AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT

– HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL
ENGINEERING

Assignment Title Unit

MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS

MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Outcome #1: Investigate Microprocessor Systems SUNGKUR SHASHIDEV OTHER TEAM
KERSLEY GOVINDEN, KRISHAN BUNCHOO

Submission Date: 29 Nov 2010

Date 24/11/2010

Name Page 1 of 26

AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT

– HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL
ENGINEERING

Assignment Title Unit

MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................3 .....................................................................................................................................................................................6 FIGURE 2 HTTP://UPLOAD.WIKIMEDIA.ORG/WIKIPEDIA/COMMONS/1/18/PIC18F8720.JPG..........6 2. APPLICATION : IPOD NANO ...........................................................................................................................6 2.1 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF YOUR APPLICATION ..................................................................................................................6 ...................................................................................................................................................................................6
FIGURE:3HTTP://WWW.EVERYMAC.COM/SYSTEMS/APPLE/CONSUMER_ELECTRONICS/STATS/IPOD_NANO.HTML.................................6

2.2 FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF THE APPLICATION ....................................................................................................8 2.3 FUNCTIONS OF THE MICROPROCESSOR IN APPLICATION .................................................................................................10 ARM 7TDMI 80MHZ ....................................................................................................................10

..................................................................................................................................................................................11 FIGURE:5 HTTP://WWW.SLASHGEAR.COM/GALLERY/DATA_FILES/7/4/ARM_PROCESSOR.JPG .....................................................................................................................................................................................11 Click wheel system (User interface)..................................................................................................................15 3 CONCLUSIONS.....................................................................................................................................................21 3.1 TABULATION OF TYPES OF MICROPROCESSORS W.R.T. COMMON FEATURES.......................................................................21 3.2 COMMENT ON PERFORMANCE COMPARISON.................................................................................................................22 3.3 RESEARCH ON ALTERNATIVES.................................................................................................................................22 HTTP://WWW.ABCOFELECTRONICS.COM/MICROPROCESSOR.HTMREFERENCES.......................24 HTTP://WWW.SLASHGEAR.COM/GALLERY/DATA_FILES/7/4/ARM_PROCESSOR.JPG....................24 APPENDIX.................................................................................................................................................................25

Date 24/11/2010

Name Page 2 of 26

A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 3 of 26 .AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS 1. INTRODUCTION • Microprocessor Basics FIGURE: 1a http://www. A microprocessor are of various types such as 20 pin microprocessor or a 40 pin microprocessor.JPG Microprocessor is a microcomputer on a single chip.com/microprocessor.org/wikipedia/en/f/fa/Pentiumd.htm FIGURE1b http://upload.wikimedia.abcofelectronics.

The microprocessor handles the logic operations taking place inside a computer.#10h. or in any handheld device. It can be said as an "The integrated circuit chip" that performs the data processing and controls the operation of all of the parts of the system. and copying. clock-driven. and provides results as an output. Advanced Microprocessors can be said as Microcontrollers like we have 8051 and 8052. The microprocessor was formed by minimizing the word size of the CPU from 32 bits to 4 bits. The microprocessor is a programmable integrated device that has computing and decision-making capabilities. so that the transistors of its logic circuits would come onto a single part. From then microprocessors have evolved (from 8 bit microprocessor to 64 bit design till the early 2000’s) and have become more and more powerful. programmable. register-based electronic device that reads binary instructions from a storage device called memory. subtracting. accepts binary data as input and processes data according to those instructions. It was only used in simple calculators. and it processes by executing instructions. such as adding such as add a. • History The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004 and was invented in 1971. A microprocessor is a multipurpose. One or more microprocessors typically works as the CPU in a computer system. A general-purpose logic chip is called a microprocessor.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS processing unit (CPU) on a single semi conducting integrated circuit (IC). Nowadays there exist the multi-core microprocessors (more than one microprocessor core on a single chip Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 4 of 26 . embedded system.

where they may need to act more like a digital signal processor (DSP). microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes. They will generally have the ability to retain functionality while waiting for an event such as a button press or other interrupt. Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 5 of 26 . Microcontrollers are designed for small or dedicated applications. in contrast to the microprocessor used in a PC and other high-performance or general purpose applications. Thus. simplicity is emphasized.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS What is a microcontroller? A microcontroller is a small computer on a single integrated circuit consisting of a relatively simple CPU combined with support functions. and input/output devices. memory. Some microcontrollers may operate at clock rate frequencies as low as 4 kHz. making many of them well suited for long lasting battery applications. power consumption while sleeping (CPU clock and most peripherals off) may be just nanowatts. Other microcontrollers may serve performance-critical roles. integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. Mixed signal microcontrollers are common. with higher clock speeds and power consumption. enabling low power consumption (milliwatts or microwatts). Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices. as this is adequate for many typical applications. By reducing the size and cost compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor.

