sed. any more than those he perpetrated in many other places against the gods. will it be possible for the king to support us against such formidable enemies. the third conPhilip both by sea and land. that we run voluntarily on our own destruction. and the Roman fleet by sea. and took. but with Antigonus. a mild and just prince. having found him in a post which seemed inaccessible. that whatever the Athenian ambassador has advanced concerning the cruelty. Tlie magistrates. and show. the avarice. who waited for the event. to offer us their We To refuse so advantageous friendship and their aid. who will not fail to attack us as cunning politicians. and they are come to us with a strong fleet. pursued him to to his allies.

and the assembly to pass. withdrew from the assembly before the decree passed : and no one took offence at tions to Philip. the majority in the assembly desiring to have the affair debated. till ambas- sadors should be sent to Rome. to inevitable ruin. upon pretence that the laws forbade both the magistrate to propose. Finding his prayers could not avail. the alliance taken. one of the bate. who had even entire conclusion of that with the Romans. was in quarrels concluded with Philip. and before his people . but the enemy of his country. without which nothing could be concluded. to let the Achaeans provide for their own safety and not expose them. All the other states. by a decree. as the laws appointed the assembly to end at that time. all ages and nations. if he did not come into his opinion. declared that each of them would deliberate upon the affair in his assembly. and some of the Argives. The next day. His obstinacy. Memnon of Pellene. among five 371 Of these. considering him not as his son. and the people discovering plainly enough their own sentiments. and ingratitude is abhorred every where.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. the Dymeans. to obtain the ratification from the people. that he at last suffered himself to yield to paternal authority. because they had particular obligavery lately done them Gratitude is a virtue common to considerable services. entreated and conjured him a long time. when the votes were to be confirmed immediately. There remained but one day more. three ambassadors were sent to . with Attains and the Rhodians . themselves. who were ten in number. he swore that he would kill him with his own hands. The debates grew so hot. any decree contrary to the alliance This day was entirely spent and tumultuous cries. . In the mean time. and suspended the this. by his father. Megalopolitans. five magistrates who refused to refer the de- whose name w^as Rhisiases. with regard to what was to be concluded in it. These terrible menaces made such an impression on Memnon. and the other five protested against it. that fathers could scarce forbear striking their sons.

Corinth and Argos-^ before concluded with the . T. and always repulThere was in Corinth a great numsed the Romans. Lucius at last acquiesced in the advice of Attains. who. which Lucius. At the same time. having before taken Cenchrea. ber of Italian deserters. at first carried They on the attack but very faintly. in case the city was taken. expected no quarter from the Romans. thrown a fresh reinforcement into the city. Quintius the consul was employed in the siege of Elatia. and afterwards the citadel. not- withstanding the alliance which the Achaeans had just Romans. the machines of war w^ere made to approach on all sides. Philip still possessed two of their strongest cities. Atsiege was raised. and therefore Philocles. However. one of Philip's captains. the consul's hrother. where he was more successful .372 Quintius . tains and the Romans returned on board the fleets* The former sailed to the Piraeeus. Whilst the fleets besieged Corinth. which the besieged sustained with great vigour. THE HISTORY OF and the whole army of the Achseans marched had al- to Corinth. for. finding the city was quiet. ready besieged. and the latter to Corcyra. found means to deliver up their city to Philocles. after the besieged had made a stout and vigorous resistance. such of the inhabitants of Argos as had declared for Philip. and having the Romans despairing to force it. Thus. fought in despair. one of his generals. and accordingly the The Acha^ans being sent away. he took the city. from the that a quarrel would soon arise between the garhopes rison and the inhabitants. and various assaults were made.

o Liv. Polyb. Quintius complied very readily. either to continue the war. The Roman general was accompanied by Amynander. Flamininus defeats Philip in a battle near Scotussa and consul. Pheneas. our busiP We 371. p. C. Philip answered them . A. M. in Flamin. and recruits were sent him. to desire an interview. The time and place being agreed upon. loith He command as pro- has a fruitless intervieio Cynoscephale in Thessaltj. or to dispose matters so as to bring about a peace. Philip was attended by -several Macedonian noblemen. and Cycliadus. one of the chiefs of the Achaeans. n. J. p. . when Pliilip sent a herald to him. n. SECT. A peace concluded xvith Philip. . Quintius had taken up his winter-quarters in Phocis and Locris. 32—37. New consuls were appointed at Rome The season being already advanced. P Ibid. when proclanary joy of mation is made that they are restored to their ancient liberty by • the Romans. interrupted him in these words : " are not met here merely about words . ta^ declare for the Romans. 1. Flamini7i7is is continued in the 373 III. king of Athamania. in case he should be continued in the command. 27 & 28. L xvii. if a successor were appointed him.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and as he began to inveigh against the iEtolians. Quintius made his proposals. Philip about cona peace. Flamininus was continued in his command. 197- Plut. because he did not yet know what had been resolved upon at Rome with regard to himself . their magistrate. The /EtoliauJij and Nab'is^ tyrant of Sparchuling Sickness and death of Attalus. whom that people had banished a little before. and a conference would give him the liberty. but as the slow which had been made in the affairs of Maceprogress donia was justly ascribed to the frequent changing of those who were charged with them. and by deputies from all the allies.Ant. 3807. The extraordi^ which puts an end to the Macedonian war. the Greeks at the Isthmian games. 742—752. xxxii. and every one of the allies their demands. both parties met. After some disputes with regard to the ceremonial.

wards called in. that in case he should continue possessed of Demetrias in Thessaly. ridiculing * Philip was very fond of jests. plied Philip. either to conquer sword in hand. decet. they met again the next day. (cities which he himself justly. might be suspended till the next day promising that he himself would comply. and he now merely requested time for sending ambassadors to Rome." Pheneas. Being arrived there. After this.tolians and Achaeans might not ly. and they were upon the point of breaking off the conference. but they endeavoured particularly to prove. he earnestly entreated Quintius and the allies not to oppose a peace . and accordingly a truce was agreed upon. those of the allies were heard first. which it was believed he did purpose^. though insolently. They inveighed heavily against Philip upon se- veral accounts . or accept of such as the senate might require. This first interview being spent in altercation. in case it were not in his power to At their next meeting. et ne inter seria qui* dem risu satis temperans." .) it would be impossible for that country to The king's ambassadors were afterenjoy its liberty. even in treating on the most serious affairs — A : a behaviour very unbecoming in a prince. They could not refuse so reasonable a demand ." rethe most powerful. not one approved them . called the shackles of Greece. bring them into his opinion. but on condition that his troops should immediately leave Phocis and Locris. by the situation of the places. As they began a prolix harangue. the several parties sent ambassadors to Rome. promising. or to submit to " blind man may see that. He had a private conference with Quintius. whose sight was bad. Philip came very late to the place of meeting. having acquainted the confederates with his proposals. and could not refrain from them. either to agree to a peace on the conditions which he himself should prescribe. in order that the have time sufficient for answering him. Chalcis in Euboea. they * " Erat dicacior natui'a quam regem Liv.374 THE HISTORY OF ness is. when Philip desired that the decision . and Corinth in Achaia. who.

xxxii. p. in case he should be victorious in this war . were not molested further .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. 38—40. of Quintius. and the second. and treated with the utmost indignity. generally hung out to win the affections of the common people. He therefore would not agree to an interview with Philip and sent to acquaint him. than by a treaty of peace. 372. or discovering only part of them. Those who gave their money readily and cheerfully. tyrant of Sparta. were cruelly whipped with rods like so many slaves. and taxed in very heavy sums. by way of preliminary. At length Nabis having summoned the assembly. By this he perceived that the senate would not be dissatisfied at the latter . either to conclude a peace. and exasperate them against the rich. which he was to surrender back to him. or carry on the war. The tyrant soon forgot from whom. but only as a trust. to preserve the cities of Achaia. the first decree he enacted was for abolishing of debts . but. whether they would give up the three cities in question or not ? Having answered. he then was to The tyrant accepting the condipossess it as his own. Immediately the houses and possessions of such of the principal men as had fled were plundered and those w^ho staid behind were robbed of all their gold and silver. that hereafter he would never agree to any proposals he might offer with regard to peace. seriously engaged in making the neces- As it would be difficult for sary preparations for war. and on what con* ' Liv. that no orders or instructions had heen given them on that head. but such as were either suspected of concealing their riches. and he himself was much better pleased to put an end to the war by a victory. for dividing the lands This is the double bait equally among the citizens. tions. they were sent hack. 1. : . was brought in the night into the city. if he did not engage . in Flarain. he thought him it expedient to deliver up Argos to Nabis. on account of their great distance from his hereditary dominions. <i Philip now entirely to quit Greece. 375 were interrupted. without Jbeing It was left to the option gratified in a single demand. if things should fall out otherwise. n. and asked at once. Plut.

the Etonians insisted that Nabis should furnish them with troops. famous for his injustice and cruelty. but would consent only to a four months' truce with the The treaty was concluded on those condiAchaeans. when. 2. reflects dishonour on the Romans but in war. soldiers think themselves .B76 THE HISTORY OF dition he held the city. Accordingly. either separately or in company . in He which he hoped that they would agree. but also their richest clothes. sent ambassadors to Quintills and to Attains. This alliance with such a tyrant as Nabis. and all their precious stones ' and jewels. . with some ambassadors ing. and deprived them of all a little after he sent his wife thither. to secure the alliance of the Boeotians. the spring was come (for the incidents I have here related happened in the winter. to their riches use the ladies in the same manner. They were secretly favoured and supported by at When Antiphilus the chief magistrate. had plundered : Nabis.) Quintius and Attains resolved. if possible. to Thebes. to the conditions of a treaty which he was desirous His proposal was accepted: of concluding with them. . xxxiii. 1. without difficulty. so intions. The Baotians thought first that they had come without forces and unguard^ Liv. 1. who till then had been uncertain and waverIn this view they went. all the men. to acquaint them that he was master of Argos . after putting a strong garrison into Argos. which was the capital of the country. allowed to take all advantages. n. the proconsul and the king had an interview with him near Argos a step which seemed very unbecoming the dignity of either. in consequence of which. at the expense even of honour and equity. In this meeting. and discontinue the war with the Acha?ans. The tyi'ant agreed to the first article. and to invite them to an interview. partly by civility and partly by threats. not only all their gold. of the confederates. their most valuable furniture. and the place where the common assembly met. she extorted from them at different times. she sent for the women of the greatest distinction.

1S77 but were greatly surprised when they saw Quintms followed by a considerable" detachment of troops. and indeed it would have been of no use. It was summoned to meet on the morrow. 101. 21. gave him an opportunity of enlarging his dominions. and laid greater stress on the fidelity of the Romans. directed and tempered by prudence. he was carried to Pergamus. which entirely secured him behind. and seemed half dead . 1. and gave him an opportunity of eraploying his whole attention and efforts on the side of him at Thebes. Liv. Achajans. which interrupted their deliberations Aristajuus. Being hurried away by his zeal for the Romans. . or speak against it. so that they were forced to carry him out of the assembly. where he died soon after. p.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. when an alliance with the Romans was unanimously resolved upon . in Excerpt. no one daring to oppose. Quinand returned to Elatia highly satisfied with the double alliance he had concluded with the Achaeans and Boeotians. he fell down in the midst of his speech. xxxiv. As Attalus's disorder did not tius left of the seem dangerous. and expatiated on the services which his ancestors and himself had done to all Greece. to whom great riches are generally the occasion of plunging into vices and irregularities of His generous and magnificent use of riclievery kind. es. Afterwards the votes were taken. Polyb. Polybius observes. and even dangerous. captain-general : for some time. spoke next and after him Quintius. 102. than on their power or arms. However. aged threescore and twelve years. Attalus spoke first. Macedonia. of which he had reigned forty-four. and of adorning s . ?ed . As soon as Attalus had recovered a little strength. n. to have discovered them. who said but little . they concealed tlicir grief and surprise . that Attalus did not imitate most men. . and the republic of the Boeotians in particular. whence they immediately judged that things would be -carried on in an arbitrary manner in the assembly. and speaking with greater vehemence than suited his age.

Eumenes. and thought rich. He left four sons. and perfectly discharged all the duties of a king. where he was informed the enemy were also arrived . in order to terminate the war by a battle. and in purHe governed his subjects with the chasing friends. and each consisted of about twenty-five or twenty-six thousand men. and having only two being . a tentowards his allies. and of a private man. .378 himsolf with the THE HISTORY OF title of king. in Polyb. c. or three iavelins in his hand. 373. Attains. 754—762. the Romans did not leave above three. Here Polybius*^ and Livy who frequently copies him. . Besides. and always observed inviolable fidelity was a generous friend. He imagined he was that he might do good to others . which made them so much the heavier besides. he commanded his soldiers to cut stakes. Among the former. *The armies on both sides had set out upon their The inarch. and Athenajus. Quintius advanced into Thessaly. when tied together. Philetaerus. xxxiii. or at most four branches to each stake they cut. xvii. greater Plut. p. Flamin. 4. forces were pretty equal on both sides. p. of whonti we shall have occasion to speak in the sequel. He der husband. Liv. an affectionate father . Justin. strictest justice. 1. but being unable to discover exactly the place where they were encamped. xxx. they consequently Now could not easily carry stakes at the same time. and all of them on the same side. n. 372. the latter kind of stakes do ^ much 3—11. as the arms of the Grecian soldiers were so ponderous that they could scarce support them. the best stakes were those round whose trunk a great number of branches were spread. only that he put out his money at a high and very lawful interest. 1. in order to make use of them upon occasion. show the different manner in which the Greeks and llomans used th(j stakes with which they fortified their camp. especially his buckler as he was not incommoded with his arms thrown over his shoulders. 1. in expending it in acts of bounty. In this manner the soldier was able to carry two or three of them.

which relate to the usages and practices of war. it yet was imAnd yet. could be carried with ease. their branches being so closely interwoven. as they were so closely entwined. that it was impossible to pull up one without forcing away several others at the same time. and were a strong palisade to a camp.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. they at last were forced out of their places. besides which. Though two or three men put their whole strength to them. 379 Those of the Greeks might very easily be pulthis stake. all the ends of them were sharp- But even supposing any hold could have been pointed. and by that means open a way to enter the camp not to mention that all the stakes near it must necessarily have been loosened. : to whom they may furnish useful hints : and. laid on them. in which the iEtolian ca- . he marched out at the head of all his forces. possible for them to force the stakes away. first. by the Romans . that there was no moving it and secondly. to those of the Greeks they were to be had every where. service. which could not easily be broken through. yet the stake could not easily be torn up. As . commonly please persons of the military profession. two or branches of three soldiers could easily pull it out. was and besides. made by so great a master as Polybius. These sort of digressions. because it was driven so deep in the ground. led up. in my opiany re- ought to neglect nothing that conduce to the public utility. even if by shaking and moving them about. those stakes by thrusting his hand into the branches. still the opening made in that manner was almost imperceptible. I may in After the general had taken the precautions abovementioned. spect nion. After some slight skirmishes. because the branches were so closely interwoven. as the rest single and detached from the it were strong and many in number. that no vacant place was left . . because their branches were too short to interweave one But it was not so with the stakes cut with the other. Thus these kind of stakes were preferable. . that it was scarce possible to discover the stake Nor could any man pull up to which they belonged. for two reasons . on three accounts. whose trunk was large.

