You are on page 1of 61

ForumIAS

OFFLINE

CONTENT
BUILDING
PROGRAM (CBP)
BOOKS

BOOK – 5
DISASTER
MANAGEMENT

ForumIAS
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Serial No. Chapter Page No.


1 Hazards and Disasters 1
2 Disaster Management in India 5
3 Disaster Management Policies and Guidelines 11
4 Natural Disasters
4.A Earthquakes 13
4.B Tropical Cyclone 15
4.C Tsunami 18
4.D Landslides 21
4.E Floods 24
4.F Droughts 28
4.G Forest Fires 31
4.H Heat Waves and Cold Waves 33
4.I Biological Disasters 35
5. Man Made Disasters
5.A Rail Accidents 38
5.B Road Accidents 41
5.C Civil Aviation 43
5.D Mine Disasters 45
5.E Stampedes 47
5.F Industrial and Chemical Disaster 49
5.G Fires 51
6. Disaster Management – International Cooperation
6.A Hyogo Framework of Action 52
6.B Sendai Framework 53
6.C Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction 54
6.D United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination 55
6.E Sustainable Development Goals and Disaster Management 56
7 Implementation of The Sendai Framework in Conjunction with The 58
Sustainable Development Goals and Paris Climate Agreement

ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

HAZARDS AND DISASTERS

WHAT IS A HAZARD?
• Any phenomenon that has the potential to cause disruption or damage to people and their
environment
• When hazard involves elements of risks, vulnerabilities and capacities, they can turn into disasters.

WHAT IS A DISASTER?
• Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, and destruction and
devastation to life and property.
• It refers to a catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence from natural or man-made causes,
which is beyond the coping capacity of the affected community.

SO HOW DOES A DISASTER DIFFER FROM A HAZARD?

• A disaster takes place when a community is affected by a hazard. Disaster is basically the
consequence of hazard.
• A hazardous geophysical event becomes a disaster only when there is interaction with the humans.
If there is no interaction there would not be any disaster. For example, a volcanic eruption in a
remote unpopulated area or a landslide in an unsettled land.
• A hazard is perceived event which threatens both life and property. A disaster is a realization of
this hazard.
• Hazards may be inevitable but disasters can be prevented.

What is vulnerability?
Vulnerability refers to the inability to withstand the effects of a hostile environment i.e. the propensity of things to
be damaged by a hazard.

1
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
CLASSIFICATION OF HAZARDS:

1. Natural hazards: are naturally-occurring physical phenomena caused either by rapid or slow onset
events having atmospheric, geologic and hydrologic origins on solar, global, regional, national and
local scales. Example: cyclone, tsunami etc.
2. Quasi natural hazards: arise through the interaction of natural processes and human activities.
Example: smog, desertification etc.
3. Man-made hazards: Hazards arising directly from human activities. Example: accidental release
of radiation from nuclear installations.

CLASSIFICATION OF DISASTERS:

Disasters are broadly classified into Natural disasters and Man-made Disasters

1. Natural Disasters: are the consequences or effects of natural hazards on human life. They represent a
serious breakdown in sustainability and disruption of economic and social progress. Example: Earthquake,
landslides, cyclones, floods etc.

2. Man- made disasters: are also known as anthropogenic disasters and they occur as a result of human
intent, error or as a result of failed systems. Example: Urban fire, rail and road accidents, bomb blasts etc.

COMMON TYPE OF DISASTERS IN INDIA:


High Power Committee on Disaster Management which was constituted in 1999 identified the following
types of disasters: (Note: Tsunami was added in 2005 in the list)
A. Water & Climate Related Disaster:
1. Flood
2. Cyclone
3. Tornado
4. Hailstorm
5. Cloud Burst
6. Thunderstorm & Lightning
7. Snow avalanches
8. Heat & Cold wave
9. Coastal Sea Erosion

2
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
10. Drought
11. Tsunami
B. Geologically Related Disasters:
1. Landslides and Mudflows
2. Earthquakes
3. Dam failures/ Dam Bursts
4. Mine Fire
C. Climate, Industrial & Nuclear Related Disasters:
1. Chemical & Industrial Disasters
2. Nuclear Disasters
3. Accident Related Disasters
D. Accident Related Disasters:
1. Forest Fire
2. Urban Fire
3. Mine Flooding
4. Oil-Spill
5. Major Building Collapse
6. Serial Bomb Blasts
7. Festival Related Disasters
8. Electrical disaster and Fires
9. Air, Road and Rail Accidents
10. Boat Capsizing
11. Village Fire
E. Biologically Related Disasters
1. Biological Disaster and Epidemics
2. Pest Attacks
3. Cattle Epidemics
4. Food Poisoning

GENERAL EFFECTS OF A DISASTER

1. Loss of life
2. Injury
3. Damage to and destruction of property
4. Damage to and destruction of production
5. Disruption of lifestyle
6. Loss of livelihood
7. Disruption of essential services
8. Damage to national infrastructure
9. Disruption to governmental systems
10. National economic loss
11. Sociological and Psychological after effect
12. Environmental Disruption

SOCIAL IMPACTS OF DISASTERS:


• Lowering of morale
• Creation of panic
• Disturbance in the social fabric
• Makes poor more vulnerable-aggravates poverty
• Can led to serious political and social changes
• Can cause social activism resulting in political disruption
3
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPACT OF DISASTERS:

• Psycho-physiological effects include fatigue, gastrointestinal upset, and tics as well as cognitive
signs such as confusion, impaired concentration, and attention deficits.
• Psychological impacts include emotional signs such as anxiety, depression, and grief. They also
include behavioural effects such as sleep and appetite changes, ritualistic behaviour etc
• Long term mental health and psychological well-being of a disaster affected person can be there.

Hence, there is a need for psychological first aid. What is Psychological First Aid?
• The concept of psychological first aid aims at providing immediate supportive response to someone
who is suffering in wake of disaster.
• The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a framework consisting of three action
principles to assist in the delivery of psychological first aid:
1. to view and safely enter an emergency situation (LOOK)
2. to understand the needs of affected people (LISTEN) and
3. link them with the information and practical support they need (LINK)

4
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

WHAT IS DISASTER MANAGEMENT?

Disaster management is the organization and management of resources and responsibilities for dealing
with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular preparedness, response and recovery in order
to lessen the impact of disaster.

DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

Disaster Management Act, 2005, defines “disaster management” as a continuous and integrated process of
planning, organising, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for:

1. Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster;


2. Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences
3. Capacity-building;
4. Preparedness to deal with any disaster;
5. Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;
6. Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster; evacuation, rescue and relief;
7. Rehabilitation and reconstruction

PARADIGM SHIFT IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Ø There was a paradigm shift from the erstwhile relief centric response to a proactive prevention,
mitigation and preparedness-driven approach.
Ø The new approach is obtained from the conviction that development cannot be sustainable unless
disaster mitigation is built into the development process.
Ø This paradigm shift underpins that disasters can be managed through adequate planning and
preparedness for response
Ø The new approach also originates from the belief that investments in mitigation are much more
cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.

EVOLUTION OF THE RESPONSIVE AND PREPAREDNESS APPROACH TO DISASTER MANAGEMENT

• The repeated occurrences of disasters compelled the Government of India to take cognizance of
the objectives of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (1990-2000), Yokohama
Strategy for Safer World (1994), and the Plan of action for Safer World (Istanbul, 1996).
• Consequently, the High Power Committee on Disaster Management (HPC) was set up in 1999 to
recommend strategies for Disaster Management Plans.
• Until 2001, the responsibility of Disaster Management was with agriculture Ministry. Following a
recommendation of the HPC, it was transferred to Ministry of Home Affairs in 2002.
• The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was established in 2005.
• Disaster Management Act was passed in 2005.

HOW HAS BEEN THIS CHANGED APPROACH PUT INTO EFFECT?

• Institutional changes
• Proclaiming policy
• Legal framework
• Mainstreaming mitigation into Developmental process
• Funding
• Specific Schemes addressing mitigation
• Preparedness measures
5
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• Capacity Building
• Human Resource Development
• Community participation

THE DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE

The basic disaster management cycle consists of 6 main activities:

KEY PHASES IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE:

1. Pre-Disaster Phase: Before a disaster to reduce the potential for human, material or environmental losses
caused by hazards and to ensure that these losses are minimized when the disaster actually strikes.
2. During-Disaster: It is to ensure that the needs and provisions of victims are met to alleviate and minimize
suffering.
3. After Disaster: After a disaster to achieve rapid and durable recovery which does not reproduce the
original vulnerable conditions.

Pre-disaster Phase:
Prevention and Mitigation:
Prevention:
• Action within this segment is designed to impede the occurrence of a disaster event and/or prevent
such an occurrence having harmful effects on communities or key installations
Mitigation:
• Mitigation includes all measures taken to reduce both the effects of the hazard itself and the
vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster.
• Mitigation also aims at reducing the physical, economic and social vulnerability to threats and the
underlying causes for this vulnerability
• Example: some countries regard the development and application of building codes (which can
reduce damage and loss in the event of earthquakes and cyclones) as being in the category of
mitigation.
Preparedness:
• It includes measures that enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to
disaster situations to cope with them effectively.
• Example: the formulation of viable emergency plans, the development of warning systems etc.
Early Warning:
• This is the process of monitoring the situation in communities or areas known to be vulnerable to
slow onset hazards, and passing the knowledge of the pending hazard to people.
The Disaster Impact:
• This refers to the “real-time event” of a hazard occurring and affecting elements at risk.

