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# MTH 253 Graded Problem 4

**Justin Drawbert November 23, 2010
**

In our fourth graded problem we are given the following: A vat at a small brewery contains 1000 gallons of beer that is initially 8% alcohol by volume (ABV). Beer with 6% alcohol is pumped into the vat at a rate of 10 gal/min and the mixture is pumped out at the same rate (assume thorough and instantaneous mixing; ie. the mixture in the vat is homogeneous). We are asked to ﬁrst ﬁnd an expression for dy , then ﬁnd an expression for y(t), and ﬁnally to dt ﬁnd the percentage of alcohol in the vat after 1 hour and after 3 hours. We ﬁrst let y(t) be the volume of alcohol in the vat after t minutes. Thus y(0) = 0.08(1000) = 80 gal. Since beer is being pumped in at the same rate at which it is being pumped out, we know the amount of beer in the vat will be 1000 gallons at all times. So the percentage of the alcohol in the vat at time t is y(t)/1000 × 100 = y(t)/10. By (5) of Section 7.3 of our textbook, we know that, in a mixture problem such as this dy = (rate in) − (rate out) dt We then list what else we know, so that we can plug it into this formula. rate in = 0.06 10 gal = min = 0.6 gal min and rate out = y(t) 1000 10 gal min = y gal 100 min

We note that the units of dy are gallons per minute and therefore y(t) will be in gallons. So, dt ignoring the units for now, we have y 60 − y dy = 0.6 − = dt 100 100 1 1 dy = dt 60 − y 100 Since y(0) = 80, we have − ln|60 − 80| = Thus − ln|60 − y| = t − ln (20) 100 ⇒ ln|60 − y| = −t + ln (20) 100 ⇒ |60 − y| = 20e−t/100 0 +C 100 ⇒ − ln|−20| = C ⇒ ⇒ 1 1 dy = dt 60 − y 100 − ln|60 − y| = t +C 100 ⇒

We now need to deal with the absolute value in the equation. We ﬁrst realize that we’re not concerned with time less than 0 and that y(0) = 80. We then realize that since the beer that is being pumped in is always 6% ABV > 0, there is always going to be a positive amount of alcohol in the vat. 1

Or, in other words, ± 60 − y(t) > 0. If we consider y(0), we have ± 60 − y(0) = ± [60 − 80] > 0. From this we can deduce that |60 − y| = −(60 − y) = −60 + y. Therefore y(t) = −60 + 20e−t/100 Now note that this is the amount of alcohol in gallons with respect to time. And we want a percentage. As stated before the percentage of the alcohol with respect to time (in minutes), which we express as p(t), is y(t)/1000 × 100 = y(t)/10. So we have p(t) = y(t) y(t) (100) = = −6 + 2e−t/100 1000 10

So the % ABV after 1 hour (60 min) is p(60) = −6 + 2e−60/100 ≈ 7.0976, or 7.10% ABV And the % ABV after 3 hours (180 min) is p(180) = −6 + 2e−180/100 ≈ 6.3306, or 6.33% ABV As we would expect, as time goes on, the percentage of alcohol in the vat decreases and eventually approaches 6%. As long as the alcohol being pumped in remains a constant 6%, this is the lowest it will be. We can see this is true of we plot p(t).

p(t) = -6 + 2e-t/100 8.5

8.25

8

7.75

7.5 Percent Alcohol (by Volume)

7.25

7

6.75

6.5

6.25

6

5.75

5.5 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Time (in Minutes) 420 480 540 600

2