Communication Skills in English

Block I



This module on “Reading skills” or “Skills of Reading” is designed to initiate you into some of the basic skills of reading. The only way to do that is to practise and read English with the activities and exercises given in these units and continue doing it whenever you read something in English. Let us familiarize ourselves with the objectives of this module. This course will enable you to. 1. recognize the script of English and with the help of the language markers (vocabulary, grammar)understand the explicitly stated information in a passage. 2. conclude or deduce the meaning and information when it is not explicitly stated. 3. understand the relationship between sentences and words in a sentence (vocabulary, grammar) 4. extract the salient points and summarize the contents of a given passage. 5. distinguish the focal points in a given piece of information with the help of the supporting ideas or details. 6. focus your attention to the various purposes of reading and their relative importance. All the exercises and activities given in the block are streamlined and directed towards achieving these objectives. Go through the book and work on exercises and activities and verify your learning on the basis of these objectives. The module uses the following symbols to guide you:

 This tells you that there is an important point to remember  This points out a question, which urges you to read on. This is a

 This identifies a self-test
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Communication Skills in English

Block I

Unit 1: This unit introduces you to the activity of reading as a skill which could be developed, sensitized and refined. You will get a glimpse of the various purposes and functions of reading. It will make you realize that every time we read, we have a specific objective and our reading/focus varies according to our objective of reading. This unit will give you information about the various subskills of reading like skimming and scanning. Unit 2: In this unit, you have been exposed to a passage wherein you are expected to practise the skills of skimming and scanning. This unit is designed to give you some exercises in Remedial Grammar. These exercises will help you to reinforce whatever you have learnt so far. You will also get practice in identifying the use of phrases (phrasal verbs), their significance and function in English. Unit 3: This unit provides you exposure to a different type of reading, i e reading a short – story. Once again you will get practice in skimming and scanning the short story. A comprehensive understanding of the story would enable you to sequence the events of the story in a chronological order (as they occur in the story). You would be concentrating on learning new words and will learn how to interact/negotiate with words when they occur in writing. We have also provided the “BASIC ENGLISH WORD LIST" by IA RICHARDS (1943) in the Appendix. Unit 4: In this unit a relatively complex passage has been given. You need to negotiate with the words/grammatical patterns in this passage carefully. Exercises in skimming and scanning (comprehension) too are slightly advanced. This unit also is one of the significant units wherein you learn “Guided Composition” and “Cohesive units”. Unit 5: This unit is specially designed to expose you to as many types of exercise as possible to learn/practise the skills of reading. In a way it is a compendium of tasks and exercises. You would understand its worth only when you work with the exercises. You are also initiated into one of the effective techniques of reading by Robinson. The SQ3R technique (SQ3R stands for the initial letters of the five steps in studying a text. Survey S, Question Q, Read R, Recall R, Review R). You need to read the information on the technique and then practise it in your daily reading.
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3 .7 SOURCES:BIBLIOGRAPHY 1.5. 1. This will help us not only to improve our learning ability but also our communication skills.2 SCANNING 1. The first and foremost skill required for learning a language is reading skill. In this unit on reading skills we will learn about the various aspects of reading as a skill.5 LOUD AND SILENT READING 1.2 WHAT IS READING? 1.Communication Skills in English Block I UNIT 1 Structure 1.1 OBJECTIVES In the first unit of “Reading Skills” we will learn and understand: the importance of reading as a skill the need to develop this skill for better understanding and language use. Those who cannot read or write are prone to exploitation and suffering.3 PURPOSES OF READING TYPES OF READING 1.0 INTRODUCTION We require several skills for acquiring knowledge and wisdom.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE COURSE (UNITS I-V) 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.5.3 EXTENSIVE READING 1. Therefore it is the primary skill that helps us acquire knowledge about everything in this world.6 SUMMARY 1.4 READING AS A SKILL 1.4 INTENSIVE READING 1. the subskills of reading ….5.8 SELF TEST 1.1 SKIMMING 1. Therefore it is important for all human beings to read and learn. different types of reading for different purposes.

