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39 (2006) L323–L328

JOURNAL OF PHYSICS A: MATHEMATICAL AND GENERAL

doi:10.1088/0305-4470/39/20/L05

LETTER TO THE EDITOR

**The random Fibonacci recurrence and the visible points of the plane
**

Tam´ s Kalm´ r-Nagy a a

Department of Aerospace Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA E-mail: iop@kalmarnagy.com

Received 6 December 2005 Published 3 May 2006 Online at stacks.iop.org/JPhysA/39/L323 Abstract In this letter, we show a connection between the random Fibonacci recurrence and the visible points of the plane. In particular, we show that by suitably modifying the rules of the random Fibonacci map, there is a unique correspondence between the visible points (points with relative prime coordinates) of the ﬁrst quadrant and the vertices of a self-similar graph (what we call the Fibonacci graph). The proposed random recurrence can then be interpreted as a random walk on this graph. PACS numbers: 05.40.Fb, 02.10.De, 02.50.−r, 05.50.+q (Some ﬁgures in this article are in colour only in the electronic version)

1. Introduction A variant of the well-known Fibonacci series is the so-called random Fibonacci recurrence xn+1 = xn ± xn−1 (Viswanath 2000). This recurrence can also be written as the second-order difference equation (two-dimensional map) xn−1 xn = Dn xn−2 , xn−1 (1)

where the coefﬁcient matrix Dn at time n is randomly (with probability 1/2) chosen from the set {A, B}, with A= 0 1 1 1 B= 0 1 . 1 −1 (2)

√ Viswanath (2000) showed that |xn | diverges (almost surely) as γ n , where γ = limn→∞ n |xn | = 1.131 988 . . . using the theory of random matrix products (Furstenberg’s theorem), the Stern– Brocot division of the real line and a computer-assisted integration over a fractal measure. Embree and Trefethen (1999) numerically investigated xn+1 = xn ± βxn−1 , a generalization

0305-4470/06/200323+06$30.00 © 2006 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK L323

L324

(-1,2) (1,2)

Letter to the Editor

(-1,1)

(0,1) A

(1,1)

(2,1)

A,B

B

(-1,0)

(1,0)

(-2,-1)

(-1,-1)

(0,-1)

(1,-1)

(-1,-2)

(1,-2)

Figure 1. The action of the random Fibonacci maps.

of the random Fibonacci sequence. Sire and Krapivsky (2001) also studied this sequence and presented expansions for the Lyapunov exponent for small and large βs. For the classical case β = 1, they obtained exact non-perturbative results. The objective of this letter is to show the equivalence between the random Fibonacci recurrence (1) and a random walk on a self-similar graph whose vertices are the visible points of the plane. In the next section, we describe the structure induced by the random Fibonacci series and propose a modiﬁcation to the recurrence rules that exploits the symmetry of this structure. In section 3, we show that this modiﬁed recurrence gives rise to a selfsimilar, connected graph and the associated random walk on its nodes. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these ﬁndings and point out connections to other areas. 2. The structure induced by the random Fibonacci series The Lyapunov exponent (the measure of divergence) for the random Fibonacci series can also be expressed as a path average by considering all the possible values |xn | can attain. Clearly,

m 1/n m 1/(nm)

**γ = lim exp ln|xn | = lim
**

n→∞

n→∞

|xn,i |

i=1

1/m

= lim

n→∞

xn,i

i=1

(3)

where the average (more precisely the geometric mean) is taken over all the m possible paths of length n. To characterize all possible paths, let us ﬁrst investigate the geometrical structure of these paths starting from (1, 1), corresponding to the usual initial condition for the Fibonacci sequence. The transformations A, B both take a lattice point (a point with integer coordinates) (i, j ) into another one, according to A : (i, j ) → (j, i + j ) B : (i, j ) → (j, i − j ). (4)

Some of these paths are shown in ﬁgure 1. Here, the solid and dashed lines correspond to the actions of A and B, respectively. Since we are interested in the behaviour of the

**Letter to the Editor
**

(3,4)

L325

A

(1,3) (2,3)

