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Aerospace inventics-visual guide

Valeriu Drãgan©
Bucharest 2010
ISBN:978-973-0-09403-9

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foreword

• The things that are truly


important in life are not
the ones nobody has done
before but the ones that
everyone needs to do.
• Simplification is one of
the most difficult things to
do. That‟s why the ability
to think in a simple way is
so important.

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Contents
• Rotary engines
• Steam engines
• The plano-reactor
• The X-Mass tree turboprop
• The dual core turbofan
• Some history
• The turbo-helix
• Magnetic non-contact cogged wheels
• Sketches for magnetic gearing
• Unconventional compressor turbofan engines
• This is invisible
• Micro-UAV concept
• Other studies stealth jet trainer
• Supercirculation hovering stealth aircraft study
• A modular centrifugal compressor study
• Two stage centrifugal compressor study
• The wind milling engine
also known as the
Ram Turbine Engine
• Another perspective
• Other variations on the ram turbojet
• -the gyrocopter study
• -the anemometric turbo-jet configurations
• -the slim, variable pitch ram air turbine jet engine
• The MAMuT
• Taking the MAMuT one step further

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contents
• A fluid gyroscope
• Tip jet evolution
• Tip jet studies
• Micro-turbine propeller
• Hydrogen peroxide power plant
• Nuclear Turbofans
• SANDRa
• Stator heat exchangers for advanced cycle turbofan engines
• From A to C trough B.5
• The cube
• The cuboid engine with hyper modularity
• In operation
• Other considerations regarding the cuboid engine
• Tip compressor turbofan study
• The semi-pressurized burner turbofan
• Supercirculation vs. countercirculation
• The Maximal Attitude Immediate Response Actuator
• The Rhino Chevron and diamond canards
• The negative delta wing and diamond canards
• The ways conventional wings and Delta wings produce lift
• The negative delta
• Diamond canards
• On their own
and on the aircraft

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Rotary engines
When it comes to
internal combustion
engines, rotary
engines are
definitely the
“Superstars”.
Their fascinating
appearance, with One of my early design
outlandish concepts regarding a
geometry and centered rotary body as
kinematic is also opposed to the Wankel
doubled by the
eccentric rotor. The idea
incredible power
output of these was that a centered rotor
machines . can spin at higher rpm
than an eccentric one.

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The design evolved into the one below, the pictures
shows the two important phases of it’s operation:
First: At 6’o’clock-admission
At 9’o’clock – preparing for compression
At 3’o’clock- preparing for complete
exhaust
Second: At 6’o’clock-admission-ending
At 9’o’clock – compression-ignition
At 3’o’clock- complete exhaust

Compressor Exhaust
rocker Admission rocker with
section micro-valve

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Another rotary piston engine design,
based on the same belief that a centered rotor
is faster than an eccentric one – which would
yield more explosions per second and thus
prove to be more powerful. Also an advantage
of having higher rpm is the possibility of use in
moto-reactors in which the compressor is
spanned by the piston engine and not by a
turbine-in fact Henri Coandã made the first jet
engine using this principle – 1910 Paris air
show.

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A more far-fetched rotary engine design, a
bit more simple with fewer moving parts but
also with a higher volume (which is a bit of a
drawback).
Observe not only the geometry of the
engine but also the two linkage methods used
between individual pistons:
Up: the second piston is rotated 180° to the
first
Down: the second piston is mirrored ,
(the same two linking methods are used for
the previous one).

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Steam engines
• The steam engine has been at the forefront of
engineering for decades, most early brilliant
engineers derived theories and developed
outstandingly complex machines.
• As a measure of relevance, the Wankel engine
a lot of people praise had a steam “cousin”. The
rotor geometry was the same Reuleaux triangle
and the chamber was quite similar in shape too.
Of course it only worked by extracting work
from the steam and not by compressing and
igniting mixtures of air and petrol but the point
is that if it‟s mechanical complexity and
ingenuity you‟re after, you should definitely
take a look at as much steam engines as
possible.
• Another interesting bit is that George
Brayton‟s initial engine worked as an internal
combustion engine using only steam engine
parts: The compression cylinder, the expansion
cylinder and a burner in between. The same
principle governs modern day turbine engines
only the cylinders are replaced by bladed
machinery-which can accommodate a much
higher flow of work fluid. 13
The plano-reactor
A jet engine is comprised in it‟s most
basic form by a burning chamber and a
nozzle
For turbine engines we also add a turbo-
compressor, however not all air-breathing
jet engines with a kinematic compressor
have turbines, a perfect example is the
Coanda 1910 which had it‟s centrifugal
compressor driven by a piston engine.

The picture below depicts my very first


jet engine concept : a plano-reactor. Lacking
any practical use, you may say I rather
designed it than engineered it.

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As most readers may already
know, a centrifugal compressor „s
compression ratio depends on both rpm and
radius; for aero-engines it‟s obvious that we
must keep the radius to the minimum to
avoid drag, thus we are faced with a tradeoff
: either lower mass flow or lower
compression; the plano-reactor tries to
eliminate the radius as a limiting factor by
placing the compressor on it‟s side. In doing
so we cannot use a conventional spool for
the turbo-compressor, therefore my solution
was a planetary and belt transmission. Also
you can see the burning chamber has a split
for the two turbine wheels, at that time I
considered a separate turbine for the
accessory box. Also there‟s a compressed air
manifold for starting the engine.

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The X-Mass tree turboprop
This turboprop design wishes to
make use of the counter-rotating stage concept.
It‟s been obvious for some time that counter
rotating stages are much lighter in terms of
mass as they act as each-other‟s stator
(however that proves to be quite problematic
requiring careful engineering).

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The design below can be explained as a counter
rotating 4-spool booster that spins on a fixed tube
around the free turbine inner spool.

One of the counter- intake


rotating turbo-
compressor stages

burner

reductor

Stationary
tube

Free turbine spool going exhaust


inside the stationary tube
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The dual core turbofan
• The dual core concept relies on the counter-
rotating turbine/compressor stages on one hand
and on the thrust optimization by increasing the
core temperature on the other.
• As it can be seen, it has two burning
chambers: one for the counter-rotating turbo-
compressors and the other for propulsion. The
accessory gearbox gets the power via a heat
exchanger at the back of the nozzle.
• Separating the turbine combustor from the
“core booster” can offer new possibilities for
optimization in both engine performance such
as thrust or efficiency without having to
sacrifice one in favor of the other. It is also a
good way to decrease maintenance cost by
prolonging the active life of the turbine because
the turbine inlet temperature can be lowered.
• This arrangement is somewhat similar in
those aspects with the afterburning turbojet.

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• The initial
sketch of the dual
core turbofan only
featured the
counter-rotating
four stage turbo-
compressors and
the thrust core
chamber

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Mass flow
regulator lip

Hot circuit for


Turbine Thrust close-circuit
Turbine
burner burner generator
compressor

• The later, more elaborated version featured


the internal separator lip – to vary the mass flow
for the turbine burning chamber and the heat
exchanger heating circuit for extracting power
needed for driving the accessories.

