You are on page 1of 8

An examination of the organizational and

cross-cultural challenges facing international


hotel managers in Russia

Norma D'Annunzio-Green
School of Management, Napier University, Edinburgh, UK

Keywords assert that one of the most difficult tasks of


Management, Introduction any international manager is to motivate and
Human resource management,
Russia, Hotel hospitality Modern tourism enjoys an undisputed lead people from cultural backgrounds
position as the world's foremost industry, different from their own. As they go on to
Abstract influencing almost every possible area of discuss, ``while leadership is exhibited in all
With the ever increasing
economic activity (Singh, 1997). Expanding societies, cultural norms influence what
globalization of the hospitality
industry, an exploration of the international travel, technological advances kinds of leadership behaviours are
issues facing international hotel and the creation of the seamless organization appropriate in a particular culture. By
managers in Russia is both timely are key drivers of the hospitality and tourism
and important. The ability to
definition, leaders stand out from their peers,
industry's rapid internationalization (Kriegl, yet they stand out without pushing the
manage people in an international
2000). Subsequently, the managers of this
context is one of the greatest constraints of cultural norms too far. If
tests of managerial skill and, in international environment have been faced
leaders attempt to behave too differently
many novel cultures, success is with a variety of concerns because of the
dependent not only on the from cultural norms, they will be rejected:
changing risks and opportunities involved in
managers' technical and however if they adhere to all cultural norms
professional expertise but also on
setting up abroad, and must be prepared for
the new and complex organizational cultures to the letter they will not be leaders ± for
their understanding of the local
culture and local staff. There are and working practices facing them in the leaders must break some norms to be seen as
many important cultural factors international business arena. No one is more different'' (Mendenhall et al., 1995, p. 570).
that impact on the expectations The challenge of how transitional managers
and attitudes of Russians about
aware of these complexities and how they
work which are therefore essential impact on both the work and social setting in
address this delicate workplace balancing act
for managers to appreciate and the hotel sector than transitional managers, is the subject of this paper which aims to
understand. The paper highlights who are a critical success factor in any joint examine the organizational contexts within
the range of challenges that exist
and illustrates those that arise
venture. which they have been placed and highlight
from cross-cultural differences A transitional manager is defined by the managerial leadership challenges faced
between eastern and western Sparrow (1999, p. 90) as ``a manager who by them when working in Russia's hotel
expectations, as well as the range moves across borders on behalf of the firm
industry. More specifically, it will:
of diverse organizational cultures
but who is relatively detached from any . review the literature on leadership
within Russia's hotel industry.
Managers must be aware of these single organizational HQ''. challenges in Russia;
differences and develop These international managers are . present three case studies which illustrate
appropriate skills and employed by multinational corporations for the different cultural contexts within
competencies to help them adapt
three main reasons. First, to provide an which transitional managers work in
their style accordingly.
element of control and co-ordination in the Russia's five star hotel sector.
local operating unit; second, to provide
The author acknowledges management development opportunities to
the help of a Carnegie Trust senior staff in the organization and provide Advantages and challenges facing
Research without which the transitional managers in Russia
primary research for this them with the opportunity to work abroad for The opportunities and challenges that face
paper could not have been a period of time; and third, to facilitate the managers working in transitional economies
conducted. transfer of skills and knowledge across global such as Russia are well documented and are
borders. Although there may be a degree of
summarised below (as adapted by the author
support offered to these managers before and
from Longenecker and Popovski (1994),
during their assignments, they are
Barnes et al. (1997), Rubens (1995), May et al.
ultimately responsible for teams of
(1998) and Holden et al. (1998)):
employees in the host country and are
1 Advantages:
charged with developing effective ways of
International Journal of . Many successful joint ventures in
Contemporary Hospitality managing the challenges which may exist on
a day to day basis. Mendenhall et al. (1995) existence.
Management
14/6 [2002] 266±273
. Abundant, relatively low cost and
# MCB UP Limited educated workforce.
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
[ISSN 0959-6119] . Enormous market potential for growth
[DOI 10.1108/09596110210436805] http://www.emeraldinsight.com/0959-6119.htm
and business development.