6
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
During Disaster Phase:
Response:
• This refers to the first stage response to any calamity
Typical measures include:
§ Implementation of plans
§ Activation of the counter-disaster system
§ Search and Rescue
§ Provision of emergency food, shelter, medical assistance etc.
§ Survey and assessment
§ Evacuation measures
§ Maintenance of Law & Order

Post- Disaster Phase:


Recovery:
• Recovery is the process by which communities and the nation are assisted in returning to their
proper level of functioning following a disaster.
• Recovery encompasses the three overlapping phases of emergency relief, rehabilitation and
reconstruction.
Reconstruction:
• Reconstruction attempts to return communities to improved pre-disaster functioning.
• Example of measures: the replacement of buildings; infrastructure and lifeline facilities etc
Development:
• It is an ongoing activity
• Example: Long term disaster reduction measures for examples like construction of embankments
against flooding, irrigation facilities as drought proofing measures.

IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT


• Application of communication technology has a role in all the four distinct phases of disaster
management namely, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
• However, the most important application is in the response and recovery phase.
• This is because it connects affected people, families, and communities with first responders, support
systems, and other family members.

There are two distinct facets of communication:


1. physical one: Credible and influential agents of communication
2. Content and clarity of the message. It is necessary to ensure that recipient of communication understands
the contents of the message being conveyed and that he responds to it in the desired manner.
Example: Role of communication was best experienced during the super cyclone and floods in Odhisa. When
all the telephone lines were down and mobile towers were razed to the ground. The then Andhra Pradesh
Government rushed its modern technology phones which came into immense use.

STRUCTURE OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN INDIA

The structure of Disaster Management in India has two distinct features:

1. The structure is hierarchical and functions at four levels – centre, state, district and local.

2. It is a multi-stakeholder setup, i.e., the structure draws involvement of various relevant ministries,
government departments and administrative bodies

7
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

National Level Institutions:


National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)

• Initially constituted in 2005 under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister vide an executive order
• Formally constituted in 2006 in accordance to the National Disaster Management Act, 2005

Mandate of NDMA

1. Lay down policies on disaster management


2. Approve the National Plan;
3. Approve plans prepared by the Ministries or Departments of the Government of India in
accordance with the National Plan;
4. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the State Authorities in drawing up the State
Plan;
5. Lay down guidelines to be followed by the different Ministries or Departments of the
Government of India for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of
disaster or the mitigation of its effects in their development plans and projects;
6. Coordinate the enforcement and implementation of the policy and plan for disaster
management;
7. Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of mitigation;
8. Provide such support to other countries affected by major disasters as may be
determined by the Central Government;
9. Take such other measures for the prevention of disaster, or the mitigation, or
preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the threatening disaster situation
or disaster as it may consider necessary;
10. Lay down broad policies and guidelines for the functioning of the National Institute of
Disaster Management

National Executive Committee (NEC)

• National Executive Committee is constituted in accordance to the Disaster Management Act, 2005
• NEC has the responsibility to act as the coordinating and monitoring body for disaster
management, to prepare a National Plan, monitor the implementation of National Policy etc.

8
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
State Level Institutions:

State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)

• The DM Act, 2005 provides for constitution of SDMAs.


• The Chief Minister is the Chairperson of the SDMA
• Except Gujarat and Daman and Diu, all the states have constituted SDMAs under the DM Act 2005.
• Gujarat has constituted its SDMA under its Gujarat State Disaster Management Act, 2003.
• Daman & Diu have also established SDMAs prior to enactment of DM Act 2005.

State Executive Committee (SEC)

• THE DM Act 2005 envisages the established of the SECs


• The SEC is headed by the Chief Secretary of the state.

District Level Institutions

District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

• The DM Act also provides for constitution of DDMA for every district of a state.
• The District Authority is responsible for planning, coordination and implementation of disaster
management and to take such measures for disaster management as provided in the guidelines.
• The Authority also has the power to examine the construction in any area in the district to enforce
the safety standards.
• It is also responsible for arranging relief measures and respond to the disaster at the district level.

Institutional Framework in Metropolitan Cities

In larger cities, the Mayor, assisted by the Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation and the Police
Commissioner are directly responsible for Crisis Management.

National Disaster Response Force (NDRF):

• The NDRF was constituted under the DM Act 2005.


• Presently, NDRF has strength of 12 battalions each with authorized strength of 1149 personnel.
Role of NDRF:

1. Provide specialized response for rescue and relief in case of disasters-natural and manmade.
2. Deployment in case of impending disasters.
3. Assistance to civil authorities in distribution of relief material during/after disaster.
4. Co- ordination with other agencies engaged in rescue/relief work

Tasks of NDRF:
• Deployment in case of impending disaster
• Provide specialist response in case of disasters which covers:
• NBC Disaster (Decontamination of the area and personnel)
- Removal of debris.
- Extrication of victims-live or dead.
- First medical response to victims.
- To extend moral support to victims.
- Assistance to civil authorities in distribution of relief material
- Co-ordination with sister agencies.
- Providing assistance to foreign countries if asked.
• Capacity building.
9
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• Imparting training to SDRF
• Community awareness- Target groups-villagers, school children, NGOs, volunteers and state
administration.

State Disaster Response Force (SDRF)


• State Disaster Response Forces (SDRFs) have also been set up across different states.
• The SDRFs response to the disaster on the lines of NDRFs
Civil Defence

• The Civil Defence Act of 1968 was amended in 2010 to cater to the needs of disaster management
• Provisions were made to utilise the services of Civil Defence volunteers effectively for
enhancement of public participation in disaster management related activities in the country

10
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
DISASTER MANAGEMENT - POLICIES AND GUIDELINES

Disaster Management Act, 2005

• The National Disaster Management Act was enacted in 2005.


• It brings about a paradigm shift in India’s approach to disaster management. The approach shifted
to preparedness, prevention and planning from earlier response and relief centric approach.

The Act provides for establishment of:


1. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA)
2. State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
3. District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA)

The Act also provides for -

• Constitution of Disaster Response Fund and Disaster Mitigation Fund at National, State and District
levels
• Establishment of NIDM and NDRF
• Provides penalties for obstruction, false claims, misappropriation etc
• It states that there shall be no discrimination on the ground of sex, caste, community,
descent or religion in providing compensation and relief.

National Disaster Management Plan, 2016

• It is the first ever national plan prepared in the country for disaster management
• The NDMP has been aligned broadly with the goals and priorities set out in the Sendai Framework
for Disaster Risk Reduction.
• The Plan incorporates five thematic areas of action:
1. Understanding Risk
2. Inter-Agency Coordination
3. Investing in DRR – Structural Measures
4. Investing in DRR – Non-Structural Measures
5. Capacity Development
• The NDMP provides a framework and direction to the government agencies for all phases of
disaster management cycle.
• The Plan also highlights that the disaster risk reduction will be achieved by mainstreaming the
requirements into the developmental plans.
• The plan identifies major activities such as early warning, information dissemination, medical care,
fuel, transportation, search and rescue, evacuation, etc. to serve as a checklist for agencies
responding to a disaster. It also provides a generalized framework for recovery and offers flexibility
to assess a situation and build back better.
• NDMP also provides for horizontal and vertical integration among all the agencies and
departments of the Government.

National Policy on Disaster Management (NPDM), 2009

• The NPDM envisages a safe and disaster resilient India.


• It aims to do so by developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disaster oriented and technology driven
strategy through a culture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response
11
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• The policy covers all aspects of disaster management including institutional and legal
arrangements, financial arrangements, disaster prevention, mitigation and preparedness, techno-
legal regime, response, relief and rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery, capacity
development, knowledge management, research and development.
• The issue of equity and inclusiveness has been given due consideration in the policy. It addresses
the concerns of all sections of the society with regard to relief and rehabilitation

Prime Minister’s 10-point Agenda

At the Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2016, Indian Prime Minister outlined a ten-
point agenda, to pursue the implementation of disaster risk reduction efforts in the region with renewed
vigour.

It includes:

1. Ensuring development projects - airports, roads, canals, hospitals, schools, bridges – are built to
appropriate disaster resilient standards and contribute to the resilience of communities they seek
to serve. Building a coalition to support disaster resilient infrastructure
2. Working towards risk coverage for all – starting from poor households to small and medium
enterprises to multi-national corporations to nation states
3. Encouraging greater involvement and leadership of women in disaster risk management
4. Investing in risk mapping globally for all hazards
5. Leveraging technology to enhance efficiency of our disaster risk management efforts
6. Developing a network of universities to work on disaster issues
7. Utilizing the opportunities provided by social media and mobile technologies
8. Building on local capacity and initiative
9. Ensuring that the opportunity to learn from a disaster is not wasted. Establishing a facility
for technical support to post-disaster reconstruction of houses
10. Bringing about greater cohesion in international response to disasters

12
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
NATURAL DISASTERS

A. Earthquakes

• The Bureau of Indian Standards with the help of Indian Meteorological Department has grouped
the country into four seismic zones, based on modified Mercalli scale.
• Of these, zone V is the most active which comprises of whole of Northeast India, the northern
portion of Bihar, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, J&K, Gujarat and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Earthquake Prevention and Mitigation

1. National earthquake Risk Mitigation Project


The project aims at strengthening the structural and non-structural earthquake mitigation efforts and
reducing the vulnerability in the high risk districts prone to earthquakes.
2. National Building Code:
The salient features of the NBC 2005 include meeting the challenges posed by natural calamities and
reflecting the state-of-the-art and contemporary applicable international practices
3. Seismic retrofitting
It is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground
motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes

PRE-DISASTER PREVENTIVE MEASURES:


Long-term

• Re-framing buildings' codes, guidelines, manuals and byelaws and their strict implementation-
Tougher legislation for highly seismic areas
• Incorporating earthquake resistant features in all buildings in high-risk areas.
13
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• Making all public utilities like water supply systems, communication networks, electricity lines etc.
earthquake-proof.
• Creating alternative arrangements to reduce damages to infrastructure facilities
• Constructing earthquake-resistant community buildings and buildings(used to gather large groups
during or after an earthquake) like schools, hospitals, prayer halls, etc., especially in seismic zones
of moderate to higher intensities.
• Supporting R&D in various aspects of disaster mitigation, preparedness and prevention and post-
disaster management

Medium -Term

• Retrofitting of weak structures in highly seismic zones


• Preparation of disaster related literature in local languages with do’s and don'ts for construction
• Getting communities involved in the process of disaster mitigation through education and
awareness.
• Networking of local NGOs working in the area of disaster management

POST-DISASTER PREVENTIVE MEASURES

• Maintenance of law and order, prevention of trespassing, looting etc.