B A B

(1,2) (3,2)

B

A A

(0,1)

B

(1,1)

B

B

B

(3,1) (4,1)

A,B A,B

B B

(2,1)

(1,0)

Figure 2. The random Fibonacci maps on the ﬁrst quadrant.

absolute values of the sequence elements, we exploit the apparent symmetry of this structure to deﬁne ‘equivalent’ maps acting on the ﬁrst quadrant of the integer lattice Z2 . In particular, we note that the four points (i, j ), (−i, j ), (i, −j ), (−i, −j ), i, j ∈ Z+ , get mapped to (j, i + j ), (j, i − j ), (j, j − i), (j, −i − j ), (−j, i − j ), (−j, i + j ), (−j, −i − j ), (−j, j − i). These coordinates have absolute value of either (j, i + j ) or (j, |i − j |). Thus, we introduce the modiﬁed random Fibonacci recurrence with the maps A : (i, j ) → (j, i + j ) (5) B : (i, j ) → (j, |i − j |) i, j > 0. Figure 2 depicts the geometry of the mappings, while ﬁgure 3 shows some points resulting from the repeated applications of A and B (with (1, 1) as the initial point). Here, we make two observations: (i) The coordinates of points in ﬁgure 3 are relative primes. (ii) Three-link loops can be seen in ﬁgure 2, meaning that the application of A followed by B twice results in a closed path. Points with relative prime coordinates are also called visible points, implying that there is no other lattice point on the segment joining them with the origin. The structure in ﬁgure 2 can also be interpreted as a directed graph (what we call the Fibonacci graph F ) and in the next section we explore its topology. 3. The Fibonacci graph and the visible points First we prove observation (2) of the previous section, i.e. that (B ◦ B ◦ A)(i, j ) = (i, j ). First, B is replaced with the two linear maps 0 1 B1 : (i, j ) → (i, j ) = (j, j − i) i<j −1 1 (6) 0 1 B2 : (i, j ) → (i, j ) = (j, i − j ) i > j. 1 −1

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Letter to the Editor

8

6

4

2

2

4

6

8

10

Figure 3. Visible points on the lattice Z 2 .

1,0

0,1

A

1,2

1,1

B

2,1

B

3,1 1,3

2,3

3,2

3,5

5,2

1,4

4,3

3,4

4,1

2,5

5,3

Figure 4. The Fibonacci graph.

We call a lattice point type a if its ﬁrst coordinate is less than the second (i.e., it is above the diagonal) and type b if the ﬁst coordinate is greater than the second (the point is below the diagonal). It is clear that A maps (i, j ) to (j, i + j ), a type a point. When B is applied to such a point, the new coordinates can be calculated by applying B1 , resulting in (i + j, i), a point of type b. Since now the second coordinate is smaller, the effect of B on this point is equivalent to that of B2 , leading back to (i, j ). Indeed, (B ◦ B ◦ A)(i, j ) = B2 B1 A(i, j ) = (i, j ). (7)

Using this property of the maps, we can ‘unfold’ the Fibonacci graph as illustrated in ﬁgure 4. Clearly, this graph has 2n distinct nodes (2n−1 type a points and 2n−1 type b points) at the nth level (n = 0, 1, . . .). This structure is similar to several objects studied previously, such as the Stern–Brocot tree, the Calkin–Wilf tree (Calkin and Wilf 2000) and the construction of Alexander and Zagier (1991), that they also called the Fibonacci graph. Now we return to observation (1). A point with integer coordinates (i, j ) is called visible iff gcd(i, j ) = 1. Mosseri (1992) proved that the geometrical structure associated with the

