Homicides in Chicago 1

Running Head: Homicides in Chicago

Samuel R. Morris Homicides in Chicago, 1965 - 1995 SOWK 300 Tuskegee University Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Homicides in Chicago 2

Hypothesis: My first hypothesis for this paper is that drug related crimes or motives can influence the time of the year or month that they are committed. The independent variable for this project is drug related motives – or DRUGRELA – and the dependent variable is month of occurrence of incident – or INJMONTH. Under the independent variable, the values that I used were no information, selling or drug business, argument over possession, use, quality, or use of drug, getting money for drugs or drugs for personal use, and other drug involvement. Under the dependent variables, the values that I used were Spring, Summer, Fall/Autumn, and Winter. For this project, my control variable will first time offender’s sex – or OFN1SEX. Under my control variable, the values that I used were male, female and missing or offender unknown. I used my control variable to establish my second hypothesis for this project – my multivariate hypothesis. My second hypothesis is depending on one’s sex, drug related crimes or motives can influence when they are committed. The control variable will affect the first hypothesis in a significant way because men and women operate differently. It will be very interesting to see how these variables respond to the recorded data. Rationale: When looking at the history of America, drugs have always played a significant role in our country. They have affected lives of both children and adults in numerous ways. For some, it has affected their jobs and livelihood, while for others it has provided a way of life. Nevertheless, when offenders are caught for using or selling drugs, it affects not only the offender but the community as well – and this why I decided to look at both when and why people use and buy drugs. This project is very interesting because it is looking at the drug behavior within the Chicago area. Chicago is very noted for its high markings in homicide incidents and some are due to drug related matters. Moreover, using the variables – both independent and dependent –

Homicides in Chicago 3

in my research gives me a better perspective as to what I am looking for. I do believe that drug related activity varies on the time of year that is and by sex as well. I believe that I will see more male offenders than female offenders in my research. I am not sure as to how my bivariate analysis will play out, but I am very interested in seeing the results at the end. Results: Bivariate Table Table 1 Drug Motive by Month of Occurrence of Incident of R (%) ______________________________________________________________________________ R’s Month of Occurrence of Incident ______________________________________________________________________________ Drug Motive Spring Summer Fall/Autumn Winter Total No information Selling or Drug Business Argument over possession, etc. Getting money for drugs/personal use Other drug involvement Totals 99.2% .0% 99.6% .0% 99.3% .5% 99.4% .3% 99.4% .2%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.3%

.1%

.0%

.2%

.0%

.0%

.1%

.8%

.2%

.2%

.0%

.2%

100

100

100

100

100

(N) (118) (493) (416) (316) (1343) ______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Homicides in Chicago, 1965-1995

Homicides in Chicago 4

Multivariate Table Table 2 Drug Motive by Month of Occurrence of Incident of R (%) Controlling for R’s Race (%)
______________________________________________________________________________ R’s Month of Occurrence of Incident ______________________________________________________________________________ Drug Motive Spring Summer Fall/Autumn Winter Total ______________________________________________________________________________ Male Respondents No information 98.9% 99.5% 99.1% 99.2% 99.2% Selling or Drug Business Argument over possession, etc. Getting money for drug/personal use Other drug involvement Totals .0% .0% .6% .4% .3%

.0%

.0%

.0%

.4%

.1%

.0%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.1%

1.1%

.3%

.0%

.0%

.1%

100

100

100

100

100

(N) (92) (390) (329) (255) (1066) ______________________________________________________________________________ Female Respondents No information 100% 100% 100% 100% 100% Selling or Drug Business Argument over possession, etc. Getting money for drug/personal use Other drug involvement Totals 0% 0% 0% 0% 0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

0%

100

100

100

100

100

(N) (19) (86) (72) (55) (232) _______________________________________________________________________________ Source: Homicides in Chicago, 1965-1995

Homicides in Chicago 5

Discussion:

Drugs are never an easy thing and when mixed with crimes, drugs can be very

dangerous. When I originally started this project, I expected to see certain results; however, the results that came up shocked me. My bivariate hypothesis was proven correct – the type of drug motive can influence the time when the crime is committed. Moreover, my multivariate

hypothesis was also proven incorrect – depending on the sex of the offender, drug related crimes could influence when they are committed. Nevertheless, my results gathered from the data stilled shocked me. Based on my results, most drug related crimes are committed within the summer months (99.6%) and least within the spring months (99.2%). But what shocked me the most about these findings is that most of the recorded data fell under the “No information” label. Moreover, the data also showed that there are more female respondents (100%) than male respondents (99.2%) who commit crimes during these times. Just like my bivariate findings, these findings were all recorded under the “No Information” label – and this was interesting to me! After observing, the data provided from the results, I have several conclusions as well as recommendations for this project. I can conclude that there is an inefficient way of collecting information from offenders – especially first time offenders as in this case. Maybe the evidence is not clear enough in order to establish a clear motive for the police. Because of this, I recommend that the police establish better methods of gaining information about their offenders. This may be hard because offenders do tend to lie. Nevertheless, this project helped proved that there is much work needed in order to improve both police gathering information and crime rates within Chicago.

Homicides in Chicago 6

Appendix Crosstabs

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Drug Motive * Month of Occurence of Incident * Gender of First Offender Crosstabulation Gender of First Offender Month of Occurence of Incident Summ Fall/Autu Spring Male Drug Motive No Information Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Selling or Drug Business Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Argument over possession, use, quality, cost of drug Getting money for drugs or drugs for personal use Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Other Drug involvement Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Total Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Female Drug Motive No Information Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Total Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident Missing or Drug No Information Count 7 17 15 6 45 19 100.0 % 86 100.0 % 72 100.0% 55 100.0 % 232 100.0 % 19 100.0 % 86 100.0 % 72 100.0% 55 100.0 % 232 100.0 % 92 100.0 % 390 100.0 % 329 100.0% 255 100.0 % 1066 100.0 % 1 1.1% 1 .3% 1 .3% 0 .0% 3 .3% 0 .0% 1 .3% 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 .1% 0 .0% 0 .0% 0 .0% 1 .4% 1 .1% 0 .0% 0 .0% 2 .6% 1 .4% 3 .3% 91 er 388 mn 326 Winter 253 Total 1058

98.9% 99.5%

99.1% 99.2% 99.2%

Homicides in Chicago 8

offender unknown

Motive

% within Month of Occurence of Incident

100.0 %

100.0 %

100.0%

100.0 %

100.0 %

Total

Count % within Month of Occurence of Incident

7 100.0 %

17 100.0 %

15 100.0%

6 100.0 %

45 100.0 %

Homicides in Chicago 9

Syntax File DATASET ACTIVATE DataSet1. RECODE INJMONTH (1=4) (2=4) (3=1) (4=1) (5=1) (6=2) (7=2) (8=2) (9=3) (10=3) (11=3) (12=4) INTO INJMONTH2. EXECUTE. RECODE INJMONTH DRUGRELA (0=0) (1=1) (2=2) (3=3) (4 thru 5=4) INTO INJMONTH2 DRUGRELA2. VARIABLE LABELS DRUGRELA2 'Drug Motive'. EXECUTE. CROSSTABS /TABLES=DRUGRELA2 BY INJMONTH2 /FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES /STATISTICS=CHISQ GAMMA /CELLS=COUNT COLUMN /COUNT ROUND CELL. CROSSTABS /TABLES=DRUGRELA2 BY INJMONTH2 BY OFN1SEX /FORMAT=AVALUE TABLES /STATISTICS=CHISQ GAMMA /CELLS=COUNT COLUMN /COUNT ROUND CELL.

Homicides in Chicago 10

Codebook Independent Variable: DRUGRELA Label: Drug Motive 0 = No Information 1 = Selling or Drug Business 2 = Argument over possession, use, quality, or use of drug 3 = Getting money for drugs or drugs for personal use 4 = Other drug involvement Dependent Variable: INJMONTH Label: Month of Occurrence of incident 1 = Spring 2 = Summer 3 = Fall/Autumn 4 = Winter Control Variable: OFN1SEX Label: Gender of First Offender 1 = Male 2 = Female 3 = Missing or offender unknown

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