• Evacuation of people
• Recovery of dead bodies and their disposal
• Medical care for the injured
• Supply of food and drinking water
• Temporary shelters like tents, metal sheds etc.
• Repairing lines of communication and information
• Restoring transport routes
• Quick assessment of destruction and demarcation of destroyed areas, according to the grade of
damage

14
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
B. Tropical Cyclones

What is a Tropical Cyclone?

• Tropical cyclone is the term used globally to cover tropical weather systems in which winds equal
or exceed ‘gale force’ (minimum 62 kmph).
• These are intense low pressure areas of the earth-atmosphere coupled system and are extreme
weather events of the tropics.

Classification of Tropical Cyclones in India

What is a storm surge?

• Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted
astronomical tides.
• The rise in water level can cause extreme flooding in coastal areas particularly when storm surge
coincides with normal high tide, resulting in storm tides

Surge prone Coasts in India:

East Coast-

1. North Orissa and West Bengal coasts.

2. Andhra Pradesh coast between Ongole and Machilipatnam.

3. Tamil Nadu coast, south of Nagapatnam.

West coast:

The West coast is less vulnerable to storm surges

1. Maharashtra coast, north of Harnai and adjoining south Gujarat coast and the coastal belt around
the Gulf of Bombay

2. The coastal belt around the Gulf of Kutch

15
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

Recent Cyclones in India

When Name
May 2017 Mora
April 2017 Maarutha
December 2016 Vardah
October 2016 Kyant
May 2014 Hudhud

Prevention and Mitigation:

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)

Aim: The scheme aims to:

• upgrade cyclone forecasting, tracking and warning systems,


• build capacity in multi-hazard risk management
• Construct major infrastructures including multi-purpose cyclone shelters and embankments.

Principal Components: The major components under the scheme are:

1. Community mobilisation and training


2. Cyclone Risk Mitigation Infrastructure (construction of cyclone shelters, roads/missing links and
construction/repair of Saline Embankments etc.)
3. Technical assistance for capacity building on Disaster Risk Management (risk assessment, damage
and need assessment)
4. Capacity Building and knowledge creation along with project management and implementation
support

16
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project (ICZMP)

Objective:

To assist the Government in building the national capacity for implementation of a comprehensive coastal
management approach in the country and piloting the integrated coastal zone management approach in
states of Gujarat, Orissa and West Bengal.

Components of the Project:

Four Components:

1. Capacity Building: It includes mapping, delineation and demarcation of the hazard lines, and delineation
of coastal sediment cells all along the mainland coast of India.

2. Piloting ICZM approaches in Gujarat: This component will support capacity building of the state level
agencies and institutions, including preparation of an ICZM plan for the coastal sediment cell that includes
the Gulf of Kachchh and pilot investments.

3. Piloting ICZM approaches in Orissa: It provides for capacity building of the state level agencies and
institutions, including preparation of an ICZM plan for the coastal sediment cells (the stretches of Paradip-
Dhamra and Gopalpur-Chilika), including a regional coastal process study, and pilot investments.

4. Piloting ICZM approaches in West Bengal

17
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
C. Tsunami

What is a Tsunami?

A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water,
usually an ocean.

How is a Tsunami formed?

• Seismicity generated tsunamis are result of abrupt deformation of sea floor resulting vertical
displacement of the overlying water.
• When earthquakes occur beneath the sea level, the water above the reformed area is displaced
from its equilibrium position.
• The release of energy produces tsunami waves which have small amplitude but a very long
wavelength.
• It may be caused by non-seismic event also such as a landslide or impact of a meteor.

Tsunami Sources for India:

For a tsunami to hit Indian coast, it is necessary that earthquake of magnitude > 7 should occur. Two such
possible zones are

1. Andaman-Sumatra
2. Makran
• Not all major earthquakes are tsunamigenic
• To generate tsunami Earthquakes must occur under or near ocean
• Slow Rupture Velocities are most efficient Tsunami Generators

18
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

Tsunami Vulnerability:

Potential Tsunamigenic Zones 1

Measures for Safety from Tsunamis and Storm Surges in Coastal areas:

Structural measures:

1. Plantation of mangroves and coastal forests along the coast line


2. Development of a network of local knowledge centers (rural/urban) along the coast lines to
provide necessary training and emergency communication during crisis time (e.g. centers
developed by M.S. Swaminathan Foundation in Pondicherry)
3. Construction of location specific sea walls and coral reefs in consultation with experts
4. Development of break waters along the coast to provide necessary cushion against tsunami
hazards
5. Development of tsunami detection, forecasting and warning dissemination centres
6. Development of a “Bio-Shield” - a narrow strip of land along coastline.
7. Identification of vulnerable structures and appropriate retrofitting for tsunami/cyclone resistance
of all such buildings as well as appropriate planning, designing, construction of new facilities like:
• Critical infrastructures e.g. power stations, warehouses, oil and other storage tanks etc.
located along the coastline.
• All other infrastructure facilities located in the coastal areas
• Public buildings and private houses
• All marine structures
• Construction and maintenance of national and state highways and other coastal roads

19
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
5.2.2 Non-Structural Measures:
1. Strict implementation of the coastal zone regulations (within 500 m of the high tide line with
elevation of less than 15 m above m.s.l.
2. Mapping the coastal area for multiple hazards, vulnerability and risk analysis up to taluka /village
level.
3. Capacity building requirements for the local people and the administration for facing the disasters
in wake of tsunami and cyclone
4. Developing tools and techniques for risk transfer in highly vulnerable areas
5. Launching a series of public awareness campaign throughout the coastal area
6. Training of local administration in forecasting warning dissemination and evacuation techniques
7. Awareness generation and training among the fishermen, coast guards, officials from fisheries
department and port authorities and local district officials etc., in connection with evacuation and
post tsunami storm surge management activities.
8. Studies focusing on the tsunami risk in India may be taken under NCRM project.
Tsunami Warning and Communication System

• The Indian Tsunami Early Warning Centre (ITEWC) has been established at Indian National Centre
for Ocean Information Sciences, (INCOIS - ESSO) Hyderabad.
• It has the responsibility to provide tsunami advisories to Indian Mainland and the Island regions

20
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
D. Landslides

What is a landslide?

• Landslide is a process involving the downward and outward movement of a part of the slope
forming material due to the action of gravity.
• Areas with steep slopes, for example mountainous regions, are particularly susceptible to landslide
hazards.

Causes of Landslides

• Undercutting of a slope by stream erosion, wave action, glaciers, or human activity such as road
building
• Intense or prolonged rainfall, rapid snowmelt, or sharp fluctuations in ground-water levels
• Shocks or vibrations caused by earthquakes or construction activity,
• Loading on upper slopes, or
• A combination of these and other factors

Effects of Human activity

• Slope failures can be triggered by construction activity that undercuts or overloads dangerous
slopes
• Construction activity can also redirect the flow of surface or ground-water.
• Poorly planned forest clearing may increase rates of surface water run-off or ground-water
infiltration
• Inefficient irrigation or sewage effluent disposal practices may result in increased ground-water
pressures, which in turn can reduce the stability of rock and sediment.

Pune Landslide 2014: A man-made disaster?


• Heavy rains triggered a landslide in Pune in 2014 killing hundreds of people
• Environmentalists claimed that the landslide was a human-induced landslide.
• Deforestation and levelling of ground for cultivation were pointed out as the primary reasons for
the landslide
• Heavy machinery such as backhoes were used to level the slopes, which has contributed to
loosening the soil to such an extent that it has impacted the hill’s drainage of water
• The windmill project had also led to large-scale erosion in the region

Landslide Vulnerability in India:

1. Himalayan Mountain ranges and Hilly tracts of North-eastern region:

• immature and rugged topography,


• fragile rock conditions,
• high seismicity resulting from proximity to the plate margins,
• high rainfall
• Extensive anthropogenic interference, as part of developmental activities

21
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
2. Western Ghats:

• steep hill slopes


• overburden
• High intensity rainfall.

3. Nilgiris Hills:

• High Intensity and protracted rainfall

Impact of Landslides:

Short-term
• Loss of life
• Loss of property
Long- term
• Changes in landscape
• Loss of cultivable land
• Soil erosion and soil loss
• Relocation of population

NDMA Guidelines on Landslide Hazard Management:

Landslide hazard management involves measures taken to avoid or mitigate the risk posed by landslide
hazards.

22
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

1. Landslide Hazard, Vulnerability and Risk Assessment: This includes delineating areas susceptible
to landslide hazards and status of landslide hazards in different areas and to assess the resources
at risk due to these hazards
2. Landslide Remediation Practice: Encouraging implementation of successful landslide remediation
and mitigation technologies.
3. Research and Development; Monitoring and Early Warning
4. Knowledge Network and Management: Establishing an effective system for gathering information
on landslides, loss assessment resulting from landslides, and the effective dissemination of
technical information and maps is an essential component of the disaster management process.
5. Capacity Building and Training: Developing institutional capacity and training for geoscientists
engineers, and planners is necessary for effective management of the landslide hazard.
6. Public Awareness and Education
7. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Development of coordinated landslide rapid response
capability
8. Regulation and Enforcement: Establishment of a techno-legal mechanism of landslide hazard
assessment and mitigation

There have also been talks on formulating National Landslide Risk Management Strategies

23
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
E. Floods

What is flood?