At first. the two armies halted near Scotussa. The Romans. When this reinforcement joined the first detachment. despatched Heraclides. rains. and about Quintius a thousand light-armed troops. which. with five hundred horse. and with them two tribunes. who commanded that of Macedonia. under whom were all the hired soldiers. both ^^. that a man could scarce see two paces before him. Philip then detached a body of troops. and at the same time directed them in the strongest terms to beware of ambuscades. each of whom commanded a thousand men. the courage of the Macedonians revived. being severely handled. they returned to the charge. wliich separated his also camp from that of the Romans. The Macedonians behaved valiantly enough . and the sky beginning to clear up. so very gloomy. Exceeding hea- vy before. to reconnoitre the enemy . both parties were a little surprised at meeting. having fallen the night the next day was so cloudy and dark. those of Thrace excepted. Quintius immediately sent Archedamus and Eupolemus. joining the former. who had detached a party of his soldiers for forage. and drove the Romans from the hills. their general of wliat was going forward. had it not been for the resistance made by the ^Etolian cavalry. despatched a courier to their camp to desire a reinforcement. soon changed the face of the engagement.tolians . and Athenagoras. as the weather was This detachment met that of the Macedonians which had seized the eminences. with orders to seize upon the summit of the hills called Cynoscephalae. and from thence sent to the king for succour. courage and intrepidity. and afEach party sent advice to terwards began to skirmish. detached ten squadrons of horse. they fled to the hills. who commanded the Thessalian cavalry. who fought with This was the best of astonishing all the .S80 THE HISTORY OF ^ valry signalized themselves and were always victorious. Philip. They even would have gained a complete victory. Leo. being informed of the danger his first troops were in. attended with thunder. but being oppressed with the weight of their arms.

Italy and Spain." Justin. alteri Orientis. 381 Grecian cavalry. as they now were to fight. that had it not been for their bravery. adding. on one . Fired ^ these the soldiers. and to say all in a word. to valiant minds. subdued by their victori- ous arms . that the Romans were terrified and fled. alii virentcm recentibus experimentis virtutis florem.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Indians. and accordingly. took breath a little. ferentesque in bellum. and that the time was come for defeating them entirely. by speeches. that they ought now to behave with the greater courage. who. in a word. which. this very Philip. which ought to rouse their courage the more. Sicily and Carthage . if not superior to Alexander. in this instant which was animated their troops by all the most affecting motivea. alii majorum suorura antiquam et obsoletam gloriam. the Persians. driven out of Italy by their triumphant arms : and. all Asia and the whole East. and afterwards returnenemy they ed to the tiglit. alteri Occidentis imperio gloriantes. whom they now were going to engage. These so well sustained the impetuous charge of the Macedonians. who besought him to lead them on to battle . Hannibal. leaders on each side. the great Hannibal. praelio concurrunt. Philip was not pleased either with the place or the weather. But for liberty. Couriers came every moment to inform Philip. certainly equal. soldiers in order of battle. Bactrians. is more dear and valuable than the empire of the universe. Philip represented to his soldiers. . he marched them out of his intrenchThe proconsul did the same. The proconsul put his soldiers in mind of the victories they had so lately gained on one side. defeated by them more than once. but could not withstand the repeated shouts and entreaties of his soldiers. The going to determine their fate. the Romans would have been At some distance from the repulsed into the valley. and obliged to fly before them. and drew up his ments. * " His adhortationibus utrinque concitati milites. subdued by the Romans . not for -sovereignty. on the other. and was particularly famous for skirmishes and single combats.

and to close their ranks on the right. placed the elephants in the front of this wing . This being done. Quintius had also. and marching with a haughty and intrepid air. led on the left wing against the enemy hi person. as he charged with impetuosity from the heights with his phalanx on the Romans. and in exceeding want of suj)port. the former. he was obliged to sustain them. Flamininus. Philip's right wing had visibly all the advantage. received into his intervals those who had begun the fight. The onset being begun. he commands the phalanx to march toward them with their pikes presented.5821 side. However. receives such of his troops as had been repulsed . and whose front presented . Philip with his light-armed troops. and the light-armed to extend beyond them on the right and left. posts them. on his right wing . and the right wing of his phalanx. at the same time. whether horse or foot. and engage in a general battle. elated witli the glorious aciiievements of their ancestors. the latter could not sustain the shock of troops so well closed and covered with their shields. for. prepared on each side for hattle. called THE HISTORY OF themselves victors of the East . and found his light-anned troops engaged. return to the charge. and the latter. having commanded the right wing not to move from its post. and now charged the Macedonians. proud of the tropliics and the victories they had so lately gained. and begin the attack. hastened towards the mountains . though the greatest part of his phalanx was still upon their march towards the hills where he then was. When he approached the Roman camp. commanding Nicanor to march the rest of the army immediately after him. and on the other. as the Romans were near. and commands the light-armed soldiers and the phalanx to double their files. he was exceedingly pleased at the sight. not long after seeing them give way. conquerors of the West . And now the skirmishers seeing themselves supported by the legions. In the mean time he. each side sent up the most dreadful cries.

on account of the unevenness and ruggedness of the ground. it would draw r wing although victorious. was. judging at first of the rest of the battle from the advantage he had obtained in his wing. and put it in disorder. and the closeness of its ranks. Philip. and charged vigorously the left wing of the Macedonians . As its ranks were broken and separated by the hillocks and uneven ground. On this occasion a tribune. throw down after it the other their arms. an impenetrable hedge of obhgetl to give way. and a?barges them in the rear with all his troops. The phalanx. cannot face about to the rear. not being able to defend themselves. made a movement that contributed very much to the victory. But when he saw his soldiers throw down their arms. As this wing. The tribune breaks into it. who had not above twenty companies under him. persuaded that if he could but break it. assured himself of a complete victory. it was entirely defeated. when per- . he leaves the right where he was (it not being in want of support). he drew off with a body of troops to some distance from the field of battle. Observing that Philip. and fly. What increased the slaughter ral- who had given way. nor double its ranks to give it depth. and the Macedonians. which was but just arrived. Quintius flew to his right wing. and from thence took a survey of the whole engagement. he marches tov>ards the phalanx of the enemy's right wing. having were returned to attack the phalanx in front at the same time. and consulting only his own reason. in which the whole strength of that body consists. killing all before him as he advanced . nor fight man to man. and the Romans pouring upon them from behind. and the present disposition of the armies. The event answered his expectation. 383 The Romans were with regard to Philip's left wing. who was at a great distance from the rest of the army^ was charging the left wing of the Romans with vigouv. on account of the prodigious length of the pikes. could not keep in the form of a phalanx. that the Romans lied.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. But it was different pikes.

Thus ended the battle of Cynoscephalse. and the Macedonians thirteen thousand.58^ THE HISTORY OF ceiving that the Romans. Philip retired to Tempe. and five thousand were taken prisoners. after having got together the prisoners and the rest of the spoils. On the morrow. affecting to humble their pride on all occasions. so that returned. her got together all the Thracians and Macedonians he could assemble. The Romans lost about seven hundred men in this battle. was still more enraged at them for their insolent reports in regard to their superior valour. and never informed them of any thing relating to public affairs. who was already offended at. After the battle. where he halted to wait for those who had escaped the defeat. in every part of which victory had declared for the Romans. without reserve or modesty. Quintius. who pursued his left vAng. that the Romans might not have an opportunity of distressing any of his friends. He had been so prudent as to send orders to Larissa to burn all his papers. for their greedy impatience in seizing the plunder without waiting for the Ramans. they found" scarcely any thing in it. declaring. had certainly signalized themselves in and contributed very much to the victory : but they were so vain. or rather insolent. as to ascribe the success of it entirely to themselves . each side loading the other with the grossest invectives. The if!tolirais this battle. and afterwards quaiTelled outright. They reproached them at first on that account. extended almost to the summit of the mountains. The ^tolians were accused of having occasioned Philip's escape. From that time he behaved with great coldness towards them. The Romans pursued for some time those who fled. and endeavoured to save himself by flight. . that they were far better soldiers than the Romans and spread this report throughout all Greece. they marched towards Larissa. for they amused themselves camp. whilst the the Romans were employed when they in plundering hisin pursuing enemy . them. whereof eight thousand died in the field.

if the latter had not corrupted him with bribes . to obtain an interview with him. in reality. general set out. he might perhaps have remedied every thing. with the confederates. and they were not ashamed to spread such reports among the allies. at a distance. to which the resentment of the i¥. he paved the way. to enquire what they thought of the conditions of peace.^iltolians Some days after the battle. 4 ^85 Tliese reports seem to have made too strong an imon Quintius. and judged of their disposition from their own. Amynander. Philip sent ambassadors^ to Flamininus. for that open defection. who did not act witli due prucleuce and caution towards allies so useful to the RoJ)ressioii mans . and that this nlight be very easily effected. 2 c : . proVOL. which w as at the entrance of Tempe. Alexander the j^tolian spoke next. said. ears to and many things. norant of what the .iitEXANDEK'S SUCCESSORS. who spoke in the name of the rest. with the character of the Romans. But had he dissembled wisely. The proconsul agreed to both requests. and said. they imagined that Flamininus would not have appeared favourable to Philip. He assembled them before the king arrived. vx. The ^tolians were highly offended at this spond. for by thus alienating their affection. would be to drive Philip out of his kingdom . and was so polite as to bid the mes" that he desired him not to desenger tell the king. that such a treaty for the appointed place of meeting. who was at Larissa. but. The Roman ought to be concluded.tolians afterwards carried them. that in concluding a peace with Philip. he was greatly mistaken that the only way to put an end to the j\Iacedonian war. that if the proconsul imagined. king of Athamania. upon pretence of desiring a truce for burying their dead . or lasting liberty for the Greeks. had he shut his eyes and appeared sometimes igmight say or do improperly. he should procure a solid peace for the Romans. as might enable Greece to preserve peace and liberty even in the absence of the Romans." As these people were not well acquainted message.

he sat down. rier against the Tln*acians and the Gauls. if he should escape the present danger. and humanity. neas. or other power. never once mentioned depriving Philip Should victory inspire us with such a of his kingdom. j'Etolians. ? How shameful are such sentiments When an design enemy attacks us in the field. rcjoncileable war against Philip . or the interest of Greece. Greece. that it should not be enThat kingdom serves them as a bartirely destroyed. but when he is fallen. and that of the council. After corroborating what he had advanced with several reasons. would soon form new projects. * who. having represented. for that purpose. it is our business to repel him with bravery and haughtiness . but have always been inclined to grant him a peace. praetor of the J^^tolians. llomans. in the assemblies wliich were held yourselves. It is not nsiial with the Romans. A number of Gauls had settled in the countries adjoining ." says he. " You Quintius. that then a peace should be granted him. were they not checked by it. ! gentleness. . my views. that the kingdom of Ma- no but it cedonia should be less powerful than formerly less concerns their welfiirc. in very strong terms.SB6 THE HISTORY OF vided he would take the advantage of the present occasion." Flamininus concluded with declaring. and that the /Etolians might adopt whatPhaeever resolution they pleased on this occasion. as they have frequently done before. that his opinion. addressing himself to Alexander . that if Philip would promise to observe faithfully all the conditions which the allies had formerly prescribed. I confess. that Philip. to ruin him entirely and of this Hannibal and the Carthaginians are a manifest As to myself. would certainly pour down upon . I never intended to make an irproof. it is their interest. it is the duty of the victor to show moderation. With regard to the Greeks. '* either the character of the do not know. after having consulted the senate about it . and light * great to Thiace. after they have engaged in war with a king. was. whenever he should yield You to the conditions that should be prescribed him.

. and spoke with so much prudence and wisdom. as hostages . "Whilst these measures were concerting to bring about a general peace. the whole council were silent. Flamininus should return Philip the This being done. in order to make an irruption into Europe. concerned sent deputations to Home . were undertaken in several places. which were altogether improper. Androsthe- xxxiii. and some of his friends. and others to throw obstacles in its way. and for that reason entirely . of little importance. all the honour of that war ^vould be ascribed to him. " Liv. that Antiochus. he would rely entirely on the discretion of the senate. his having advice. He declared that he would accept. whatever conditions the llomans and the allies should prescribe . whereupon he received four * hundred talents from him.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Only Pha^neas the Ji^tolian started some difficulties. 14—19. and thereby might gain time. But what prompted Flamininus to urge the conclu- sion of the peace was. and execute. n. and that with regard to every thing else. at the head of an army. some expeditions. up a fresh : S87 war " I shall take care of that. These reasons prevailed with him to grant the king a four months' tnice . the parties separated." The next day Philip arrived at the place appointed for the conference and three days after. the council being met again. the several talents and the hostages. that in case a peace should not be concluded. He appre- hended that Philip might think of putting his cities into a condition of defence. Upon these words. he was sensible that should another consul come in his stead. Besides. as they should prescribe. disregarded. took Demetrius his son. and gave him permission to send to Rome to receive such further conditions from the senate. after having mutually promised. some to parties solicit peace. he came into it. * Four hundred thousand French crowns. as softened the whole assembly." replied the " and shall take effectual methods to put it proconsul out of his power to undertake any tiling against us. was marching out of Syria. Matters being thus adjusted. 1. .

from Quintius. some beir^ for Philip. fc 27—^9. News being brought of the victory gained at Cynoscephalae. the majority were for peace. and attacked him at a time when his troops were dispersed up and down the plains. After this expedition. Excerpt. Legat. 24. containing the particulars of his victory over Philip. the whole country submitted to the conquerors. a small country : in Caria. L. the ambassadors arrived to treat of the intended peace with the king of Macedonia.C. belonged to them. Each of the ambassadors made long speeches. the time for the election of consuls become. during five days. p. in danians. repulsed the Darwho had made an inroad into his kingdom. used his utmost endeavours to break the treaty. donians. ^ Polyb. consisting of above six thousand men he was defeated in a battle by Nicostratus. and afterwards to the people . J. were ordered. A. to thank the gods for the pratection they had granted the Romans in the war against Philip. 793. xxxiii.M. 580«. 794. praetor of the Achaeans. Liv. and others for the Romans. but all to no purpose . The latter had laid siege to Leucas. They were first read before the senate. The affair was debated in the senate. according to their respective views and interests . and ratified the conditions. the king retired to Thessalonica. n. at last. and plundering the The Acarnanians were divided in their sencountry. and had been unjustly taken from them by the MacePhilip. . but. who passionately desired to command the armies in Greece. order to take advantage of the ill state of his affairs. timents. Ant. as they pretended.J96. THE HISTORY OF who commanded under the king. At the same time the Rhodians took Perea.388 ues. Some days after. on the other side. and public prayers. at Corinth. The same affair being brought before the people. 1. Marcellus. who came upon him unawares. Claudius Maring At the same time letters arrived cellus were chosen. Furius Pur]7urco and M. had a considerable body of troops. for the people approved of Flamininus's proposal. * At Rome. which.

who had set out from Rome to settle the affairs of Greece. arrived soon in that counThe chief conditions of the treaty of peace. xxxiii. «89 The citizens to senate then appointed ten of the most illustrious go into Greece. 374—376. who. in Fkm. the affairs of that country. Plut. Nevertheless. Among the hostages required of him. both in Asia and Europe. were as fol- low : That : all : : y Polyb. and Corinth. Legat. had broken out in Boeotia. 795—800.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The the otlier * cities of Greece. is cities as were subject to Philip. between the of Philip and those of the Romans. in order to settle. fifty every year by way of tribute. and deliver up to them ^11 the ships that had decks. one half immediately. 1. it was not attended with any ill consequences. t About 190. and the other half in ten years. 30—35. to the great satisfaction of the Greeks. Excerpt. Demetrias. who accordingly was sent to Rome. which try. because the Romans thought it necessary to garrison Chalcis. which rose partizans to a great height. Antiochus seeing his power considerably increased by his glo- -they settled in concert with Flamininus.be fee. n. should evacuate those in which he then had garrisons that he should restore to the Romans all the prisoners and deserters. before the celebration of the Isthmian games. A sedition ten commissioners. Liv. and very happily for Rome. should . and be governed by their own laws That Philip. part of put here in opposition to such of the Grecian which only were restored to their liberties. For. and In the same assembly. the Achtcsecure its liberties. not to mention Hannibal. might still have an opportunity of iinding the Romans considerable employment. * This word olfier. p. ans desired to be received as allies of the people of Rome : but that affair meeting with some difficulties. p. it was re- ferred to the ten commissioners. though vanquished. was Demetrius his son. In this manner Flamininus ended the ^Macedonian war. and that he the galley having sixteen benches of rowers should pay f a thousand talents . the proconsul having soon appeased y it. five feluccas excepted. .000/. in conjunc- tion with Flamininus.

at most. and Demetrias. to prevent their being seized by Antiochus. and in as great dangers. was at that time meditating to carry his arms into Europe. had not foreseen what would come to pass. These complaints made the proconsul so much the more uneasy. Chalcis. hy his great prudence. with which specious term the llomans covered : their interested views cities : that they indeed suffered the to enjoy their freedom . and inveighed privately against it among the confederates. Eretria. Chalcis. pursuant to the instruc- tions they had received from Home. as they were not altogether without founits . but it was resolved there. all Greece. As soon as this treaty of peace was known. affirming. it is certain the Romans would have been engaged in as many battles. but that they seemed to reserve to themselves those of Europe. ^tolia excepted. . had only changed its sovereign. Demetrias. advised Flamininus to restore all the Greeks to their liberty . which had acquired him the surname of Great. and this for a fears time only. The commissioners. received the news of it with imiversal The inhabitants of the latter country seemed disjoy. had the war against Antiochus been joined. satisfied. and to put strong garrisons into them.590 THE HISTORY OP rious exploits. therefore. as well as in' the two cities of Chalcis and Demetrias . and had not speedily concluded this peace . with the war carrying on against Philip . that it was nothing but empty words that tlie Greeks were amused with the name of liberty . was not freed from in Asia chains and. strictly speaking. If. that a He strong garrison should be put into the citadel. in the midst of Greece. dation. as those they had been obliged to sustain in the war against Hannibal. Flamininus. till they should be entirely rid of their with regard to Antiochus. but to keep possession of the cities of Corinth. obtained. in the council. and had the two greatest and most powerful kings then in the world (uniting their views and interests) made head against Home at the same time . That therefore Greece. as Oreum. to have Corinth set at liberty . and Corinth. which were the keys of Greece .