[ 266 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green .Progress in successfully aligning influences attitudes towards work, with
An examination of the Russian and western management employees potentially losing their sense of
organizational and pride and orientation to work as a result of
cross-cultural challenges practices.
facing international 2 Challenges: long delays between work done and pay
hotel managers in Russia . Many and changing rules for earned in an economy where inflation and
International Journal of conducting business with western low earning potential result in poor prospects
Contemporary Hospitality for economic wealth.
Management partner firms due to political
14/6 [2002] 266±273 instability. The production orientated viewpoint of
. Cultural value differences including many Russians is also challenging. Rubens
different attitudes and behaviours (1995, p. 155) illustrates this with a quote:
which create barriers to accepted ``In America the customer is king but in
western human resource practices in Russia the aspect of scarcity made the
areas such as organizational producer king . . . times have changed but this
commitment and labour management attitude remains''. The impact of this may be
relations. illustrated by a visit to a store or restaurant
. Unpredictable labour market. where customers may be offered below
. Financial problems, such as lack of average goods at inflated prices by an
capital, cash flow difficulties, inflation impatient or disinterested person who still
and exchange problems. maintains this ingrained producer/scarcity
. Customer problems created by such mentality. ``Getting people to alter this
factors as customers going out of mentality to one that focuses on the needs of
business, being unable to pay their the customer is a demanding managerial
bills, being unable to attract new challenge'' (Rubens, 1995, p. 3).
business or switching over to Closely related to the previous point is the
competitors. challenge of developing the skills and
. Corruption, including such things as competencies of the workforce. Russia is
stealing, bribery, misappropriation of renowned for having a highly literate and
funds and racketeering. well educated workforce (Barnes et al., 1997),
. Operational problems, including poor but despite this, the immaturity of the
productivity and bureaucratic labour market, including constraints on
inefficiencies, material shortages, worker mobility and the lack of effective
logistical problems, communication employment services, results in a low supply
breakdowns, lack of modern of qualified managers with the desired
technologies and lack of financial and transferable skills. In addition, the
informational controls. competencies of the Russian workforce must
. Personnel problems, including poor be aligned with the requisite skills and
morale, excess workers, poorly trained attitudes of today's economy. Bearing in
workers, lack of employee involvement mind the latent managerial potential within
and motivation and a lack of skilled the Russian workforce, western companies
supervisors and managers. who are willing to invest in the local
. Legal problems created by rapidly workforce have found no shortage of local
changing laws, ambiguity surrounding employees who are keen to take advantage of
existing laws and deficiencies in the the career and developmental opportunities
current legal system. offered to them. The last area is the challenge
. Incompatibility of organizational relating to the development of an effective
cultures and scepticism towards managerial style which somehow narrows
western concept of developing the gap between the common western style
attitudinal alignments between and the traditional Soviet style. Rubens (1995)
individual employees and the identifies some of the characteristics of the
corporate culture and values of the latter as follows: extremely hierarchical
organization. structures, power concentrated at the centre,
paternalism and control orientation, lack of
There follows a summary of four main areas information sharing, and decision making
as discussed by Rubens (1995) and validated which is conspiratorial and unpredictable.
by others (Barnes et al., 1997; Shekshnia, Many of these characteristics are the exact
1994; Swerdlow and Cummings, 2000) as areas opposite of what western cultures would call
of particular significance and importance for a progressive management style, the rhetoric
the transitional hotel manager to consider. of which is characterised by openness,
First, Russia's economic situation has consultation and participation. It must be
resulted in lack of funds to pay wages for remembered, however, that as result of this
many employees, creating a situation where a different mindset exists in Russia of how
workers demand copious time off. This an acceptable manager should behave.