Flood is defined as the overflow of large amount of water beyond its normal limits.
Causes

• The main causes of floods are


- heavy rainfall,
- inadequate capacity of rivers to carry the high flood discharge,
- Inadequate drainage to carry away the rainwater quickly to streams/ rivers.
• Landslides blocking streams; typhoons and cyclones also cause floods.
• The flood hazard is compounded by the problems of sediment deposition, drainage congestion
and synchronization of river floods with sea tides in the coastal plains

What is a flash flood?


• A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a severe thunderstorm, hurricane, tropical storm,
or melt water from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields.
• It may also occur after the collapse of a natural ice or debris dam, or a human structure such as a
man-made dam.
• It is distinguished from a regular flood by a timescale of less than six hours.

Uttarakhand Floods-2013- Anthropogenic Causes

Major Anthropogenic factors which contributed to the Flood:


• Indiscriminate development in hill towns and along rivers
• The unbridled growth of tourism accompanied with proliferation of roads, hotels, shops and
multi-storeyed housing in ecologically fragile areas.
• Construction of large dams
• Reckless mining of sand
• Large-scale deforestation
Lack of an early warning system, effective evacuation plans and a responsive disaster management
system further worsened the situation.

Flood Prone Areas in India

The major flood prone regions are Punjab, Haryana, most of the Gangetic plains including Uttar Pradesh,
North Bihar and West Bengal, the Brahmaputra valley, coastal Andhra Pradesh and Orissa, and South
Gujarat

24
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS

Urban Floods

Urban flooding is caused by heavy rainfall overwhelming drainage capacity.

What are the causes of urban flooding?

• Poor natural drainage, chocking of drainage system, extreme climate events and development in
river flood plain are the main causes of the urban flooding.
• Unplanned Urbanization is the key cause of urban flooding. Some of the major hydrological effects
of urbanization are:

(1) Increased water demand, often exceeding the available natural resources;

25
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
(2) Increased wastewater, burdening rivers and lakes and endangering the ecology;
(3) Increased peak flow;
(4) Reduced infiltration and
(5) Reduced groundwater recharge, increased use of groundwater, and diminishing base flow of streams.

Consequences of Urban Flooding:

Primary Losses:

• Loss of life & physical injury


• Damage to buildings, contents & infrastructures
• Disruptions to industrial production
• Loss of, or disruptions to utility supplies
• Loss of heritage or archaeological site

Secondary Losses:

• Increased stress; physical & psychological trauma


• Enhanced rate of property deterioration & decay
• Increased traffic congestion; disruption of flow of employees to work
• Contamination of water supplies; food and other shortages
• Loss of exports; Reduced national gross domestic product

Case Study: Chennai Urban Flood- December 2015

What happened?
• The unprecedented rain from northeast monsoon from November to December 2015 left vast
portion of Chennai submerged.
• Most of the floods in Chennai are credited to depression over Bay of Bengal.
• However, 2015 Chennai flood has been attributes to El Nino phenomenon
• Low pressure area was amalgamated and gradually strengthened into a deep depression on 8th of
November 2015.
• As a result of which, there was very substantial downpour over Chennai and northern
districts of Tamil Nadu starting from 9th of Nov.
• There was 370 mm rainfall in 24 hours.

Major Contributing Factors to the Flood Risk in Chennai


• Haphazard town planning,
• chocked drains,
• poor garbage management,
• the rampant destruction of mangroves, forests, and pastures

Prevention and Mitigation of Floods:

National Flood Risk Mitigation Project (NFRMP):

• NFRMP has been envisaged for mitigation or reduction in risk, severity or consequences of floods.

26
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• It aims at ensuring that arrangements are in place to mobilise the resources and capability for
relief, rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery from disasters besides creating awareness
among vulnerable communities.

Flood Management Programme:

• The scheme provides financial assistance to the state governments for undertaking flood
management works in critical areas.

Structural and Non-Structural Measures for Flood Protection in India

Structural measures

The following structural measures are generally adopted for flood protection:
• Embankments, flood walls, sea walls
• Dams and reservoirs
• Natural detention basins
• Channel improvement
• Drainage improvement
• Diversion of flood waters.
Non-structural measures
Non-structural measures include:
• Flood forecasting and warning
• Floodplain zoning
• Flood fighting
• Flood proofing
• Flood insurance.

Urban Flood Management in India


• In 2010, NDMA had issued guidelines on Urban Flood Management in India
• Key guideline was to create a National Hydro-meteorological Network.
• The guidelines say that for providing early warning, the Central Water Commission (CWC) should
maximize the real-time hydro-meteorological network to cover all the urban centers in dealing
with urban flooding.

Other important recommendations include:

1. Use of Doppler Weather Radars to be expanded to cover all urban areas in the country
2. Catchment to be the basis for planning and designing the storm water drainage systems in all
ULBs
3. All future road and rail bridges in cities crossing drains to be designed such that they do not block
the flows resulting in backwater effect
4. Every building in an urban area must have rainwater harvesting as an integral component of the
building utility.
5. Low-lying areas in cities have to be reserved for parks and other low-impact human activities.
6. Encroachments on the drain should attract penal action.
7. Urban Flooding has to be dealt as a separate disaster, de-linking it from riverine floods which
affect the rural areas.

27
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
F. Drought

• In India around 68 percent of the agriculture land country is prone to drought in varying degrees.
• The primary cause of any drought is deficiency of rainfall and in particular, the timing, distribution
and intensity of this deficiency in relation to existing reserves.
Definition of Drought in India:
In India, meteorological drought is defined by the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) as a situation
when the deficiency of rainfall at a meteorological sub-division level is 25 per cent or more of the long-
term average (LTA) of that sub-division for a given period.

Different Types of Drought:


1. Meteorological Drought
2. Hydrological Drought: a period during which the stream flows are inadequate to supply
established use of water under a given water management system.
3. Agricultural Drought: occurs when available soil moisture is inadequate for healthy crop growth
and cause extreme stress and wilting.
4. Socio-Economic Drought: Meteorological, hydrological and agricultural drought leads to socio-
economic drought

Impacts of Drought:
Environmental:
• Moisture Stress
• Drinking Water Shortage
• Damage to Natural Vegetation and Various Ecosystems
• Increased Air And Water Pollution
Socio-economic:
• Malnutrition
• Poor Hygiene
• Ill Health
• Migration
• Increased Stress and Morbidity
• Social Strife

Major Drought-Prone Areas in India

28
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Drought Prevention and Mitigation:
Drought can be mitigated by two kinds of measures, either by adopting preventive measures or by
developing a preparedness plan

Drought Management Framework in India


The Government of India has devised many short-, medium- and long-term strategies to mitigate and
overcome adverse effects of drought.

Drought management mechanism includes:

• institutional mechanisms,
• employment generation and social welfare practices,
• assistance/support by Central and State Governments,
• Operation of EWS.

Institutional Mechanisms:

• The Drought Management Group co-ordinate the efforts to deal with drought in various states.
• The National Disaster Management Cell, monitors the drought situation in different states and
resource availability
• The National Agricultural Drought Assessment and Monitoring System, 1989 provides scientific
information at district level for most of the states and sub-district levels in a few states.
• Drought-Prone Area Development Programme and Desert Development Programme use the plans
prepared on the basis of the integrated estimation
• IMD and the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting offer meteorological
information support for drought preparedness and early warning

Employment Generation and Social Welfare Practices:

Following are some schemes, which enhance employment and social security to people affected by
drought:

• Food for Work Programme,

29
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• Employment Assurance Scheme
• Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana
• Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana
• Antyodaya Anna Yojana,
• National Old Age Programme,
• Annapurna Scheme
• Integrated Child Development Scheme

Assistance/ Support by Central and State Governments

• Adequate availability of food grains at below poverty level rates, adequate advance stocks in
feeder godowns
• Wages and employment programme with food for work (payment at work site) component in order
to check migration
• Special health programmes for upkeep of health and nutritional levels of women, children, old
and infirm people
• Fodder and livestock management
• Roof water harvesting programmes
• Planning Commission approves plan allocation (assistance) for calamity prevention and
preparedness
• Tax exemption on donation/payment to relief activities

Operation of EWS:

• There are two components of the National EWS: drought forecasting and drought monitoring.
• The drought forecasting function is carried out by the Inter-Ministerial National Crop Weather
Watch Group (CWWG).
• CWWG monitors the impact of the monsoon on agricultural operations and also suggests
corrective measures to minimize any possible adverse impact of aberrant monsoon conditions on
crop production according to the standing contingency crop plan
• In case the CWWG anticipates widespread adverse seasonal conditions, it sends out a report.
• Based on that emergency contingency action plan for drought management is prepared which
envisages institutional arrangements and operating procedures for the drought monitoring system

30
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
G. Forest Fires:

Classification of Forest Fire


Forest fire can broadly be classified into three categories;
• Natural or controlled forest fire.
• Forest fires caused by heat generated in the litter and other biomes in summer through
carelessness of people (human neglect) and
• Forest fires purposely caused by local inhabitants.
Types of Forest Fire
There are two types of forest fire i) Surface Fire and ii) Crown Fire
1. Surface Fire– A forest fire may burn primarily as a surface fire, spreading along the ground as the
surface litter on the forest floor and is engulfed by the spreading flames.
2. Crown Fire- The other type of forest fire is a crown fire in which the crown of trees and shrubs
burn, often sustained by a surface fire.
Causes of Forest Fire
Forest fires are caused by Natural causes as well as Man-made causes
Natural causes- High atmospheric temperatures and dryness (low humidity) offer favourable circumstance
for a fire to start.
Man-made Causes-
• Shifting Cultivation
• Covering up Illicit felling of trees
• Clearing path through the forest
• Tribal Traditions

Impact of Forest Fires:

• Loss of valuable timber resources and depletion of carbon sinks

• Degradation of water catchment areas resulting in loss of water

• Loss of biodiversity and extinction of plants and animals

• Loss of wild life habitat and depletion of wild life

• Loss of natural regeneration and reduction in forest cover and production

• Global warming resulting in rising temperature

• Loss of carbon sink resource and increase in percentage of CO2 in the atmosphere

• Change in micro climate of the area making it unhealthy living conditions

• Soil erosion affecting productivity of soils and production

• Ozone layer depletion

• Health problems leading to diseases

• Indirect effect on agricultural production

Forest Fires in India:


According to a report by Parliamentary Standing Committee on Science and Technology, India, the country
has seen a 55% rise in the number of forest fires as on December 2016.

