Chapter 1- Simulation of ship handling


1.1 Model tests for design and training

Model tests are widely used for the assessment of hydrodynamic characteristics of ships. Ship resistance, powering, seakeeping and manoeuvring characteristics are typical ship properties that are assessed using model tests. Model tests are performed in specially constructed towing tanks or as in case of manoeuvrability, sometimes in open water areas – ponds and lakes, because of the need to have rather wide water areas. In case of manoeuvrability models are used in the design stage of a ship in order to predict manoeuvring characteristics of the ship to be built. Models are also used for training purposes. In the first case models could be used for the estimation of hydrodynamic coefficients describing forces in manoeuvring motion; the models are tested then in towing tanks - they are usually smaller (3 to 6m long) - towed under so called planar motion mechanism (PMM). Models could be also used for the estimation of manoeuvring characteristics of ships, such as turning circle, stopping distance, dynamic stability on straight courese etc., and then they are somehow larger, remote controlled or manned, and tested in open water areas. In the second case, when models are used for training purposes, they are much larger (8 to 15 m long), manned and manoeuvring exercises are performed in wide open water areas. In order to achieve good prediction of manoeuvring characteristics based on model tests as well as a realistic representation of various maneouvres during the training, the models must properly represent the behaviour of real ships. They have to be constructed and operated according to requirements of simulation laws. This applies to the geometrical characteristics of the model itself as well as to kinematic and dynamic charcterics of the motion. 1.2. Scaling down the ship’s geometry First of all, the geometric similitude criteria must be satisfied. It means that the ratio of all linear dimensions of the full-scale vessel to the corresponding dimensions of the model must be the same and equal to the model scale - λ (fig, 1-1):
Lship Lmodel Bship Bmodel X ship X model



= scale = λ

Fig. 1-1

i.e.Simulation of ship handling 2 Although the dimensions of the model are reduced. For example.: Aship Amod l = scale 2 = λ2 Corresponding volumes of the full-scale ship and the model are proportional to the model scale in the power 3: V ship Vmod el = scale 3 = λ3 because: Ship volumetric displacement is: VS = C BS ⋅ LS ⋅ BS ⋅ TS Model volumetric displacement is: VM = C BM ⋅ LM ⋅ BM ⋅ TM .Chapter 1. we have: Hence the following ratio of ship and model rudder areas: ARS H ⋅C = S S = scale ⋅ scale = scale 2 ARM H M ⋅ C M All other corresponding areas of the full-scale vessel and the model are also proportional to the model scale squared.scale vessel have the same value. a full-scale vessel rudder area is: ARS = H S ⋅ C S and a model rudder area is: ARM = H M ⋅ C M (fig. HM CM From the geometric similitude criteria. 1-2: Comparison of rudder areas for a ship and a model HS C = scale and S = scale . it is seen from the above figure that the corresponding angles for the model and the full. 1-2). Of interest will be also the knowledge of the relationship between any surface for a model and a ship. Fig.

the boundary layer along the ship hull and the ship wake (the fluid volume with fluid motion induced by the moving ship).Chapter 1. This flow pattern consists of the system of surface waves moving with the ship. Water particles raised by the moving ship fall down and initiate oscillatory motion creating a wave train. This is called a secondary wave formation (fig.1. Around the bow and also around and little behind the stern there are high pressure areas. High pressure area Low pressure aerea High pressure area Stern wave Bow wave Fig. It is obvious that for good reproduction of ship's behaviour. the flow patterns for a model and a full-scale vessel must be similar. Pressure differences materialize in the differences of water level (fig. C BS . Around the moving ship the pressures are different in different areas.1. ρM . C BM .4).salt and fresh wate r densities. This is called a primary wave formation. while along the majority of the ship body there is a low pressure area. Then there is a bow wave corresponding to the high pressure area at the bow (bow cushion) and a stern wave corresponding to the high pressure area at the stern.3.block coefficien ts for ship and model Assuming that C BS = C BM (because of the geometric criteria.Simulation of ship handling VS C BS ⋅ LS ⋅ BS ⋅ TS = VM C BM ⋅ LM ⋅ BM ⋅ TM 3 Then we can write: The same procedure can be extended over the calculation of corresponding mass (ship displacement) ∆S V ⋅ ρS ρ S ⋅ C BS ⋅ LS BS TS = S = ∆M VM ⋅ ρ M ρ M ⋅ C BM ⋅ LM BM TM Where: ρS . Flow pattern around ship body and forces acting A ship moving through the water generates a characteristic flow pattern.the same form of hulls for a full-scale ship and a model) and neglecting the differences in salt water and fresh water densities we get: ∆S L ⋅ B ⋅T = S S S = scale ⋅ scale ⋅ scale = scale 3 ∆ M LM ⋅ BM ⋅ TM 1.3). . The similitude laws assure the similarity. 1-3 Pressure distribution along the moving hull Along the ship body the water level drops down. The wave system moving with the ship is caused by the gravity forces.

some energy must be transferred from the moving ship. Transverse waves Secondary wave system Oblique waves Fig. This energy is proportional to the wave amplitude squared. 1-4 The secondary wave formation Behind the stern of the ship the bow wave system interferes with the stern wave system creating a complex wave system that is observed in reality. 1-5. 1-5 The secondary wave system In order to generate waves on the water surface.Simulation of ship handling 4 Water particle falling • • Water particles raised Stern wave system Bow wave system Fig. and is equal to the work of the wave resistance force: FW ⋅ v = EW ∝ 1 ρ g r02 2 Where: r02 is wave amplitude squared. g is the acceleration due to gravity. there are also observed short oblique waves as shown in fig.Chapter 1. . Apart from transverse waves shown in fig 1-4.