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Some history
• In 1906 at Montesson-near
Paris, France, Traian Vuia
achieved the first self-powered
flight in the history of mankind.
This may seem puzzling since
we all know the first motorized
flight was made by the Wright
brothers a few years
earlier..true but also a deceptive
choice of words: motorized
flight-yes, but the liftoff could
not be achieved on engine
power alone-they were
catapulted; the fact that they
had an engine on board only
prolonged the flight.

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Steam power…

Vuia‟s engine
technology was
vapor-based, i.e.
the compressed
CO2 was
decompressed in a
piston engine that
provided the
desired power to
weight ratio, a
ratio unavailable
at that time for the
internal
combustion
engine .
The following
turbo-helix was
developed for air
modelers who
still use this
compressed gas
propulsion system

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Side and front sections of my vapor based
turbo-helix

Compressed
gas enters
trough the
central
manifold and
exits trough
mini nozzles

on the tip of
the blades
which spines
the propeller.

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Magnetic non-contact
cogged wheels

The cogs of the wheels are designed in the same manner


(geometrically) as normal however this is because we want
to optimize the interaction between them –i.e. not to have
any vibrations due to in-homogenous interaction 25
Sketches for magnetic
gearing
• This new gearing system relies on magnetic
attraction rather than rejection. Thus it can be
made more solid – see the asymmetrical gears-
so it can take higher loadings. The problem
with it is that it can only go in one direction per
wheel i.e. each cogged wheel can only be
turned in one direction to obtain the non-
contact characteristic.

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Unconventional compressor turbofan engines:

The turbofan below dwells on the concept of


integrating a centrifugal compressor with another
component of a turbine engine, so far I‟ve seen
only one other such example in which the turbine
blades were hollow and air from the compressor
passed trough their interior and were discharged in
the combustor only to be re-passed on the turbine as
heated gas. In the drawings below you‟ll see my
turbofan model which consists of two counter-
rotating centrifugal compressors.

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Air (for combustor) enters the engine in the center part
trough a conventional centrifugal rotor-the stator of this
rotor is actually the interior of the fan blades which is
counter rotating-for more compactness. Please note the
shrouds on the base and tip of the fan which keeps the
compressed air from leaking outside.
After the compression is complete, the air is delivered
to the combustor trough a curved channel and down the
stator. After combustion it‟s passed trough the two
counter rotating turbines which power the two
compressors

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This particular design
features a core flow
separator for mitigating
exhaust noise- after the
turbine , a small part of
the exhaust gas is
separated and
slowed down to
reduce the
Kelvin-Helmholtz
effect.

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The initial sketch of a jet powered stealth
aircraft. Features included the logarithmic wing
profile (which is really similar to a NACA 4-series
modified with a zero roundness factor), the
negative wing sweep to maximize the airflow to
the inlets and a reverse V tail to both mask the hot
exhaust and reduce radar observability 31
View from below

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Top view

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Frontal and side views

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The propeller version of the aircraft- slightly slower and meant
for longer endurance

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Micro-UAV concept

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Chevroned
Sensor
rails for catapulthooki
array
catapult ng hole with
window
low
observability

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Recovery
parachute
port

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Other studies
-stealth jet trainer-
• Stealth jet trainer featuring a conventional
wing with 34° sweep, reverted V tail and split
serpentine intake system. In the image below
you can observe that the fuselage has an airfoil
design so that it can generate lift, while also
maintaining a low radar signature.

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Flying wing study

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Another version

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Supercirculation
hovering stealth
aircraft study
• In this configuration we‟re using the same
basic layout with the negative sweep wing with
high aspect ratio. As a modification to the
original model, the engine has a fan with an
extended shaft so that the rotor is more to the
front of the booster. Also the engine has a
cascade thrust reversal unit which, when
deployed, will provide high speed air trough the
cascade vanes to the upper part of the wing
generating the supercirculation effect and thus
creating enough lift to hover.

• The use of thrust reversers is not an accident,


for hovering we will need to compensate for the
thrust of the burned gas (20% of the total thrust
for a high by pass turbofan). The flow that
generates the supercirculation also provides
overall negative thrust to compensate for the
unwanted tendency of the aircraft to move
forward.
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The original
sketches

The thrust reverser has a double ramp


configuration for better aerodynamic efficiency;
also the cascade vanes behave like a turbine stator-
accelerating the high pressure air from the fan.

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A modular centrifugal
compressor study

One of the problems of centrifugal compressors is that


they are made in one piece, meaning that if one blade is
damaged, the entire rotor must be changed. This was a
true disadvantage in the early days especially since axial
compressors were modular so each blade could be
replaced if damaged. Today the advent of blisks has
made this difference between centrifugal and axial
compressors vanish.. 47
Two stage centrifugal
compressor study
• They say you can‟t teach an old dog new
tricks, well in engineering pretty much
anything is possible in terms of re-usage of
old ideas.
• This is the case here, where a double
centrifugal rotor was turned into a two
stage compressor. Of course my original
sketch didn‟t account for the geometrical
differences between the two (the images
depict a correct rotor). The stator is
reminiscent of the Pratt and Whitney PT6
only in this case there are two stators that
are interlaced.
• It is also working under the correct (and
lucky) assumption that two stages of
centrifugal compressors can efficiently be
driven at the same rpm (two is the
maximum as far as technical literature
goes, a third will have to be at a different
rpm).

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The wind milling engine
also known as the
Ram Turbine Engine
• This turbine engine study is a
good example of wordplay, what
began as a personal challenge
turned out to be a completely
uncharted technical field-a fertile
one might I add..
• In fact this can also be a good
example of one of Edward de
Bono‟s theories about creativity.
• Also you may observe how old
inventions, ideas and so on can be
reused or combined to augment
new ones, in this case I reused the
two stage centrifugal compressor
and also “stole” the principles of
rocket launchers and aerospike
nozzles.