[ 267 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green The hotel industry in Moscow and experiences working as transitional
An examination of the St Petersburg managers in the multinational hotel sector in
organizational and
cross-cultural challenges The hotel supply consists of three main types Moscow and St Petersburg. The number
facing international ± old, traditional hotels that were built in a chosen was a compromise between obtaining
hotel managers in Russia different era but have been left to run down a representative sample and the resources
International Journal of and have lost most of their former splendour; and time available for the study. It was
Contemporary Hospitality
Management concrete and glass dormitories built post therefore seen as relevant that all the
14/6 [2002] 266±273 war; and new hotels built or upgraded to companies were from the same sector when
international standards with involvement this kind of relatively small sample is used.
from international companies. This of course should also be seen as a
The latest available room count for Russia limitation when making generalizations.
is 202,033, with 390,931 beds (WTO, 1999). Most The interviews were conducted between
of these rooms still resemble the modest April and June 2000 in London, Moscow,
requirements provided in the USSR era and St Petersburg and Edinburgh. To be included
it is estimated that only 20-25,000 rooms are in the sample the hotels had to be five-star
suitable for foreign arrivals. rating multinationals with some foreign
Moscow is ranked among the most interest on the basis of a management
expensive business travel destinations in the contract, strategic alliance, joint venture,
world, and the average daily rate (ADR) of the franchise or part ownership. In total 25
deluxe hotels is double that of other emerging expatriates were contacted by the author via
markets. This is due to the strength of e-mail, letter and phone, 14 of whom were
demand and the lack of quality hotel supply able to assist with the research. In addition, a
due to high market entry barriers. HVS argue snowball technique was used to contact an
that currently the business traveller has little additional three expatriate managers. Thus
alternative to the city centres' five-star hotels the total sample size was 17 expatriates,
as the other hotels offer little in the way of representing five hotel properties and three
comfort or amenities. There seems to be different western multinationals.
general agreement (Lockwood, 1993; Travel Interviewees were asked to talk freely
Industry Monitor, 1999; Travel and Tourism about examples of the attitudes, values and
Intelligence, 2000; Trew, 1997) that what is working practices that they encountered on
needed in the two main cities are acceptable assignment in Russia. Each example given
three-star hotels, and business standard was probed in terms of the main management
hotels in the regions. Clearly there are plenty and leadership challenges they encountered.
of large hotel properties which were Each interview lasted between one and a
developed under the communist regime, but half and three hours. The author followed a
to renovate these would involve a large thematic analysis approach (Boyatziz, 1998)
investment. Trew (1997) reports that in the when examining the data. Thematic analysis
hotel sector relatively few joint venture is a process for encoding qualitative data to
projects have been set up despite apparent identify themes and develop a code
enthusiasm for foreign investment on the inductively against which to analyse the
Russian side and strong interest from many data. A data-driven approach to code
international hotel groups anxious to construction was utilised allowing the
establish a presence in this important author to ``stay as close to the data as possible
potential market ``many potential foreign and interpret the meaning of the data from
investors and operators say that the within the words'' (Boyatziz, 1998, p. 30).
environment is just'' too difficult ``and note The validity of the data was checked during
the marked reluctance on the Russian side to the interview stage by re-presenting what the
relinquish any control or succumb to western respondents said for verification and
branding or foreign management'' (Trew, thereafter by sending the full transcripts to
1997, p. 32). These problems, coupled with the the interviewees for verification and
challenging legal system in respect of comment, and by allowing key respondents
property ownership, complicated taxation, to read the final report (Kvale, 1996).
issues, and the bureaucratic difficulties The findings follow, with reference
involved in securing a site for development throughout to actual respondents' quotes to
has made foreign parties more guarded and clarify and amplify.
cautious of the Russian marketplace.

The Russian model


Research methodology The first group of hotels, referred to
In-depth interviews were conducted with henceforth as the Russian model, was
17 expatriate managers, based on their characterised by a strong Russian
[ 268 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green management team within the hotels, a Staff benefits were another example of
An examination of the history of Russian ownership and western paternalism. The basic salary for host
organizational and interest in the form of a management country national is low, on average $250 per
cross-cultural challenges
facing international contract. The majority of staff in these hotels month. The benefits package was good
hotel managers in Russia were Russian nationals but an agreement was however, with benefits such as fully funded
International Journal of in place whereby for every Russian executive kindergarten in the hotel for working
Contemporary Hospitality manager there was a western counterpart. mothers, fully funded trips for school
Management
14/6 [2002] 266±273 This system operated effectively in the early children to Greece or Cyprus, food available
years of the contract being established when to staff at cost price, in-house dentist and a
there were 40 western managers employed. team of four doctors in the hotel for staff, on
This has diminished over the years and has call on a 24-hour basis.
