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Strategy and Action

Second Edition
Charles Parker


|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 2

G Ôardware refers to the equipment in a
computer-based information system
G Ôundreds of different general-purpose
computers, printers, & display devices
G Lesser used devices such as plotters,
voice systems, scanners & digitizers
G Specialized hardware are used in
medicine, manufacturing, purchasing,
banking, graphic arts, photography
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|inhaj University Lahore 3

G -e stressed the importance of
designing a CBIS in ways that make it
easier for managers and users to
perform their jobs
G If this is done, users should be more
G In general, computer systems found in
organizations should be designed to
support user work practices
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G People may need to share their work
with others
G Three common ways in which computer
systems are configured in organizations
Large-System Computing
Stand-alone Personal Computing
Network Computing

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G In large-system computing, the
processing tasks of multiple users are
performed on a single centralized
G The central computer will be a
mainframe or minicomputer
G During the 1950s and early 1960s,
these systems typically operated in a
batch processing mode using punched
cards and tapes for data input, storage
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G Later, online transaction processing
was possible
G |ost of the terminals used in these
systems were called dumb terminals
G Intelligent terminals that relieve the
central CPU of some of its processing
G Central computer fails
G Central computer slow during peak
business period
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G irst introduced in the late 1970s
G A computer should be readily available
to help an individual perform his or her
work at any time
G |any tasks are individual by nature.
or example, word processing,
developing graphics for presentations,
working with spreadsheets
G Also called stand-alone computer
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G -orkers are grouped into subunits,
departments, and other organizational
structures in order to facilitate their
interaction & to coordinate their efforts
towards the achievement of strategic
G Organizations are looking for easier &
better ways for workers to share
information & computing resources
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|inhaj University Lahore 9

i  i 
G Individuals do their own work on
personal computers, but are linked to a
telecommunication network that allows
them to share information & resources
with others
G Users may share databases, memos,
and other messages
G Networking is a hot topic in many
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G Input devices are used to enter data
into computer systems
G |ost people use a keyboard and
monitor to input data
G A keyboard-display screen combination
for data input, is called self-contained

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G A mouse is a device about the size of a
deck of playing cards, that moves the
cursor around the screen quickly
G The cursor is a screen element, such as
a blinking underline character or a
small arrow, that points to a particular
position on the screen
G |ouse become popular with the
introduction of Apple |acintosh
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|inhaj University Lahore 12
# i 
G Icons are special symbols that
represent commands or program
G A trackball consists of a sphere resting
on rollers with only the top of the
sphere exposed outside its case
G It requires less movement area
G Joystick is another cursor-control
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|inhaj University Lahore 13
# i 
G The light pen contains a light-sensitive
cell at its tip; when this tip is placed
near the screen, the computer system
can determine its position
G The touch screen which is sensitive to
human figures

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|inhaj University Lahore 14
$ !    
G Pen-based computers are hand-held,
tablet-sized computers with advanced
handwriting-recognition technologies;
they are also called notepad computers
or tablet computers
G A special stylus is used in this case

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|inhaj University Lahore 15
   #    # 
G An imaging device is hardware that
transforms such graphical images as
drawings, photographs, and maps into
machine-readable form
G One type of device is a digitizing tablet
G A pen-like stylus is used by the
operator to trace an image on a flat
G Image Scanner
G Ôand-held Scanner
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|inhaj University Lahore 16
 # 
G oice-input devices consist of
equipment that is designed to
recognize the human voice, which is
not as simple as it seems
G Although machines that react flawlessly
to the human voice are not prevalent
yet, progress in voice input systems
continues daily

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|inhaj University Lahore 17
G Source Data Automation
G Specialized Keyboards
G Optical Character Recognition
Optical Characters
Optical Codes
G |agnetic Ink Character Recognition
G Smart Card Systems

|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 18

G In a personal computer system, the
processing device is called the System
Unit, which contains the central
processing unit and primary storage
G Registers
G Buses

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G Some times also referred to as main
memory or internal memory
G olatile in nature
G It contains
Program statements and data
Resident portion of OS
Intermediate results

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G Addresses
G Programmable RO|
G Erasable Programmable RO|

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! |  i 
G Every instruction that is issued to a
computer is broken down into
machine-level instructions that can be
decoded and executed by the CPU
G The computer has a built-in system
clock that synchronizes its operations
G Clock speed is typically measured in
megahertz (|hz) or millions of cycles
per second
G Instruction Cycle + Execution Cycle =
|achine Cycle
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|inhaj University Lahore 22
G ive common standards are
|IPS (|illions of Instruction per
LOPS (loating-point Operations per

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|inhaj University Lahore 23
!  i 
G |icrocomputers
G |inicomputers
G |ainframe Computers
G Supercomputers
G These categories generally relate to
how powerful the computer is, as
established by such items as processing
speed or volume, primary memory
capacity, the number of peripherals
connected, & the capacity and abilities
of those peripherals
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|inhaj University Lahore 24
G A microcomputer is a full-fledged
computer system that uses a
microprocessor as its CPU; these are
also called personal computer systems
G Available for widespread use in the
G I|B, Apple, Compaq, Dell, Gateway,
Leading Edge, Packard Bell, and Tandy