. 32. THE MaGNESIANS. intcrrogabant. THePtHIOT ACH^ANS. ut n\illius nee animi nee oculi spcctaculo intcnti esscnt. majus gaudium fuit. all the spectators were filled with excess of joy. when. ut facile appareret. toticsquc pertincret. At these words. AND THE PERRHiEBIANS . AND ORDAIN THAT THEY SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THEIR RESPECTIVE LAWS AND USAGES. They gazed upon. Vix satis credere se quisque audisse alii alios intueri mirabundi velut somnii vauam speciem quod ad qucm: quc suarum aurium fidei minimum credentcs. the Phocians. a herald comes forward. nihil gratius. the multitude being assembled in tlie stadium to see the games. and various opinions were entertained concerning them . The conditions of tlie treaty of peace. DECLARE THEM FREE. It was for the herald to repeat the proclathought necessary mation. the Corinthians. 391 It was now the time in which the Istlimian games were to be solemnized and the expectation of what was there to he transacted. and could not believe either their eyes or ears .ith astonishment. having overcome Philip and the Macedonians. and questioned one another. and publishes with a loud voice : . Adeo unum gaudium prtcoccupaverat ouuiium aliarum sensum voluptatum. The senate and pkopee of Rome. — repetitus. which were not yet entirely made pnhlic. All Greece was in this uncertainty. THE ThESSALIANS. the EuBCEANS.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and imposts. 1. esse. set at liberty from all garrisons. had drawn thither an incrcdihle multitnde of people. and Titus QuiNTius the general. and persons of the highest rank. so like a dream was what they then saw and heard. but very few could be pei-suaded. quam libcrtatcm." Liv.v. the Locrians. and taxes. formed the topic of all conversations. proximos Revocatus pra?co iterum pronunciare eadem. vvhich was now listened to with the most pro* " Audita voce praeconis. quam quod universum homines caperent. omnium bonorum multitudini Ludicrum dcinde ita raptim perac- tum est. Turn ab certo jam gaudio tantus cum clamore plausus est ortus.* which many heard but imperfectly. xxxiii. that the Romans would evacuate all the cities they had taken. n. because of the noise that interrupted them.

) and the joy which so glorious a day gave him. as that which arises from doing good to mankind. aut propinquse vicinitatis pro libertate aliorum raaria trajiciat. bellagerat : nee hoc finitimis. to so refined a joy. whether any mortal ever -(experienced a more happy or a more glorious day than this was for Flamininus and the lloman people ? What are all the triumphs of the world in comparison with what we have seen on this occasion ? Shoidd we heap together all the trophies. humanity. when opposed to of goodness. that the sea resounded with them at a great distance . in terris gentera. all the conquests of Alexander and the greatest captains. The remembrance * of so delightful a day. Roman dergo the fatigue of it. . to so affecting and exquisite a glory. how little woidd they appear. for so great was the general joy upon this occatrue it is. sustained and enabled him to un. suo labore ac periculo. and of the * " •tlies Nee praesens omnium modo effusa laetitia est . none are as libeity The games and sports were hurried over. fell down in the stadium : so the blessings of this life. And indeed 1 would ask. to salute him. so that not a single word of the decree was lost. to kiss his hand and throw crowns and festoons of flowers over him he would have run the hazard of being pressed to death by the crowd. all the victories. n^' hominibusj aut terris continent! junctis prsstet : . which happened to fly that instant over the assembly. without any attention being paid to them . all the people ran in crowds and every one being eager to general see his deliverer. quse sua impensa.three years old. sed per multos Esse aliquam gratis et cogitationibus et sermonibus revocata. And now fully assured of their happiness. that they are not so sensible as they ought to be. and broke into such loud and repeated acclamations. and some ravens. had not the vigour of his years (for he was not above thirty. Th€ games to the being ended. that of all so dear to mankind ! sion. and justice ? this single action It is a great mis- fortune to princes.392 THE HISTORY OF found silence. they abandoned themselves again to the highest transports of joy. that it extinguished all other sentiments.

at their own expense and the hazard of their lives. and That by a single word. its vataining so many wars. audacis anirai fuisse : ad effeoatque Asia? urbcs. ' Plut. people in the world." said they. Agesilaus. injustum imperium et ubique jus. Jo. to destroy and extirpate unjust power from the earth. it acquired the greatest and noblest of all prizes for which mankind can contend. who. served for the Romans. in Flamin. n. engaged in a war for the liberty of other nations . herald. but wlio crossed seas. or losing scarce one man. jusprudence the great battles which " After sus" never was tice is most rare. lex potentissima sint. universally. and the most consummate 2 virtue. not for strangers foreigners. games . was continually renewand for a long time formed the only subject of conone cried versation at all times and in all places. . Una voce praeconis liberatas omnes Gntcite Hoc spe concipere. Valour and are rare at all times .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Nicias. but that to execute it was the effect at once of the highest good fortune. Lysander. but then it was for themselves and their country. That a great soul only could have formed such a design . not for their neighbours or people situated on the same continent. had great abilities for carrying on war. liberty had been restored to all the cities of Greece and Asia." Liv. and a kind of " That there was a enthusiasm. that. and Alcibiades." They called to mind all Greece had fought for the sake of liberty. and .ed. S93 valuable blessing then bestowed. but of all virtues. virtutis et fortunse ingentis. fas. and gaining battles both by sea and land . they fought. P>erj^ in the highest transports of admiration. lour crowned with so blessed a reward. that almost without shedding a drop of blood. turn adducere. equity. It was then. law. and sailed to distant climes." That height of and was reglory Such were the reflections the : sent state of the affairs Greeks made on the preand the effects soon answered the glorious proclamation quod toto orLe tcrrarum made at the Isthmian sit. and the voice of a justice. as when strangers came and took up arms in its defence. and to establish.

. by Lycurgus the orator. As he visited the several cities. out of the hands of the tax-gatherers. heing returned from Argos. in order to make him pay a sum which foreigners were obliged by law to pay into the public treasury. he said to them. restored amity and concord between the citizens. and to re-establish unity amongst them. had not justice and concord been restored among them ? What an example is here for governors of provinces How happy are the people under magistrates of this character It is related that Xenocratcs the philosopher. and put themselves into their hands with joy. did not terminate merely in causing them to be praised. Flamininus. than he had been in conquering the J\lacedonians so that even liberty seemed the least of the blessings they had received from him. by inducing all nations to confide in them. and rely on the For they not only receivfaith of their engagements. and he also published by a herald at these games. and meeting soon after the sons of his deliver" I er. they called them And in. was appointed president of the Nemcan games. but requested earnestly that they might be sent . reformed the administration of justice. ed such generals as the Romans sent them. having been delivered at Athens. of what service would liberty have been to the Greeks. but also infinitely conduced to the augmentation of their power. by appeasing quarrels and seditions. he established good regulations in them. who were dragging him to prison. to go and put their decree in execution in all the cities. for I am the cause that all manyour kind praise him. the liberty of Greece. infinitely more pleased with being able by the means of persuasion to reconcile the Greeks one to another. and recalling the exiles . repay with usury the kindness father did me . as he had done at the others." But the gratitude wliich the Greeks showed Flamininus and the Romans.394j the HISTOPtY OF for the commissioners separated. He discharged perfectly well all the duties of that employment. ! ! . indeed. And. and used his utmost endeavours to add to the pomp and magnificence of the festival .

of Thermae. had recourse to them.AI. that all possible justice to that resolution. which are always of "^•' pernicious consequence. Accordingly they came and thus emled the war against Philip. was so prudent as only to refer them to the senate. so that. which is of JEtolia. came to the assembly of the Greeks which was held at Thermae. + According to Livy. in had complaints a short time. that had it not been for the -^tolians. it was at Thermopylae. who to offer against the injustice of neighbouring powers. He there made a long speech. iKtolians complained. and never to infringe the alliance Some of the printhey had made with the Komans. but in harsh and injurious terms. from an effect of the Divine protection Plutarch's expression). . but would never have been able to set foot in Greece. assuring them. did not show so much favour as before to their nation. f a city of ifctolia. to prevent all disputes and contests.EXANDEU'S SUCCESSORS. 395 but princes and kings.tolians to continue firmly attached to the party for whom they had declared . but with modesty. since the victory they had obtained. Cornelius. would be done them. to exhort the j?L. theEomans not only would never have conquered Philip. Cornelius. not only nations and cities. one of the commissioners who had dispersed themselves up and down. that tlie cipal Homans. and put themselves in a manner under their safeguard . the whole earth sub(to use mitted to their empire. Others reproached him. It is doubted whether he has justly translated Polybius in this place: ht tkv ruf This is said of an assembly of -lEtolians in the city Gt^tciKuv cvvchv.

A conspiracy is formed by Scopas the JEtoHe and Ms accomplices are put to lian against Ptolemy. and the other Grecian cities of Asia who enjoyed plainly that he tion. He enters Rome in triumph. and suspicions arising concernitig Antiochus. and among them that of Ephesus. 1. p. Lampsacus. and the reinstating himself in the possession of all those kingdoms which he pre- tended had formerly belonged to his ancestors. the Romans send an embassy to him. Philip xmd Antiochus for it was evident.p. West and how him fatal the to extend his * Liv. n. Complaints being made. should they suffer power by settling on the coast of Asia. which has no other effect than to dispose both parties for an open rupture. Smyrna. . . Hannibal I'ctires to Atitiochus. two powerful enemies. xvii. resolved to defend themselves. They were therefore very glad of the opportunity those . by the alliance he had concluded with the king of Egypt. their liberty at that time. he took the most proper measures for the success of his designs . War of Flamininus war of Macedonia had ^nded very seasonably for the Romans. seeing intended to bring them under subjec- But being of them- selves unable to resist so powerful an en^my. The Romans saw plainly. and possessed himself of several cities of Asia Minor. Appian. M. 1- xxxiii. J. they had recourse to the Romans for protection. death. who otherwise would have had upon their hands.S96 THE HISTORY OF SECT. according to the plan he had laid down. C. IV. A. and undoubt: The edly was preparing to cross over into Europe. Ant. 38 — 4-1. who enlarged his conquests daily. 86—88. against Nabis. which was readi- ly granted. 770. Polyb. that the Romans would soon be obliged to proclaim war against the king of Syria. whom he besieges in Sparta : He obliges him io sue f»r peace and grants it him. 196. that it was their interest to check the progress of Antiochus towards the consequence would be. 3808. ie bellis Sjrr. ^ After having left himself nothing to fear on the side of Coele-syria and Palestine. at the same time. 769.

when his marriage. it was from him. the Roman ambassadors arrived in Thrace. but when they proceeded to business. they * This city gtood on the isthmus or neck of the peninsula. L. to evacuate all those which had been possessed by Philip . and not to molest such of the Grecian cities of Asia as enjoyed their liHe added. which appeared sincere . and possessed himself of all the Thracian Chersonesus. of opposing it . : which was al- ready concluded. to bring all the country round it under his dominion. that the Romans were greatly surberty. free cities gave 397 them. a city of that country.) he began to rebuild it. with the design of founding a kingdom there for Seleucus his second son . and to make this city the capital of the new t kingdom. . Cornelius. and for rebuilding Lysimachia. at Antiochus. the face of affairs was soon changed. They came up with him at Selymbria. which the Romans had carried on against that prince . which had fonncd the sieges of Smyrna and LampsaThat prince had passed the Hellespont in percus. w^ho spoke on this occasion. In the first conferences. should be solemnized that with regard to such Grecian cities as desired to retain their liberties.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and were attended by some deputies from the Grecian cities in Asia. the whole time was passed in mutual civilities. for crossing into Europe with two prised At such numerous armies. he had aheady sent off' detachments from his army. that Ptolemy should have full satisfaction. required Antiochus to restore to Ptolemy the several cities in Asia which he had taken from him . an undertaking which could have no other view but to invade them. To all this Antiochus answered. it not being just that he should reap the fruits of the war. Finding the city of Lysimachia * all in ruins (the Thracians having demolished it a few years before. Before the ambassadors had time to reach Antiochus. and not from the Romans. and immediately sent an embassy to him. the very time that he was revolving all these new projects. son with the rest of it. and so powerful a fleet .

number of his m. and accordingly went on board his fleet. Antiochus immediately thought himself master of Kgypt. He for the island of . and frustrated all his mea- thought himself very happy in having an opportunity of entering the harbour of Seleucia with the remnant of his fleet. that he cried in a passion. to complete the projects he had formed with relirst landed at Ephesus. a report was spread that Ptolemy Epiphanes was dead. in On his arorder to sail as soon as possible for Egypt. He he caused ships in that port to join his fleet.398 THE HISTORY OP were to receive it. those affairs. that Thrace. rival at Patara in T^ycia. which he there refitted. He left his son Seleucus at Lysimachia with the army. one of his ancestors . The Romans desiring that the ambassadors of Smyr*. During these negociations. where gard to those parts. in order to go and take possession disorder of it. as incensed Antiochus to that degree. in order to seize it but that arose sunk many of his ships. he knew not what riglit the Romans could have to them and therefore he desired them to interfere no further in the affairs of Asia than he did with those of Italy. . and made Cyprus. Upon this the assembly broke up in great none of the parties received satisfaction. They spoke with so much freedom.en. and the Chersonesus. certain advice was brought. without making any He new attempt that year. and went and wintered at Antioch. they accordingly were admitted. and he had taken there from Philip. na and Lampsacus might be called in. As to Asia. he declared. that they had been conquered from Lysimachus by Seleucus Nicator. that the Romans had no business to judge of thither as into his the cities . and every thing seemed to tend to an open rupture. With respect to Lysimachia. . wiiich was part of it. destroyed a a storm death was false. all his that the report which was spread concerning Ptolemy's then changed his course. great sures. belonged to him . that he rehuilt it with the design of making it the residence of Seleucus his son . and that he came own patrimony.