reduced to a third of the above figure. On the negative side, however, the culture
Respondents described the working culture of control was evidenced by the strictness of
as being paternalistic and hierarchical, a rules and regulations in the hotels. Staff were
control-based approach to management with generally very scared of losing their jobs so
indifferent and sometimes hostile attitudes would generally comply with rules,
toward transitional managers. Host country regulations and management style. Part of
policies and procedure predominated and the the employees' salary was paid as a bonus, so
management style was seen to be a constraint if a staff member was late or disrespectful to
to effective managerial leadership, stemming a manager or had participated in unethical
from years of a control based culture where behaviour such as cheating or stealing, their
lack of initiative was acceptable and it salary could be reduced by as much as half.
was customary to follow unquestioning This system and the behaviour it was
instruction from the top. As a result, the staff- introduced to reduce was found to be a
management relationships and attitudes of challenge for the expatriates due to the
managers towards subordinates was complete contrast with normal working
generally considered very poor. The open practice in the home country.
management style to which many of the The attitude of local staff and managers
respondents were accustomed was towards the expatriates was also challenging
subordinated to a situation where there from a managerial leadership point of view.
would be very little communication with There was a distinct lack of trust initially
Russian managers, one of whom walked and a negative attitude towards their
round the hotel constantly flanked by two presence in the hotel. There were constant
body guards. The hierarchical structure that communication issues due to the large
the Russian staff are accustomed to was distance maintained between the expatriate
noted as being very different from prevailing managers and the local Russian managers.
practice in western cultures and required an The Russian managers were in general very
adjustment in mindset from both the polite towards the expatriates, but beyond
managerial and line staff perspective, this cursory politeness there was no ongoing
illustrated by the following quote: professional communication. The expatriates
A Russian general manager walks into a room described this attitude as being characterised
and it is like God has entered a church. So by a subconscious and sometimes more
when an expatriate suddenly takes off their explicit belief that the presence of the
jacket and starts moving tables around, well, expatriates was unnecessary. One expatriate
they [the staff] are surprised. But it works explained:
because they copy you and say ± he does that Officially we are part of the team but
well so we can do better than him! unofficially the message is that they don't
The paternalistic attitude was also really want us (expatriates) around. They are
demonstrated by the staffing levels. One a very proud race and have difficulty with the
idea that there is any need for a foreigner to
respondent explained that the staffing levels
tell them what to do. For this reason the
were high due to the low rates of pay, the working relationships were very strained at
problems in making people redundant and, times and needed very delicate handling.
most of all, the social responsibility to keep
staff in jobs. However these higher staffing This resulted in their scope for strategic or
levels were not necessarily productive from a tactical contribution being limited beyond
service point of view, demonstrated by the the level of basic operational expertise and
following comment: knowledge.
In London we would staff our breakfast
operation with half the number of people you
would have in Moscow for the same size and The US model
quality of hotel. But staff get bored and lazy . . .
most of the time the staffing levels are The US model is characterised by three main
counterproductive. areas:
[ 269 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green 1 a strong identification with company the desired level of service. The very low
An examination of the culture; labour turnover experienced here resulted in
organizational and 2 tolerance of and ambivalence towards a stagnation of skills and attitudes in certain
cross-cultural challenges
facing international transitional managers; and areas that could have been improved by the
hotel managers in Russia 3 a predominance of home country policies ability to recruit new blood, new ideas and
International Journal of and procedures. staff whose attitude to service may be easier
Contemporary Hospitality to develop. The different attitude towards
Management The company was taken over by its current
14/6 [2002] 266±273 service dates back to Soviet times when the
US parent in 1997 also under a management
buyer was never in a stronger position than
contract. Initially, the company sent in a task
the seller, as goods were consistently in short
force of 30 staff to set up and re-structure the
supply. In Soviet days all services such as
hotel. Of the expatriates, 75 per cent were
transportation, planes and buses were
American. Now the majority of the 23
provided virtually free so Russians would
remaining expatriates are European and
never complain about the service they
many have experience of working in other
received, no matter how abrupt and
countries. The management style could be
unfriendly it may have been. This attitude
described as open American, the systems and
to service still predominates, and trying to
policies operate as if in any other country in
encourage the service operator to
the company's world-wide hotel network.