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Another perspective
• A Ram Turbine Engine is very similar to a turbofan (for instance)
during the “wind milling” stage. Although it is a rare event, should an
engine stall, wind milling will help restart it. When the aircraft has
sufficient airspeed, the fan rotor behaves like a turbine (an inefficient
one) and drives the compressor feeding air into the burner and re-
igniting the engine for normal operation. It should be noted that the
wind milling process will spin the fan in the same direction as it would
in normal operation.
Compressor Turbine disk
intake stator(counter
rotating) Burning chamber

Compressor rotor Turbine Aerospike


blade nozzle

Solid rocket
planets booster

„soare”
Geared
anulus

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Other variations on the
ram turbojet
• -the gyrocopter study
• -the anemometric turbo-jet
configurations
• -the slim, variable pitch
ram air turbine jet engine

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The gyrocopter study
• This engine uses the main rotor of the
gyrocopter as a turbine that drives a compressor
(in this case double centrifugal) trough a
planetary gear system. (top-electro-motor
system; bottom direct gear system)

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The gearing study

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Variations on the theme
the anemometric ram air
turbine jet engine

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The slim wind turbojet
• The sketch of a slim turbine wind milling
with a governor for the wind turbine in
front and stationary stator for the
centrifugal compressor

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The MAMuT

• The Mono Axial Multi


Turbine engine
• Advantages :
-more flexibility in
determining the rotational
speeds of turbines and
compressors (LP or HP)
-one step closer to the
all-electric engine with no
accessory box

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Taking the MAMuT
one step further
• A reasonable next step with this is to
make a turbine engine that has a
variable power delivery system, not
unlike a gearbox. It would be really
effective if it could shift power
between the fan stage and the low
pressure compressor.

• The benefits of such a system would


be increased efficiency on a wider
range of rpm/altitudes and also an
increased flight envelope.

• For those benefits, a small price of


additional weight and maintenance
would have to be paid.

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A fluid gyroscope
This is one of the most ingenious inventions of
mine, mainly because it uses a different
state of matter than currently in use i.e. not
using a solid disk but a running fluid.
It‟s also exciting because, unlike the
conventional gyroscope it doesn‟t need to
have the power plant near the thing,
therefore it can be used in applications that
require a very small gyroscope.

pump

Gyroscopic coil
circuit
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Tip jet evolution

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Tip jet studies

This tip jet fan emerged from the turbo-helix study


as an enhancement for light passenger aircraft; It
featured an integrated centrifugal compressor and tip
combustor-nozzle assembly per blade with the inlet at
the root. As you can imagine, the thrust the micro-
nozzles produce is minimal however they are meant to
rotate the fan disk which will be the one producing all
the thrust
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A more evolved stage that featured a
circumferential ring to stiffen the disk.
It is worth mentioning that this type of
engine can very well be restarted by
wind milling, providing more safety to
the user.
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Micro-turbine
propeller
• The mechanism of this
engine is very similar-and in
fact derived from- the ram
air turbojet we‟ve seen
earlier.
• What differentiates the
two concepts is the
kinematic scheme, i.e. in the
MTP we have a gas turbine
group that –in the end drives
both the propeller and the
compressor.

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At the heart of
As it turns out a
a MTP is the
curved combustor
turbo- satellite
is preferable here
concept in
because there are
which the micro-
four individual
turbines are
turbines.
directly coupled
to the satellites
of the planetary
gearbox.

The turbine
The rpm of the
inlet manifold
turbine is
can be a simple
multiplied for
volute such as
the compressor
the ones used in
which is coupled
turbochargers.
with the “sun” of
the gearbox .

The rpm of the


propeller is
reduced since
the prop is
linked with the
cogged annulus. 75
Unfortunately this concept is one of little perspective
since the turbines are limited in size and hence cannot
provide enough power

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Hydrogen peroxide
power plant
• The following design relies on
the catalytic dissociation of
hydrogen peroxide into water and
oxygen to generate steam which
will, in terms drive the turbines.
• Such processes have been used
for rockets –such as some British
kerosene-hydrogen peroxide
designs.
• Hydrogen peroxide is
dissociated by catalyst inside a
boiler. In this case the catalyst is
semi-circular in shape and can be
retracted partially or fully to
throttle the reaction.

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Nuclear Turbofans
• Nuclear jet engines have been the dream of many
engineers and physicists. Unfortunately the only
branch of society which actually invested in the
development of such engines was the military.
• Conventional military nuclear jet designs featured a
reactor-heater instead of a burning chamber leaving
the turbojet engine virtually unchanged in it‟s other
parts.
• This proved to be doomed to failure since there is no
such airplane flying at this time.
• The key to making such engines fly is not by using a
Brayton cycle but by using a Rankine cycle. The two,
very similar cycles are used for jet engines and
ground power plants respectively.
• The Rankine cycle, in my opinion, is ideal for this
nuclear engine because of one key feature: efficiency,
i.e. we will be using more power from the nuclear
reactor than we would if we were to use the Brayton
cycle. It is true there will have to be a closed circuit
with big heat exchangers but those can be neatly
integrated around the structure of the turbofan itself.
One more thing, because we‟re using a Rankine cycle
we shall be using a turbofan configuration which is
also more efficient than the turbojet-as proved by the
airliner industry.
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A primitive study of a turbo-fan closed-circuit
thrust unit. It‟s needless to say that there are
problems with the mass flows within the core of
the engine – a more practical solution might have
been a tip turbine rather than a core turbine.
However, like all failures, there‟s lessons to be
learned which were applied with the SANDRa
version
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SANDRa
• Sursa de Aviatie Nucleara Dublucircuit Rankine
• It‟s one of the two major examples of how you can
under-think an invention. The lesson I should‟ve applied
is that it‟s always simpler to focus on the true purpose of
your invention and not try make smaller steps in between
(see the hovercraft design)

• This new engine is a more viable solution for using a


Rankine cycle to drive a turbofan.

• The 3D renderings you can see however are the


intermediate version of it. That is, with a burning
chamber to provide the heat for the heat exchanger
instead of just nuclear rods.

• This is one way a good idea gets lost because the


intermediate version is even more challenging to engineer
than the nuclear one. Such problems are: stoichiometric
burning, air compression and powering trough the turbine
from the Rankine cycle – which is really denying the
point of having a Rankine cycle. The Rankine cycle is
brilliant because it condenses the working fluid after it
exits the turbine so that there is no need for a gas
compressor (which The major consumer of power in a
turbine engine) –it‟s true it still needs a pump instead of a
compressor but the work needed to drive it is really
negligible.

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In this version, the turbine is only “washed” by the
work fluid of the Rankine cycle so the flow from the
burner never touches it. The burner heats a spiraled
boiler and boils the work fluid (which could be mercury
in this case – because of it‟s rapid heat exchange rate).
The turbine provides power to both the fan (for thrust)
and compressor (for the air breathing burner). After it‟s
out of the turbine, the vapors are collected trough a
plenum at the back of the engine and cooled in the
columns by the air passing by from the fan – the cooled
vapors are then condensed and fed trough a pump back
into the boiler.

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Burners (inlet) Work fluid feed line

Spiral heat
exchanger

Burners feeding the burned gas


trough the spiraled heat exchanger
to boil the liquid work fluid that
will go into the turbine

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SANDRa with burners and
heat recovery system and
intercooler for the air
compressor:

Air entering exiting the


first compressor stage is
cooled by the cold mercury
form the pump, from there
the mercury goes into a
second heat exchanger right
in front of the pump and
gets heated by the incoming
un-condensed mercury
from the turbine.

The mercury from the


turbine in condensed as a
result of this and enters the
pump.