Letter to the Editor

L327

set of visible points V is the M¨ bius transform of the original lattice. This set has a D4 o dihedral group symmetry, non-periodic and is invariant to the action of GL(2, Z) (the group of integer 2 × 2 matrices with determinant ±1). The invariance property is seen from the fact that visible points are transformed to visible points (Hardy and Wright 1979). Note that the determinants of A, B1 , B2 are 1, −1, −1, respectively. Lagarias and Tresser (1995) showed that the rational numbers can be presented as the set of vertices of a degree-three tree (what they call the extended Farey tree). Here, we will show that the rational numbers can also be assigned to the vertices of a connected, self-similar graph (what we call the Fibonacci graph). We say that a lattice point (k, l) is reachable from another lattice point (i, j ), if there exist a sequence of transformations (using A and B) that takes (i, j ) to (k, l). Then (i, j ) is reachable from (1, 1) iff (i, j ) is visible. Moreover, every visible point is reachable from every visible point. To show this we construct the sequence of transformations taking (i, j ) to (1, 1), thereby effectively providing the address of a point. The algorithm is simple and can be read off from ﬁgure 4. If (i, j ) is type a then the trailing letter of the address is A, calculate the new (i, j ) as A−1 (i, j ) = (j − i, i). If (i, j ) is type b, then the trailing letter of −1 the address is BA, calculate the new (i, j ) as (BA)−1 (i, j ) = B2 (i, j ) = (j, i − j ). These steps are repeated and the algorithm is terminated at (i, j ) = (1, 1). Therefore, the Fibonacci graph is connected and its vertices are the visible points. The modiﬁed random Fibonacci recurrence (5) thus corresponds to a random walk on this structure. The proposed algorithm is essentially the same as the subtractive version of Euclid’s algorithm. 4. Discussion The set of visible points has many interesting properties. For example, the density of the visible points is 1/ζ (2) = 6/π 2 (Apostol 1976, section 3.8). This is equivalent to saying that the probability of two integers chosen at random being relatively prime is 6/π 2 ∼ 0.608. Baake et al (1994) calculate the Fourier transform (structure factor) of this set, continuing and generalizing the work by Schroeder (1982) and Mosseri (1992). Due to the correspondence between the modiﬁed random Fibonacci recurrence and a random walk on the visible points, properties of this set can be extracted as averages of quantities associated with random walks on graphs (Burioni and Cassi 2005). This formulation might also provide a novel way to evaluate number theoretical products (like the ones in Campbell (1994)). Since visible points are intimately related to the structure of quasicrystals, these developments are expected to further research in that area as well. Another interesting topic worth pursuing is the random walk on self-similar structures. For example, Teuﬂ (2002) investigates asymptotic properties of random walks on self-similar graphs. In a future paper, we will characterize some properties associated with a random walk on the Fibonacci graph as well as on n-loop self-similar graphs. Acknowledgment The author would like to thank the referee for pointing out the connection with the work of Alexander and Zagier (1991). References

Alexander J C and Zagier D 1991 The entropy of a certain inﬁnitely convolved Bernoulli measure J. Lond. Math. Soc. 44 121–34 Apostol T 1976 Introduction to Analytic Number Theory (New York: Springer)

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Letter to the Editor

Baake M, Grimm U and Warrington D H 1994 Some remarks on the visible points of a lattice J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 27 2669–74 Burioni R and Cassi D 2005 Random walks on graphs: ideas, techniques and results J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 45–78 Calkin N and Wilf H 2000 Recounting the rationals Am. Math. Mon. 107 360–3 Campbell G B 1994 Inﬁnite products over visible lattice points Int. J. Math. Math. Sci. 17 637–54 Embree M and Trefethen L N 1999 Growth and decay of random Fibonacci sequences Proc. R. Soc. A 455 2471–85 Hardy G H and Wright E M 1979 An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers 5th edn (Oxford: Clarendon) Lagarias J C and Tresser C 1995 A walk along the branches of the extended Farey tree IBM J. Res. Dev. 39 Mosseri R 1992 Visible points in a lattice J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 25–9 Schroeder M R 1982 A simple function and its Fourier transform Math. Intell. 4 158–61 Sire C and Krapivsky P L 2001 Random Fibonacci sequences J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 9065–83 Teuﬂ E 2002 Asymptotic problems related to self-similar graphs and fractals PhD Thesis Graz University of Technology Viswanath D 2000 Random Fibonacci sequences and the number 1.131 988 24 Math. Comput. 69 1131–55

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