acknowledge the guest as being the most
The hotels have a portfolio of training
important person in the service equation is
courses available to staff as they would in
difficult, particularly for older staff who are
any other country, in areas such as customer
particularly resistant to the western concept
care, management and supervisory
of service.
development, performance appraisal and Russians are not renowned for customer
even empowerment. As may be expected, the service. The customer traditionally did what
managerial leadership challenges he or she was told. We find that younger staff
experienced by these managers were under 30 find it relatively easy to adapt to the
different to the previous model. service standards we are trying to achieve but
The respondents experienced ongoing older staff are much more entrenched in their
problems with the strong US culture that was attitudes. I asked an experienced waiter to do
imposed on the hotels which brought with it something for the guest the other day and he
said ``OK, I will do it for you'' I said ``No you
both strengths and weaknesses. Strengths
are doing it for the guest, not me''. But after a
were that the expatriates felt more or less
while you accept this and they carry on doing
comfortable and knowledgeable with the it for you because you are a good manager
service standards which were being installed and treat them with respect.
and the reasoning behind then, but many of
them questioned the issue of cultural fit: This quote also emphasises the Russian
It makes you question why we do things management style with its emphasis on
which we wouldn't question before, suddenly personal favours, illustrated by the idea that
in such a different setting our accepted ways the staff will perform for the manager as
of doing things don't make nearly as much opposed to the guest.
sense. The staff had participated in a training
One of the key company values is a course which introduced them to the key
commitment to service quality and the way principles of empowerment and gave them
that this is implemented to achieve the chance to practice using role plays.
consistent customer care through ongoing There is an ambivalent acceptance of this as
training and development is a difficult opposed to any degree of animosity or real
managerial issue, particularly regarding understanding or questioning of the
service standards, as illustrated by the concept:
We go through the motions but we are trying
following:
to run before we can walk ± we need to get the
You can train people as much as you like, but
basics right first and one of the most basic
if they don't have the right attitude to service
pre-conditions of empowerment is a
you will never achieve the same attention to
commitment to customer service.
service detail, we would try to train staff to
smile at the guests and they would say ``we The final challenge related to local staff
are an honest race, if we smile and we are not attitudes towards the respondents. On the
happy then we are being hypocritical''. How one hand, staff accepted them in the
do you convince someone to be a hypocrite!!
knowledge that many of the hotel's
I had never thought about this before.
international customers expected to deal
The struggle to maintain service standards with an international manager and that they
was an ongoing source of frustration for the were, in the main, well respected for their
expatriates because, despite having invested expertise. This was balanced by the more
in all the tools, they were still not achieving negative view that competent local staff's
[ 270 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green career opportunities were being blocked by . . . we are actively trying to move away from
An examination of the the policy of recruiting transitional an Anglo Saxon person working as a manager
organizational and in France or Russia. If we can put a Russian in
cross-cultural challenges managers in key positions.
Germany or an Italian in the UK then we will.
facing international
hotel managers in Russia
One of the distinctive key challenges cited by
International Journal of The global model these expatriates from a managerial
Contemporary Hospitality
Management perspective is resourcing staff. The hotel now
The third model is referred to as the global
14/6 [2002] 266±273 employ staff from three main sources:
model, characterised by a resigned and . unemployed people from other industries
willing acceptance of expatriates, a strong
looking for any position, who may have no
global culture and investment and
service skills or competence in foreign
commitment to a globalization policy. This
languages;
company strove to integrate expatriates with . young graduates in hospitality related
local staff and minimise any perceived
subjects or other degree disciplines from
distinctions. The company has had a
domestic colleges or universities; and
presence in Russia since 1991 in a joint . international graduates from abroad.