1. That prince having commanded him to fall upon the islands called Cyclades.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. was from a conspiracy having hcing This plot was contrived really formed against his life. he set up two altars. at the same time both gods and men. . by Scopas. not let slip the opportimity. . who discovers a passion for riches. and treason is often very short . instead of acting. 771— 77s. very strange action is related of this A man. ^ 599 foundation of the rumour which was spread of Ptolemy's death. Aristomenes. from thence. This plot made the government confide no longer in the i^^tolians. the prime minister. immense treasures were found in his coffers. found guilty. during the course of his victories in Palestine. As Scopas. the greatest part of his treasures arose. the greatest part of which were j^tolians as well as himself. he was examined before the council. . p. cannot be safely relied on. by plundering the provinces over w^hich he commanded. he would certainly have succeeded. king of JSIacedonia. one to Injustice and the other to Impiety . That general seeing himself at the head of all the foreign troops. and had he minority. as one would imagine. in open violation of the most solemn treaties . imagined that with so formidable a body of well-disciplined veteran forces. laid Scopas under an arrest after which. before he came out of the harbour. and executed with all his accomplices. and the fideliperfidy ty of that general. being apprised of the conspiracy. which he had amassed. As this wretch had so greatly distinguished him»»Polyb. it would be easy for him to usurp the crown during the king's The His plan was already formed . xvii. After Scopas's death. One of Scopas's principal accomplices was Dicaearchus. by wasting the time in consulting and debating with his friends. and offered sacrifices on both. who till then had been in great esteem for their fidelity most of them were removed from their employments. no The transition from avarice to doubt. to insult. who formerly had been admiral to Philip. and sent into their own country. had subjected Judsea and Jerusalem to the Egyptian empire.

. would certainly rise on that occasion that Greece fostered in its own bosom a tyrant (Nabis) more avaricious and cruel than any of his predecessors. who were sent to settle the affairs of Philip. and made their report. J. 44—-49. that they must When was m6st triumphant. who was meditating how to enslave it and that thus having been restored in vain to its liberty by the Romans.400 THE HISTORY OV self by his crimes. 1. xxxiii u. and ill-affected to Rome. than in his father's disorder reign. and even greater. he had set out. Ant. but as for Dicaearchus. he caused him to die in exquisite torments. expect and prepare for a new war. Aristomenes distinguished him afeo^ from the rest of the conspirators in his execution. ^ when vice the ten commissioners. (to rid himself of a man whose virtue was offensive to him. and that otherwise he would have made Greece the seat of the war that the iEtolians. His subjects laboured now under as many evils. *" Liv. A. a people naturally restless and turbulent. were returned to Rome. all things went well : but when the king conceived disgust for that faithful and able minister. He thereby took the government upon himself.) the remainder of his reign was one continued series of and confusion. they told the senate. measures entirely defeated. c. and not long after put him to death. the king was declared of age. and accordingly be- gan to transact business. 1. As long as Aristomenes was in administration under him. though he had not yet quite attained the years appointed by the laws. 195. Hd despatched all the others by poison. Justin. it would only change its sovereign. and a considerable fleet that upon a false report which had been spread concerning Ptolemy's death. 2. and was set upon the throne with great pomp and solemnity. C.'M. The and all their contrivers of the conspiracy being put to death. which would be still more dangerous than that they had just before terminated that Antiochus had crossed into Europe with a strong army. in order to possess himself of Egypt. and would fall under a more : : : : . S80?. xxxi.

got to the coast. quam io adversis secunda co^itantem. and who had thereby justly acquired the reputation of being the greatest general of the age. from thence to Antioch. to require the Carthaginians to deliver up Hannibal to them." Justin. in order to . it. accordingly war was resolved. * " Sed res VOL. in case the proofs should be manifest. to inform themselves more particularly as to the fact . in the bis. beginning of claimed his liad scarce left go to Ephesus and when Hannibal arrived there. He had just before left Antioch. lested in Carthage. and against such an occasion. even in the greatest calms. and went on board a ship which always lay ready by his order He escaped to Tyre. during six years from the conclusion of the peace with the llomans but he was now : suspected of holding a secret correspondence with Antiochus. and had been too long accustomed to prepare for storms. so that before they had an opportunity to execute their commission. and of forming with him the design of carrying the war into Italy. VI. and That general had lived unmoprotection. and all that year and the folAnnibalem non diu latuit. virnm ad prospicienda cavendaque pericula peritum . tlie spring. but with the counsel satisfaction. who immediately deputed au secretly embassy to Carthage. But that general * had too much penetration and foresight. especially if Nabis should continue in possession of the city of Argos. thought of nothing but victories and conquests . His enemies sent advice of this to the liomans. Fiamininus was commanded to have an eye on Xaand they were particularly vigilant over all Antiochus's steps. he He now should be able to complete all his designs. He arrived there exactly at the time that the prince was in suspense whether he should engage in a war with The arrival of Hannibal gave him great the llomans.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and assistance of a man who had so often defeated the liomans. where he expected to find went Antioch us. He did not doubt. he withdrew privately. with orders. not to suspect their design . nee minus in secundia adversa. 2 p . 401 grievous captivity than before. but was obliged to follow him to Ephesus.

all the states except the ^tolians. in their turn. but real enemies in their hearts. and in that condition admired no less the temperance. whose secret discontent I noticed before." says he. when Quintius received a decree from Rome. upon which it was un^ Liv. They inveighed no less against the rest of the allies." No doubt could be entertained as to the sentiments the jEtolians alone could not forbear of the assembly is : showing their resentment against the Romans. perceive. no otherwise. to gain time. who. as to charge them with breach of faith in keeping possession of Chalcis and Demetrias. and see what the enemy were doing. enjoyed the sweets of liberty and peace. 22—43. and after acquainting them with the cause " You " that the of their meeting. 5xxiv. n. at a time that they boasted their having restored liberty to the whole of Greece. by which he was permitted to declare war against Nabis. Such was the state of things. Consider therefore what to be done. or whether it shall continue subject to the tyrant This affair concerns the of Sparta. but. Our business is to determine. which they carried so high. sent on both sides. upon pretext of an accommodation .402 THE HISTOllY OF lowing were employed in making the necessary preparNevertheless during that time. subject of the present deliberation solely regards you. situated in the midst of Greece. in reality. shall enjoy its liberty in common with the rest of the cities . than as the slavery of a single Romans in having delivered all Greece city hinders their glory from l>eing full and complete. and your resolutions shall determine my conduct. an ancient and most illustrious city. desired to be secured from the rapine of the jEtolians. than they had before admired his courage and intrepidity in the field. who were Greeks The only in name. ^ With regard to Greece. justice. Quintius obliged them to debate only on the subject before them . he convenes the confederates at Corinth. Upon this. embassies were ations. who has seized it. dispute growing warm. 1. . whether Argos. and moderation of the Roman victor.

tyrant of Sparta. and had sent for a thousand fortifications of Sparta chosen soldiers from Crete. he said. great number of Lacedaemonian exiles came to the Roman camp. ten thousand natives of the country. in case he should refuse to restore Argos to its former liberty . A The allies designed at first to besiege Argos. joined performed. 403 ftiiimously resolved. . wliich was faithfully Aristainus. whom he had just cause to suspect . after some little preamble.) he would release those prisoners. the tyrant.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and having posted his guards armed round them . in hopes of having an opportunity of returning to their native country. provided things were quiet at home. that war should be declared against Nabis. but Quintius thought it more advisable to march directly He had greatly strengthened the against the tyrant. and the Thessalians four hundred horse. to whom the kingdom of Sparta justly belonged. Quintius near Cleonie. to which the llhodians and king Eumenes joined theirs. with ten thousand foot and a thousand horse. Quintius's brother arrived also with a fleet of forty galleys. on his part. When but an infant. He then named about eighty youths of the principal families . (whom. he declared. and throwing them into a secure prison. he therefore was determined to imprison a certain number of citizens. Having caused the people to come unarmed to the assembly. order- ed all their throats to be cut the night following. He . ex. whom he joined to the other thousand he had already among his forces. after the death of Cleomencs. He had three thousand other foreign troops in his service and. general of the Acha^ans. They had Agesipolis at their head. besides these. clusively of the Helots. he had been expelled by Lycurgus. At the same time he also concerted measures to secure himself from domestic commotions. sent fifteen hundred men. and every one promised to send a speedy succour . Philip. and that the instant the enemy should be repulsed. that as the present juncture of affairs obliged him to take some precautions for his own safety. he had no reason to fear.

aufl tyrant was alarmed at the taking of this city. he removed his camp towards the Eurotas . and from thence laid waste the valleys. and the charge was very violent on both sides but at last the foreigners were bro. they were at first put into some disorder. in order of battle. after ravaging all the beautiful plains that lay round that city. Great numbers of them were who were well acquainted with the country. which was granted. which runs almost under the walls of the city. Nabis detached his foreign troops against him. covering themselves. ken and put killed . laid siege to Gythium. Quintius having advanced to the Eurotas. Quintius encamped near Amyclae and. at the foot of mount Taygetus. for the besieged defended themselves with great courage. . therefore sent a herald to Quintius to demand an Besides several other interview. The fleet of Eumenes and the Rhodians came up very seasonably . manded the Roman fleet. nor hazard a battle against troops much superior in number to his o\m. who comto flight.404 also THE HISTORY OF put to deatli in the villages a great number of ih6 Helots. The he insisted strongly on the late alliance which . and the lands lying near the sea. Nabis caused his foreign troops to attack it. on which Nabis laid great arguments stress. As the Romans did not expect such a sally. The Romans instantly faced about. At the same time. and gave them no quarter. who were suspected of a design to desert to the enemy. However. whilst he was form* ing his camp. On the morrow. but soon re. Quintius leading his troops. because they had not been opposed at all upon their march. when the rear guard had passed. they surrendered. they repulsed the enemy to the walls of the city. he prepared for a vigorous defence firmly resolved not to quit the city during tlie ferment it was in. for the Achaeans. pursued them every where. after making a long and vigorous resistance. the proconsul's brother. near the river on the other side of the city . in his own favour. at that time a strong and very important city. Having by this barbarity spread universal terroi".

and tyranny but was he less covetous. as the Romans professed themselves faithful and religious observers of treaticis. since the treaty : and had that he was then what he had always been never given the Romans any new occasion for complaints or reproaches. The next day. Quintius. Most of them were of opinion. either by extirpating the tyrant. in his answer. cruelty. general also held a council with his allies. : Argos. since the Romans required it . Nabis agreed to abandon the city of : : . which could only terminate gloriously. to put them into writing. and by that means deprive him of the glory of having terminated this war a motive which commonly inilucnced the resolutions of . in case he had any other demands. 405 the Romans. without acknowledging him in a solemn manner. and reproached him with his avarice. Tliese arguments were very just and. for that otlierwise. he only expatiated in random complaints. in order that he might deliberate He upon them with ed. nobody could be assured that the liberty of Greece was restored that the Romans could not make any kind of treaty with Nabis. : . Accordingly. and giving a sanction to his usurpation. at the time of the treaty? Nothing was concluded in this first interview. to which Quintius consent. which they boasted their never having violated that no change had taken place on his part. These were his pretended motives for desiring an accommodation but the true reason was. because he was afraid that the his friends The Roman : Spartans were capable of sustaining a long siege. and Quintius himself. as also. or at least his tyranny . during which the war with Antiochus might break out on a sudden. to give them up desired their prisoners and deserters.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and he not be in a condition to act with his forces against him. liis being apprehensive that a new consul would be appointed to succeed him in Greece. to say the truth. had concluded with him in the war against Philip an alliance on which he ought to rely the more. Quintius had no solid reasons to oppose to them. cruel. Quintius was for concluding a peace. that they should continue the war against Nabis. and tyrannical. .

in order that they may furnish you speedily. and consequently the great number of catapulta?. that will be wanting. and by that artifice brought them all over least impression We are obliged in honour to carry on : this siege vigor- would be shameful for us.406 the lie. in concert with them. more than the good of the pub* " Let us " since besiege Sparta. to contribute. on the conditions of peace to be offisred the tyrant. think it proper. after having ously it. since it must be so this is a resolu1 have a sufficient numtion w^orthy of your courage. perceived a great many difficulties which he had not foreseen . exhibits nothing to us but a naked. Nabis should evacuate Argos. the greater supply of provisions and convoys will be necessary. and other machines of all Write each of you to kinds. and was fully sensible that the proposal they were to make to their cities would meet with a very ill reception. battering-rams. to his own. out of their own purses. they gave the Homan general full liberty to act as he should think proper. The winter that is coming on. ruined country. when private persons would find themselves obliit and ged of the war. to the expense Changing therefore immediately their opi- nion. : . in an abundant manner. ber of troops for carrying on this siege . from which we can have no forage. You see the great extent of this city. your cities. within ten days. for the good of his republic. and the cil interests of the allies. : Finding that none of his reasons could make the on the allies. let us resolve to take up our winter quarters here. THE HISTORY OF Roman generals. that sieges are often protracted to a greater length than is generally desired. and exert ourselves to the utmost you As you are sensible for the success of our enterprise. The chief were that. and all the rest of the Upon which Quintius. he pretended to accede to their opinion. admitting none into his counbut the principal officers of the army." begun Every one then making his own reflections. to be reduced to abandon our enterprise. with all things necessary. agreed. but the more numerous they are." says he.

such of their wives and children as were willing to follow them. and thought himself happy. truce fifty talents. it raised a general sedition. and by bodies of troops posted in them. : * A hundred thousand crowns. however. . The tyrant was not satisfied with any of those artibut he was surprised. from the necessity to which it reduced private persons. only since the tyrants governed it and those alone in places which lay open.) he resolved to make it extend quite round the city. all their prisoners. Quintius was now resolved to carry on the siege w ith great vigour. Sparta had been a long time without walls . with sixteen oars each : that he should surrender up to the cities in alliance with the Romans. of restoring many Thus. deserters. (consisting of above fifty thousand men. Cities 407 of Argolis. garrisoned by his troops : that he should restore to the maritime cities all the galleys he had taken from them . during eight years. and began by examining very attentively the situation and condition of the city. cles that no mention had been made of recalling the exiles. in order to strike the in. and slaves that he should also restore to the Lacedaemonian exiles. was granted for six months. and the war be: : : A : gan again. forcing them to do so that he should give five hostages. and to attack it at the same time on all sides. Walls had been built in Sparta. and were easy of access all the other parts were defended only by their natural situation. that all parties might have time to send ambassadors to Rome. disdaining every other kind of fortification than the bravery of its citizens. annually. because he had sent for all the land as well as naval forces. things they were not willing to be deprived of no further mention was made of peace. to be chosen by the Roman general. in order tliat the treaty might be ratified there. As Quintius's army was very numerous. of which his son should be one that he should * and afterwards pay down a hundred talents of silver. When the particulars of this treaty were known in the city. and that he himself should keep only two feluccas.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. without.

or to which quarter to send succours. retired to their troops. Qunitius then caused a retreat to be sounded . or tortoise. and attacked the v/all.408 THE HISTORY OF side to turn themselves. nor make head against them. the Lacedaemonians being no longer able to sustain their efforts. However. and was quite dishabitants with terror. and had not their them with strength. laying their shields over their heads. and at other times by terror with The stopping up different places with works . in order that . camp. Such as werc without the city. three following days he took advantage of the which he had filled the inhabitants. and after having almost taken the city. The near the city. because. they came forward in the form of the testudo. what orders to give. by which they were entirely covered from the darts and tiles when the Romans advanced into the broader streets. The Lacedsemonians sustained for some time the attacks of the besiegers. the tyrant did not know how to act. imagining the city arms at liberty to discharge Romans drawing : was taken. fearing that the spreading of the flames would cut off their communication. they could not stand firm on their feet. knowing on which tracted. as long as they fought in defiles and narrow places. Tlie houses were soon in flames the fire spread on all sides and the smoke alone was capable of stopping the enemy. setting fire to such edifices as were near the wall. and render them incapable of Accordingly. was greatly perplexed how to make his esBut one of his chief commanders saved the city^ cape. was obhged to march his troops back into the by : . sometimes by making new attacks. as they pressed on one another. Nabis. the city being attacked on all sides at the same instant. found themselves on a sudden overwhelmed with stones and tiles. fled and withdrew to the most craggy and rugged eminences. were forced to move to a distance from it . thrown at them from the house-tops. Their darts and javelins did little execution. and those who were got into the city. and the danger being every where equal.