So reading is nothing but a decoding process. which will make your reading more meaningful and enjoyable too.2 WHAT IS READING? The following are a few definitions/descriptions regarding the process of reading. 1982:30) under the stimulus of the printed page Reading is a Psycho-linguistic guessing game (Webster. Understanding a written text means extracting the required information from it as efficiently as possible. 1. 1982:19) Reading Comprehension is understanding a written text.Communication Skills in English Block I Hence the unit will help you to always ask the question before reading ---  “Why am I reading?” This will enable you to focus your mind on your purpose of reading. ENCODER/WRITER MESSAGE DECODER/READER 1.3 PURPOSES OF READING (WHY DO WE READ?) We read many things in our day-to-day lives. All these three levels could be described thus: When you read: you read the lines. literal response to the familiar words on the page – there is no depth of understanding You recognize the writer‟s meaning and Your own personal experience helps you to understand the matter. read between the lines and also read beyond the lines.  Reading is thinking (Webster. Francoise Grellet 1991:3) From the above definitions/descriptions we can conclude that when we read any piece of information/matter we understand the given text at three levelsPure. Let us name a few of them:  Newspapers and magazines Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 4 .

Why we distinguish between these purposes of reading is that the way we read always is influenced by the purpose of our reading. puzzles. They are read either for pleasure or for information. challenges and opportunities to use these skills during this course on reading skills. Hence reading is a skill which has to be acquired by constant experimentation and struggle. We might get information even when we read something purely for pleasure. statistical graphs and diagrams etc When we read each of these things we do have a purpose for which we read them. We would like to provide you exposure. maps. 5 . we have realised that reading is an active process. pamphlets Textbooks. comic strips Time-tables. A reader can understand a text only when s/he actively uses his/her mental faculties.4 READING AS A SKILL Most of us think of reading as a passive process where we sit down relax and run our eyes through the words on the page and try to understand the information. reports. vocabulary) The ability to interpret A reason for reading and the appropriate method of reading and The knowledge of the world (experience/background knowledge) When all these requirements are used efficiently while reading. telegrams Recipes. menus Articles. Hence to read efficiently one has to have:      The knowledge of the writing system of the language The knowledge of the language (grammar.4) 1. legal documents Dictionaries. understanding would be effective and meaningful. novels. leaflets. But today.Communication Skills in English Block I         Advertisements. telephone directories Cartoons. short-stories Letters. This leads us to the various types of reading (Refer 1. Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

Communication Skills in English Block I 1. She reads any book that she finds within her reach. She doesn‟t have time to read the pages before deciding on buying the book. 1. For your purpose you can also refer to your ways of reading and compare them with the following. She wants to buy a few books. The type of reading that Kusum does in the bookstall is skimming.” ACTIVITY (An exercise in Skimming) Read the following news item: Bangalore: One of the country‟s best-known institutions. has suddenly cancelled all end-term semester examinations due to start on Saturday and declared a holiday starting Friday. 6 . She goes to a book exhibition.5 TYPES OF READING Ref. Now can we describe what skimming skill is in reading?  We can define/describe skimming as “looking quickly over a text/book to get a general superficial idea of the content.1 SKIMMING  What is skimming? Kusum is a voracious reader. Let us look at a few types of reading.2 As we have already said we read in different ways depending on the purpose for which we are reading a text. title page and the blurb and then decides whether to buy the book or not.5. Back to 1. Hence she quickly goes through the contents. the National Law School of India University (NLSIU). The reason: an outbreak of chickenpox in the hostels Select an appropriate headline for the news item from the choices given below: Threat of chicken pox Sikkim Manipal University Page No.

5.m. clear details is known as Scanning.m.m.00 a.00 a.m. 10. This type of careful reading to find out the specific. Let us go through the following exercise to be familiar with what scanning is all about.30 a.m. You see the spelling. 8. So you get the dictionary and carefully find the word.m.15 a. 8. meaning and also the various uses of the same word (if any). you just don‟t run your eyes across the page but look into the information for specific details.30 a. 7 . 7.2 SCANNING As you read a text.Communication Skills in English Block I Examinations postponed due to epidemic Chickenpox hits Law School hostels Hygiene and our colleges Students packed off due to chickenpox in the hostels. 9. why do you think that is more appropriate? 1. ACTIVITY (Scanning) Read the following Schedule of “MUSIC ASIA” Channel.30 a.00 a.30 a.m. 10.m. Sikkim Manipal University PROGRAMME SA RE GA MA GEETHON KE BAHAR B/W GEMS TEA-TIME GAME ALAAP TOTAL RECALL BREAK-FAIL HIT-MIX ZIG-ZAG BEST Page No.m. Here. editorial or an article you suddenly come across a word that is not familiar to you.00 a. pronunciation. 7. 9. MUSIC ASIA TIME 6. Does the underlined headline give the complete idea and information about the news story? If you choose a different headline. Naturally you would like to know the meaning of the word for your own benefit.

