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# Thermodynamics- Enthalpy of Reaction and Hess’s Law

Lexi Gilligan
1. Purpose
To verify Hess’s Law using three different acid-base reactions.
2. Theory
The amount of heat lost or gained in a reaction can be an important part of a
chemical equation. The amount of heat released or absorbed in a reaction is referred to
as the enthalpy change. Enthalpy, seen as ΔH, can be either positive or negative. A
positive ΔH refers to an endothermic reaction. This occurs when the reaction
absorbs energy from the environment. In an exothermic reaction (-ΔH), energy is
released from the reaction and absorbed into the environment. The enthalpy
value for each reaction differs. Using Hess’s Law, known enthalpy values for
different reactions can be integrated to come up with the unknown enthalpy value
for another equation. All of the enthalpy values for the known reactions should
add up to the value of the heat transfer for the entire unknown reaction. This
works because if a reaction can be done in a sequence of different steps, the
enthalpies for each of the steps can be added together to find the overall
enthalpy Throughout this lab, ammonium chloride and sodium hydroxide were
combined and the enthalpy change was found. The same was done with sodium
hydroxide and hydrochloric acid. Using Hess’s law, these values were combined
to find the enthalpy changes for the reaction that occurred when ammonia and
hydrochloric acid were combined.

3. Procedure

## Part One: Determining the Heat Capacity of the Calorimeter

I. Set up a calorimeter: Two Styrofoam cups, with a magnetic stirring bar in the
inner cup, should sit on a magnetic stirrer. A square piece of cardboard with a hole in
the center should be placed over the top of the Styrofoam cups and should completely
cover openings of the cups.
II. Measure out 50.0 mL of water, and pour the water into the calorimeter.
III. Slowly turn on the magnetic stirrer. As the magnetic stirring bar begins to spin,
increase its speed slowly until it is going full speed.
IV. Take the temperature of the water and record it.
V. Measure about 75 mL of water and pour the water into a 250-mL beaker. Using
a bunsen burner, heat the water in the beaker until it becomes about 70 degrees
Celsius.
VI. Measure out 50.0 mL of the hot water in a graduated cylinder.
VII. Take the temperature of the hot water and record it.
VIII. Lifting up the cardboard covering the Styrofoam cups, quickly pour the hot water
into the calorimeter. Be sure to immediately cover the calorimeter after the hot water is
poured in. A thermometer should be inserted in the hole in the cardboard. At the very
second that the hot water entered the calorimeter, a stop watch should begin keeping
track of the time.
IX. Every 20 seconds, for a total of three minutes, use the thermometer to record
the temperature.
X. After three minutes of recording temperatures, the calorimeter water can be
poured out and the calorimeter should be dried.

## Part Two: Calculating the Enthalpy of Reaction

I.Reaction One:
I. Set up the calorimeter again (Refer to step 1 in Part One)
II.Measure out 50.0 mL of 2.0 M HCL solution.
III. Record the temperature of the HCL solution and pour it into the calorimeter.
IV. Using a clean graduated cylinder, measure out 50.0 mL of 2.0 M NaOH solution.
V.Record the temperature of the NaOH.
VI.Turn on the magnetic stirring bar (Refer to step 3 of Part One).
VII. Pour the NaOH solution quickly into the calorimeter. After pouring the NaOH into
the HCl, the Styrofoam cups need to immediately be covered and a thermometer
needs to be inserted into the hole in the cardboard. Keep track of the time from the
second that the liquids come in contact. Record the temperature of the mixture every
20 seconds for 3 minutes.
VIII. Clean the calorimeter using water and dry each part.
II.Reaction Two:
I. Repeat the eight steps in Reaction One of Part 2, except use 2.0 M NH4Cl and
2.0 M NaOH
III.Reaction Three:
I.Repeat the eight steps in Reaction One of Part 2, except use 2.0 M NH3 and 2.0 M
HCl. Whenever the ammonia (NH 3) has to be poured into a beaker (used to transfer
the ammonia from the large jar to the graduated cylinder) or measured out, it must
be done under the fume hood.

## 11. Data and Calculations

Part One
1.See attached graphs
2. The average initial temperature of the hot and cold water
Tave =
 Thot water + T cold water   82.0 + 24.2 
  =   = 53.1 δεγρεεσΧελσιυσ
2 2
3. The heat lost by the water (assuming that the specific heat of water is 4.18 J/g° C)
qwater =
( grams of water )ξ(σπεχιφιχ ηεατ οφ ωατερ)ξ(τµ ιξ−ταϖε) = (100 γ Η2Ο)ξ(4.18ϑ/γϒΧ)ξ(51.861−53.1°Χ) = −517.90 ϑ
qcal= -(qwater) = 517.90 J

## 4. Heat capacity of the Calorimeter

Ccal=
 qcal   517.90 ϑ 
 (Tmix-Tinitial)  =  52.861 − 24.2°Χ  = 18.070ϑ/ϒΧ
Part Two
1. See attached graph
2.

3. Sources of Error

4. Questions
1) Calorimetry is the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions.
Calorimeters are used to measure the quantity of heat exchanged. This can
then be used to calculate the specific heat of a substance, which is the
amount of heat per unit mass that is required to raise the temperature of the
substance by one degree Celsius. The type of chemical reaction (exothermic
or endothermic) can also be figured out because exothermic reactions
release heat, while endothermic reactions absorb heat.
2) The graphical analysis allows you to find the theoretical temperature at the start
of the experiment (Shown as Tmix in the graphs). This is unable to be
calculated during the actual lab because when you mix the chemical
together, they take a few seconds to mix completely.
3) The negative sign in front of the bracket
m
qrxn = −[ (γραµ σοφ σολυτιον ξ σπεχιφιχ ηεατ οφ σολυτιον ξ ς Τσολυτιον) + (Χχαλ ξ ς Τσολυτιον)]
eans that the reaction is exothermic. This means that reaction gives off
energy in the form of heat to the surroundings.
4) DSDJFLKSJDFL
5) See sources of error
6)