venture agreement, with ownership two
thirds in favour of the Russian partner. From Clearly the training and development needs
the early days of the joint venture, the of these three groups differ greatly. The
expatriate respondents, two of whom had majority of staff now come from the first two
worked there from 1991, stressed the areas and require much training and
emphasis on development of host nationals development to bring them up to the desired
throughout the hotels, alongside a proactive levels of competence. For this reason training
approach to using expatriates for is a top priority, with the hotel employing a
development and control purposes in the training manager, departmental trainers in
Russian properties. Contrary to what each department and a full-time English
normally happens in this sort of teacher. The hotel also regularly uses a local
international arrangement, the expatriates training consultant to assist with training
explained that in the early days of the joint provision in certain areas. They discuss the
venture they were given a free reign to early days of the joint venture when there
develop policies and procedures with little was a vast resource of over qualified staff
interference from head office on the basis availability:
that: Russians at that time could earn more
Support was always available but they working with us than they could working as a
[head office] knew that we had a greater doctor or dentist ± the money attracted them
understanding of the issues and needs of the to us but more so the prestige of working with
a western company ± people with very high
property and the people than they did in the
levels of education were willing to be
first few years.
doormen!
A clear part of the expatriates' remit early on
This has changed over the years, however,
was to bring the Russian property closer to
with more western companies present in
western ways of working and to develop the
Russia and therefore more companies
competencies and attitudes of staff. Now,
competing for the best resources and an
however, the focus has changed to more of a
increase in the number of Russians going
global strategy where:
abroad for educational purposes. This has
. . . the way we go about business in Russia,
the way we train our staff in Russia and the resulted in different recruitment criteria
attitude of our staff in Russia is more similar more similar to the western model in terms
to that of our global subsidiaries than ever of recruiting staff on the basis of attitudes,
before. enthusiasm and ability and willingness to
work hard. Another resourcing managerial
This global perspective has taken a lot of challenge was a high labour turnover, felt to
hard work in terms of training and be due to the high level of investment in
management commitment. The company has training and development resulting in staff
a belief in a localization policy if at all being headhunted. Given these constraints,
possible from a human resource and business the attempts at strengthening their global
perspective: culture and developing local staff have been
It benefits both our Russian staff, our other
difficult, with the main development tool
staff and our international and Russian
being exposure to other properties outside
customers.
Russia which is obviously a difficult, time-
This policy is apparent throughout the consuming and costly process. The company
company and illustrated by an attitude strives to use this exposure to other cultures
whereby: as part of its localization policy, sending staff
[ 271 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green to regional and head office placements as to develop trusting relationships with local
An examination of the well as operating an active temporary global staff and managers, and the need to develop a
organizational and
cross-cultural challenges transfer system for all levels of staff who may better understanding of the cultural
facing international be interested: differences that existed in order to manage
hotel managers in Russia The international exposure enables the these better. These coping strategies are the
International Journal of expatriates to adjust easier as the local subject of another paper (D'Annunzio-Green,
Contemporary Hospitality Russian managers are more aware of the
Management 2002) and illustrate the need for flexibility
company culture and have themselves been
14/6 [2002] 266±273 and resilience as two key competencies
exposed to other ways of working. While the
leading to more successful transition.
benefits of this approach are clear we must be
careful not to push staff too quickly ± the
The three models expose the difficulties
development process takes time and you have in generalising about the challenges of
to be patient. working in Russia. The issues experienced by
the expatriates are very different and appear
Exposing the staff to other cultures and to be dependent upon the organizational
different attitudes to customer care and culture and structure of both parties, the
service is felt to have resulted in predominant management style, the
strengthening the transfer and application of ownership of the hotels and the perception of
learning to the Russian workplace and the local Russian staff towards foreign managers.
expatriates discussed the very positive In the global model it is clear that the use of
impact that this had on the local staff, progressive and resource intensive human
describing them as: resource management policies were a crucial
. . . among the best employees I have worked
lever, whereas in the Russian model the very
with in terms of attitude and approach to
strong bond with tradition was a barrier to
training ± and I have worked in many
different countries. change. An understanding of these factors
will enable transitional managers to adjust
Evidence of the success of this company's their managerial behaviour in order to
approach is reflected in the following: of the achieve best fit rather than necessarily best
38 expatriates who opened this hotel, only 11 practice in an international work setting ± it
remain, the others having being replaced by is this perceived compromise which is
local nationals who have all been promoted particularly challenging.
through the ranks from junior positions.