45 a.5.m.m.4 INTENSIVE READING  When we read shorter texts like a research paper for getting specific details/ information we read slowly with a lot of concentration.m. 8 .30 a.5. But we should not give it a lesser priority because it is extensive reading. MUSIC BOX STARS DAY OUT ARTIST OF THE FORTNIGHT JHAROKA MUSIQUIX TOP-NOTCH Quickly find answers to the following questions. 12. 12. 1. When do you listen to „HIT-MIX‟? Name one of the early morning shows giving the nostalgic musical moments of the past. Most of us have the habit of reading especially when we are free or have a lot of leisure time.m.Communication Skills in English Block I 11. ------------1. This is intensive reading.m. 1. ------------2. 1. We might get hold of a novel.3 EXTENSIVE READING  Does reading give us pleasure? As we have already mentioned our way of reading is influenced by the purpose of our reading.00 a. When we read for the pure pleasure of reading we call it extensive reading.m. Here we practise rapid reading to get the global/overall understanding of the matter. a comic strip. 11.00 a. 1. When do we have “Star of the Fortnight” on MUSIC ASIA? Name some of the programmes of longer duration than the others. When you read a book as a resource material for research you read it intensively because the overall understanding is not the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. a magazine etc.30 a.00 a. It is enjoyable as well as informative.

For this. (Ref: UNIT-V) 1. We have given you examples of how you can practise the different skills of reading in your day-to-day life. It is up to you to exercise your knowledge on reading skills and systematically put the same to practice in the units to follow. 1981 Developing Reading Skills. Besides these extra-ordinary situations. When we read an article or an advertisement. 1. grammar and some background knowledge of the topic is required. You need to read the instructions aloud to students or employees so that there is no confusion later. you read it intensively. When you read an article in order to write a review on it. Hence a thorough study of UNIT I is mandatory before you venture into the following units. a basic knowledge of the language system.5 LOUD AND SILENT READING Most of our day-to-day reading is done silently.6 SUMMARY In this unit we have discussed what reading is. James 1982. like the notices and circulars. we are engaged in the process of deriving meaning from the passage. But there are situations when we have to read things aloud. London McGraw Hill Book Company (UK) Ltd. 9 . Sikkim Manipal University Page No.7 SOURCES:BIBLIOGRAPHY Grellet Francoise. Cambridge University Press Inthira S R and V Saraswathi (eds. the different kinds of reading and the various types and purposes of reading.) 1995 ENRICH YOUR ENGLISH BOOK I – Webster. most of the time the natural way of reading is silent reading which is ideal and helps comprehension. Actually when we read aloud our concentration is divided between reading and speaking. This makes reading difficult and may cause problems in understanding the matter. vocabulary. You should also vary your speed of reading according to your purpose of reading. Reading Matters – A practical Philosophy.Communication Skills in English Block I objective/purpose of our reading. The learners will have to interact with the given piece of writing/information and derive meaning out of it. 1. The following units of this block will have the theoretical background of UNIT I.5. when others don‟t have access to it. We use all the skills of reading when we do intensive reading.

Communication Skills in English Block I  1. a. How many channels offer programmes in regional languages? c. Which music channel has a wider variety of programmes? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Programmes of how many channels have been printed? b. 10 . What are the different types of programmes each channel specialises in? d.8 SELF TEST 1. Read the TV programme guides given in a daily newspaper and then answer questions such as those given below.

0 INTRODUCTION 2.2 2. Therefore it is essential to acquire certain skills which will help us understand and remember what we read or at least most of what we read.1 OBJECTIVES    To enable the learner to read a passage and get the gist of the passage by skimming and scanning it.9 OBJECTIVES READING COMPREHENSION COMPREHENSION PASSAGE „BRAILLE‟ (WRITING SYSTEM FOR THE BLIND) COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS USEFUL PHRASES (PHRASAL VERBS) ACTIVITY ACTIVITY SUMMARY SELF TEST APPENDIX 2.0 INTRODUCTION We may read pages and pages of material.1 2.Communication Skills in English Block I UNIT 2 Structure: 2.5 2. 11 .7 2.3 2. To enable the learner to identify a few useful phrases from the lesson and use them in sentences of his/her own To reinforce the learner‟s understanding on the use of prepositions with the help of guided exercises Sikkim Manipal University Page No. But how much of it do we understand? Our mind seems to retain very little of what we read. 2.6 2. This unit will help us understand reading comprehension so that we will be able to retain what we read.4 2.8 2.