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|inhaj University Lahore 25

G Portable computer systems are
designed compactly so they can fold
shut like a briefcase or fit in a traveling
G |any of these are called Laptop
Computer Systems
G Notebook computers are smaller,
lighter, and usually more expensive
than laptops
G Toshiba, Compaq, Zeos, Apple, Dell
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|inhaj University Lahore 26
G |ost desktop systems are designed to
accommodate only one user at a time.
Because of this, these machines are
often called single user desktop
G |ulti-user desktop computer systems-
sometimes called super
microcomputer-use operating systems
such as UNIX or OS/2

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|inhaj University Lahore 27
R  | 
& $

G Add-in boards are card-like pieces of
hardware that plug into expansion
slots found in the system unit
G These contain the circuitry for
interfacing with specific types of
peripheral devices

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|inhaj University Lahore 28
G |inicomputer first available in the
G |ost of the minicomputers are used
for engineering & scientific applications
G |inicomputers are often used to drive
a number of terminals, printers, &
other peripheral devices
G Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC),
Data General, ÔP, I|, Prime, and
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|inhaj University Lahore 29

G In many firms, several mainframes are
located in a processing center-or
operations center-that runs 24 hours a
day, 7 days a week
G |ainframe typically support more
peripheral devices & simultaneous
users than minicomputers

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|inhaj University Lahore 30


G Some organizations need computers
that can work at extraordinarily fast
speeds or that are exceptionally
G Computer generated movies
G -eather forecasting
G Atomic energy

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|inhaj University Lahore 31
G Two important changes are taking
place in CPU architectures that may
change the nature of computer
G Reduced Instruction Set Computing
G Parallel Processing

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|inhaj University Lahore 32

G |oving circuits closer together
The shorter the length of the circuit paths,
the less time it takes to move programs
and data along them
Larger Scale Integration
ery Large Scale Integration
Ultra Large Scale Integration
G New material
Silicon based chips

|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 33
G Secondary storage saves programs &
data for repeated use
G Slower then primary memory,
secondary memory is significantly less
expensive and its storage capacities
are much more then extensive
G Secondary storage is non-volatile
G It involves both the medium and a
peripheral storage device
G |edias are removable or not
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 34
& # 
G Sequential Access (|agnetic Tape)
G Random Access or Direct Access
(|agnetic Disk)
G Disk technologies are compared in the
term of their access speed-the time it
takes to locate the data, read it, and
transfer it to primary memory
G Once data are written to a disk, the
time it takes to read & send them to
the CPU is known as Access Time
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 35
G Seek time is the time it takes to
position the read/write head over the
track on which the requested data are
G Search time (Rotational Delay) is the
time it takes the disk to spin until its
read/write head is positioned at the
beginning of the requested data
G Data transfer time is the time it takes
to activate the read/write head, read
the requested data, and transmits RA|
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 36
'  #  
G Diskettes are |ylar platters that are
coated with a magnetizable substance,
typically iron oxide
G The concentric tracks contain the
binary representations of data and
G A diskette must be inserted into the
proper type and size of diskette drive
G 51/4 and 31/2 inches diameter
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 37
'  #  
G Sectoring requirements: during
formatting, sectors are created in
order to divide a diskette into
addressable area. l    
G Density: density refers to the number
of bits or tracks packed onto the
recording surface of a diskette. Single-
density, double-density, high-density
G Single S Double-sided
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 38

G Cartridge disks consists of a removable
hard disk packed into a plastic
G In order to access the data, the user
must insert it into a secondary storage
unit that accepts such media
G Bernoulli box
G 31/2 inches to 14 inches in diameter
and from a few megabytes to several
hundred megabytes in capacity
|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 39
ÿ  #  !    
G A secondary storage technology that is
becoming increasingly popular is the
optical disk (also called laser disks and
video disks)
G Ôigh capacity, can store text, data,
graphics, audio and video
G Two most common forms are CD-RO|
and -OR| (write once, read many)
G Erasable optical disk system
|agneto-optical disks
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|inhaj University Lahore 40
ÿ  #  !    
G Laser beam of high intensity is used to
write to the disk. Laser beam of light
intensity is used to read the disk
G Juke box storage system
Capacity of accessing 64 optical disks

|ohtishim Siddique
|inhaj University Lahore 41
! #  |
G Cartridge tapes represent the leading
edge of tape technology
G requently used to back up hard disks
G Removable-pack disk systems, used
since 1960s
G Consists of several rigid disk platters
stacked into a single unit called a Disk
G Data is stored on both surfaces
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|inhaj University Lahore 42
G Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks
G Detachable-Reel |agnetic Tapes

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|inhaj University Lahore 43
G The two most common types of display
device are; |  and  

G A terminal or video display terminal

(DT), is basically a monitor with a
keyboard attached to it
G Display devices are differentiate on the
clarity or resolution
G |onochrome S Color
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|inhaj University Lahore 44
#  # 
G Cathode Ray Tube
G lat Panel Display



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G Impact Printers

G Non-Impact Printers


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|inhaj University Lahore 46