repaired to Argos. to treat of an accommodation. after many enpetitioner. and his brother (who returned to their respective fleets). which could not be celebrated at the usual time because of the war. Nabis. 409 the besieged might have no opportunity to escape. The Acha^ans were greatly pleased to see the city of Argos again united to tlieir league. and rendered it less perfect. Quintius. from the repeated accounts they had one after anotlier. who had undertaken that war merely on their account. had been put off till He the arrival of the Roman general and his army. to evacuate all the Greece that here. the Argivcs. restored themselves to liberty. throwing himself at treaties. imagined that Lacedscmon was taken. and a tyrant suffered in the midst of Greece. gave an alloy to their joy. paid. and distributed the performed The Arprizes . The Nemaean games. he himself was the show. all the honours of tliem. seeing thinijs desperate. it may be affirmed that the peace granted to Nabis was their triumph. had freed them from a cruel and ignominious slavery. and restored to all its privileges but Sparta being still enslaved. that in tlie war against Philip. man. but be lost to all hopes. the money was tius. by driving out their garrison. the usurper . at last obtained a truce upon tlie same conditions as had been prescribed before. and the hostages delivered to Quin- Whilst these things were doing. and restored them to their ancient liberty. whose inhabitants he found in incredible transports of joy. the Rhodians. They observed. deputed Pythagoras to Quintius. Accordingly. or rather. the Romans had not laid down their arms. after granting Nabis a peace. his feet. From the time of that shameful and inglorious treaty (for so they called it).ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. especially. who. they exclaimed in all places against the Romans. could not take off their eyes from a gives. till : after they cities of had forced that prince . The Roman general refused at first to hear But the him. With regard to the ^Etolians. on the contrary. and taking leave of Eumenes. and commanded him to leave the camp.

on which occasion. in reconciling cities and private families. in so renowned a * A. properly speaking. actions and enterprises of the Roman generals his predecessors . Quintius returned from Argos to Elatia. things which. J. 3810. their views solely to the advantages of liberty but in men should have an eye to all things. in few words. Quintius went to where he had convened a general assembly of Corinth. The iEtolians. confined protectors. There he represented to the deputies of all the cities. the assembly. should great affairs. from whence he had set out to carry on the war with Sparta. in re- gulating the government. whilst the lawful king. complied with the entreaties of the Greeks when they implored their succour . and a certain proof of a war's being undertaken on just and reasonable motives. and establishing order in all places . and mentioned his own with a modesty of exHe was heard pression that heightened their merit.410 THE HISTORY OF was maintained in the peaceable possession of Sparta . discovered their grief and surprise. that the der of their days in banishment Romans had made themselves the tyrant's guards and : in these complaints. M. Ant. were condemned to pass the remainin a word. who had served under the proconsul. . the most glorious employment of a conqueror. except when he began to speak of Nabis . demanded and obtained the ratification of the treaty. and so many illustrious citizens of Sparta. are the real fruits of peace. with universal applause. He spent the whole winter in administering justice to the people. 194. * In the beginning of the spring. as he himself will show hereafter. that the deliverer of Greece should have left. : content themselves with what they can execute with success. which he hoped neither side would have occasion He gave an account. The ambassadors of Nabis being arrived at Rome. (meaning Agesipolis). by a modest murmur. and not ^attempt a thousand schemes at once. of the to repent. and had made an alliance with them. C. the joy and ardour with which the Romans had them. Such were the motives of Quintius.

He confessed. was reason to fear. he therefore had thought it more prudent to let the tyrant live. that with this wise precaution. not from words but actions . of destroying the city. own country.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS^ 4I| a tyrant. thought proper to people's give an account of his conduct in a few words. not only insupportable to hig city as Sparta. the different tious whom per for them : . they should hear that the garrisons of Demetrias and Chalcis were withdrawn. who was not ignorant of the disposition of minds with regard to him. weakened and incapable of doing harm. as he now was. and that by the very endeavours employed to deliver it. liberty it was of the highest advantage to private persons as well as to cities . but formidable to all the rest of the cities. well known the iEtolians were not over prudent and discreet either in their words or actions. He hinted to the other cities. that no accommodation ought to have been made with thy tyrant. as there zarding the entire destruction of Sparta. that it was ^lacedonians. could this have been done without haQuintius. and that he would before their eyes surrender to the Achasans the citadel of Corinth that this would show. than to trust the Romans with their liberties . with moderation . to be cauthey trusted. consequence to a people. in had the accepting that republic for their master instead of the He concluded with saying. whether the Romans or 2^tolians were most worthy of belief: whether the : : latter least foundation for the report they spread that nothing could be of more dangerous universally. and that they only shifted the yoke. and even pernicious to those who abused it that the chief men in cities. that this considerable city would be involved in the same ruin with Nabis. that they ought to judge of their friends. that he was preparing to set out for Italy. than perhaps to run the hazard. He added to what he had said of past transactions. but that without moderation. But. should they employ too violent remedies. and against whom it was proHe exhorted them to use their to guard. it became a burden to others. and to carry with him the whole army thither that before ten days were elapsed.

All the people replied witli the highest applauses. able. and every one exhorted his neighbour to receive. should endeavour to preserve a perfect harmony : that so long as they should be united. After this. and to make the : Komans dom. They were taken by Hannibal in the Punic war . They pressed gazed upon one another with admiration . in the mildest and most gentle terms. and thanked Quintius in particular. seeks for support without . the whole assembly wept for joy. as so many oracles. that it would ill become them to leave those in captivity to whom they w ere indebted for their freedom. to preserve and maintain. and send them to him in Thessaly in two months adding. gentle murmur exthe sentiments of all that were present. and chooses rather to call in a foreign power to its aid. but the Romans refusing to redeem them. and Quintius himself could not refrain from terrs. and imprint the remembrance of them deeply A on their hearts. This counsel was received as the advice of a father to his children.412 THE HISTORY OF orders that composed them. with gratitude and respect. for hinting to them so just and indispensable The number of these slaves was very considera duty. at the . sold. the words of the Roman general. neither kings nor tyrants would be able to distress them that discord and sedition opened a door to dangers and evils of every kind. and the citizens themselves in general. desired that they woidd inquire strictlyafter such Koman citizens as might still remain in slaveiy in Greece. AVhilst he spoke in this manner. than submit to its He concluded his speech with conjufellow-citizens. that is. they had been It cost the Achseans alone a hundred talents. Quintius causing silence to be made. ring them. a hundred thousand crowns. sensible. by their prudent conduct. . that in restoring them to their freethey had not afforded their protection and benefi- cence to persons unworthy of it. to reimburse the masters the price they had paid for the slaves. the liberty which they owed to foreign arms . because the party which finds itself weakest within.

and from '' Liv. He withdrew in the same manner the garrisons from Chalcis and Demetrias. who had infringed the treaty. C. in proportion. The dred. from a great part of Asia Minor. who called him their saviour and deliverer. 38 1 1 . Bon of the former. which come to nothing. J. The ceremony lasted three days. From thence he went into Thessaly. and implored Heaven to bestow all possible blessings upon him. with their heads shaved as a mark of the liberty to which they had been restored. and was received in those cities with the like acclamations. M. Quintius followed del. and withdrew in the midst of the acclamations of the people. conhere amounted to twelve hunscqucntly the number reader may form a judgment. SECT. xxxiv. during which he exhibited to the people (amidst the other pomp) the precious spoils he had taken in the wars against Philip and Nabis. tJie assistance Nabis is killed. 1. and upon his arrival at Rome entered it in triumph. who followed the victor's car. Antiochus and the Romans were preparing for war. * Five hundred denarii. A. . At last he embarked for Italy. Ant. and graced the victor's triumph. Before tlie assembly broke of all the rest of Greece. Mutual embassies and interviews The Romans send on both sides. and afterwards out of the city. Demetrius. where he found every thing in need of reformation. But the noblest ornament of it was the lloman citizens. goes at * last to Greece.4 ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. V. delivered from slavery. 57—62. The JEtoUans implore pKinen gains a victory over him. in the name of all the Greeks. and Armenes. it soon after. Universal preparations for the lear between Antlochus and the Romans. Antiochus of Antiochus. so general was the disorder and confusion. * twelve rate of about 413 pounds ten shillings a head . n. the garrison was seen marching down from the citaup. Philo^ troops against Nabis. were among the hostages. Ambassadors were arrived at Rome. of the latter. 1 93.

414? THE HISTORY OF senate several kings. that they could not enter into any engagethat tended to lessen the dominions of their soveOn the morrow. that tht Romans persisted in the resolution they had taken to deliver the Grecian cities of Asia. in which the tranquillity of the whole world would be involved. and entreated each of them in particular. Villius. and such as he was to abandon. I have . that the Romans were determined to defend their liberties against Antiochus. when ambassadors from Carthage arrived at Rome. at the instigation of Hannibal. The debates were carried on with great warmth on both sides. to allow the king time to reflect on matters . in concert with his colleagues. Scarce were they gone. the same ambassadors who had already conferred with him at Lysi- ment machia. The ambassadors of the king were surprised. but deputed to the king Sulpitius. They . before they passed a decree. as they had done those of Eu- rope and that the ambassadors might see whether Antiochus would approve of that condition. and nominate those cities which he might keep. after a great many speeches and replies. They did not yet come to a decision. it was referred to Quintius and the commissioners who had been in Asia. all the rest of the ambassadors reign. with the same ardour and courage as they had done Antiochus's ambassadors conjured the against Philip. were again introduced into the senate. a long examination. as their sovereign had sent them merely to conclude an alliance and friendship with the Romans. not to form any rash resolution in an affair of so much importance . answered. They were favourably received by the but as the affairs of king Antiochus required . and ^lius. was certainly preparing to make war against the Romans. that the latter should pretend to prescribe laws to him as to a conquered monarch . and to weigh and consider things maturely on their side. Quintius reported what had been spoken and transacted in the conference. declared to the king's ambassadors. that Antiochus. Quintius. senate. to inform their respective cities. and acquainted the senate.

His opinion at that time (and he always persisted in it) was. XXXV. lest they should be intercepted . no prince nor people could be superior to the Romans. 12. 1. that with this fleet he would first go into Africa. and there find effectual means to distress the Romans that it was necessary that the king should go over into Europe with the rest of his forces. the contempt the Romans had for them since their last victory. effect . Ant. should he not succeed. and that Italy could never be conquered but in Italy. He declared. and a thousand horse. rn ocritus though it was His remonstrances had the intended chiefly owing to them. hated the Romans more Thoas. ten thousand foot. their general. who apprehended being engaged at the same time in a war with Antiochus and the Carthaginians. where he hoped to be able to persuade the Carthaginians to join him . f Liv. and halt in some part of Greece. But the Tyrian was discovered. was for ever incensing them . to Antiochus. n. 3812. Thoas's brother. to Carthage. people. and not go immediately into Italy. in the most aggravating terms. 192. The king highly approving this project at first. that he ought to carry his arms into Italy : that by this means the enemy's country would furnish them with troops and provisions .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. The Carthaginian senate sent immediate advice of this to the Romans. Hminibal sent a Tyrian. to sound the citizens . Tlie presence and counsels of such a general contributed very much to determine him to it. 4 15 observed before. C. Philip. representing. and Da- was sent ambassador to Nabis. in whom he could confide. but that. He demanded but a hundred galleys. J. M. ^ No than the iEtolians. A. for he did not dare to venture letters. Nicandcr to and Dica^archus. that otherwise. and had arrived at his court at the very instant the king was deliberating whether he should embark in this war. not to mention that business is transacted much better by word of mouth than by writing. . though he should : always seem upon the point of doing it. at this time. and escaped with great difficulty. that Hannibal had fled for refuge to this prince. he would sail directly for Italy.

Besides : : . as that which then presented itself that the llomans had no army in Greece : that he might easily seize upon Gythium. who liad been thrown rior height of greatness. on account of the capture of a : : : : city of so little consequence. Nicander employed still stronger motives to rouse deprived of abundantly which he enlarged on the ancient glory of the kings of Macedonia. the sworn enemy to the Romans. but that the whole honour of the victory had been due to that they alone had opened them an enthe /Etolians into Greece. soldiers. and the conquest of the w^hole world by their arms that the proposal he made him would not expose him to any danger that he did not desire him to declare war. confined within his own walls. and down from a much supe- more than the tyrant. Dicsearchus employed other arguments with AntiHe observed particularly. He gave Piiilip. as they furnished him with galleys. and sailors that.41G THE HISTORY OF charged with particular instructions in regard to each of those princes. of whose generals more had been defeated by him than were living at that time. by aiding them with their troops. The iirst represented to the tyrant of Sparta. he had the mortification to see the Achaeans reign over Peloponnesus that he would never have so favourable an opportunity for recovering his ancient power. which was situated very commodiously for him and that the Romans would not think it worth while to send their legions again into Greece. had. against Philip. the Romans had taken the spoils. . and that if he (Philip) unassisted by Antiochus. by dispossessing him of his maritime towns. that in the war oclius. and had enabled them to overcome trance the enemy. whun he should have both Antiochus and the jEtolians as allies ? He did not forget to mention Hannibal. sustained so long a war against the Romans and the iEtolians united. till Antiochus should have ])assed into Greece with his army . with only his own forces. how would it be possible for the Romans to resist him. that the Romans liad entirely enervated his power.

without foundation. p. that Philip and Nabis though were determined to unite with him against the Ro- mans. 13 1. the provinces of Coele-syria and Palestine. —20.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. At the same time they sent troops to the relief of Gythium. and did not take their resolution till afterwards. AVitli regard to Nabis. 1. in marriage to Ariarathes king of He would have been very glad to have Cappadocia. and resigned to that prince. and the strong towns and seaHe did not scruple to affirm. 8 Polyb. he gave another daughter. view. 3. However. xxxv. to raise up enemies against Rome on every side. These are the steps the iEtolians took. at his leaving Greece. had ordered the Acha^ans to be very vigilant in defending the maritime cities. he sent immediately to all the maritime towns. n. which the tyrant had already besieged and ambassadors to Rome. . SI xii. VOL. riac. He bribed many of the principal citizens. secretly despatched those who were inflexibly determined to adhere to the party of the Romans. but in him mind Romans . VI. They immediately sent deputies to the tyrant to put of the treaty he had concluded with the and to exhort him not to infriftge a peace. Antiq. Liv. E . but upon condition. in Sy- Joseph. In this himself by good alliances with his neighbours. Appian. 88 —92. p. ports possessed by them. the two kings did not comply with them at that time . as her dowry. He there gave his daughter Cleopatra in marriage to Ptolemy Epiphanes . s Antiochus did not yet declare himself openly. that he should himself receive half the re- venues. Quiri- and tius. which he had so earnestly solicited. Antiochis by name. a frontier city of Palestine towards Egypt. 1. c. as had been before stipulated. he went to Raphia. At his return to Antioch. took secret measures for promoting the great design he He thought it advisable to strengthen meditated. to excite the inhabitants of them to a rebellion. iii. 41? a long detail of the number of horse and foot with which they would furnish him . l67. to inform the senate and people of what was doing.