“But how did you know I had given you a franc”? Asked Hauy in surprise. “Oh!” replied the beggar. 12 . Braille worked as a teacher in this school. but it was quite difficult to learn. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In 1819. One cold day he was going through a street in Paris when he saw a blind beggar.2 BRAILLE (Writing System for the blind)  Valentin Hauy (1745 – 1822) was a French professor of calligraphy. He at once put his hand into his pocket and took out a coin. But as he turned to go. He was an intelligent student and quickly learnt to read with the help of embossed letters. However.Communication Skills in English Block I 2. you have given me a franc instead of a Sou”. a ten-year old blind boy. It is supported by the French government. From 1826.” Hauy allowed the beggar to keep the franc although it was a great deal of money in those days. But as he walked back home. He was yet a student in Hauy‟s school. This school is now known as the National Institute for Blind Children. he thought to himself. I can at once tell what it is. Louis Braille. the beggar called out. Hauy‟s experiment was a great success and he became known as the „father and apostle of the blind‟. “It is quite simple. If I pass my finger over a coin. Hauy was a very kind-hearted person. He printed normal letters in relief that could be felt by a touch of the finger. entered Hauy‟s school. Hauy‟s system of reading for the blind was very useful. Braille invented a system of writing. Moreover. which has been accepted all over the world. why should he not be able to tell the different marks or letters of an alphabet?”  This thought inspired Hauy to develop a system of reading for the blind. He also started a school for blind children and prepared special books with embossed letters for them. it was only a reading system. “Sir. He put this coin on the blind beggar‟s palm. And in 1824. there was no way for the blind to write in this system. “If a blind man can tell a coin by the mere touch of his finger. when he was only 15. Sir! You have surely made a mistake. he realised the disadvantages in Hauy‟s system and made up his mind to develop an easier method of reading and writing for the blind.

Unluckily Louis Braille did not live long to enjoy the great success of his system. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z  Now can you read what is written in the following cells? T H A N K Y O U Sikkim Manipal University Page No. In each cell . Each letter is formed with the help of one or more raised dots in a cell. Different positions of the raised dots in a cell represent different letters.Communication Skills in English Block I  The system invented by Braille has been named after him. He died of tuberculosis in 1852. indicates a raised dot  Indicates unraised dot. 13 . Now let‟s have a look at the Braille alphabet in their separate cells. It is also known as the six-dot cell system.

th. A special type of needle is used to form the raised dots.3 Comprehension Questions Now that you have read the lesson once you must have understood most of the contents of the same. you ought to read it again and try to answer the following simple questions. for. In all there are 63 patterns. there are five patterns for common words (and. Questions 1. ow). Why did the blind beggar think that Hauy had made a mistake? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. with) and nine patterns for common letter combinations (ch. In addition to these 26 dot patterns for the English alphabet. „thank you‟.Communication Skills in English Block I If you have read it correctly. Braille has proved a great blessing for the blind. gh. Miss Helen Keller was one of them. it says. ed. See that your answers are not elaborate. Blind people can read and enjoy them. If not. Writing Braille is not very difficult. wh. ou. the raised dots face upward and are read from left to right. We have patterns for punctuation marks also. Space is provided for your answers. A person using Braille writes from right to left. 14 . not exceeding two sentences. Many good books have been written in Braille. Who was Valentin Hauy? 2. Let them be very brief. the. How did the blind beggar come to know what Hauy had given him? 4. 2. sh. There have been many examples of blind persons who learnt Braille and then wrote great books themselves. They can get the benefits of education like any other normal person. How can you say that Hauy was a kind-hearted person? 3. er. of. When the sheet is turned over.