The pre-heated mercury


from the intercooler takes
the heat from the condenser
and transfers it to the air
prior to entering the
burning chamber –acting as
a regenerator.

It then goes into the


spiraled boiler and from
then to the turbine.

After exiting the turbine


the mercury is pre-cooled
by the airflow from the fan.

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Wing condenser A less complex
design with an
aft fan and
wing-mounted
condenser
circuit.
Hg circuit The air circuit
features only a
compressor, a
burner and a
spiraled boiler
after which the
gases are
expelled via
individual
manifolds.

Gas exhaust
manifold
pump
Spiral boiler

Compressor
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Wing condenser

Wing condenser with heat recovery


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The wing condenser is a great idea but
only if we are using supercirculation. In
other words, it would work only for a
certain type of aircraft – which is no really
that popular (for some reason) with
airlines.
The above design features a spiraled
cooler around the fan duct. By this we are
doing two complementary things: first
we‟re cooling and condensing the work
fluid so that we can pump it rather than
compress it, and two: heating the fan flow
will only increase the thrust (even if just by
a couple of percent).

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The cooler integrated
in the fan casing
for CFD study

Hot flow
Fan flow for
circuit
cooling

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A more advanced cycle version of the
supercirculation wing-cooler for the nuclear
SANDRa , featuring a spiraled boiler that uses
nuclear material (beta nuclear or alpha nuclear as
those are not harmful for living beings)
The view from the top shows the internal heat
exchangers and pump and the side cutaway shows
the spiraled boiler and the pictographic spiraled
cowling-embedded cooler.

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A clearer picture of the
side cutaway of the
above nuclear power
plant. 92
The twin fan power plant – this is a nuclear
version I have adapted after a Pratt and Whitney
design that used a gas turbine to power two fans
trough a gearbox
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Stator heat exchangers
for advanced cycle
turbofan engines
• The use of regenerators and other heat
exchangers in modeling a better
thermodynamic cycle is not new. What is
new is the use of stator blades to carry the
thermodynamic agent from the turbine and
exhaust to the pre-heater and to the lower
pressure stages of turbine respectively. The
agent can be either molten salts or other
fluids with a high heat transfer coefficient
such as mercury.

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From A to C trough
B.5
• It‟s a cliché that inventors can go directly from
A to C without passing trough B. I refute that,
it‟s true that an inventor sees more than a non-
inventor (if such persons exist..which I
sincerely doubt) but that is not because he looks
beyond, but rather because he‟s looking for
something new. Usually they‟d spend time
breaking the “objective” in smaller “atoms” and
recomposing it to see what he gets.
– In my brief experience as an engineer I
witnessed this discussion about designing a
rudder for an UAV, the FSD team asked for a
bigger rudder because the current one didn‟t
deliver enough force. The aerodynamics team
immediately agreed and started integrating the
new requirement for the bigger rudder.
– Experience in this case short-circuited the
solution to the problem without any thought
process. In fact the problem wasn‟t the rudder at
all (especially not it‟s size) but rather the fact
that we needed a higher force. This could have
been achieved in a lot of different ways for
instance making it more efficient or using
circulation control..
– The moral is to try and be aware of these short
circuits and try to come back and just think for a
second.
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The cuboid engine

• This is probably one of


my most prized
inventions, even if it‟s not
as exotic nor as exciting as
a rotary engine, it
definitely can produce one
of the best power densities
of any non-turbine engine.

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The cube
• The cuboid piston engine started
after I saw this milling device that was
based on the Reuleaux triangle (that
looked exactly like a Wankel piston)
that could mill an almost square-
shaped hole. As a mind game I started
to think about creating a Wankel-like
engine only with a square casing
instead of the conventional trochoid. It
might be better to correct that in the
sense that, for the given shaft I
intended to use, the square was the
respective trochoid, by definition.
• In any case, the design didn‟t look
promising so I abandoned the initial
idea but kept the cuboidal engine
theme- I also tried various flap pistons
on the sides with central shafts, but
that didn‟t catch either.

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The piston
with the The disk
sealing rings

Intake manifold and exhaust manifold


operated by solenoid valves

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The rod of the disk is at the top of the ridge
as the piston reaches the middle section of
the chamber.

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A sectioned view of the center body of the
cuboid engine

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A 3D view of the center body of the cuboid
engine

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105
La piese de résistance: the rod disk. This
unappealing piece is the reason for the cuboid
engine‟s power density. It is because of this
piece that the linkage is so tightly integrated
into the walls of the engine and doesn‟t have
to be placed outside where it would take a lot
of space.

106
The cuboid engine
with hyper modularity
• The quad-cuboidal engine is somewhat an over-
stretched version of the cuboid piston engine.
• After sorting out the scotch yoke integration within
the engine walls, I started experimenting with
different configurations, one of which was a two
stroke engine (which I abandoned after realizing that
in the normal configuration the cuboid engine did
already work similar to a two stroke engine).
• Another idea was to make use of the modularity of
the engine which allowed for two or more engines to
be coupled together-producing more power. This was
good on one axis but it still felt like it could be more
to it than that.
• The addition of another scotch yoke linkage on the
other axis of the piston brought with it the possibility
to create a completely new form of modularity: a 3D
modular engine.
• Because of the 3D modularity, this version could
really be made to slim-fit into any engine
compartment regardless of the shape, bearing in mind
that there still has to be some sort of strength to the
components and that there may be other limitations to
the system..
107
Power shaft
Cooling fan

Intake and exhaust Heat sink


manifolds

108
The main body of the quad-cuboidal
engine

109
Cooling fan
and
Heat sink

110
Piston with sealing
ridges for the sealing
rings

111
112
113
114
Section trough the piston as it nears the top dead end

115
Of course it‟s not an A4..this is 6‟X9‟! 116
In operation

117
Other considerations
regarding the cuboid
engine
• The sealing of the piston as it
passes by the disk has been a
major design problem. The
solutions used are:
– The chamfering of the disk and
it‟s wall
– The use of intermediate oblique
holders for the sealing rings.
The oblique holders are
designed to “attach” the ridges
between the disk and the wall
perpendicular to the disk
circumference (i.e. radial to the
point of contact) so as to
minimize wear and drag.

118
The principle by which the seal holders
were designed:

119
Tip compressor
turbofan study
• By incorporating the centrifugal compressor on the tip of the fan
blades we not only increase the mass flow of air passing the booster but
also we manage to have a high enough pressure ratio with one single
stage. The turbine outlet passes trough the stator and releases the hot
gases trough the trailing edge of it for better mixing with the fan flow.
The fan stator is counter-rotating with both the turbine and the first fan
rotor. In this case, unfortunately, the practicality of the engine is
questionable since the whole point of having the turbo-compressor in
the tip was to simplify the overall concept –which in this case turned
out to be even more complicated than the conventional designs.

