Assembly
I FFT
Transformer
t Exp'sDiagnosis
Network
Figure 1. The flow of signals in a typical motor bearing fault
detection process.
1. Introduction
The maintenance of modem rotating machinery is This paper applies neural networks to the detection of
highly related to the preservation of bearings, due to the motor bearing conditions based on the frequency features
relative commonality of their faults. Therefore, since most of bearing vibration. Neural networks have proven ability
of the phenomena occurring in the bearing assemblies of in the area of nonlinear pattern classification. After being
motors are in some way represented as motor vibration, trained, they contain expert knowledge and can correctly
one of the most important signals to consider in most identify the different causes of bearing vibration. The
motor fault detection schemes is motor bearing vibration. results show that a neural network bearing vibration
Properly monitoring bearing vibration in a motor system is detector can satisfactorily replace motor experts for this
highly cost-effective in minimizing motor downtime; both problem and give accurate information about the condition
by providing advance warning for appropriate actions to be of the motor bearing given vibration data.
taken and by ensuring that the system does not deteriorate
to a condition where emergency action is required [I-31. 2. Fundamental Bearing Vibration Features
Signals measured by vibration sensors are generally
compared to reference signals in order to interpret the 2.1. Five Basic Frequencies Related to Rolling
bearing condition. Methods to analyze these signals Bearing Dynamic Movement
include: probabilistic analysis[81, frequency-domain signal Rolling bearings generally consist of two concentric
analysis[4-11], time-domain signal analysis[8], and rings with a set of rolling elements running in their tracks.
waveform analysis[8]. Among these, the frequency- These two rings are called the outer raceway and inner
domain signal analysis approach, which is also the basic raceway, respectively. Standard shapes of rolling elements
tool used in some of the other approaches, such as include the ball, cylindrical roller, tapered roller, needle
probabilistic analysis, is the most popular method due to roller, and symmetrical and unsymmetrical barrel roller
the availability of the Fourier Transform technique. [9,10]. Usually, the rolling elements in a bearing are
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guided in a cage that ensures uniform spacing and prevents 3. Ball Pass Outer Raceway Frequency ( f B p o F )
mutual contact. The ball pass outer raceway frequency, ,rBpo,, indicates
There are five basic motions that can be used to
describe the dynamics of a bearing movement and each the rate at which the balls pass a point on .the track of the
motion generates a unique frequency response. These five outer raceway. The quantity of f B p o , is equal to the
frequencies, shown in Figure 2, are defined as: shaft number of bearing balls, N , , multiplied by the difference
rotational frequency ( f,), fundamental cage frequency between the fundamental cage frequency, f F c F , and the
( f F C F ) , ball pass outer raceway frequency ( f B p o F ), ball outer raceway frequency, f,. In the motor, f,,,, is
pass inner raceway frequency ( f B p l F ), and ball rotational calculated as[5,7,8,11]:
frequency (f,). fBPOF = NBlfFCF -fol*
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The roller hits both the inner raceway and outer defects on the inner raceway and rolling element using
raceway each time it spins on its own axis. Therefore, for MOTORSIM.
defects on the roller, twice the ball rotational frequency
( 2 f B ) and the fundamental cage frequency ( f F c F ) will
(I!,, , , , , , , , , , .
usually be generated. In most cases, these frequencies will 0.W
3 am
be modulated with other existing frequencies and result in -0 05
a more complicated spectrum.
The simplest spectrum for bearing vibration is the d I’
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handling non-linear systems. Neural networks are able to
learn expert knowledge by being trained using a
where N=2048 and d(n),0 s 2 N - 1 denotes the time- representative set of data [1,2]. At the beginning of a
neural network's training session, the neural network fault
domain data generated by MOTORSIM.The power
detector's diagnosis of the motor's condition will not be
spectrum of the vibration is obtained as follows:
accurate. An error quantity is measured and used to adjust
P(0)= lD(O)l', (6) the neural network's intemal parameters in order to
P(k)=[D(k)12+ I D ( N - k 1 2 ] k=1,2,...,--1,
N (7) produce a more accurate output decision. Once the
2 network is sufficiently trained and the weights have been
saved, the neural network contains all the necessary
knowledge to perform the fault detection.