What system did Braille invent? What is this system called? 10.4 Useful phrases After having answered the questions we would like you to observe the following sentences. In addition to the state relief operations. My friend made up her mind to speak to her English teacher. 5. 15 . There were in all ten cockroaches in the kitchen. What was the drawback in the system developed by Hauy? 8. Who was Louis Braille? 9. What did he do for the blind children? 7. 6. 3. A great deal of resources are wasted every year. Instead of punishing the guilty the court acquitted them. 1. How did the Braille system help the blind? Note: Now you can consult a dictionary and clarify your guesses at the meanings of the words in the passage. 4. the central relief measures were generously taken during the calamity. 8. 2. 7. 9. 10. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. My colleague received the telegram from home and at once went to the bus stand to book the tickets 2. The epidemic is likely to spread all over the northern parts of the country. The minister called out to his assistant loudly. The new project is set to benefit all the sections of society. Look at the paintings! They are just marvellous.Communication Skills in English Block I 5. What was the thought that inspired Hauy? 6.

which could be heard all over the town (exploded/ burst). set up.with a loud bang. Hence knowledge and familiarity with these phrases would go a long way in enhancing the quality of our expression. go along with. go off. put up with. You would be able to find the difference or similarity of meanings. in turn would help you in using these phrases effectively in your day to day life. „Jayashree. call off. get over. send for. get rid of  By now you must have realised that most of these words are verbs followed by a preposition. take after. I‟d like you to ----------. meant for. run out of. This.on time for meetings (arrives) 2. Let‟s go through the following activity. set off. nonetheless. call on. (make necessary changes if required) Use the past tense when necessary. call off. The trouble with her is that she never ----------. hold up. try out. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. These phrases are called verbal phrases. do away with. instead of. 2. look after. 16 . set aside. turn up. go on. The bomb -----------. Try to compare the meanings of these phrases in the above sentences and in the text. go in for. They are instrumental in expressing things more effectively. call for. come up with 1. look into. Go for.5 ACTIVITY Find the meanings of the following phrases and use them in your own sentences.Communication Skills in English Block I Once you go through these sentences we would like you to go back to the text and quickly skim through the paragraphs and underline similar words used in them. 2.this complaint we received this morning (examine) 3.6 ACTIVITY Replace the words in brackets in the following sentences with a suitable phrasal verb chosen from those given in the box. Inspite of.

This is what the imaginative use of language is all about. What does reading comprehension mean? 2. He was walking through the park when a strange dog suddenly --------him (attacked) 5. I am afraid.  2. 2.bread. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. You have scanned the lesson to identify the useful phrases and their usage. Due to the heavy downpour. You have written down quite a few useful phrases to be used in English. The invention of the script for the visually impaired called “Braille” has facilitated reading by touch. Turned up 5. 17 . Went in for You can list as many phrasal verbs of common use and attempt to use them in your speech and writing. You can‟t have a sandwich. Look into 6.7 SUMMARY In this unit you have been made to understand the problems of the visually impaired persons with regard to reading. we have ------------. Went off 4.Communication Skills in English Block I 4. You have realised the need and importance of reading even for those who suffer from a loss of vision. (exhausted the supply of) 6. Read a passage from a storybook and test your comprehension by asking questions similar to the ones asked in this unit.8 SELF TEST 1. You have skimmed through the lesson and have answered the comprehension questions. run out of 2. the proposed concert has to be ----------(cancelled) Answers: 1. 4. Prepare a list of phrasal verbs and use them in your own sentences. How will you define phrasal verbs? 3. Called off 3.

Where‟s the sheriff? (Gunfighter) -----------------------------------3.-----. Where‟s the pub? (Railway line) --------------------------------------7. Using the prepositions in the list. Where‟s the woman? (Sheriff. Where‟s the school (supermarket) ---------------------------------------4.------ Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Where‟s the tree? (Bank) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ---.-----. Where‟s the cinema? (pub. Where‟s the horse? (Saloon) It‟s in front of the Saloon -------------------------------------- 2.-----. gunfighter) 5. laundry) -------------------------8.9 APPENDIX {REMEDIAL EXERCISES} in prepositions APPENDIX (PREPOSITIONS) 1.---.Communication Skills in English Block I 2. Where‟s the Bank? (Saloon) 6. POSITION (PREPOSITIONS) Answer the questions. 18 . Beside Next to below under above over BANK between opposite in front of behind SALOON 1.

19 . Where are the bird and the fish? (water) ---------------------------------- 2. Where‟s the bird? (fish) ----------------------------------10. DIRECTOR PREPOSITIONS Sikkim Manipal University Page No.Communication Skills in English Block I 9. Where are the hands? (water) ----------------------------------11.