31
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
When Where

2016 Bandipur, Uttarakhand


2016 Riasi District, Jammu
2011 Ooty, Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu
Feb 2010 Tuesang District in nagaland
June 2010 Himachal Pradesh
Jan-May 2010 Maharashtra
Feb 2009 Gir Forest, Gujarat

Prevention and Mitigation


National Plan for Forest Fire Management
The main objectives are:
1. To strengthen the Organizations responsible for forest fire management
2. To coordinate the States/UT's plans for systematic forest fire management.
3. To provide input regarding training, research, extension, and publicity
4. To coordinate international transfer of technology and training in the field of forest fire
management
5. Creation of a strong database for: number of fires, area burnt, damage to flora and fauna, effect of
fire on land and soil and measures taken
6. Assessment of ecological, social, and economic impact of fires
7. Strong national extension strategy for people's awareness and their participation in forest fire
management through JFM, VFC, and NGOs
8. To assess technical and financial assistance required by various States/UTs for forest fire
management
9. To develop necessary mechanism for monitoring and evaluating management practices
10. To provide strong legal base by amending Indian Forest Act, National Code for writing Working
Plans and giving due importance to forest fire management in the National Forestry Action
Programme
In November 2017, National Green Tribunal (NGT) had asked the Environment Ministry to evolve a national
policy for prevention and control of forest fires.

FAO Suggestions for Prevention and Control of Forest Fires


• Increased vigilance by appointment of adequate number of firewatchers especially during the
months of April, May and June
• Clearing and maintenance practice of fire lines
• The practice of controlled burning to deal with accumulation of combustible pine needles on
the forest floor
• Proper forest management and silvicultural practices, particularly in pine forests
• The forest department staff should be provided with complete communication network through
wireless
• The communication network has to be supported with improved mobility to enable quick
transport of human and materials from one area to another
• Where villagers do not come to assist the forest department in extinguishing forest fires, their
timber rights should be curtailed if not forfeited

32
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
H. Heat Waves and Cold Waves

What is a Heat Wave?


• Extreme positive departures from the normal maximum temperature result in a heat wave during
the summer season.
• Decrease
in the Diurnal Temperature Range (DTR) due to urbanisation is a new factor leading to human
mortality and discomfort.
• Increased minimum temperatures in summer do not allow the necessary nocturnal cooling to
neutralize the high maximum temperature during a heat wave epoch.

Deaths due to Heat Waves in India:


In recent years, heat wave induced casualties have increased.

Which areas in India are worst affected?

Possible Health Hazards due to Heat Waves:


• Heat stroke and heat exhaustion are the two major risks posed by high-temperature conditions.
• Continuous and constant exposure to high temperatures could result in nausea and heat cramps,
resulting in rapid rise of the body temperature.
• Dehydration could also aid in heat exhaustion.
• Headaches, dizziness and nausea are some of the other symptoms

33
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
What is a cold wave?
• Occurrences of extreme low temperature in association with incursion of dry cold winds from
north into the sub-continent are known as cold waves.
• A region is said to be experiencing cold wave when, according to IMD, temperatures drop 4 degree
below the normal.

Cold Waves in India:


• Cold waves mainly affect areas to the north of 20 degrees. But in association with large amplitude
troughs, cold waves are sometimes reported in Maharashtra and Karnataka.
• Maximum number of cold waves occurs in Jammu and Kashmir followed by Himachal Pradesh,
Punjab, Bihar, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh

Impact of cold waves:


• The cold waves are known to increase mortality rate owing to the socio-economic conditions
of people of the northern parts of India. For example, the cold wave that occurred in January
2003 resulted in death of about 900 people. During 1978–1999, a total number of 3264 deaths
were reported due to cold waves in the northern parts of India
• The cold waves also affect the Rabi crops, crops that are sown in winter and harvested in the
following spring, of the northern regions of India. A survey on the impact of cold wave on the
Rabi crops showed that the economic losses were to the tune of 6230 million Indian rupees in
the state of Rajasthan during 2005–2006 Rabi seasons alone

34
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
I. Biological Disasters

What is Biological Disaster?


• It may be described as a disaster caused due to natural outbreaks of epidemics of intentional use
of biological agents.
• Biological agents are living organisms their toxic products that can kill or incapacitate peple,
livestock and plants.
• Cholera and swine flu are examples of biological disasters.

Epidemic and pandemic


• Epidemic-level biological disasters affect large members of people within a given community or
area. Example : cholera

• Pandemic- level biological disasters affect a much larger region, sometimes spanning entire
continents or the globe. Example: Swine flu

What is biological hazard or bio-hazard ?


• These refer to biological substances or organic matters produced by parasites, viruses, bacteria,
fungi and protein that pose a threat to health of living organisms, primarily that of humans.
• This can include :
- Medical waste
- Samples of a micro organism
- Virus or toxin (from a biological source)
- Substances harmful to other animals

Effects of Biohazards:
• The harmful effects posed to human health by biohazards are mainly of three types:
- Infection
- Allergy
- Poisoning

What is a biohazard symbol?


• The biohazard symbol was developed in 1966 by Charles Baldwin, an environmental health
engineer
• It is used in the labelling of biological materials that carry a significant health risk, including viral
samples and used needles.
• In Unicode, the biohazard symbol is U+2623

Impact of Biological Disaster:


- Loss of life
- Disability
- Quarantine
- Over whelming of local medical capabilities
- Long term environmental consequences
- Long term economic consequences.

35
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Biological Warfare:
• It is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the
intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
• NBC is the military acronym for nuclear, biological, and chemical warfare using weapons of mass
destruction. This can also be termed as bioterrorism

Prevention of Biological Disaster


1. Vulnerability Assessment and Risk Management

2. Environmental management

(i) Safe water supply and proper maintenance of sewage pipeline.

(ii) Awareness about personal hygiene

(iii) Vector control.

o Environment engineering work and generic integrated vector control measures.


o Elimination of breeding places
o Regular spraying of insecticides
o Burial disposal of dead bodies.

3. Prevention of post disaster epidemics

4. integrated disease surveillance systems

5. Detection and containment of or outbreak- this would include :

• Recognition and diagnosis by primary health care practitioners


• Communication of surveillance information to public health authorities
• Epidemiological analysis of the surveillance date
• Delivery of appropriate medical and public health measures.

6. Pharmaceutical interventions – immunization and other preventive measures

7. Bio safety and Bio security

• System for inventory control I n the laboratories dealing with bacteria, viruses or toxins which can
be source of potential causative agents for biological disasters

Legislations:
There are a number of legislations that control and govern the nation’s health policies.

1. The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974


2. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
3. The Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986, and the Rules (1986): This Act also provides for the
Biomedical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 with a view to controlling the
indiscriminate disposal of hospital/ biomedical wastes.
4. Disaster Management Act of 20o5

36
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Role of World Health Organization (WHO):
WHO contributes to global health security by:

1. strengthening national surveillance programmes, particularly in the field of epidemiology


and laboratory techniques;
2. disseminating verified information on outbreaks of diseases, and also by providing technical
support for response;
3. Collecting, analysing and disseminating information on diseases likely to cause epidemics of
global importance.

37
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
MAN-MADE DISASTERS

A. Rail Accidents

What is a Railway Disaster?

• Railway Disaster is a serious train accident or an untoward event of grave nature, either on railway
premises or arising out of railway activity.
• This may occur due to natural or human-made causes, which may lead to loss of many lives and
/or grievous injuries to a large number of people, and/or severe disruption of traffic etc.
• Thus, necessitating large scale help from other government/non-government and private
organizations

Rail Accidents in the last decade and causative factors:

• The number of rail accidents has declined from 325 in 2003-04 to 106 in 2015-16.

Major Rail Accidents in 2017:

• Vasco-da-Gama -Patna Express derailment, November 23, 2017


• Utkal Express derailment, Aug 18, 2017.
• Meerut-Lucknow Rajya Rani Express derailment, April 15, 2017.
• Jagdalpur-Bhubaneswar Hirakhand Express derailment, Jan 22, 2017.
• Kalindi Express derailment, Feb 20, 2017.
• Mahakaushal Express derailment, March 30, 2017.
• Ujjain train blast, March 3, 2017.

Derailments:

• In 2015-16, a majority of train accidents were caused due to derailments (60%), followed by
accidents at level crossings (33%).
• Between 2003-04 and 2015-16, derailments were the second highest reason for casualties. The
Standing Committee on Railways had noted that one of the reasons for derailments is defect in
the track or rolling stock.

38
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Unmanned Level Crossings:

• Unmanned level crossings (UMLCs) continue to be one of the biggest causes of maximum
casualties in rail accidents.
• In 2014-15, about 40% of the accidents occurred at UMLCs, and in 2015-16, about 28%.

DO YOU KNOW HOW ISRO IS HELPING INDIAN RAILWAYS TO CURB ACCIDENTS AT UNMANNED
CROSSINGS?
ISRO helping the Indian Railways use its satellite-based system to check accidents at unmanned railway
crossings and track train movements on a real-time basis.
• A hooter integrated with ISRO navigation system will be installed at an unmanned crossing.
• An IC chip will be installed on a train engine. The chip will get activated once a train is at a distance
of 500 metres to 4km from the crossing.
• The hooter will go off as the train approaches, warning road users at the crossing and will fall silent
after the train has passed.
• The system will also help railways track train movement on a real-time basis
• The testing of this system is underway

What explains the frequent number of railway accidents?