120
The semi-pressurized
burner turbofan
• This design tries to by-pass the need for a turbo-
compressor using instead an integrated turbine.
• The blades are very similar to the turbo-helix but
with the added feature of the casing for collecting the
exhaust gas and directing it to the stator for cooling.
• Thermodynamically, the engine can run either on
Brayton or Rankine cycles. The stator has three
cooling passages that return the gas from the
integrated turbine to the plenum and from that to the
hot circuit surrounding the combustion chamber.
• A single combustor is used in conjunction with a
ram intake –hence the name “semi compressed”. The
engine will also require a pump to take input the cool
gas back into the heating coil.
• As a remark, it is clear that this engine will work
should everything be dimensioned properly however
the power output will be smaller than usual due to the
fact that the mass flow of air is smaller and so we can
only burn a smaller amount of fuel to extract energy.
• However there is potential for a nuclear application
since the nuclear material will have an output of heat
independent of the mass flow of air.

121
The sempress fan
Turbine
Hot circuit coil
Inlet plenum

Stator
Burner intake

Cool
Rotor
circuit

output plenum Exhaust plenum

122
Rotor with shrouded
hollow blades and
micro nozzle

Stator with
cooling
canals

Extra cooling
circuit
exhaust plenum

Cold collector

Hot circuit
coil

123
Supercirculation vs.
countercirculation
• A failure can always be a blessing in disguise.

• Working on a supercirculation divertless
thrust vectoring nozzle I stumbled upon the fact
that the surfaces I expected to provide a
positive force actually produced a negative one.
This was because the increase of the static
pressure was more than compensated by the
total pressure of the jet-so the static pressure
never decreased below the ambient pressure.

• For someone who is open minded this should


have been an instant revelation-the counter
circulation principle. Well, not for me, I
believed in the supercirculation effect so much
that the failure to achieve it blinded me, and so
it was not until I managed to make it work my
way that I actually had the revelation that it
could have gone the other way also.. I
immediately started studying this other
principle and designed a mixed circulation
nozzle that outperformed the first by far.

124
The Maximal Attitude
Immediate Response
Actuator
• One of my latest inventions is this new
kind of thrust vectoring unit. It‟s one of
those typical moments when you‟re
completely focused on something else and
the breakthrough pops out of nothing. It‟s
true that I had been studying
supercirculation for almost two years at
that time but this never occurred to me
even if it‟s so simple almost anyone else
would have seen it from the beginning.
• The principle is simple: use
supercirculation to create “lift” on a
surface that is surrounding the nozzle. The
resulting force will act upon the entire
airframe and vector the aircraft. The catch
is-and this is a big one-that the flow
remains virtually un-diverted so that the
result is a very spectacular (and potentially
dangerous) maneuver: the turning of the
aircraft with the front to the back (tète-a-
cue)

125
The three main designs
using only
supercirculation
• 1. The controlled attachment method:
– A flap moves and attaches the flow
onto the desired supercirculation
surface in order to generate a force.
Deployed
flap for flow
attachment

Side “lifting”
surface

126
• The controlled detachment of the jet exhaust
flow.
– In the non-vectored position, both side surfaces are
in contact with the flow. The command is given by
actuating a spoiler on the desired surface and
dethatching the flow-lowering the dynamic pressure
and increasing the static pressure.
– It is a good thing to observe that in this case the
lifting surface is not the one on which‟s side the
actuation has been made!

Deployed spoiler
for flow
detachment

Side “lifting”
surface

127
• The third and possibly the most dull of them
all is the result of mathematics. The formula for
lifting force includes, along with pressure
gradient, the area of the said surface. Hence the
telescopic retractable surface which gets
actuated only when needed, the rest of the time
being retracted. This is somewhat similar to the
flaps extension of the supercirculation wings

128
The Rhino Chevron
-and diamond canards-
• Chevrons are vortex generator devices aiming to
decrease the jet mixing noise in jet engine exhaust.
They work by promoting longitudinal vortices and
mixing the two adjacent flows so that they defuse the
Kelvin-Helmholtz phenomenon that causes the noise.
• So far so good.. The problem with chevrons is that
they are great energy consumers and this is one of the
reasons why they are not as common today (even if
they have been invented decades ago).
• Studying chevrons in CFD revealed the source of
their aerodynamic loss: two symmetrical vortices
emerging from the upper surface and feeding each
other so that in the end they consumed a lot of kinetic
energy, slowing down the flow near by.
• The immediate solution was to insert a separating
wall right between the two and try and contain them
so that, at least, they won‟t be feeding each other.
• It was with great surprise that I realized the
phenomenon almost disappeared immediately after
the wall was introduced.
• Luck sometimes works in our favor so a result such
as this is better than we‟ve expected. In the end, the
aerodynamic losses were reduced seven folds!
129
Frontal view of the chevron: (top) you can see the two
counter-rotating vortices feeding each other; (bottom) the
rhinoceros chevron with almost no turbulence whatsoever

130
Turbulent Kinetic Energy plots show just how much
energy would be lost if the separating wall wouldn't be
there

131
132
133
The negative delta wing
and diamond canards
• There are three major
wing configurations to date:
the classical wing with a
high aspect ratio be it with
positive or negative sweep,
delta wings and reverse
delta wings.
• The delta wing generates
two counter rotating vortices
that generate low static
pressure on top of the
wings-hence generating lift.

134
The ways conventional
wings and Delta wings
produce lift:

(up) low pressure is created by accelerating the air over the upper part of the wing
(down) low pressure is created by vortices above the delta wing (see vector plot)

135
The negative delta
• As everybody knows by now,
airliners, fighter planes and so on
either use conventional wings or delta
wings but how about reverse delta
wings? Those are also used but for a
less known type of aircraft: the
ekranoplane, named after the ground
effect used to generate lift. Apart for
that, the reverse delta hasn‟t been used
much mainly because at high angles of
attack it generates the same vortices
we‟ve seen forming on chevrons.
• So this is our connection, if we could
transpose the lessons learned with
chevrons to reverse delta wings maybe
we could design aircraft that fly both
as ekranoplanes and as conventional
aircraft at high altitudes and being
able to make normal maneuvers.

136
Diamond canards
• And at last, we reach the diamond
canards: they are formed by sticking a
regular delta to a reverse delta canard
with the effect that they generate a
downstream vortex not unlike the ones
a delta wing would create. Only this
time the vortex is generated by the
much smaller surface of the canard so
that we don‟t really need a delta wing
to create it‟s own vortex-hence a new
principle of flying (with the mention
that canards have been used in
conjunction with delta wings to
augment lift for decades, however in
this case, the diamond canards are
working with a non delta wing that
behaves like a delta because of the
diamond canards).

137
On their own
and on the aircraft
• On an aircraft such canards would alleviate
the tendency of the pressure center to shift
backwards because the wing will have a much
more symmetrical layout.
• The technique is to place rectangular low
aspect ratio wings in the downwash of the
canards so that each counter-rotating vortex
generates low pressure on top of each wing-
thus creating lift.