-------------. 2. ----------------------------------------------------------------- drive ----------------------------------------------------------------------climb ----------------------------------------------------------------------- crawl -----------------------------------------------------------------------cycle ---------------------------------------------------------------------go ----------------------------------------------------------------------run -----------------------------------------------------------------------ride -------------------------------------------------------------------------drive ------------------------------------------------------------------------go -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 5. 4.5.Communication Skills in English Block I down round over across out of through upto under towards away from past Answers 1.6. --------------. -------------- 7. ------------------8.------------- Now write sentences in the past sense for each picture. Towards 4. 11. Use the words given 1. ------------------ 10. 10. -------------2. 8. 7. -----------------9. 9. -------------3. run walk The girl ran towards the house. ------------11. 3. 6. 20 .

1 3.2 3.2 SHORT STORY: The Baby-Sitter By Norah Burke Sikkim Manipal University Page No.1 TENSES: REMEDIAL 3.2 TENSES: PAST PERFECT SUMMARY APPENDIX: BASIC WORD LIST I A RICHARDS (1943) SELF TEST 3. In this unit we will be focusing our attention on sequential arrangement of contents in a passage.6 READING SKILLS 3. We will also look into the use of tenses. 21 .8 INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVES SHORT STORY – „The Baby Sitter‟ by Norah Burke EXERCISE IN SKIMMING AND SCANNING COMPREHENSION VOCABULARY GRAMMAR AND USAGE 3.5 3.7 3. 3.Communication Skills in English Block I UNIT 3 Structure: 3.4 3.6.0 3.0 INTRODUCTION We have so far learnt about reading.3 3.1 OBJECTIVES In this unit the learner is enabled to:  Read a short-story about the loyalty and devotion of an elephant  Sequence the events according to their occurrence in the story  Identify and use some of the words occurring in the story  Practise the use of the past perfect tense in English  Reinforce the uses of the tense in English 3. skimming and scanning and also about reading comprehension.6.

Karim shouted in the direction she had taken. marked a circle in front of the elephant and put the baby into it. whom Gajpati loved with unselfish devotion. and put the baby into it. “Look after him. but each time he tried to crawl out of the circle he was picked up and put back in again. these two. Suddenly the sun was gone drawing over it a sky of velvet and diamonds. who gently restrained the child if he tried to crawl away.Communication Skills in English Block I To his keeper Karim. He belonged to India‟s Forest Department and was employed in the Himalayan foothills as a shikar (hunting) elephant. best and most intelligent elephant in all Asia. His legs were like trees . he could penetrate the jungle like no other animal.” they would order the big tusker. the baby lay and laughed up at the elephant. They were perfectly content together. 22 .his track 20 inches across-and he had more than once stamped a bear to a pulp. to discourage flies. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. Gajpati stood ten feet tall and weighed more than four tons. Sometimes he flicked a little dirt over the baby. After a while. The infant could do as he liked. Karim‟s wife took a big earthen jar and went off towards the river to fill it. every jungle sound had stopped except the roar of the river. either she or Karim would draw a circle in the dust in front of the tethered animal. He was especially so with Karim. “Keep him inside there. or dinner to cook. when she failed to return. Gajpati was the biggest. One afternoon when they were camped near the Rapti River. But there was no reply. Quite suddenly Karim. Gajpati scooped up some dust with his trunk and blew it over himself. with his heel. Gajpati!” He ran full speed to see what had happened to his wife. next to his immense toenails. If the elephant were doing nothing when Karim‟s wife had water to fetch. Here. and with Karim‟s infant son. time meant nothing. Yet Gajpati was a gentle animal. At his yell. inside the cool shade of the huge wild-mango tree to which Gajpati was tethered. And sometimes drops of green spit fell from Gajpati‟s pointed underlip onto the baby‟s tummy and tickled him. Under Gajpati‟s trunk. O Lord of Elephants.