The boundary layer is thin. then additional force must act on the ship. their absolute velocity is equal zero. or the ship total resistance is composed of two components: pressure resistance (wave making resistance.Chapter 1. at a stern of a 200 m long ship moving at 20 knots its thickness is equal to about 1m. then around the ship hull a boundary layer is created. 1-6. The viscosity of water causes that between the hull skin and the surrounding water a tension (friction) is created. In the boundary layer water particles close to the ship’s skin stick to the skin due to the friction and their relative velocity with respect to the ship is zero. and the value of the additional force is almost equal to the acceleration times the mass of the ship: .1-6) Separation point  Separation zone Boundary layer thickness Separation point Fig. Summation of the elementary tensions over the hull surface gives the total viscous (frictional) force acting on the ship opposite to the direction of motion. behind this point vortices are created and the flow is highly turbulent (fig. i.Simulation of ship handling 5 When the ship is moving in a viscous fluid like water. the total force opposing this motion. 1-6). At the stern of the ship at a certain point a separation of the flow occurs. form resistance – hull curvature and transom form influence) viscous (frictional) resistance If one wants to accelerate or to slow down the ship. Particles farther from the skin have a higher relative velocity and eventually at some distance from the hull their relative velocity is equal to the ship speed. and relative velocities change from zero close to the ship skin to the ship speed at the outside of the boundary (fig. Within the boundary layer the absolute velocities of water particles change from zero on the outside the boundary to the velocity equal the ship speed close to the skin. This force is viscous or frictional resistance. If the ship is moving over the water at a constant speed on a straight course.e.

b) determining the method of scaling the measured quantities from model to full-scale ship. In order to properly simulate the behaviour of the model in comparison to a full-scale ship all forces must be properly scaled down.g. The wave resistance that is caused by the gravity forces is equal to: RW = CW ⋅ 1 ρ S wV 2 2 where: Sw is wetted surface CW is a non-dimensional wave resistance coefficient that is a function of the nondimensional parameter called Froude’s number. so the force must act on the particle. The laws of dynamic similitude serve two purposes: a) determining the conditions of the tests (e. so CW = f (Froude number) The governing law for the wave resistance is FROUDE'S law of similitude FROUDE'S law of similitude says that: if one wants to obtain the same scaled (coefficients CW) wave resistance (pressure) forces. Gravity forces are proportional to the mass of the ship (or the mass of particle) and the acceleration. ant this kind of force will be called the inertia force as well. Therefore the particle will exert a force on the ship’s hull. It is clear that three kind of forces act on the manoeuvring ship: Viscosity forces Gravity forces Inertia forces Different laws of dynamic similitude govern scaling (or modelling) of different forces categories. velocity. These inertia forces are caused by the change of the water particles speed or the direction of particles motion (ultimately they are “seen” on the hull surface as pressure forces).Simulation of ship handling Rinertia = m ⋅ a 6 The same happens with the water particle moving along a curved hull surface: the velocity vector of the particle changes its direction thus there is acceleration. then the Froude's numbers for the ship and its model must be equal: Fn SHIP = Fn MODEL VS g ⋅ LS = VM g ⋅ LM where g is the acceleration due to gravity. wetted surface and the friction coefficient. Viscous (frictional) resistance is equal to: ..Chapter 1. temperature). pressure. Viscous (frictional) forces are proportional to the velocity squared.

From the Froude’s law we have: VS g ⋅ LS = VM g ⋅ LM and from this equation it is possible to calculate the model velocity: . and bearing in mind that LS LM = λ (model scale). Conditions of similitude for model tests and work with models The REYNOLDS law and the Froude’s law provide different dynamic conditions for the model tests and the work with models.4.Chapter 1. 1. the model speed should be equal to 24xVS. the model speed should be 24x10knots=240 knots. REYNOLD’S law of similitude says that if one wants to obtain the same scaled (coefficients Cf) viscous resistance (frictional) forces. This obviously is impossible. so Cf = Cf (Reynolds number). To inertia forces the general law of dynamic similitude applies. The governing law for the viscous resistance is REYNOLDS law of similitude. and it means that for the 10 knots ship speed. we have: V M = λ ⋅V M With a model scale equal to 24 as in Iława centre. From the Reynolds law we have: VS ⋅ LS νS = VM ⋅ LM νM and from there it is possible to calculate the model velocity: VM = VS ⋅ LS ν S LM ν M Neglecting the difference between the kinematic viscosity coefficients for sea water and fresh water. then the Reynolds numbers for the ship and its model must be equal: Re SHIP = Re MODEL VS ⋅ LS VM ⋅ LM = νS νM where: νS and νM are kinematic viscosity coefficients for sea and fresh water VS and VM is velocity of a ship and a model Inertia forces are proportional to the mass of ship and acceleration.Simulation of ship handling Rf =C f ⋅ 1 ρS wV 2 2 7 where: Cf is a non-dimensional viscous resistance coefficient (friction coefficient) that is function of the non-dimensional parameter called Reynolds number.