138
The “hovy”
• Previously we‟ve seen how, on
my own, I under-developed a
nuclear engine study that was
going well and turned it into a
combustion engine complicating
things uselessly.
• On this occasion, which was
chronologically before the nuclear
engine, I was asked to design “at
least five intermediate steps”
because my proposal was too
different form the original designs
of the person who managed this
project. The use of italics, is in
order to save space and should not
be interpreted as an irony.

139
The attitude vectoring
concepts:
• 2D thrust vectoring
(classic)
• Inertial plate controller
(similar to the ones used
on satellites)
• Nozzle swilling actuators
– Flexible integrated nozzles
– Profiled tri-nozzles
– Cylindrical tri-nozzles

140
2D vectoring vs. new
designs
• The classic designs has three major
drawbacks:
• 1.The need for the drive fan to be
working-i.e. the craft Must be moving,
thus the turning radius is inherently
great.
• 2.The Thrust force has an application
center considerably above the center of
gravity of the craft, thus the craft will
have an inherent tendency to lean
forward, posing a safety risk
• 3.The control surfaces must have a
symmetric profile, thus the maximum
angle of attack at which they can be
positioned is limited. The profile
studied in this paper was a NACA
0004, the max. angle was 12º

141
The conventional
configuration
Atitude control component

Fwd Thrust component

the craft tends to rotate as


pointed by the arrow

Fwd Thrust component

Tendency to lean due to


eccentric thrust component

estimated Center of Mass

142
• The current aerodynamic attitude control
concept for the hovercraft is based on the findings of
the previous loop-skirt concept craft.
• Improvements have been made regarding the
effectiveness of said nozzles. In the previous model, the
micro-nozzles created an uniform flow field which
proved to be very efficient in accomplishing the
primary purpose of providing lift (trough a uniform
pressure distribution).
• However, the very nature of the device called for a
heavy control rig –either trough a unison ring or by a
plurality of servo-motors. In addition to that, because
the control surfaces had to operate in a low speed
environment (because the inner pressure was
approximately the same with the pressure inside the
skirt) the impulse component of the micro-jets was very
low.
• Changes to the present design include a more
concentrated means of inserting air inside the cushion,
thus creating a higher pressure gradient between the
inside of the ducts and the inside of the cushions-in
terms, providing more impulse to the control jets- also,
the skirt has been modified from a loop design to a
more simple one layered design. The skirt changes have
been made because a loop skirt would not have been
able to withstand the higher pressures that the new craft
uses for lift and atitude control.

143
• The Thrust component of the Real force
resulted from the compressed gas flowing past
the nozzles is canceled due to symmetry – it
can be found in the resulting interior stresses
acting upon the 3-duct assembly.
• On the other hand, the attitude control
component is not compensated by any opposite
force, thus, the hovercraft is forced to turn as
shown in the schematic above.

thrust
atitude control component
component

144
The three main advantages of the
new design are:

• The attitude control is no longer


dependent on the main thruster fan,
meaning that the craft can perform a
full turn even at zero speed (which is
unprecedented in the history of
hovercraft)
• The resultant of the attitude control
components of all three control nozzles
is perfectly balanced, thus the craft
will have no residual sideway skids
(such is the case with our first design)
• The center of application for the
forces that control the attitude of the
craft is inherently near the center of
mass of the craft(because it‟s inside the
skirt), yielding no dangerous leaning.

145
The first urge was to integrate all the surfaces of the
skirt feed walls and use them for steering instead of
using the conventional design above
146
However this new
attitude vectoring design is
more efficient than the one
with the multiple skirt-
integrated nozzles because
it has smaller outlet areas
and thus higher exit
velocities-i.e. we can
actually vector some air
and it will have some
effect.
147
148
149
Fan noise reduction
devices-studies
• The following noise
reduction techniques are
also a result of the tip jet
study-more precisely they
are a result of trying to
integrate a centrifugal
compressor into a fan
blade.

150
Micro-compressor
direct drive
• This concept uses a centrifugal compressor driven by
the fan shaft in order to provide the hollow blade with
compressed air that will bleed out the trailing edge. The
trailing edge compressed air injection is not new in itself,
the new bit is the frontal compressor-in the traditional
version, the compressed air was supplied by the LP
compressor via manifolds.

151
Micro-compressor
with augmentation
• The previous design featured a stator-less
centrifugal compressor-which is not as efficient
as one with a stator. This latter development of
it features a counter rotating compressor rotor
and a stator that is solitary with the fan rotor.

152
The toxi-jet
• A theoretically (and hopefully never
materialized) idea of mine was to use
the atmosphere‟s mixture of gases,
nitrogen and oxygen to obtain a
combustive mixture. This would only
happen at high temperatures but the
reaction is exothermal and hence could
be used to sustain the burning. It goes
without saying that the toxins that
would result are really harmful and
such a jet engine should never be
allowed to fly even if it could be
technologically available should it be
small enough and powerful enough to
put on an airplane that would fly
virtually endlessly.

153
Constant volume
burning jet engine
designs
• -stato-dinamo-reactor
• -valveless pulsejet unison
ring variation
• -semi-nozzled cam valve
system-aero engine
• -turbine obturator

154
Stato-dinamo-reactor
the rotating ramjet
• What started as a more theoretical far
fetched study quickly developed into this
more feasible concept of having a plurality
of ramjet engines arrayed around a main
drum and having their inlets shaped as a
fan rotor stage. This way, after it is started
using an APU or GPU, a S-D-R would be
able to operate at zero ground speed (even
if inefficiently).
• The applications for this engines are
mainly military (as they are the only
current >Mach 1 operators).
• The benefits of having such an engine are
the result of it‟s capability to work (poorly)
at zero ground speed and (optimal) al high
Mach numbers.
• As one can imagine, the rpm of the
engine is turned down as it reaches it‟s
optimum air speed and the front intake lips
are re-aligned with the rest of the ram-jet
array.

155
The schematics of this
engine
• The stato-dinamo reactor in it‟s ramjet stage with all the
mobile ramps aligned with the burner walls.
• At this stage the engine works solely by ram compression.
• At the dinamo stage, the ramps are fully deployed and the
drum is in rotation; one can vary the by-pass factor of this
engine by choosing not to inject fuel trough some of the
injectors (for instance the odd number injectors).
Flap
exhaust

Static wall

Fuel injector
Rotor drum with injectors
Flap intake
156
The unison ring valve
constant volume
burning jet engine
• There are two types of such engine the first is
cylindrical and uses two sets of unison rings to
synchronize the opening and closing of the valves and
also there‟s the planar equivalent engine that has unison
rods instead of rings.
• The figure below depicts the schematics of a planar
type and it‟s operation.
• First a group of chambers is closed at the intake and
the mixture is ignited while the outlet is opened then after
the burned gases are evacuated the exhaust valves close
and the intake is opened. Control rods are used to flip the
intake and outlet flap valves.
• The next invention will work great with this one if we
were to adapt the exhaust valves to that design.