He was a scavenger of carrion and an eater of skeletons.Communication Skills in English Block I Immediately. He put up his trunk and trumpeted for the owners of this baby to come back and do something. straining the chain that bound him. There were three of them. One sat down out of reach and fixed its nocturnal eyes on the child. It was not till the hyenas were in the camp that Gajpati saw them. the air was colder. Gajpati scented the hyenas. but what? He offered the baby a mouthful of leaves. hyenas take human children every year. and there came the whoop of an eagle owl. He realised that something was the matter. out of sight. Gajpati swung back and made for the sitting hyena. Gajpati gathered the baby closer to his feet and squealed a threat. He did not succeed. His mate and an almost full-grown young hyena came out of the den. Jackals howled in the dusk. and braced the whole of his giant strength against it to break it down. The sight made him rage angrily. Not far away. and felt the breeze with his trunk to find out more. In sudden exasperation. They did not appear. and fanned him. the elephant put his forehead against the mango tree. trotted off in that direction. It was no good. The others began to circle around behind. helpless creature he might find. too. The hyenas were nonplussed. In India. a male hyena emerged from his burrow and stood silently sniffing the night air for news of food. The hyenas behind him darted at the baby. but the tree groaned at the roots. Gajpati was beginning to be agitated about the child. but his vision poor. these bold and loathsome beasts. When they heard the baby crying. which sprang smartly away. He froze. In camp. 23 . The elephant grumbled and blew. He would pick up any small. They jumped out of reach. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. but quite close. An elephant‟s sense of smell is acute. with their powerful crushing teeth. and the baby began to cry. so he wheeled towards them instead. in the rough grassland.

A little after midnight. Presently. They were watching the elephant with respect. close to the now leaning tree and watched. He backed up. he slept. Gajpati struck like lightning and in a moment got one hyena under his forefeet. too. Gajpati threw the carcass aside. The hyenas were hungry. the baby lay half-sleeping. shook his head. In the grey of early morning. 24 . but they did not allow for the slack of the chain. so Gajpati gave up. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. With a squeal of triumph and rage. and began to crawl away. and they did not return. Then. leaving elephant and baby in peace for an hour or two Pillowed in dust. Now the baby was yelling at the top of his lungs. and sucked at the stub of sugarcane that Gajpati offered him. halfsobbing. he stood perfectly still. At the same moment. He forged out to the full length of his range. and gathered the baby to him. who made off. sat up. Breaking branches and rushing leaves covered them both. Gajpati saw the hyenas coming back and the baby several yards away.Communication Skills in English Block I He attacked the tree again. It shrieked as he strove against it. Blood poured down. they saw only the fallen tree and Gajpati under it. It scattered he others. the baby stirred. and blindly trying to crawl away. Almost at once the struggle was over. and exhausted by hunger. Iron links bit into his flesh. Gajpati dozed. He was already out of reach when the elephant woke. The hyenas saw their chance and darted in. The violence sent the hyenas off in a flash. body stamped to a pulp. warmed by the elephant‟s sweet breath. the great tree gave and smashed down upon elephant and baby together. bold and began to close in. When Karim and his wife ran gasping into camp. Changing his tactics.

To have dropped her water jar into deep rapids had been bad enough. Beneath it all. that thou wouldst break loose and leave him?” He took his axe and began to free the elephant. “Look!” gasped the woman. and hyena tracks were everywhere. in tears. 25 . He was up.” choked the woman But the elephant got his front feet on to the ground and heaved free of the last branches. And Gajpati? He lay with closed eyes beneath the tree. panting and grunting. snatched him up. He was very dirty and scratched. who stood with her son in the arms and trembling still after her night‟s adventures.Communication Skills in English Block I Their baby? They tore their way into the leaves and branches. these had parted to disclose the body of the hyena. The big elephant stood and sucked his trunk in shame and remorse for wrongdoing. Where Gajpati had heaved himself free of branches. as she tried to recover it. Karim had raced off down the river to look for her. His mother. “Thou worthless traitor!” Karim told the animal bitterly. but whole. but was overtaken by night and lost in the jungle. Then. bruised. watched by his wife. Karim cleared away the branches and undid Gajpati‟s chain. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. There followed such words of praise that made Gajpati lift his head and blink. At dawn they had found each other as both rushed home to the child. to be swept downstream had been a nightmare. Karim and his wife read the story: Gajpati was no traitor. the child lay sleeping in the curl of the elephant‟s trunk. “Fool! Traitor!” raged Karim. bleeding and shaking. “He will die of his injuries. Now. “So! Was the baby nothing to thee.