Accidents due to failure of railway staff:

• More than half of the accidents are due to lapses on the part of railway staff.
• Such lapses include:
• carelessness in working,
• poor maintenance work,
• Adoption of short-cuts
• Non-observance of laid down safety rules and procedures.

Accidents due to loco-pilots:


• Accidents also occur due to signalling errors for which loco-pilots are responsible.

Under-investment in the Railways leading to Rail accidents:


• Slow expansion of rail networks has put undue burden on the existing infrastructure, leading to
severe congestion and safety compromises
• Under-investment in the railways has resulted in congested routes, inability to add new trains,
reduction of train speeds and more rail accidents.
• Maintenance is compromised due to lack of funds

Safety Measures taken on Indian Railways:

• Measures taken to ensure rail safety envisage accident prevention and mitigation directed towards
continuous reduction in risk level to its passengers.
• In the Budget 2017-18, setting up of a Rashtriya Rail Sanraksha Kosh (RRSK) had been announced.
Many new technologies have been introduced:
• Train Protection Warning System (TPWS)/ Train Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) as means of
Automatic Train Protection on pilot section to prevent accident due to over speeding & passing
signal at danger.
• Vigilance Control Device (VCD) to check alertness of Loco Pilot
39
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• Electrical/Electronic Interlocking System with Centralized operations of points to eliminate human
failure,
• Complete Track Circuiting,
• Axle Counter for Automatic Clearance of Block Section (BPAC),
• Interlocking of manned Level Crossing gates
• Replacement of filament type signal with Light Emitting Diode (LED) Signals
To improve safety of railway tracks following measures have been taken:
• Usage of pre-stressed concrete sleepers
• Provision of Thick Web Switches (TWS) for all important routes
• Track Management System
• Condition based monitoring system for rolling stock and track is being tried
• Ultrasonic broken rail detection system to be made operational

Suggestions by the World bank for Rail Safety in India:

• In April 2017, erstwhile Railway Minister had approached the World Bank for a study on the issue
of rail safety.
• The report - titled 'Strengthening Safety on Indian Railways' was submitted by the World Bank in
late August 2017.
• The guidelines that were put forth by the World Bank to keep a check safety of the overburdened
Indian rail infrastructure are as follows:
1. As a measure to avert accidents, the trains are to be equipped with ‘ditch lights’ and painted bright
yellow that will enable more visibility even during twilight hours.
2. The rail employees should be garbed in “high-visibility” clothes that can be worn round the year.
3. Every train must be equipped with fire extinguishers and the staff must be well guided on various
fire prevention measures.
4. The level crossings and paths are to be painted with a crosshatched pattern that can alert and
highlight the dangers for people to be in the area.
5. The current investigators who have been employed to investigate root-cause of accidents are to
be trained for better analysis.
6. The authorities have been suggested to review timetables such that a maintenance block of four
hours is provided weekly on all main lines as well as review safety performance in terminal
operations with the intent of recognising prevailing risks.
7. An independent rail safety regulator is to be created by the railways to strengthen the powers of
commissioner of railway safety and form a safety management system under the Chairman,
Railway Board.
8. To address derailments, fires, or any other possible mishap, an emergency response plan is to be
constituted.

40
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
B. Road Accidents

Road Accidents in India- Statistics

• With expansion of road transport in India, the number of road accidents and fatalities has also
been increasing.
• According to the Report ‘Road Accidents in India-2016’, road accidents in India have decreased by
around 4.1% in 2016 from 2015.
• However, fatalities resulting from these accidents have risen by about 3.2%
• There has been a 3 % reduction in road accidents between January to July 2017, along with a 4.75
% reduction in road accident fatalities.
• During 2016, 13 States accounted for 86 per cent of the total road accidents in the country.
• These are Tamil Nadu, MP, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Kerala, UP, AP, Rajasthan, Telangana, Gujarat,
Chhattisgarh, West Bengal and Haryana.
• Chennai had the highest number of road accidents
• Delhi had the highest number of due to road accidents.
• The National Highways accounted for 29.6 per cent of total road accidents and 34.5 per cent of
total number of persons killed.
• The share of two wheelers in total road accidents has increased from 28.8 per cent in 2015 to 33.8
per cent in 2016.
• The 18-35 age-groups accounted for 46. 3% of total road accidents.

Factors Responsible for Road Accidents:

According to the Report, the major factors responsible for road accidents are:

• Driver’s fault was the most important factor for road accidents- 84% of all road accidents
• Intake of alcohol/drugs resulted in 3.7% of road accidents
• Act of talking on mobile phones while driving was another important factor
• Overloaded vehicles accounted for 12.8% road accidents.

Prevention and Mitigation:

The main thrust of accident prevention and control across the world include:

1. Education
2. Enforcement
3. Engineering
4. Environment and Emergency care of road accident victims

Measures taken by the Government of India to reduce road accidents:

1. Road Engineering: These are design/specification related aspects of roads and highways to enhance road
safety.

2. Enforcement: The state governments and UTs are to take measures for enforcing the statutory provisions
provided under the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 and the Central Motor Vehicle Rules, 1989.

41
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
3. Education and Training: These primarily involve spreading road safety awareness and imparting training
to drivers.

4. Faster Relief and Evacuation of Road accident victims:

National Highway Accident Relief Service Scheme:

• Under this scheme, ambulances and cranes are provided to state Governments to take the accident
victims to the nearest hospital and to evacuate the damaged vehicles from the road accident site
on the NHs.
• Ambulances at every toll plaza on the completed corridor of NHs are also provided

5. Road Safety Audit: The specific aim of the road safety audit is to minimise the risk and safety of accidents
on the national highways and expressways.

THE MOTOR VEHICLE (AMENDMENT BILL), 2017


The main provisions of the Bill are:

1. It makes Aadhaar mandatory for getting a driving licence and vehicle registration.
2. For deaths in hit-and-run cases, the government will provide a compensation of Rs 2 lakh or more to
the victim's family. Currently, the amount is just Rs 25,000.
3. In traffic violations by juveniles, the guardians or owner of the vehicle would be held responsible unless
they prove the offence was committed without their knowledge or they tried to prevent it. The
registration of the motor vehicle in question will be cancelled. The juvenile will be tried under the
Juvenile Justice Act.
4. The minimum fine for drunk driving has been increased from Rs 2,000 to Rs 10,000.
5. The fine for rash driving has been increased from Rs 1,000 to Rs 5,000.
6. A Motor Vehicle Accident Fund will provide compulsory insurance cover to all road users in India for
certain types of accidents.
7. Contractors, consultants and civic agencies will be accountable for faulty design, construction or poor
maintenance of roads leading to accidents.

42
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
C. Civil Aviation

Types of Civil Aviation Emergency:

1. Technical Emergencies:
a. Safety Related Emergency
i. Aircraft accident on the Airport
ii. Aircraft Accident off the Airport (within vicinity)
iii. Fires on the Ground (Aircraft related)
iv. Malfunction of Aircraft in Flight
v. Medical Emergencies and In-flight Mass Casualty
vi. Incidents on the airport (collisions, fuel spill)
vii. Dangerous Goods Incidents
b. Security Related Emergency
i. Sabotage including Bomb-threat
ii. Unlawful Acts against Civil Aviation/ Unlawful Seizure of aircraft
iii. Terrorism

2. Non-Technical Emergencies
a. Natural Disaster
b. Structural Disaster
c. Public Health Emergencies

Recent Major Accidents to Indian Civil Registered Aircraft

Disaster Management in Civil Aviation:


• The Directorate General Civil Aviation (DGCA) has the regulatory responsibility for aviation safety.
• Its mandate is to ensure the highest level of safety in the Indian Aviation System by employing
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards and recommended
practices.
• DGCA fosters and assists stakeholders in developing comprehensive Safety Management Systems
(SMS) and develops preventive safety strategies for the aviation system
• The responsibility for coordination and search and rescue (SAR) with other agencies is,
however vested with the Airports Authority of India (AAI) under the Airports Authority of India Act,
1944, as amended by AAI (Amendment) Rules, 2003
• The SSP is based on comprehensive analysis of the States Aviation System, safety policies, risk
management, safety assurances and permission

43
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
• An appropriate legislative framework in safety management has been implemented in India in
accordance with ICAO Standard and Recommended Practices (SARPs).
• For carrying out ICAO functions, India has three layers of legislation –
1. The Aircraft Act 1934 which is the primary legislation,
2. The secondary Aircraft Rules, 1937 and
3. The tertiary Aircraft (Carriage of Dangerous Goods) Rules, 2003
• A series of Safety Management System-Civil Aviation Regulation (SMS-CARs) about operational
regulations and implementation policies for the applicable service providers has been released by
the DGCA

44
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
D. Mine Disasters

What is a Mine Disaster?

• Mines Act, 1965 defines Disaster as an act Accident (unexpected event) causing loss of more than
10 lives.
• A mining accident is an accident that occurs in the process of mining minerals.

Following types of mining disasters are classified by the Directorate General of Mine Safety (DGMS):

• Side fall (slope failure) disaster in opencast mines


• Roof and side falls in underground mines
• Collapse of mine pillars
• Air Blast
• Failure of rope haulage
• Accident due to electricity
• Mine Fires
• Accident due to explosive
• Inundations
• Explosions in Mines
• Rock Burst and bumps

Major Disasters in Coal Mines

SL. No Year Name of the Mine No. Of Deaths Brief Cause

1 1958 Chinakuri, West 182 Explosion


Bengal

2 1965 Dhanbad Coal Mine 268 Explosion of coal dust

3 1975 Chasnala, Dhanbad 372 Explosion followed by


flooding

4 1994 New Kenda, Bihar 55 Fire


5 1995 Gaslitand 64 Irruption of water

6 2001 Bagdigi 29 Irruption of Water

7 2006 Bhatdee 50 Explosion/ Ignition of


Gas/ Dust

8 2016 Lalmatia, Godda, 12 Mine Collapse


Jharkahnad

Major Disasters in Non-Coal Mines:

Sl. No Year Name of Mine No. Of Deaths Brief Cause

45
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
1 April, 1952 Champion reef 20 Rock Burst
Gold
2 1955 Rajupalem Barytes 11 Fall of Sides

3 1957 Rajpura Dariba 13 Irruption of water


Galen and Sphal
4 2010 Hamsa Mineral 14 Fall of Slides
Granite Mine (other than
overhang)

Prevention of Disasters in Mines

• The various safeguards and preventive measures against coal mine fires are outlined in the
Coal Mines Regulations, 1957 and related circulars, notifications and technical instructions.