after having sent his son into Syria. In case of a war. that capital of his kingdom. menes was not mistaken.41S THE HISTORY OF bestowed the third on Eumenes king of Pergaraus . he did not doubt but . Eumenes soon convinced them^ by the reasons he gave. I have said above. that having the honour to be his sonin-law. and accordingly they went to Pergamus. He represented. but that prince refused her. the only benefit that he (Eumenes) could reap by it. he should be involved in the same ruin with the vanquished kingy which would the other infallihly prove his destruction : that. should Antiochus have the advantage in this war. for the security of the provinces in the East. that he had examined that affair more deliberately than they. He who were inclined to revolt . on side. contrary to the advice of his three brothers. he would subject all Asia. the pitius. that the Romans had deputed Sul- and Villius. that should Antiochus get the better of the Romans in this war. For they might be assured.^^ had been ordered to go first to the court of EuThey menes. with whom he : plainly saw this monarch would soon be at variance that^ should the Romans get the better (as it was highly probable they would). In times of peace. Antiochus went with great : diligence into Asia Minor. That prince told them. After these marriages. the beginning of the spring. he would be under a necessity of espousing his interest against the Romans. and oblige that they should have all much princes to do him homage: better terms from the Ro- mans and therefore he was resolved to continue atThe event showed that Eutached to their interests. and arrived at Ephesus in set out froni thence again in the depth of winter. on an embassy to Antiochus. he desired nothing so much as that war should be declared against Antiochus. he should be one of the first to hecome his slave. However. the haso powerful a king in his neighbourhood gave him ving Very just alarm. to punish the Pisidians. would be. jElius. that should he marry Antiochus's daughter. who believed that an alliance witli so great a monarch would be a great support to their house.

which would enable him to defend himself. it was generally bespecious appearances lieved that his sliow of grief 'was merely political . relates that Scipio was on this embassy. as we shall soon see. by such conduct. Villius went from Ephesus to Apamea. would experience the same and thereby citlicr be entirely ruined fate as Philip. as those on which the king's ambassa- Their condors had debated with Quintius in Home. and the answer of Hannibal to be more so. on the authority of some historian^. Aritioclnis 419 or. the second to Pyrrhus. and making him frequent visits which was. History of the Carthaginians. : cordingly happened. He had better success in the design he proposed. whither An- tiochus repaired. and the third to himself Some authors look upon this embassy of Scipio as improbable. or through force. in which he endeavoured. Komans : Sulpitius being left &ick in Pergamus. by breaking with them. he had rather run the worst hazard. and to lament his * \'ol. to Antiochus. by treating Hannibal with great courtesy. But notwithstanding these of affliction. who had received advice that Antiochus was engaged in the war of Pisidia. Livy. should things take a different turn. VilHus. he gave the first place to Alexander. should the grant him a peace. . than be exposed. on that prince's receiving advice of He returned to the death of Antiochus his eldest son. the same topics. but in vain. where he found Hannibal.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Ephesus loss. after liaving ended the war against In their interview. went to Ephesus. ferences broke off. against his attacks tliat. . in concert with the Romans. and that it was at this time that Hannibal made him the celebrated answer I have related elsewhere. they spoke on much the Pisidians. He had several conferences with him. after all. that he had no reason to be under any apprehensions from the Komans. to submit either voluntarily. * when speaking of the most illustrious generals. without any foreign aid. to persuade him. I. to render him suspected to the king which ac. Eumenes assured himself that part of his spoils and fortresses would be given him.

of mourning where he found Sulpitius perfectly recovered. and at the same time a father. : would raise all Peloponnesus against them . Antiochus held a great in which every one excouncil on the present affairs claimed against the Romans. and that on the other. Villius. that he would be infallicarry it on bly victorious. not whether they should make war. in case he should cross into Europe. as if they were Alexander of Acartreating with a conquered Nabis. without the strongest and most evident A proofs. and other royal virtues. and had already given such shining proofs of wisdom. who was still more disgusted. ought not to be suspected of so horrid a crime. had sent him from Ephesus into Syria. who settle in some part of Greece were in the centre of it. to rid himself of his fears. ving concluded any thing. Nabis. The instant they were gone. He was a young prince of the greatest hopes.420 THE HISTORY OF that he himself had sacrified hhn to his ambition. nania. that he might not be importunate at a time and sorrow. king. as had secured to him the love and esteem of all who knew him. knowing that to be the best method of making their court to the king. to take up arms . growing jealous of him. but how and in what manner they should assured the king. which ended in complaints on both sides after which they returned to Rome. and that he had caused some eunuchs to poison him there. who had great influence with the king. would be the first to declare against the Romans . It was pretended that the old king. to recover what he had lost. The king sent for them soon after. would not fail at the first signal of war. and said it was strange that they should attempt to prescribe laws to the greatest monarch of Asia. was returned to Pergamus. They aggravated the haughtiness of their demands. Philip. goodness. on one side. as if the matter in deliberation were. that at the two extremities of this country. . under the pretext of having an eye to the security of the provinces of the East . without ha. . and tliat the iEtolians. They had a conference with his minister.

that the king's friendship for him was very much cooled. in which he had sworn on the altars to be the eternal enemy of the Romans. struck with as these words. which can never expire but with my life. " It is this oath. Hannibal. He had perceived on several other occasions. it appeared evidently from their report. and that he no longer reposed the same confidence in him. Acilius. was sent with a fleet into Greece. take counsel of others. was not summoned to this council. " it is this hatred. that a war with Antiochus was inevitable. However. also : 421 that they had no time to lose ." Antiochus. . Speaking of his infant years. that Hannihal ought to be sent immediately to Carthage. guided by the dominions. but they did not think it yet time to proclaim it against him. and was then actually besieging Gythium. seemed to restore friendship. and forced me to seek an asylum in your If you defeat my hopes. the praetor. and am hated by them. whom his conferences with Villius had rendered suspected to the king. you may consider Hannibal as the first of your friends ." says he. They did not act so cautiously with regard to Nabis. I hate them. but if there are any motives which incline you to peace. him his confidence and The ambassadors being returned to Rome. to seize upon the posts. added. He and that the decimost advantageous plex and employ the Romans. and to make sure of allies. to raise up enemies against the Romans. it was the same animosity that occasioned my being banished from my country in a time of peace. in which he unbosomed himself without the least disguise. that prompted me to keep the sword drawn during thirty-six years .ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. who had been the first to violate the treaty. same hatred. and laying waste the territories of the Acha?ans. I will fly to every part of the world where there are soldiers and arms. not of me. to per- sive point was. As long you shall resolve to make war against them. to protect the allies. he had a private conference with him.

to his cost. not to depend so much upon his own judgment. but Philopoemen trusted to make his joy of short now. Sir. 1." My orders !" interrvipted the prince . fired by jealousy. duration. but only made him for the future. 25—30. The battle was fought not far from Sparta. igi. Philopoemen saw plainly that it was necessary to come In this lay his chief talent and no general equalled him in drawing up an army." present. to a battle. C. ing by all the errors of an enemy. replied. vessels with expedition. In the first attack. Such is the use judicious men ought to make of their errors. in Philop. who were ybur highness in a sea-fight.422 ^ THE HISTORY OF He was not Philopoemen was general of the Acliaeans that yean inferior to any captain with respect to land but had no skill in naval aflPairs. which very much augmented the pride and haughtiness of the tyrant.to his camp. ^ liv. Accordingly. In a conversation upon a great Prince of Conde tliought and spoke much more wisely. was " . the auxiliary forces of Nabis. 364. This disaster however did not discourage him. * flattering himself that he should be as successful by sea as he had been by land but he : learned. M. would be proud of obeying your orders. which. " I should not presume even to give my advice . * The J. and profitOn this occasion. In the mean time. and found how greatly useful experience for Nabis. standing this. in taking all advantages. which formed . he set fire. he should be very liis glad to see one. he employed all his ability in the art of war. 3813. and he narrowly escaped being taken prisoner. A. n. for my own instruction. by that means. a few days after. XXXV. he took upon himself the command of the Achaean fleet. and animated with revenge against Nabis. there " is no admiral buj. and observe all the motions and operations of the battle. purely for own instruction. who had fitted out some is on all occasions . and made a great slaughter of his troops. Ant. having sur- more prudent and circumspect prised him when he least expected him. are frequently more advantageous Nabis triumphed to tli43m than the greatest successes. p. defeated Philopoemen. in making choice of fit posts. sea-fight. Gythium sun*endered. the prince said. A sea-officer. Plut. l^otwithservice. but should stand quietly on the deck. 363.

and whilst they were shouting as victorious. or rear if he came on in order of battle or in less order. young should Whenever he was officers upon a march. he returned home. or else inquired of those who were with him. : gage. he posted ambuscades on all the passes round. and very difficult for the cavalry to act in. and which propose to themselves as a model. and forced them to give way. he halted. A circumstance is related of him. on the rivulets and hills. though long before it was he was fully persuaded. to draw the ene- my Accordingly they fell headlong into them . by Philopoemen's order that they fled. so that Nabis hardly saved a fourth of his army. in case the enemy should come suddenly upon them . laden with spoils and glory. because it was manifestly owing solely to his prudence and ability. flank. whether in times of peace or war. liis 425 greatest strength. in pursuing the enemy . the enemy would return from their flight. and made a great slaughter. as when an army is on its march what post would it be proper for him to take ? In what places to dispose of his bag: . As the country full of thickets. and asked himself (in case he were alone). those who fled faced about. and came to any difficult pass. and after having considerably weakened the forces of the tyrant. threw them It was into disorder. the general would not suffer his troops to abandon themselves to their ardour. that as soon as it should be night. he enspot. was buscades. if he charged them in front. Philopoemen. broke the Achaeans. ravaged camped on that very dark.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. and the Achajans charged them on a sudden from their am- into ambuscades he had laid for them. and retire towards the city in small parties. This victory did Philopoemen great honour. in what manner it would be necessary to act. As Laconia for a month . who killed or took great numbers of them. and it? how many troops would be necessary to guard Whether it would be convenient for him to marck . but causing a retreat to be sounded. having blocked him up in Sparta. from the rivulets and morasses with which it was intersected. which is per- haps peculiar to him .

XXXV. expatiated upon all these advan- During glory. •who hated the Romans in their hearts. is to love captain one's profession. by drawing their army out of Greece. that all the Greeks would receive him with open arms . on » Liv. Thoas. observed to him. this expedition of the tages in the strongest and most pompous terms. and to act in concert with him. n. He what manner the other side. after he should decamp. and on several other Grecian powers. but resolved and acted immediately as if he had foreseen every These things form the great thing that happened. the jEtolians had sent ambassadors to Antiochus. 31—34. the first of the ambassadors. who were not ignorant of the measures taken by the iEtolians to disen^ The Romans. and only awaited his arrival to declare against them.424 f HE HISTORY OF to march ? He had accustomed himself so early. who have neither elevation of mind. and provide water ? What route he should take the next day. that this would be the finest opportunity for him to possess himself of it . . that the Romans. and that the instant he came among them. to think it an honour to succeed in it. he would be master of the country. They not only promised to join him with all their forces. but the only method to be such. and in what order it were best honour and ^ Achaeans against Nabis. nor views of : forward. and he never was disconcerted by any unforeseen accident. on Nabis king of Lacedaemonia. to study it seriously. and exercised himself so much. Tliis flattering description of the state of the Grecian affairs made so deep an impression on him. to exhort him to cross into Greece. but also assured him. or to retiirn hack the way he came ? Where to pitch his camp ? Of what extent it ought to be ? By what method he could best secure liis forage. and to despise the common topics of discourse of the indolent and insignificant part of an army. in all these parts of military knowledge. that nothing was new to him . that he could scarce give himself time to deliberate in it would be most proper for him to act. had left it in a defenceless condition . that he might depend upon Philip king of Macedon. 1.

in so dexterous a manner as not to disgust Philip. not only for their liberty.^utolians. . the chief /^i'. and above all (which was the strongest . which belonged to the It was necessary to undeceive them. in concert. who had been alienated from them. among whom was Quintius. by the roj)ort which was spread of their all intending to restore to Philip his son. and forget the obligations The whole assembly applauded they owed to them. one of the oldest among them. refuge amongst the Thoas. by exaggerating the king's forces by sea and land his numerous bodies of horse and foot the elephants he had caused to be brougiit from India. directed himself to Quintius and the rest of the ambassadors . but ^lagnesians. had sent ambassadors into Greece. from whence he had bvivaght JVIenippus. At his arrival he found the nations very well disposed with regard to tlie Romans. Zeno. The author of these false reports was Eurylochus. perceiving plainly tliat there was no longer any safety for him in the city.tolians. and increase their enemies on all sides. wlro. who had been given them as a hostage and to d(4iver up to that monarch the city of Demetrius. he said. which gave Quintius an opportunity of severely reproaching the jMagnesians with their ingratitude . ought alone to be answerable for it that the IVlagnesians were obliged to Quintius and the Romans. . to prepare and prepossess the people. man of tliat people.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. Before the general assembly was convened. expressions against the liomans. with tears conjured them not to impute to a whole people the rancour of one man. whom it was much more their interest to oblige. these two had endeavoured. they would sooner part with their lives than renounce tlie friendship of the Romans. but for whatever else is !nost dear : : and valuable among men that as for themselves. except the Magnesians. took . at that time chief As he let drop some harsh and injurious magistrate. was returned from Antiochus's court. Tliis Quintius effected with great address. 425 gage tlicir allies from their interest. this speech. and Kurylochus. whom the king had sent as his ambassador to the .

that it would have been happy for the Greeks. that he might have notliing to reproach himself with. among whom was Quintius. and that they were very rarely successful that the Roman ambassadors. and their former alliance with the TEtolians. Though he looked upon things as lost on that side. might have a pleasing adopted prospect at first. and to lay the blame more on the side of the iEtolians. Being introduced. Antiochus may. he thought proper to depute to their assembly some ambassadors from the confederates. who were next admitted to audience. and before Philip had been reduced that then every people would have preserved their rights. " But still (says he) if you execute the designs you have formed. He gave this commission to the Athenians . but that the difficulty of putting them in execution appeared afterwards. and all would not have been subjected to the Roman power. and the service Quintius had done to all Greece . had Antiochus concerned himself sooner in their affairs. conjuring them not to form any rash resolution in an affair of so much imthat bold resolutions. making them more proper to execute it than any other still people. the dignity of their city. to put them in mind of their alliance with the Romans. dour. portance as that in question with heat and vivacity. how desperate soever their condition may be. by announcing that an ambassador was arrived from Antiochus. as well as Asiatics. he began with saying. Quintius had regular notice sent him of whatever was said or done all in jEtolia.426 THE HISTOTtY OF motive with regard to the populace) the immense trea^ sures which the king would hriug with him. and to be ready to reply freely to whatever Antiochus's ambassador might advance. restore the affairs of Greece to their ancient splen. by the assistance of the gods and your aid. sufficient to buy even the Romans themselves." The Athenians. were not far off: that : : . Thoas opened the assembly. contented themselves (without saying a word of the king) with putting the -^tolians in mind of the alliance they had concluded with the Romans. yet.

as to prove to all mankind.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOHS. it would appear much more reasonable to make their remonstrances to the senate. than interviews. Quintius desiring a copy of this decree. so that the oldest and wisest among them were forced to employ all their influence. not so much from any hopes he entertained. than out of always ready . of to wisdom weigh and examine which the consequences could not but be deplorable. who were . it would show more deliberately. by recalling to their memories the time in which the ^tolians had concluded an alliance with the Romans . and were even against admitting the Romans into the assembly . in peaceable their several claims and pretensions. and infallibly terminate in the ruin of those .tolians were the sole cause of the war which was going to break out . The populace. The event proved the truth of his representations. as things were still 4^7 undecided. and obtained without delay. were heard with great attention . that if they imagined themselves aggrieved. and be the arbiter of the differences between the jEtolians and Romans. before they could prevail to have them called in. that the iE. and even in the presence of the to invite Antiochus to Romans.to hear their complaints mere wantonness to kindle a war between the Romans and Antiochus. who are ever greedy of novelty. of being able to make the least impression on minds so prejudiced. were entirely for Antiochus. and merely through necessity. Damocritus (then in office) was so inconsiderate as to answer in the most insolent tone. to involve precipitately Europe and Asia in a war. come and deliver Greece. which would disturb the peace of the universe. that he had business . and those of his faction. that a decree should be made. He began. which however were disregarded at that time. Accordingly Quintius came thither. he only observed. he made a transient mention of the many points in which they had infringed it and after saying very little with regard to the cities which were the pretext of their quarrel. who promoted it. and that the Komans would be forced to engage in it against their wills. Thoas.