References
Barnes, J., Crook, M., Koybaeva, T. and
Conclusion Stafford, E. (1997), ``Why our Russian
alliances fail'', Long Range Planning, Vol. 30
The research has shown that western No. 4, pp. 540-50.
management practices cannot be uniformly Boyatziz, R.E. (1998), Transforming Qualitative
applied in Russia due to very different Information, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA.
cultural and organizational working D'Annunzio-Green, N. (2002), ``The hotel
environments. These different environments expatriate in Russia ± competencies for cross
have been seen to be characterised by: a cultural adjustment'', in D'Annunzio-Green,
predominance of host country values and N., Maxwell, G. and Watson, S. (Eds), Human
attitudes in the Russian model; a Resource Management: International
predominance of home country attitudes and Perspectives in Hospitality and Tourism,
working practices in the US model; and some Continuum, London, in press.
attempt to maximise the synergy of both Holden, N., Cooper, C. and Carr, J. (1998), Dealing
home and host country perspectives by the with the New Russia, John Wiley & Sons,
global model. Transitional managers in each Chichester.
multinational have been forced, in each case, Kvale, S. (1996), Interviews, an Introduction to
Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage,
to adapt their management style to try to
Beverly Hills, CA.
achieve a better fit with the work
Kriegl, U. (2000), ``International hospitality
environment in which they were placed.
management'', Cornell Hotel and Restaurant
These different work environments were
Administration Quarterly, Vol. 41 No. 2,
characterised by hesitance to take initiative,
pp. 64-71.
different accepted communication methods Lockwood, A. (1993), ``Eastern Europe and the
and a more autocratic style of management. former Soviet States'', in Jones, P. and
There was also a need to develop more Pizam, A. (Eds), The International Hospitality
customer orientation and less risk averse Industry, Pitman, London.
cultures to improve competitiveness and Longenecker, O. and Popovski, S. (1994),
service standards. The managers each had ``Managerial trials of retooling Russian
their own ways of dealing with the managers'', Buisiness Horizons, Vol. 37,
challenges, including the need to invest time pp. 35-9.

[ 272 ]
Norma D'Annunzio-Green May, R., Bormann Young, C. and Ledgerwood, D. Swerdlow, S. and Cummings, W.T. (2000),
An examination of the (1998), ``Lessons from Russian human ``Towards a better cross-cultural
organizational and resource management experience'', European understanding of US and Russian lodging
cross-cultural challenges
facing international Management Journal, Vol. 16 No. 4, pp. 447-59. employees: a discriminant analysis
hotel managers in Russia Mendenhall, M., Punnett, B.J. and Ricks, D. (1995), approach'', Journal of Hospitality and
International Journal of Global Management, Blackwell, Oxford. Tourism Research, Vol. 24 No. 3, pp. 336-49.
Contemporary Hospitality Rubens, K. (1995), ``The practice of human resource Travel and Tourism Intelligence (2000), ``Tourism
Management management in Russia ± part 2'', Benefits and in eastern Europe'', Travel and Tourism
14/6 [2002] 266±273
Compensation International, pp. 2-8. Intelligence, London, June.
Singh, S. (1997), ``Developing human resources for Travel Industry Monitor (1999), ``Russia report'',
the tourism industry with reference to India'', Travel Industry Monitor, London.
Tourism Management, Vol. 18 No. 5, Trew, J. (1997), ``International tourism reports ±
pp. 299-306. No. 3'', Russia, Travel and Tourism
Shekshnia, S. (1994), ``Managing people in Russia, Intelligence, London.
challenges for foreign investors'', European World Tourism Organization (WTO) (1999),
Management Journal, Vol. 12 No. 3, pp. 298-305. Tourism Market Trends Europe 1989-1998,
Sparrow, P. (1999), ``International recruitment World Tourism Organization Commission for
and selection'', in Joynt, P. and Morton, B. Europe, 34th meeting, Tashkent, Uzbekistan,
(Eds), The Global HR Manager, IPD, London. 19-22 April 1999.

[ 273 ]