• The Directorate General of Mines Safety (DGMS) examines from each and every application for
underground and surface mining from all considerations.

• Wherever necessary the DGMS imposes additional precautionary and preventive measures.

• Thus, the role of DGMS is not only that of an enforcer of legislation but also a facilitator of Mine
Safety.

Environment Clearance:

• For the new projects and re-organisational projects, after the issuance of the EIA Notification, 1994
under the Environment (protection) Act, 1986, it has become compulsory to get environmental
clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF.

• The mines are required to develop their Environmental Management Plans (EMPs) in which the
problems of the mine fires are adequately addressed as the mine fires have considerable
environmental impacts.

Measures taken for improvement of safety by Coal India Limited (CIL) in 2016:
1. Internal safety Organization(ISO): Continuous review of safety status of mines is being done by the multi-
disciplinary ISO
2. Guidelines of Corrective Measures: After analysis of fatal accidents which occurred in different point of
time in 2016, guidelines of corrective measures to prevent recurrence of similar type of accidents in future
have been issued by Safety and Rescue Division of CIL
3. Training for Preparation of Risk Assessment based Safety Management Plans (SMP)
4. Preparation and Implementation of Risk Assessment based SMP
5. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP): 8 risk assessment based site specific SOP are formulated and being
implemented for various mining and allied operations
6. Adoption of the state-of-art Technology suitable to geo-mining locales
7. Monitoring of Mine Environment by installing Environment Tele-Monitoring System (ETMs) and Local
Methane Detectors
8. Water Danger management
9. Strata Management: Use of modern strata monitoring instruments.
10. Risk management training

46
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
E. Stampedes

What is a stampede?

• The term stampede is applied to a sudden rush of a crowd of people, usually resulting in many
injuries and death from suffocation and trampling.
• Stampedes are caused by surge of individuals in a crowd, in response to a perceived danger or loss
of physical space.
• It often disrupts the orderly movement of crowds resulting in irrational and dangerous movement
for self-protection, leading to injuries and fatalities.

Stampedes in India

• According to the National Crime Records Bureau figures, from 2000 to 2013, almost 2,000 people
died in stampedes.
• A 2013 study published by International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction (IJDRR) points out that
religious gathering and pilgrimages have been venues for 79% of the stampedes in India.

When Where

September, 2017 Foot over bridge at Mumbai's Elphinstone Railway


station
July 2015 banks of the Godavari River in Rajahmundry on the
opening day of the Pushkaralu festival
October 2013 bridge near the Ratangarh MataTemple in Datia
district, Madhya Pradesh
February 2012 Mahashivratri fair at Bhavnath temple in Junagadh
in Gujarat.
March 2010 RamJankiTemple in Uttar Pradesh
September 2008 Chamunda Devi temple of Rajasthan during
Navratra Festival
August 2006 Naina Devi temple in Himachal Pradesh

Triggers/ Factors Leading to Stampedes

1. Structural: collapse of the temporary structure, steep stairs, narrow exists because of illegal
constructions, parking and hawkers etc.
2. Fire / electric: usually from the makeshift kitchens in the ‘pandal’, inappropriate use of firecrackers
/ electrical wiring during the event.
3. Human: Underestimating the size of crowd, overselling of the tickets; lack of coordination with
authorities, panicking by rumours, rush to get freebie / celebrity autograph etc.

NDMA Guidelines on Crowd Management

• In view of the recurring stampedes at places of mass gathering, including religious places, and
typically ad-hoc responses to those, the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) had
prepared ‘Suggestive Framework for Preparation of Crowd Management Plan for Events/Venues of
Mass Gathering’.

47
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
Major Suggestions include:

1. The organizers of crowded events/venue managers should discourage general admissions and
have plans to handle VIP visitors or, alternatively, refuse entry to VIPs where it adds to safety
concerns.
2. A public address system, with loudspeakers installed at all crowded points, to communicate with
the crowds.
The guidelines suggest that there should be a 3-4 metre gap in between a row of 5-6 shops,
though which pilgrims can escape during an unexpected rush.
3. The guidelines also call upon the authorities to have separate tracks for pilgrims travelling by
foot and those covering the journey on ponies/mules.
The event organizers and venue managers should develop, implement, review and revise the
disaster management plan in coordination with others including local administration and police.
4. The police should actively participate in venue assessment and preparedness checks and guide
crowd and traffic movements.
5. Event/venue managers can involve NGOs and civil defence in traffic control, people flow control,
medical assistance, sanitation and mobilization of local resources in case of disaster.
6. The NDMA has also suggested setting up of medical first-aid rooms and emergency operations
centres to handle post-disaster emergencies.

48
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
F. Industrial and Chemical Disaster

What are industrial disasters?


• Industrial disasters are disasters caused by chemical, mechanical, civil, electrical or other process
failures
• These may occur due to accident, negligence or incompetence, in an industrial plant which may
spill over to the areas outside the plant or within
• Such disasters cause damage to life, property and environment

Ways in which Chemical and Industrial emergencies may arise:


• Explosion in a plant
• Accidents in storage facilities of chemicals
• Accidents during transportation of chemicals, misuse of chemicals
• Improper waste management
• Accident in treatment plants
• Technological system failures
• Failures of plant safety design
• Arson and sabotage
• Human Error

What are chemical disasters?


• Chemical disasters are occurrence of emission fire or explosion involving are or more hazardous
chemicals in course of industrial activity. Storage or transportation, or due to natural events.
• Chemical disasters have serious impact leading to loss of life, property and adverse effects on the
environment.

What are the causative factors behind chemical disaster?


• Ageing of process plants and inadequate steps to pace with modern technologies in Indian
chemical industry has increased the vulnerability to chemical disasters.
• Human error as a result of non-compliance of standard operating procedures (SOPs) that have
been put into place by a company.
• Defects in design, absence of SOPs to mitigate an early warning in process. Poor coordination
between different departments in a company.
• Improper maintenance of equipments
• Natural disasters like floods and earth quakes.
• Non availability of an emergency response team to mitigate accidents during the transportation
of hazardous chemicals has also resulted in major disasters in several locations in India.

Prevention and Response


1. Role of Industry
a) Identification of hazardous activities:
• Good knowledge about the safety aspects of the industrial operations would enable
prevention and mitigation
• Use of appropriate hazard identification tools such as checklists analysis, safety audit,
HAZOP, FTA/ETA would help in mitigating the hazards.

49
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
b) Maintenance of plant facility and equipment
• Proper maintenance of all the equipment and machinery at regular intervals
• Regular site safety and health inspection
c) Installation of vapour / gas detection systems.
d) Compliance with existing rules and regulations
e) Development of human resource management
f) Emergency preparedness
Role of government
a) Setting up of accident investigation board and chemical accident database
• An accident investigation board should be set up in India to investigate the chemical disasters
and bring out guidelines based on lessons learnt in each incident.
• This would help to prevent its reoccurrence.
b) Awareness Campaigns
• This would help workers in reducing unsafe acts and in tackling the disaster if it were to happen
c) Research and development
• Research into new methods of producing the product with less toxicity can to a large extent reduce
the adverse effect if any accident were to happen.
d) Offsite Emergency Planning
• This would ensure that the local authority adequately discharges his duty to minimize the
consequences of major accident to people and environment.
e) Transportation of Hazardous chemicals
• Swift and timely availability of emergency response during transportation of hazardous chemical.
Did You Know?
• Recently Indian Chemical Council (ICC) has initiated a program called “Nicerglobe” which provide GPRS
tracking of trucks right form its origin to the place of destination.
• The Nicerglobe platform is well linked to the emergency response providers.

Regulatory Framework for Chemical Safety in India


1. The Environment (Protection) Act was enacted in 1986. Under the Act, two rules have been
notified for ensuring chemical safety, namely,
• The Manufacture, Storage and Import of Hazardous Chemicals Rules, 1989 (MSIHC)
amended in 1994 and 2000
• The Chemical Accidents (Emergency, Planning, Preparedness, and Response) Rules,
1996 (EPPR) under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
2. The Public Liability Insurance Act 1991(amended in 1992) and the Public Liability Insurance Rules
1991(amended in 1993) require maximum hazard units to procure an insurance policy and deposit
an equal amount in the Environment Relief Fund to provide immediate relief to victims of chemical
accidents.

50
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
G. Fires

Residential and Non-Residential Structural Fires

• Fires can start due to human activities or from natural causes.


• The most common fires are the residential and non-residential structural fires caused usually by
human activities.
• Most industrial and chemical fires are triggered by human activity.
• They are sometimes caused by human errors, faulty designs, or mechanical failures. Fire can also
be the secondary effect of a disaster like earthquake.
• Secondary fires after a disaster like earthquakes constitute a substantial and heavy risk.
• Damage to natural gas systems during an earthquake can lead to major fires and explosions.
Damages to electrical systems during a disaster can ignite major fires.

Prevention and Mitigation

Legislation involved:

• The National Building Code of India, 2005, is the basic model code in India on matters relating to
building construction and fire safety.
• Many of the code provisions have been incorporated by various State Governments and Local
Bodies in their own building regulations.