Quintius rest of the ambassadors returned to Corinth. the word to his troopers. . the thither. having received advice of the attempt that was meditating against their city. who were strongly atChalcis. back in the utmost confusion. he which he had imagined he should be able to seize by the help of an exile for the magistrates. 1. *- Alexa- Liv. . 34—S9. being assisted by the faction of Eurylochus. but under the mask of friendship. and throws him from his horse. attacks Nanes. Alexameues was therefore ordered to march a thousand foot To these were added thirty young men. failing in his design. Chalcis. The cate. No access could be had to it. and secured it against all Thus Thoas. n. Nabis had long solicited the aid of the iEtolians. and cover him with wounds. : The Diodes set out for Demetrias. in a private council. ceived Alexamenes with great joy. enterprise against Sparta was much more deli- and of greater importance. who was an exile. flower of the cavalry. Demetrias. but appeared then at the head of the forces which Diodes had brought. ^ and even and the jEtolians. tached to the liomans. Both used to march out their troops every day. having given bis. who weve strictly enjoined by the magistrates to execute punctually their leader's orders. where. Immediately all the troopers fall on. into Italy.428 of THE HISTORY OF greater consequence upon his hands at that but that he himself would soon carry this decree . formed in one to seize by a three very astonishing resolutions day treacherous stratagem. their principal magistrates. and exercise them in the One day Alexameplain on the side of the Eurotas. : made himself master of the But Thoas was not so successful in city. and encamp on the banks of tlie Tiber so much time : violent and furious a spirit had seized all the ^Etolians. whom he had purposely drawn into a solitary place. put it in a good posture of defence. returned attacks. The tyrant reof what nature soever they might be. XXXV. and Lacedaimon . and tliree of the principal citizens were charged with the execution of these three expeditions.

that he engaged that city to join in the Achaean league. He assembled the principal made a speech to them. 36^h 365. 429 on Nabis's palace. as Alexamenes ought citizens. than he marched a considerable body of troops towards Sparta. . in searching after the tyrant's treasures. retunis to the city to seize Spartans taking up arms. A hundred and twenty thousand crowns. began to plun: incncs. The and prevailed so far between arguments and compulsion.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. but was really such : for not 1 * Plut. and confidence of the worthiest men in Lacedsemonia. p. and that he not only appeared a good and virtuous man.* and sent him a deputation to desire his acceptance of them. and solely intent upon securing his rich spoils. and march directly to the palace. that the virtue of this great personage was of the purest and most perfect kind . says Plutarch. general of the Achaians. \vithout losing time. On this occasion. after the palace and furniture of Nabis had been sold. Such was the result of the enterprise against Sparta. make a of the ^tolians dispersed in quest of great slaughter booty. der the city. . by a public decree. to make him a present of the moneys arising from that sale. amounting to a hundred and twenty talents . and Sparta had declared for the i?!l. no sooner lieard of Nabis's death. and the defender of their liberty. it was very evident. ^ Philopoemen. Had he convened the assembly that instant. and made a speech suitable to the occasion. whom they found with little or no guard. lopocmen with those states his having brought over to the league a city of so great power and authority as Sparta. who hoped he would prove their gaurantee. his business would have been done. and the whole night. For this reason.tolians but he spent the remainder of the day. they resolved. by his example. This success greatly increased the reputation of Phito have done. being justly esteemed a service of no small imBy this means lie also gained the friendship portance. in Philop. where they kill Alexamenes. where he found all things in the utmost disorder. and his troops.

43*-45v . he returned as he came. they all excused themselves . but the instant he had done speaking. who had formerly been his guest. in councils. gravity of his whole conduct. but was not more successful than before. he lodged at the house of Philopoemen. Timolaus was sent again. they might not " For occasion so many distractions in the government. being paid for their silence. who gave him the kindest recepHere he had an opportunity of considering the tion. X3txv. At last. he saw.450 \ THE HIStORY Ot one of the Spartans would undertake the coimnissioli' of offering him that present. Struck with veneration and fear. the greatness of his sentiments. he advised them not to lay out their money in bribing and corrupting such of their friends as were men of probity. he went to Sparta . giving some other pretence to his jouniey. and the mighty promises he made that prince. n. in order that." Such was the disinLet the reader compare terestedness of Philopoemen. Philopoemen heard him with great tranquillity . repaired to the court of Antiochus. he ventured (but with gi-eat reluctance) to acquaint Philopoemen with the good will of the Spartans. When he arrived at INIcgalopolis. than that of a friend. that rendered him invincible and incorTimolaus was so astonished at all ruptible by money. going a third time. perplexed and divided the city by their seditious discourses . and those who. whercy after expressing the highest gratitude to the Spartans. because they might always enjoy the benefit of their virtue and wisdom without expense to themselves but to keep their gold to purchase and cor- — . 1. these great and noble sentiments with the baseness of those grovelling wretches whose whole study is to heap up riches. by all he by "^ ^ Thoas had Liv. rupt the wicked. and therefore it' was at last resolved to send Timolaus. it is much more advisable (added he) to stop an enemy's mouth. and the regularity of his manners. so that. the frugality of his life. that he did not dare so much as to mention to Philopoemen the present he was come to offer him .

he withdrew. : where their assembly was held. notwithstanding the inclemency of the season. three powerful cities. had he been to possess himself only of a naked and defenceless country. These troops would hardly have sufficed. told 431 him concerning the present state of Greece. at the first signal they gave him. The most judicious in the assembly saw plainly that Antiochus. nor carry with him a sufficient number of troops. he was come. Having ended his speech. He began with apologizing for his being come with much fewer troops than they expected . but that their expectations should soon be answered that as soon as the season for navigation should arrive. instead of an effectual and present succour. and from thence. since. He was received there . and especially of the resolutions which had been taken in the general assembly of the yEtolians. for the deliverance of Greece. such precipitation. nor danger. and without waiting till all things were ready . there would arrive from Asia convoys of every kind that all he desired of them was. as the Romans first to oppose. without waiting for the troops that were marching to join him from Syria and the East. and Smyrna. he engaged him to He went with set out immediately for that country. with the highest demonstrations of joy. Troas. only to provide his troops with whatever might be necessary for their present subsistence. pains. that he did not give himself time to concert the necessary measures for so important a war. without having so formidable an ene. and horses. my . He left behind him Lampsacus. : : . and to acquire for the jEtolians the first rank in it that. with his numerous armies. insinuating that his expedition was a proof of the zeal he had for their interest. and all the that he would spare sea-coasts covered with galleys neither expense.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. af- ter receiving the decree which had been sent by the iEtolians and their ambassador. men. He arrived at Demetrias . brought only ten thousand foot and five hundred horse. which he ought to have reduced before he declared war but Antiochus. they should see all Greece filled with arms. he went to Lamia.

with what enterprise they should begin. they were near it. caused Antiochus to be nominated generalissimo. not to make it the seat of war. n. but in vain. the » When king permitted the principal iEtolians to have a conference witli such citizens of Chalcis. Thirty of their principal — men wiere appointed for his council wlit^nevcr think proper to deliberate with them. They declared. and that by this means they would hold both in respect that they would do well to consider. Ant. C.432 THE HISTOKY OF as he had promised. and tiiereupon the troops set out for that city without loss of time. p. and send Manias Acilius the consid into Greece. Antiochus in<ikes an ill use ofHannihaVs counsel. and all Eiihwa. AppiaH. 93' 3813. and not merely in words as the Romans had done that nothing could be of greater advantage to the cities of Greece. gave them little more than hopes and promises They could have wished that they had chosen him only as arbiter and mediator between them and the Romans. as were come out Tlie -^tolians urged them in of it on their arrival. in Syriac. 46 J. Tliermopijloe. 92. but actually to deliver it. XXXV. Thoas having gained a majority. to his interest. but without breaking their treaty with the Romans. The Romans He possesses hnng over the Achamn. M. RoA. However. It was thouglit advisable to make a second attempt on Chalcis . he should SECT. as the aid they might expect from the » Liv. Antwclius endeavouis to himself of' Chalcis proclaim war against him. 191. VI. terms to conclude an alliance with Anthe strongest tiochus. tliat this prince was come into Greece. — 51. : : in case they should not agree to the proposal now made them. He is defeated near The Altolians submit to the Romans. and not leader of the war. because that the one would always defend them against the other. the great danger to which they would expose themselves.f — The first subject on which the king and the ^tolians deliberated was. than to live in amity with botli those powers. 1. .

the first thing they were desired to do was. vaniloquus. but in concert with the Romans. Miction. or complained of being oppressed by them that as for the inhabitants of Chalcis. that he Antiochus came to deliver. 2 F . the Roman general. The former gave audience to the ambassadors of Antiochus and those of the jEtolians at -^ge. lie resolved to return to Demetrias.) and fancying himself a great orator. who. of the Romans : that they did not refuse the amity. He* was a vain those generally are who live in the courts and (as at the expense of princes . he spoke with an imposing and emphatical tone He told them. turned about. maria tervcrborum compleverat. consisting partly of cuirassiers. one of the principal citizens of Chalcis. whereas the king was present and at their gates. and with the amity. and partly of bowmen. When this answer was reported to the king." Liv. but that. they had no occasion for a deliverer. VI. under the protection. jrasque inani sonitu ut plerique quos opes regiae alunt. nor that paid the least tribute to the Romans. Antiochus's ambassador spoke man even when they were flying on horseback. and was no good omen with regard to the future. nor to make any alliance with tliem. as they enjoyed the sweets of peace. and endeavoured to bring over the Achaeans and Athamanians. as they were free . if they would show themselves friends. that an innumerable body of of voice. They now addressed themselves to another quarter. ' VOL.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. nor of a defender. cavalry was passing the Hellespont into Europe. prudent and ill-concerted a first step did him no honour. either of the king or of the ^Etolians . to leave their island that they were fully determined. as he had brought but few troops. neither to admit them into their city. where their assembly was held. and for wliose sake he had Jeft his kingdom. and was not able to force So imthe city. in presence of Quintius : : : first. and was come into Greece that he knew of no city garrisoned by Roman soldiers. * " Is. recould not guess what people it was that plied. 433 rnans was at a great distance.

that the safest and wisest course the Acha?ans could take. and the former confined within the narrow limits of Macedonia. the INledes. He in general. or incurring any hazard. who had forgotten that they owed to the bravery of the ^Etolians. though he was come from the most remote parts of the East. that nevertheless. but only to stand neuter. the jEtolian ambassador. he threw out invectives and reproaches against the Romans gainst Quintius in particular. of the rest of the military preparations that consequently the Romans would not now have to do with a Philip or a Hannibal . With regard to the fleet. and the . Archidamus. but with a . called them and a- an un- grateful people. To itself this cavahy. and many other terrible unknown nations. the Dalian.434 and discharged THE HISTOUY OF tbeir aiTows with the surest aim. he did not require any article from the Acha^ans. without sharing in it. the Elymseans. that should interfere with the fidelity they might imagine they owed the Romans. he affirmed that it would be so large. according to him. which. their first friends and allies that he did not desire them to unite their arms with his against that people. to remain mere spectators of the war. that no harbour of Greece could contain it . spoke to the same effect adding. in proportion. was ahle to overwhelm the united forces of Europe. every one knowing that the kingdoms of Asia had always abounded in gold that they were to judge. : : prince who was sovereign of all Asia and part of Eu» rope . he hy added a more numerous infantry . not only the victory they had gained over Philip. would be. nations who were allowed vmiversally to be the best and most experienced mariners in the world . Then growing warmer as he went on. that it would be to no purpose to enumerate the immense sums which Antiochus was bringing with him. purely to restore the liberty of Greece. but their general's life. and to wait in peace for the event : . the Cadusians. the right wing was to be composed of Tyrians and Sidonians the left of Aradians and the Sidetes of Pamphylia . the latter being only a citizen of Carthage. and not declare for cither party.

in sacrificing victims. but had studied to ingratiate himself with the king's am- To bassadors. that what we took for game. and that all the cities of Greece were ready to declare for JiLtolia. or a priest. and. the speeches made by the ambassadors showed it visibly enough. who was not vain-glorious tity of game. like these people. did safety of their army. and to cover the sea with his fleets. and preserved the Romans . the ^tolians asserting boldly on one side (as you have just now heard). on the other side. party that knowing the Achaeans were perfectly acquainted wdth the disposition and character of the /Etolians. me in Chalcis. we asked him how it was possible for him. not in actions. by a friend of mine. 435 For what. and owned sincerely.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. by their means. seasoned several ways. Quintius do in tliis battle. that he liimself He had observed him during the engagement wholly employed in consulting the auspices. nothing but boasting and falsehood had been employed that by vaunting of troops which they did not possess. what it was that had formed the alliance between Antiochus and the iliLtolians. continued he. that it was plain which Archidamus had studied to please by this speech. they seduced and puffed up the vanity of each other by false promises and vain hopes. and offering up vows." " puts me in mind of an entertainment given says he. and cooked up with . affirming. this Quintius answered. Surprised at the prodigious quantity and variety of dishes that were served up. w^ho treats his guests in the best manner. to get together so great a quanfriend. a very worthy man. he had not endeavoured to conciliate their esteem. " This. whilst himself was exposing his person and life to the enemy's darts. and the king. was nothing but : My swine's flesh. like an augur. worthy a great captain ? declared. whose courage consisted solely in words. that he was going to bring into the field innumerable bodies of horse and foot. that tliey had defeated Philip. only fell a laughing. that on both sides. with the king himself: that if the world had not known till now. in the month of June. for his defence and preservation.

Cadusians. with as little judgment. and king's troops whose number have been vainly multiplied in mighty names. who one moment hurries to the assembly of the i^tolians. That would indeed be a sure method . and Elymaeans. THE HISTORY OF The same thing may be said of the which have been so highly extolled. suffer yourselves to be imposed upon. to Chalcis with a much greater body of than before. And now the faction against the troops Romans prevailed. but to rely upon the good faith of the Romans. The rest of the cities soon following their example. to become the prey of the victor. diately. are all but one nation. have This ought to teach you not to believed Antiochus. INIedcs." The Achaeans were neither long nor divided in their deliberations and the result was.436 different sauces. from which he is obliged to retire with ignominy. and a nation of slaves rather than soldiers. But can that . and you. For these Dahae. that it will be safest for you to stand neuter. represent to you all the movements and expeditions of this great king. Why may not I. answered. Antiochus received no greater satisfaction from the that they would deliberate Boeotians. I mean. when that prince should come into Boeotia. to remain only spectators of the war. Antiochus has very injudiciously given credit to the iEtolians. and the next goes in person to the very gates of Chalcis. at the request of Quintius. upon what was to be done. he made himself master of all Euboea. and the city opened its gates to him. they sent five hundred men to the aid of Chalcis. Athens. that they should deImmeclare war against Antiochus and the ^Etolians. in having reduced so considerable an island in his first campaign. and they. and the like number to . there to beg for provisions and money . Achaeans. who In the mean time Antiochus made a new attempt. He fancied he had and advanced made a great acquisition. which you have so often I am surprised they can venture to tell experienced.