Our neural network will have five input measurements
Next, we construct basic frequency amplitude vectors to
corresponding to the amplitudes of the five basic
represent different bearing vibrations. These vectors are
frequencies of interest and three output fault detectors
created from the power spectrum of the vibration signal
(bearing looseness, defects on the inner raceway, defects
and consist of the five basic frequencies; with varying
on the rolling element). MotorSIM can be used to generate
amplitudes based on the defect present. Since the spectral
the five basic frequencies under different fault conditions.
components near the five basic frequencies are also
After the network has been sufficiently trained with this
important, when generating the vector we consider a
data, it has the ability to identify different bearing faults
frequency band of lOHz for each basic frequency. That is,
from the vibration signal.
frequency band = - 5, f + 51 (9)
where f is the basic frequency.
3.3 Fault Detection and Results
For the five different basic frequencies, the basic
frequency amplitude vector and its elements can be The performance of the motor bearing fault detector, a
represented as: three-layer network with 10 hidden nodes, was tested using
the data generated by MOTORSIM and is given in Table 3.
From each of the seven possible fault combinations, one,
two, or three input data sets were chosen in order to
where T, is the sampling time.
generate smaller training data sets, of 7,14, and 21
frequency sets, respectively, from the original testing data
set, of 63 frequency sets. The s u e of the training data sets
was varied so as to show how this variable can effect
results. In order to demonstrate robustness, each of the
three training sets was run for 100 iterations with the
results averaged. A learning rate of 0.01 and momentum
of 0.3 was selected for all cases based on the experience of
the authors. Hence, the form of the neural network is
N,,,,J, with q=O.Ol and a=0.3.
1
where
P= y
k=O
P(k). (17) Training
time
In this paper, the authors use MOTORSIM to simulate the {epochs)
vibration of a ball bearing with the following parameters:
Db = 0.5 in., N , = 9, 0, = 2.559in.,O = 0. The motor speed
is 1500 RPM. The five basic frequencies are: fs = 2 5 ~ 2 , 341.95
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This method of neural network based motor bearing fault 6. Acknowledgment
detection has proven to be very accurate with as little as
two sets of basic frequency amplitude measurements for The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the
each of the seven fault types. National Science Foundation, for Grant ECS-952 1609.
4. Conclusion 7. References
A method of using neural networks to interpret [1]M.-y. Chow, R. N. Sharpe, and J. C. Hung, “On the
vibration signals of electric motors in order to detect Application and Design Consideration of Artificial Neural
Network Fault Detectors,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial
bearing faults was presented. Using the frequency Electronics, vol. 40, pp. 181-198,1993.
spectrum of the vibration signal to train an artificial neural [2]M.-Y. Chow and P. V. Goode, “Using a Neural/Fuzzy
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with minimal data. Due to the high probability of bearing Detection Problem,” presented at IEEE Intemational
defects occurring in electric motors and the widespread use Conference On Fuzzy Systems, 1994.
of these motors in modem industry, this method of non- [3]M.-Y. Chow, S. Altug, and B. Li, “Motor System Time
invasive fault detection can be of great use for all motor Domain Fast Prototype Software Simulation,” National
related topics. Symposiumon Electric Machine, Newport, RI, 1997.
[4]G. Lipovszky, K. Solyomvari, and G. Varga, Vibration
Testing of Machines and Their Maintenance, first edition,
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From the research done in this paper, we now know [5]K. Ragulskis and A. Yurkauskas, Vibration ofBearings, first
that neural networks are capable of high detection edition, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1989.
[6]J. I. Taylor, The Vibration Analysis Handbook, first edition,
accuracy of bearing defects using frequency spectrum Vibration Consultants Inc., 1994.
signals. By additionally incorporating the time domain [7]T. A. Harris, Rolling Bearing Analysis, third edition, John
signal, specifically the presence of peak amplitudes, the Wiley & Son, INC., 1991.
severity of the defect should be ascertainable. Eventually, [8]H. Ohta and N. Sugimoto, “Vibration Characteristics of
this hybrid frequency and time-domain approach should Tapered Roller Bearings,” Journal of Sound and Vibration,
give further insight into the presence and severity of motor vol. 190, pp. 137-147, 1996.
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the maintenance of rotating machinery in industrial BURBANK & CO., INC., 1959.
applications. [ 1OIEschmann, Hasbargen, and Weigand, Ball and Roller
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