Fire Safety Audit

• It is aimed to assess the building for compliance with the National Building Code of India, relevant
Indian Standards and the legislations enacted by State Governments and Local Bodies, on fire
prevention, fire protection and life safety measures.
• Comprehensive fire safety audit can address the inherent fire hazards associated with the activities
in an occupancy and recommend measures to reduce the potential fire hazards

51
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
DISASTER MANAGEMENT - INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIONS

A. Hyogo Framework of Action (HFA)

In 2005, 168 Governments adopted a 10-year plan to make the world safer from natural hazards at the
World Conference on Disaster Reduction, held in Kobe, Hyogo, Japan.
Goals: There are 3 strategic goals-

1. The more effective integration of disaster risk reduction into sustainable development policies,
planning and programming at all levels, with a special emphasis on disaster prevention,
mitigation, preparedness and vulnerability reduction.
2. The development and strengthening of institutions, mechanisms and capacities at all levels in
particular at the community level that can systematically contribute to building resilience to
hazards.
3. The systematic incorporation of risk reduction approaches into the design and
implementation of emergency preparedness, response and recovery programmes in the
reconstruction of the affected communities.

Priority Action Areas:


1. Ensure that disaster risk reduction is a national and a local priority with a strong institutional basis
for implementation,
2. Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks and enhance early warning,
3. Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of safety and resilience at all levels,
4. Reduce the underlying risk factors,
5. Strengthen disaster preparedness for effective response at all levels.

Main Activities:
1. Promote socio-economic development practices,
2. Land-use planning and other technical measures,
3. Strengthening of institutional and technical capacities,
4. Review and implement preparedness and contingency plans,
5. Promote voluntarism and community participation,
6. Creation of provision of emergency funds,
7. Dialogue, coordination and exchange of information between disaster managers and
development sectors.
Concerned ministry, agency and department to implement key activities as resolved in HFA

52
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
B. Sendai Framework

• In 2015, UN Member States adopted the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture,
Japan.
• It is the successor instrument to the Hyogo Framework for Action.
• The Sendai Framework is the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, with
seven targets and four priorities for action.

4 Priority Areas of Sendai Framework:


1. Understanding Risk;
2. Strengthening Risk Governance;
3. Investing in disaster resilience;
4. Improving capacities for disaster response as well as for building back better after disasters.

7 Targets of Sendai Framework


1) Substantial reduction of mortality of both humans and livestock
2) Substantial reduction of number of people affected
3) Substantial reduction of economic losses in terms of GDP
4) Substantial reduction of loss of critical infrastructure
5) Increase in number of countries with national and local strategies
6) Increase international cooperation in disaster risk reduction
7) Access to multi-hazard early warning systems

India’s Progress after the Sendai Declaration:


Post Sendai Declaration, The Government of India has taken up several initiatives:

1) India has successfully hosted the Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction (AMCDRR)
in November, 2016 and adopted ‘New Delhi Declaration’ and ‘Regional Action Plan for
implementation of the Sendai Framework’.
2) Government of India has issued a set of priority actions to all the State Government based on the
goals, targets and priorities of Sendai Framework.
3) In line with Sendai priority 4, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) is strengthened, both in
terms of state-of-the-art training and equipment
4) Government has expressed keenness to share India’s expertise and help other countries in disaster
response
5) In an effort to augment the capacity building in the field of Disaster management NIDM has signed
a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) for financial
assistance and academic cooperation for establishment of a Centre for Excellence in Disaster
Research and Resilience Building at JNU. This would promote higher education and research in
the field of disaster management

53
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
C. Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Reduction (AMCDRR)

• The Asian Ministerial Conference for Disaster Risk Reduction was held in New Delhi in 2016 with
the aim of providing a platform to member countries for sharing best practices in the field of
Disaster Risk Reduction.
• At the AMCDRR, Prime Minister outlined a ten-point agenda, to pursue the implementation of
disaster risk reduction efforts in the region with renewed vigour.

About AMCDRR
• The AMCDRR is a biennial conference jointly organized by different Asian countries and the
United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR).
• It was established in 2005

• Two important documents - ‘New Delhi Declaration’ and the ‘Asian Regional Plan for
Implementation of the Sendai Framework’ were adopted at the AMCDRR 2016.

New Delhi Declaration:


• It is a political statement which spells out the commitment of participating governments towards
preventing and reducing disaster risk, and strengthening the resilience of communities, nations in
the Asian region.
• It commits to a people-centred and whole-of-society approach towards DRR.
• It also emphasises the need to enhance the capacity of communities and ensure participation of
all stakeholder groups towards achieving resilience.

Asian Regional Plan:


• It focuses on the ‘How to’ reduce disaster risk at national and local levels.
• It focussed on developing national and local strategies, policies and plans for Disaster Resilience
and implementing them.
• It suggested increasing investment in disaster preparedness and to promote and strengthen
education on disaster risk reduction

54
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
D. United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination (UNDAC)

• UNDAC is part of the international emergency response system for sudden-onset emergencies.
• It was created in 1993
• It aims at facilitating close links between country-level, regional and international response efforts
to a disaster.

How does it work?


• The office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) at the request of the government
affected by a disaster dispatches a UNDAC team to the country within 12 to 48hours anywhere in
the world.
• UNDAC team provides technical services, principally in tasks such as damage, assessment, and on-
site coordination and information management.
• When required, the United Nations also sets up an On-site Operations Coordination Centre
(OSOCC) to help local authorities in a disaster affected country to coordinate international relief.

55
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

ForumIAS
E. Sustainable Development and Disaster Management

• Disaster risk reduction is an integral part of social and economic development and is essential if
development is to be sustainable for future.
• The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development adopted by the UN General Assembly in 2015
curetted disaster risk management in most of its sustainable development Goals (SDG’s) with
specific targets for building disaster resilience across different sectors of development.
• There are 25 targets related to disaster risk reduction is 10 of the 17 SDGs firmly establishing the
disaster risk reduction as core development strategy.

56
ForumIAS Offline

3rd Floor, Shop #6, Near Syndicate Bank, Old Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi – 110060 | student@forumias.academy 

Why is disaster risk resilience important in achieving sustainable development?

• Disasters are intertwined with development in a three dimension nexus.


1. Disasters eat away hard- earned gains development.
2. Lack of development exposes unbearable communities to the risk of disasters
3. Development creates new risks of disasters. Example : mining and industries in
ecologically sensitive zones may destroy the natural buffer to disasters
• Disaster risk reduction cuts across different sectors of development.
• With every disaster, there is significant impact on various sectors of development like agriculture,
housing, health, education and infrastructure. Disasters are a major obstacle in achieving g
sustainable socio-economic development
• To achieve the goal of eradicating extreme poverty. It is an utmost necessity to build disaster
resilience .This is because, impacts of disasters drag the poor and most unbearable even deeper
into poverty.
• It is therefore necessary to build and strengthen the resilience of poor communities to prevent
future disasters events to pulls them into poverty and protect their livelihood and assets to help
them recover.
• The increased invariability to disasters is related much to the unsustainable development activities
example :improper use of land and environmental degradation
• In this context it is important to discuss SDG 11. Goal 11 aims at making cities and human
settlement, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Few important largest of Goal 11 are:
q By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory.
Integrated and sustainable human settlement and management in all countries.
q By2030, significantly reduce the no. of deaths, people affected and also reduce direct
economic losses related disasters it focuses on protecting the poor and people in
vulnerable situation.
q By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and
implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency,
mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and
implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030,
holistic disaster risk management at all levels
ForumIAS
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SENDAI FRAMEWORK IN CONJUNCTION WITH
THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND PARIS CLIMATE
AGREEMENT

• In the year 2015, the Sendai Framework, the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris climate
Change Agreements were adopted
• These policies can facilitate and encourage better participation in disaster risk reduction (DRR),
sustainable development and climate-change mitigation and adaptation.
• Sustainable development cannot be attained while disasters continue to undermine economic
growth and social progress. Therefore, disaster risk reduction needs to be at the core of sustainable
development.
• The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 was the first agreement of the post-
2015 development agenda.
• It includes seven global targets accompanied by a comprehensive set of guiding principles that
give direction to reduce the impact of disasters
• It also addresses the underlying drivers of disaster risk and safeguarding current and future
development gains.
• There are a number of targets across the 17 Sustainable Development Goals that are related to
disaster risk reduction
• The Paris Agreement on Climate Change outlined eight specific action areas for
enhancing ‘understanding, action and Support’ for disaster reduction.
1. Early warning systems;
2. Emergency preparedness;
3. Slow onset events
4. Events that may involve irreversible and permanent loss and damage;
5. Comprehensive risk assessment and management;
6. Risk insurance facilities, climate risk pooling and other insurance solutions;
7. Non-economic losses;
8. Resilience of communities, livelihoods and ecosystems
• The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) demonstrated that it is possible to reduce
the severity and frequency of extreme weather events caused by anthropogenic climate change
through sustainable development practices.
• Achieving the primary goal of the Paris Agreement - to keep the average global temperature rise
well below 2°C degrees and as close as possible to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels - is vital to
the achievement of all three Agendas.
ForumIAS
What should India do to collectively implement these policies?

1. Mainstreaming disaster risk reduction into every aspect of development


2. Development projects should be planned, designed and implemented in such away that they do
not compound the risks but contribute to the process of mitigating the risks of disasters
3. There should be ex-ante risk reduction investment in development planning. Investment should
aim at protecting development gains and attaining resilience
4. Projects planned for the future in high disaster prone areas should mandatorily undertake disaster
risk audit of the projects.
5. Disaster risk reduction practices need to be inclusive and accessible in order to be efficient and
effective.
6. Governments should facilitate, incentivize and engage with relevant stakeholders especially
private sector in the design and implementation of policies, plans and standards.
7. There should be integration of disaster risk into management practices of organizations,
businesses for making SDG achievable
8. Making disaster management more inclusive by including women, civil society, academia