1-7. then there would be no scale effect.003 0. then the ratio of forces . to velocity squared and to the wetted hull surface. which arises from neglecting the Reynolds law of similitude. however. for the ship and the model is as follows: RS C R S ⋅ 12 ρ SVS2 SW S = 2 RM C R M ⋅ 1 ρ M VM SW M 2 .Simulation of ship handling g ⋅ LM g ⋅ LS V LM = S LS λ 8 VM = VS ⋅ = VS For example with the model scale equal to 24. This introduces. However. 0. in particular in cases where the laminar flow around a hull or appendages may be present. It is obvious that the only possibility is to run models according to the Froude’s law. This relation is shown in fig. When the Froude’s law of similitude is used. Viscous resistance is proportional to the friction coefficient C f . Reynold’s law cannot be satisfied simultanously. then the scaled total resistance of the large model is about 10 to 15 % larger than the scaled ship resistance (both are scaled down proportionally to the model scale3). the model velocity should be approximately 2 knots. some inaccuracy called a “scale effect”.004 0. in other words.002 Small 0. so if the viscous resistance is about 30 % of the total resistance. for 10 knots ship speed.2 ⋅VS i. then the error is much larger.001 model 5 6 7 model 8 9 Log Re ship 10 Laminar flow Turbulent flow Fig. The resulting inaccuracy in the modelled manoeuvring qualities of the ship is very small.1-7. or. From the figure it is seen that the friction coefficient for the large model is about 30 to 40 % higher than for the ship. the friction coefficient is a function of the Reynolds number.006 CF 0. When the model used is small. it results in not reproducing properly the viscous (frictional) resistance. including resistance. we have: VM = VS 24 ≅ 0. This is compensated by a slightly higher number of propeller revolutions on the model. say 2 to 3 m long.Chapter 1. If the friction coefficient would be the same for the ship and the model.007 0.e.005 0.

if some manoeuvre in the full scale requires one hour. Turning. and the ratio of accelerations is: aS/aM = 1. the time scale is approximately equal to 5. Table 1-1: relationship between geometric and kinematic parameters for Froude identity Item Length. that is rather small.Chapter 1. SWS/SWM = λ2. Distance. then the same manoeuvre in the model scale takes about 12 minutes. and neglecting the difference of densities of sea water and fresh water (lake). Diameter. Scale coefficients applicable to other physical quantities are shown in the table 1-1.Simulation of ship handling If Froude’s law is applied. Rudder area. etc Volume. The ratio of the inertia forces for the ship and the model is: RiS m ⋅a = S S RiM mM ⋅ a M Knowing that the ratio of the mass of the ship to the mass of the model is: mS/m = λ3. Beam. we get: RiS = λ3 RiM This ratio applies to all forces acting on the manoeuvring ship. and knowing that VS/VM = λ . For example. Displacement. This is important conclusion meaning that in the model work the time is running faster than in reality. Stopping. With the model scale equal to 24. we get: 9 RS VS2 SWS = 2 ⋅ = λ ⋅ λ2 = λ3 RM VM SWM This applies also to the inertia forces. then CRS = CRM. This means that all manoeuvres are performed faster than in reality. Draft. and other linear dimensions Windage. Force Speed Angle Rate of Turn Time Acceleration Value of ship / model ratio Scale scale2 scale3 scale1/2 1 1/scale1/2 scale1/2 1 From the table it is seen that applying the Froude’s law of similitude the time scale is equal to the square root of the model scale. .

On the model the times to reverse the engine. times to put the rudder from zero position to full rudder or times to operate tugs are properly adjusted – see figs. This important conclusion means that all actions that depend on time must be appropriately scaled down. 1-8 History of rudder deflection for a ship and a model . however trainees raise this problem very rare. It results from this that “feeling for a ship” based on correct timing can be affected by the above time scale.Chapter 1.Simulation of ship handling Models work in the model time. Fig. not in the real time! 10 This must be remembered when manoeuvring the model. 1-8 to 1-9.

Chapter 1.Simulation of ship handling 11 Fig. The same happens when considering stopping distances. 1-10 Comparison of a turning manoeuvre for a ship and a reproducing model . One can say that dimensionless turning diameter DT expressed in ship lengths is the same for a ship and a model (assuming that the above mentioned scale effect can be neglected). Fig. 1-9 Reversing of engine for a ship and a corresponding model In figure 1-10 a simple comparison of kinematic and geometric parameters of a turning trial executed with the same rudder deflection for a ship and its model is shown.

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