A little later. The baby was frightened by all the noise and violence around him 3. Read through the events and rearrange them sequentially. 14. The other two hyenas ran away when Gajpati struck 16. she fell into the river and was swept downstream 18. 7. Gajpati pulled the tree down and chased the hyena away. 12. 9. 1. Karim made Gajpathi look after the baby when his wife did not return from the river 2. 10. they saw the child sleeping in the curl of Gajpati‟s trunk. look at the following list of events from the story. When Karim and his wife returned. However. Gajpati gathered the baby to him and stood still. He ran fast to see what had happened to his wife 19. they are not in chronological order. The hyenas appeared in the dusk. 11. Meanwhile the baby lay under Gajpati‟s trunk and laughed at him. A little after midnight Gajpati dozed off 6. If you get stuck you can read the story again so that you get a clear comprehension of the story. You can begin the exercise in the blank space given below with – One afternoon Karim‟s wife went off towards the river to fetch water Sikkim Manipal University Page No. They tried to take the baby away 20. He crushed the hyena that tried to get near the child. One afternoon Karim‟s wife went off towards the river to fetch water. He was overtaken by night and got lost in the jungle  It is good to start sequencing the events after the first reading itself. Just to help you. When the elephant woke up he saw the hyenas return and the baby several yards away. They first blamed the elephant for not taking good care of the child. 8. 5.Communication Skills in English Block I 3. when they saw the dead hyena they realised that Gajpati had been a devoted baby-sitter 4. as you have understood the story. 13. The baby woke up and began to crawl away 15.3 EXERCISE I After reading the passage. Gajpati tried to break the tree down to attack the hyenas 17. In trying to recover her water jar. 26 .

teach. choosing suitable words from the list given: [cut.except for its skin Sikkim Manipal University Page No. restrain. Saviour b. Gajpati was baby-sitting for Karim and his wife for the first time.right through the coat A banana is mainly ------------. amazement.. loyal servant (Reason)…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3.5 VOCABULARY Fill in the blanks in the sentences given below. exasperation] Rain has --------------. Do you agree? How do you know? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Do you think the baby minded being looked after by the elephant? Why do you think so? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………  „In India.Communication Skills in English Block I 3. kernel.4 COMPREHENSION Answer the following questions briefly. penetrated. Which of the following words do you think Karim and his wife used? Give your reason………. devoted friend d. pulp. a. hyenas take human children every year‟ – What is the significance of this sentence? ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………… Read the last paragraph of the story again. guardian c. 27 .

8.1 EXERCISE IN TENSES Complete the following sentences.(not sleep) last night Raj: What -----------. She -----------(drive) her new car I -----------. Two examples are already given to you 1.the police Inspector found the robber surrendering with all the booty The bullets could not ------------------. 28 . 7. 10. 5.6 GRAMMAR AND USAGE 3. E.for their holidays last year? (go) I saw Sarika yesterday.(try) to find a job at the moment.Communication Skills in English Block I If you can‟t ---------------. It is very difficult Listen! Somebody ------------.(play) the piano I am tired this morning. 6. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. you must lock him up „Go away!‟ I shouted in --------------To his --------------. 2.the strong walls 3. He ------------. g You can turn off the television. 9.6. I‟m not watching it (watch/not) Last night Hrishikesh fell (fall) asleep while he was reading (read) David is lazy.(not like) hard work “Have you got my key?” “No” I -------------(give) it back to you Where ----------. 3. I --------------.(you/do) at six o‟clock last Sunday morning? Ravi: I was in bed asleep.your parents ------------.your dog from biting the milkman. 4.

7 SUMMARY In this unit we studied and practised: a) Reading and understanding a short story about the loyalty and devotion of an elephant and perceiving the sequence of events in the story b) Use of some of the words in the story in our day to day language c) Use of the past perfect tense in English d) Reminded ourselves of the use of tenses in English  3. 3.(already finish) eating by the time I got there. The post office ------.2 EXERCISE – II (PAST PERFECT TENSE) Match the questions in column „A‟ with the anwers in column „B‟. 5. Fill in the blanks with the past perfect tense form of the verb given in brackets. Read a short story and apply exercises similar to those given in this unit to that story and find out answers.ARCTIC REGION Communication Skills in English Block I 3.(already close) when I reached there. d. See if you can learn ten new words everyday by using your dictionary Sikkim Manipal University Page No. A 1. Why was Hameed so happy yesterday? B a. She realized that she …………. Because I ---------. No. He-----. Why did Amita drop out of class? 5. When should you start sequencing events in a passage that you have read and why? 2. Did you put the milk in the fridge? 2. Why didn‟t you go to the movie with Avinash? 4. No.6. What is the use of past perfect tense? Explain with examples. 3. Make some sentences using the word list given in the appendix. Mother had already put (already put) it in before I came home c. Did you have a good dinner at Sheela‟s wedding? 3.8 SELF TEST 1.(already see) it e. No. 4. (already read) all the books b.(just pass) his driving test f. Did you register the letter? 6. they ----------. 29 .

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