Stage 1 Stage 2

157
The semi-nozzle cam
actuated constant
volume burner
• The sketch below represents a high mass flow valve
with an integrated burner for use in a liquid fuel
rocket; notice the small intakes.
• The pivoting arm can be actuated by any means :
electric, cams, springs et c.
• It‟s main characteristics is that it has a very low
drag in it‟s intermediate positions. Unlike a ball-valve
for instance, this valve operates fairly aerodynamic
even when it‟s partially opened.
• Another role it serves is that of the lower half of the
geometrical nozzle so that it accelerates the fluid. The
use of the critical section is made so that it won't
make the pivoting arm swing unnecessarily too much

158
Other semi-nozzle
valve systems
• This layout features a superior semi
nozzle valve mounted on an aerospike
nozzle. Because of it‟s superior position it
will perform less poorly in transitions
because the flow will tend to be attached to
the inferior part of the nozzle, i.e. the ramp
of the aerospike via the Coanda effect.
• At the closed position the burner lets air
and fuel mix and burn at a constant volume
– providing a much better thermodynamic
efficiency.
• At the open position the burned gases are
let out the aerospike ramp and accelerated
in the de Laval nozzle formed by the ramp
and the interior of the semi-nozzle valve.
• The valve position can be controlled
electrically or hydraulically depending on
the application and the desired
configuration.

159
Semi nozzle valve

160
The turbine-obturator
• The advantages of this one is that it‟s more fuel efficient because
of it‟s burning at constant volume and it‟s more durable than
conventional turbines because it has a much higher solidity and
it‟s easier to cool and insulate.
• Note that the jet never hits a leading edge – which is the most
sensitive part of any turbine blade;
• Also to be noted is the sealing of the rotor and the burner, it
should be done on the stationary part i.e. on the burner side not on
the turbine rotor for lower wear and oil consumption.

Turbine rotor (the


obturator blade)
Stator-rotor sealing

Turbine stator integrated in the


burning chamber (C.A.)

161
Positron-electron
propulsion
• The main aspect of this propulsion system is
that it doesn‟t require a work fluid (or mass).
• Another very important aspect is that if
accelerated beyond a critical velocity, the
particles we create are more efficient at giving
us thrust than photons would be.

• Basically, the e+e- propulsor uses the pair


formation effect encountered when a high
energy photon enters the field of a heavy atom.
The energy of the photon is converted into a
pair of matter and anti-matter particles. In our
case we shall discuss the electron-positron
formation.

• After their formation we might capture those


particles and guide them to a betatron where we
could accelerate them at relativistic speeds and
eject them out into space trough magnetic
nozzles.

162
The schematics:

Magnetic nozzles

Betatrons

Magnetic guides

Massive
atom High
energy
photon

163
Photonic vs. corpuscular
momentum
• Following on the positron-
electron propulsion system I sat
out to see how it would
compare to a simpler photon-
momentum engine (basically a
laser)
• Comparing the two momenta
for the same energy
requirement bearing in mind
the fact that we have to
generate the electron and
positron. Meaning that even if
they were material – and thus
better for propulsion, they still
were “expensive” energy-wise.

164
The mathwork
Momentum: Corresponding energy:
m0 v m0 v 2
pe  Etotal_ e  m0 c 
2

v 2 v2
1 2 2 1
c c2

 
 
h h m0  2 v 2

p   c 
c c c  v 2 
 2 1  2 
 c 
comparison:
 
 2

v 1 2 v 
? c  v2 v2
 v ? c 1 
v c
2 2
v  c 2 2c
1 2  2 1  
c  c2 

2
c v2 v c v c
1? 1  2  1?    1  if : a  1
v c 2c v 2c v

then _ we _ eventually _ reach : 0 ? a 4  2a 2  a  0.25

With the only positive real root:


a=1.1483805939739538 so:
v>0.8708c

165
Impossible
• As long as the impossible
is imaginable, the
unimaginable will be
possible.
• Just because everyone sais
one thing is impossible it
doesn‟t mean it really is. It
means that the prize for
doing it is bigger and that
the competition for it is
little. It doesn‟t get much
better than that!

166
Setting goals
• For instance you can start (ad
absurdum) by trying to make an
engine using a certain geometry.
Why? Because you think you can do it.
And therefore you should do it. Never
underestimate the power of small
victories.
• Another example is to try and make an
engine with a minimum number of
parts or with a lower diameter while
maintaining the same power. Maybe
you‟d like to have a minimum weight
or a low maintenance cost -which
would imply as little stress on the parts
and a high modularity.
• There are virtually no limits to what
you can set as a goal and once you‟ve
done that you‟ll be surprised on how
quickly ideas come flowing in.

167
Using principles
• This may be a drawback at one point-as experience
starts to short circuit the thinking process and offeres
predetermined solutions without a thought. However,
it is quite useful to try and make an invention that
involves a certain principle. Such principles might be
from other fields – and in fact those are the most
interesting ones.
• For instance you may use the supercirculation effect
on the nozzle instead of a wing.
• One example that I‟m very found of is a device that
measured the thickness of an oil film by measuring
the electrical capacity (the piece looked like a
condenser).
• There are plans for aircraft flying on the Magnus
effect or compressors that use an acoustic stationary
waves. Some stealthy materials use what‟s called
“moth eyes” for reducing the reflection of an incident
radar wave.
• They may not look efficient but it is your job as an
inventor to make it efficient and then be it‟s advocate-
i.e. find a branch where only it would perform much
better than the rest. Once you‟ve identified the things
only your device can perform then people will start
thinking of buying it.
168
Using variations
• Earlier you‟ve seen variations on
the ram air turbine engine and the
cuboidal piston engines.
• The truth is that it really takes a
lot to make something that is
practical. For that you need
variations on the theme to make a
sort of natural selection-ideas that
are more appealing will tend to
stay and those which are not
viable will become latent.
• One example of easy variations
are linkages: instead of a crank-
shaft you can use a scotch yoke or
other, more bizarre linkages and
see how they work.