! to their success. 93—96. blind a paganism. after consulting the will of <^ the gods by omens and auspices. About the same time. by insisting on the paramount necessity of *> Liv. to whom Greece had fallen by lot. xxxvi. The Romans. p. Hannibal. They only desired Philip to assist the consul. and ships. of every thing.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. and there held a council of war with the chief commanders of his army. was present at it. In the mean time Antiochus. and Masinissa. M. though generals. on the operations of the campaign that was go- the same time. The ing to open. but would accept of nothing except the corn. arrived there. J. ordered his troops to assemble at Brundusium on the fifteenth of May . 437 he called a conquest. corn. Ant. Processions were appointed during two days. to enter into an alliance with him. went to Demetrias. either by his envoys or in person. and his opinion was first asked. Philip. reflect on Christian gious. The senators and inferior magistrates were forbidden to remove to any distance from Rome. n. He began. 1 — 15. the Carthaginians. 8813. and set out from Rome himself some days before. A. The senate said. I91. and to make offerings in all the What a reproach would so relitemples of the gods. and five senators were not allowed to be absent from it at love of their country took place Acilius the consul. they omitted no human means tection of the gods. where there are no enemies to make opposition ? But terrible ones were making preparations against that prince. C. in Syriac. ambassadors from Ptolemy. 1. Appian. who was now restored to favour. in case they should be successful in the war. proclaimed war against Antiochus and his adherents. men. that the people of Rome thanked them. and that upon condition of paying for it. after having solicited many cities. from which they could not return the same day . . who should be ashamed of piety and religion At the same time. to implore the aid and pro- They made a vow to solemnize the great games for ten days. to offer the Romans money.

and not rely on the iEtolians. which are opposite to Italy. if wdiat Thoas has so often repeated to the king. as he had always done. that the king ought to send immediately for all his troops out of Asia. they might assure themselves of " And indeed (says he) as Phithe success of the war. except in Italy. was so important a step. in order to induce him to cross into Greece. which. as is w^ell known^ they were indebted easily for victory. it would be proper to march towards those coasts of Greece. what may not he expected from a war in which the two greatest kings of Europe and Asia will unite their forces especially as the Romans will have those against them in it. waits only an opportunity to declare himself? And could he ever hope one more fa* vourahle than that which now offers itself?" If Philip should refuse to join Antiochus. and asserted. who gave them the superiori. He insisted on a still more important point. and by that means to render Philip incapable of assisting the Romans. it was Ins opinion. to whom alone. alone sustained so long the whole weight of the Rolip man power. highly incensed to see himself reduced to a shameful servitude under the name of peace. he said. in the present state of affairs. or his other allies of Greece. and the king was at that time in Greece . that it would be impossible to reduce the Romans. that if it succeeded. I mean the iEtoiians and Athamanians. that this prince. which had been his reason for always advising Antiochus to begin the war there tliat since another course had been taken. who can doubt but Philip may be brought over from the Roman interest. and order his fleet to set sail thither also that he should employ half of it to alarm and rathe coasts of Italy and keep the other half in vage some ueighbounng iuroour.438 THE HISTORY OF using the utmost endeavours to engage Philip in Antiochus's interest . in order to seem upon the : : : . be true. to lay waste the frontiers of Macedonia. . Now. Hannibal advised him to send his son Seleucus at the head of the army he had in Thrace. who possibly might fail him on a sudden that the instant those forces should arrive. ty before .

and for that reason it was necessary for him to draw up another plan. I ought at least to have learned." The council could not but approve at that time of As My zeal and fidelity may be de- what Hannibal had said. In this manner are the best counsels and the most powerful empires ruined. all the honour to Hannibal. frustrated. whatsoever they may be. However. and. and immediately sent orders to Polyxenides. without regarding that of the Carthagi- would be ascribed nian. Though he was upwards of was iifty. by my good and ill successes. after which he retired to Demetrias. I beseech the gods to prosper all your undertakings. king. he was so passionately fond of that girl. from the necessity of defending tlieir own coasts . he complied only with the article which related to the troops of Asia . and if I am not so well qualified for presiding in another war. thence he Avent to Chalcis. in case a favourable opportunity should present itself. because he had formed it: that the king ought to have all the glory of the war. having joined the troops of the allies to made Iiimself master of several cities of Thes- saly . to all the rest of Hannibal's plan. the only place (in his opinion) where the Romans " could be conquered. and actually to keep himself in readiness to do so.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSOUS. by asthat he could not fail of being victorious : that should he follow Hannibal's plan. By this means. it will be the best method for carrying the war into Italy. and indeed it was the only advice that could be given Antiochus in the pregood sent posture of his affairs. his courtiers and flatterers diverted suring him him from putting it in execution. The his own. who From . he was however obliged to raise the siege of Larissa. where he fell distractedly in love with the daughter of the person at whose house he lodged. said he. These (concluded Hannibal) are my thoughts. the Konians will be kept at home. to the rest. 439 point of crossing into Italy . his adWith regard miral. at the same time. Bebius the Roman praetor having sent it a speedy aid. how to act in the field against the Romans. pended upon. to bring them over into Greece.

on the This taste for pleasure soon occasion of his nuptials. 1. p his security against the Antiochus imagined he had provided sufficiently for Romans. the war against the Romans and the deliverance of Greece. 343. was im- possible for them. by having seized the pass of Thermopylae. which Polyxenides was bringing. . the inclemency of the weather.p. and the truth of Hannibal's words. by putting them in mind of lip. and infinitely more practised P Liv. and occasioned an universal neglect of military disci- He did not awake out of the lethargy into which this effeminate life had thrown him. to bring more forces in the field . Forgetting the two great enterprises he had formed. communicated itself from the king to the whole court. had prevented the arrival of the Asiatic forces. and ^t Either to send to the ^tolians for a reinforcement. In Syr. Immediately the king set out . n. p. 96—9«. 344. that time was. to seize the pass of Thermopylae. he then. but too late. Most of his officers and soldiers had been employed in the war against PhiThese he animated. and the king had only those troops which he had brought the year before. till news was brought. in Caton. how much he had been imposed upon by the splendid promises of Thoas . who were advancing against him. XXXV. that he resolved to marry her. that it pline. that Acilius the consul was advancing towards him in Thessaly with the utmost diligence. found. whose officers told him. and finding at the place appointed for the rendezvous but a very small number of the confederate troops. the famous victory they had gained over that king. Pliit. 16-^21. and strengthening the natural fortifications of that place with intrenchments and walls. or contrary winds.440 THE HISTORY OP not twenty. who was a much braver prince. The consul came forward determined to attack him. that it would not be safe for him All he could do to rely on the troops of such allies. he spent the rest of the winter in feasts and diversions. Appian. though they had used their utmost endeavours. which scarce exceeded ten thousand men.

path where Xerxes and Brennus afterwards opened themselves a passage . At the same instant the consul attacks Antiochus's inlians. that he was forced to leave the field. than 441 Antiochus . who.ALEXANDEK'S SUCCESSORS. trenchments with their ground. The rout now became general in a place where there were scarcely any outlets to escape through for on one side they were stopped by deep fens. no part of his army dared to stand and wait the coming up of the Romans. The soldiers. who acted under him as lieutenant. take all his troops. in quest of some bye-path that led to the hill above the enemy. Cato. body of six hundred j^to- A seeing him to flight. and retire towards their army. vainmarried. ly fancied that war was to be carried on in the same manner as nuptials are solemnized. being newly and enervated by j)leasures and revelling. Acilius had despatched Cato. and forces them. After the battle was over. to avoid the enemy's swords. so that there was no getting off either on the right or left. having such excessive pain. was in king. and cried out aloud in the transports of his joy. perished. where they spread universal terror. and with great shouts. when falling suddenly on some soldiers. come dovni the mountains. in which manner a great number of them After his retreat. had been consul. . after inexpressible went over the mountains through the same fatigues. he soon put them to flight. crowding and pushing forward. who was now lieuunder Acilius. however. in military affairs. and advances at the head of his detachment sword in hand. who was still hot and out of breath . could ever reward his services as they deserved. The his teeth shattered by a stone. whom he met there. with a large detachment. threw one another into the morasses and down the precipices. and on the other by craggy rocks . that neither himself nor the Romans. and had tenant-general commanded the armies in Spain but he did not think that the accepting of a subaltern employment for the : . Cato. Immediately he orders the trumpets to sound. who guarded some of the eminences. the consul embraced Cato a long time in his arms.

It how greatly his lieu- together. five hundred excepted. the tradition of which (of equal antiquity with the world) that there is a Suhas been preserved by all nations and a Providence. endeavour- ing in the first place. upon given for public prayers and sacrifices to be offered up to the gods. and afterwards returning them public and solemn thanks for the success of their arms. with the news of this victory. it.442 was a frequent THE HISTORY OF was any disgrace to liim . with admir- ation. I mean. The reader has doubtless often observed. citizens with a joy so much the greater. Acilius sent Cato to Rome. gularly among us. to acquire the favour of those whom they honoured as gods. that it may be called a religious I only wish that one practice were added to custom. and especially of Chalcis and all Eu- . mean time the victorious army continued the pursuit. how careful the heathens were to begin and end all their wars with solemn acts of religion . as they had been very apprehensive of the success of the war against so Orders were therepowerful and renowned a prince. and related in tenant had contributed to noble in a general to do justice in this manner to the merit of another. which presides over all preme Being human events. and it is only among Christians. in strictness of speech. that prayers were offered up at the same time for those brave oflicers and soldiers wlio have shed their blood in the defence of their country. service of his country and this In the practice among the Romans. and not to suffer so mean a passion as jealousy to harbour The arrival of Cato at Rome filled the in his heart. and cut to pieces all Antiochus's forces. This laudable custom is observed re. This was a double testimony which they paid to an important and capital truth. which certainly corresponds with the intention of our superiors as well ecclesiastical as political . The victory gained over Antiochus was followed by the surrender of all the cities and fortresses which that prince had taken. with whom he escaped to Chalcis. by vows and sacrifices. for three days is his letters. by way of tlianksgiving. it.

discovered such a moderation on all occasions. however. as reflected greater honour on hiui than the victory itself. employ with force. and accordingly he besieged that place his troops. They burned in an instant the greatest part of the machines employed against them. and did not renew it till about nine the next morning. *i Tlie consul. how little they could depend on Antiochus : that it was not yet too late for them to have recourse to the clemency of the Romans : that to give an unexceptionable proof of the sincerity of their repentance. laudabi- . boea. with a violence it was scarce possible to support. not doubting that this proceeded from the excessive fatigue of the besiegers. * " Multo mo4t'stia post victoriani. *i — quam ipsa victoria.and. endeavoured to bring He represented. They immediately repaired such parts of the wall In their frequent sallies. and all city in four places at the Liv. Heraclea was a very strong city. them over by gentle methods. attacked the same time. cadefence.twenty days. that as the garrison did not consist of near so many forces as the Roman army. and able to make a long and vigorous The consul having employed the balistoe. of great extent. all the other engines of w ar. by their injurious and insohad rendered tlicinselvcs unworthy of the least regard.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. they must surrender to him Heraclea. they as were beaten down. The /Etolians. he saw plainly that he should be obliged to purpose. These remonstrances being all to no their capital city. lior. and persuaded tapultac. it must necessarily be greatly weakened by such violent and continued exertions." Liv. It was plain. Acilius. 1. 443 liis victory. without the least intermission either day or night. or rather fury. the iEtolians. He discontinued the attack at twelve every night. The besieged defended themselves with inexpressible courage. n 22 26. xxxvi. * after Though lent conduct. And now the consul formed a new plan. that ex}x*rience ought to teach them. The attack was continued in this manner for four. charged for they fought in the highest despair.

:^tolians fled with tlie utmost precipitation into the citadel. who were commanded not to move." At the same time Philip was besieging Lamia. Liv. placing at the fourth a body of troops. in the beginning of the war had answered Quintius. who staid very willingly with him. but the consul having drawn off his troops at midnight as usual. " That he would bring to him in Italy the decree by which he had just before called in Antiochus.* which was but seven miles from Heraclea. 1. with Thoas at their head. and retired at the same time with the Romans. it could not hold out long . at the first assault. 35. 27. as to reward the soldiers. had not been allowed to plunder any of the cities they had taken. They continued this practice for some time . ^The ' -^tolians. on that account. The general suffered the city to be plundered. Such ^Etolians asr were asleep. had drawn off their The city was taken in an instant. not so much from a spirit of hatred and revenge. the jEtolians had deputed ambassadors. being very drowsy and heavy from fatigue.444 THE HISTOUY OF that they were as much exhausted as themselves. who. the assault was m^de on that part given by of the city which had not yet been attacked and from whence the besieged. and kept Thoas. till a signal should be given. ^ Both Lamia and Heraclea were . and accordingly. . took advantage of the repose allowed them. in want of provisions. were waked with the utmost difficulty and those who were awake ran up and down at random wherever the At day-break. till now. Among the prisoners was Damocritus. gave them immediately a considerable sum of money. who. cour. the consul. the signal being noise called them. a person of the greatest distinction among the iEtolians. As the citadel was . It did not hold out long after the latter was taken. The king promised them a speedy sucto Antiochus. who were exceedingly discouraged in Phtliiotisr xxxvi. the garrison surrendered. Some days before the surrender of Heraclea. to hasten the execution of his promises. at three in the morning assaulted the city in three places only . and the people. n.

the consul laid siege to Naupacin which the iEtolians had shut themselves up with tus.ALEXANDER'S SUCCESSORS. humble posture " . he was moved with compassion. and might havebeen much conditions of peace which were prescribed. and calling him by his name. as to be known by the The city was reduced to the last extremities. condition even to shedding of tears. who during this time had been employed in Greece in various concerns. Seeing them in that . liy the 445 taking of Heraclca. In the mean time. Quintius. considered how they might best put an end to a war. Acilius agreed with him . rumour being spread that Quintius was approaching. when he saw them on the brink of destruction . and returned to the consul. The siege had already been carried on two months. all burst into tears. wliich had already been attend- ed with very unhappy worse. The destruction of that city would involve almost the whole nation in the same fate. that as he had overcome Antiochus. bid them send deputies to him when immediately Phaeneas and the principal citizens came out. when Quintius. it was but lost time to continue the siege of tliose two cities. and threw themselves at his feet. and the citizens besought him to take compassion of them. Quintius. and that the year of his command was near expiring. besieged. he left Quintius at liberty to act as he pleased. The which Quintius had met with from the iEtolians. but being ashamed to raise the siege. came thither and joined the consul. usage had given him the greatest reason to be dissatisfied with thenu However. the negociation came to But the populace not approving the nothing. all their forces. and implored his assistance with the most mournful cries. and therefore he advanced so near the walls. The latter advancing near the walls a second time.In their conversation he represented. immediately the citizens ran from all quarters to the A Those unfortunate people stretching forth their hands towards Quintius. expressed by his gesture that he could do nothing for them. by a sign with his hand. moved with their walls. effects. the mournful cries were again heard. Your calamity (says he) banishes .

as 1 am. my mind You now find told you to of heing owing cancel dence to thoughts of resentment and revenge.446 from THE all IIISTOIIY. who had been a hostage Thus ended the war which the Romans in their city. Greece. and the Romans gave up to them Demetrius. and you have not the consolation they ahle to say." They followed Quintius's advice in every thing. hy Proviyourselves. that none of these misfortunes were But destined. do good. the son of Philip. broke up the siege. carried on against Antiochus in Greece. to the senate. all things have happened as 1 forewould . make your submissions I will be your mediator and advocate with the consul. and sacrifices to the gods in the were received there with the highest Capitol They marks of distinction. . Depute therefore and beg a truce for as much sending ambassadors to Eome. your ingratitude shall not preserve that inclination to suffice for my some persons time as may in order to to the consul. King Philip sent ambassadors to Rome. &(*. and marched back his army to Phocis. to offer presents and END OF THE SIXTH V0LU3IE. The consul granted them a truce. to congratulate the Romans on the happy success of this campaign.

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