169
Math
• Mathematics and especially geometry
provides a lot of ingenious solutions and
principles you can make use of.
• A good example is of prime numbers-they‟ve
been in use everywhere from ciphers to jet
engines. For instance the fan noise from a
turbine engine is mainly produced by the rotor-
stator interaction. There are techniques to
optimize this but one of them is extremely
simple and works quite well in conjunction
with the others: make the number of blades of
stator and rotor have only one common
denominator or, even better, none. It is
impossible to have the rotor blades in prime
numbers because usually rotors work better
with even numbers.
• Also take a look at the “ancient”
mathematical devices used to calculate
reregulate surfaces or slide rules. A lot of them
can inspire great ideas.
• You can also amuse yourself with Reuleaux
polygons and other such mathematical “toys”

170
Engine building blocks
• Turbines- I‟ve mentioned earlier that the first jet engine did not have a
turbine but a piston engine to drive it‟s compressor. Turbines are a great
idea and extract a lot of energy from the given flow of air-thus they can
provide the compressor with more work without having to carry a lot of
weight. However turbines are notoriously difficult to engineer and work
with, Frank Whittle‟s turbine engine wasn‟t great because it featured a
turbine – people tried the concept before- but it was great because it
had a Working turbine – which was where everyone else had failed till
that day.
• Valves-there‟s a great variety of valves from high speed to high mass
flow and to high aerodynamic efficiency. Also you‟ll need to take a
look at the various ways they are actuated and figure out which one is
better suited to your design.
– Valves can be used –and in fact are used-to create engines that
burn at constant volume (although it‟s not the only solution-see
the Wankel an the pulse engines)
• Intercooler-isothermal evolutions are the least demanding in terms of
work needed to compress a fluid. This is why people have tried all sorts
of things to cool down the compressed fluid trough a compressor. There
is a subtle but important difference between pressure ratio and the
compression ratio. Intercoolers come in all shapes and sizes, we can
consider injecting water into the compressor as a process of cooling the
stream of air for instance.
• Linkages- this should go in front of the pistons because it can really
give life to entire new families of engines from the in-line V-12 and the
boxer to the radial and axial engines (which are really rare but
extremely interesting). Another interesting layout is that of the Deltic
engine. Don‟t forget about the cam engines either!
• Pistons-They too come in all shapes and sizes (it‟s needlless to say that
bigger diameters are not necessarily better). Rotary pistons are a bit too
exotic to generalize but the matter of the toroidal engine can be
squeezed in this chapter – so you should definitely look it up. Another
very nice piston is used by the flap-piston engine-just brilliant. I‟ve
mentioned the Deltic engine with it‟s opposite pistons, well turn the
Deltic inside out and you might get something resembling the Britalus.
Kenneth Porter‟s Britalus engine is one of the most famous two piston
engines that works on the Brayton cycle (the other one being George
Brayton‟s). It‟s also interesting because the pistons are driven by cams
instead of traditional linkages.
• The list is opened to anything you might want to add, and you should
add things to it just for the fun of it, it‟s always that wacky device
nobody cared about that makes a revolutionary design work – and I‟m
not saying this just because I‟m thrilled by the flap engine and the
Britalus.
171
Cycles and engines
• Try to keep in mind that
there isn‟t a necessary link
between the cycle of an
engine and the fact that it‟s a
piston or a turbine engine.
• There are piston engines that
use the Brayton cycle and
there are jet engines that can
work on constant volume
burner cycles-not
necessarily the pulsejets.

172
Ending:

Mistakes are inevitable and should be


embraced.
A good inventor studies his mistakes but
does not run nor hide from them.
A lot of people, after some success, try
only easy tasks for fear of loosing their
“name” if they were to make a wrong choice
in a harder project. Personally I‟m trying to
avoid becoming one of them

We‟re human, we make mistakes, that‟s


what we do-it‟s what we‟re good at!

173
References
• [1] Rotary piston machines – Felix Wankel London Iliffe books ltd.
1963

• [2] The jet engine- Rolls Royce fifth edition -1996

• [3] Aeroacoustic Prediction Codes-NASA 2000- P. Gliebe GE Aircraft


Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio, R. Mani GE-Corporate Research
Development, Schenectady, New York, H. Shin GE Aircraft Engines,
Cincinnati, Ohio, B. Mitchell, G. Ashford, S. Salamah, and S. Connell
GE-Corporate Research Development, Schenectady, New York

• [4]Pratt and Whitney PW100 maintenance manual

• [5] YF-23 Utility manual Northrop Grumman corp. 1990

• [6] CFM 56 5-a training manual- Engine systems

• [7] CFM 56 5-a training manual- Basic engine

• [8] CFM 56 5-a training manual- Component identification answer


book

• [9] Aircraft Engine Design Second Edition Jack D. Mattingly


University of Washington William H. Heiser U.S. Air Force Academy
David T. Pratt University of Washington

• [10] Aero Analysis And Design Of Flight Vehicles Structures_-_Bruhn

174
References
• [11] How Round Is Your Circle?: Where Engineering and
Mathematics Meet- John Bryant, Chris Sangwin Princeton
University Press 2008

• [12] freepatentsonline.com

• [13] Flight global archive

• [14] Derwent Mk.9 Aero engines maintenance manual – Rolls


Royce

• [15] GasTurb 11 Design and Off-Design Performance of Gas


Turbines by Joachim Kurzke 2007

• [16] RX-7 Factory service material Mazda 1988

• [17]Rotary Engine by Kenichi Yamamoto, Toyo kogyo co.ltd

• [18] 17]Rotary Engine by Kenichi Yamamoto, Mazda

• [19] Gas Turbine Performance Second Edition Paul Fletcher


Philip P. Walsh Rolls Royce

• [20] First Stage of the Centrifugal Compressor Design with


Tandem Rotor Blades Daniel Hanus, Tomáš Čenský Jaromír
Nevečeřal, Vojtěch Horký

175
References
• [21]Flying lightness – promises for structural elegance Adriaan Beukers
and Ed van Hinte 010 publishers 2005

• [22] First read this – system engineering in practice Ed van Hinte and
Michael van Tooren 010 publishers 2008

• [23] Introducere în propulsia neconventionalã-Virgil Stanciu, Adriana


Miclescu Editura Bren 2003

• [24] Aviatia moderna-realizari si perspective- Gheorghe Zarioiu Editura


Scrisul Romanesc 1980

• [25] CFM 56 5-a training manual- fault detection and annunciation

• [26] CFM 56 5-a training manual- nacelle

• [27] Transmisii neconvenţitonale-Petre-Lucian Seiciu, Tiberiu Laurian


Editura Printech 2007

• [28] Wave-Rotor-Enhanced Gas Turbine Engine Demonstrator Gerard


E. Welch U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, Ohio Daniel E. Paxson Glenn Research Center, Cleveland,
Ohio Jack Wilson Dynacs Engineering Company, Inc., Brook Park,
Ohio Philip H. Snyder Rolls-Royce Allison, Indianapolis, Indiana

• [29] Gas Turbine Handbook: Principles and Practices 3rd Edition Tony
Giampaolo, MSME, PE The Fairmont Press 2006

• [30] Wind-Tunnel Development of an SR-71 Aerospike Rocket Flight


Test Configuration Timothy R. Moes, Brent R. Cobleigh, Timothy R.
Conners,
• Timothy H. Cox, Stephen C. Smith, and Norm Shirakata

176
177
178