1 Brief description of your application figure:3http://www.com/systems/apple/consumer_electronics/stats/ipod_nano.everymac. Application : IPOD NANO 2.html Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 6 of 26 .wikimedia.jpg 2.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/PIC18F8720.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Figure 2 http://upload.

• Built in display: 1. but not sync via Firewire "400". • dock connector" .168-mm dot pitch) with ["blue white"] LED backlight • Battery Type: Lithium Ion Battery Life (Photos): 4 Hours Battery Life (Music): 14 Hours Full-Charge Time: About 3 Hours .5-inch (diagonal) color LCD [176x132 (.5” 16 –bit LCD Display resolution : 176x132 Details :The iPod nano models have a "1.5 hours to 80% capacity.Ports include the "dock connector [and] stereo minijack • Housing colour: Available in a two-tone housing with either a "iBook white" front and a chromed stainless steel back or a "gloss Black" front and a chromed stainless steel back. It also can charge.000 photos • USB support: The iPod noon models are capable of charging and syncing by USB via Connectivity: the dock connector.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS • SPECIFICATION • The iPod nano uses a PortalPlayer PP5021C "system on a chip" with dual embedded 80 MHz ARM 7TDMI processors • Storage capacity:1GB • Song capacity: 250 in kbps AAC format Photo capacity:15. • Apple reports that the iPod nano models charge completely in "about 3 hours" and also will "fast charge" in 1. Apple Subfamily: iPod nano Apple Model No: A1137 Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 7 of 26 .

2 Functional Block Diagram of the application Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 8 of 26 . • Incl.27 inch • It is compatible with a "PC with USB port or card (USB 2." 2. TIFF. 1.6 inch wide." • Photo Support: iPod nano syncs iPod-viewable photos in "JPEG. and PNG formats".AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit • MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Dimensions:3. BMP. PSD (Mac only). GIF. and 0. [and] dock adapter.5 inch tall. Accessories: Shipped with "earbud headphones. USB cable.0 recommended) [and] Windows 2000 with Service Pack 4 [or later] or Windows XP Home or Professional with Service Pack 2 [or later].

0 System power On/Off CLICK WHEEL Dock Connector Battery Charger Figure:4 Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 9 of 26 .AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Viewing LCD SCREEN Audio Codec Audio DAC Amplifier Amplifier EAR PHONE MS/ MMC/ SD/ SDIO Card Microprocessor ADC Microphone DSP Compact flash card Recording system USB 2.

it deals only with digital signals. most commonly. Codec stands for ‘compressordecompressor' or. Compact Flash Card: It is a mass storage device format used in portable electronic devices. DSP: DSP stands for Digital Signal Processor.3 Functions of the microprocessor in application ARM 7TDMI Date 24/11/2010 80MHz Name Page 10 of 26 . Compact Flash typically uses flash memory. A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. It is the interface between devices and computers. 2. As its name says.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS USB: USB stands for Universal Serial Bus. 'coder-decoder'. For storage.

com/gallery/data_files/7/4/ARM_processor.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Figure:5 http://www. The features of ARM 7TDMI are: • 32/16-bit RISC architecture (ARM v4T) • 32-bit ARM instruction set for maximum performance and flexibility • 16-bit Thumb instruction set for increased code density • Unified bus interface. low power and high performance.slashgear.JPG The ARM7TDMI core is a 32-bit embedded RISC processor delivered as a hard macro cell optimized to provide the best combination of performance. 32-bit data bus carries both instructions and data • Three-stage pipeline Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 11 of 26 . power and area characteristics. The ARM7TDMI core enables system designers to build embedded devices requiring small size.

8 • Power consumption: 0. ROM: . These data written on this memory cannot be erased or edited.256 KB • SDRAM:. It means that this microprocessor processes instructions at every 1.90 • 10 bit ADC channels:. In this memory. the program of what the microprocessor should do.80MHz It is the frequency at which the ARM 7TDMI executes the data.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS • 32-bit ALU • Very small die size and low power consumption • Clock frequency:. This RAM accelerates the processing speed of the microprocessor.160 KB • General purpose I/O:.160 KB The microprocessor has a synchronous dynamic random access memory of 160 kB.25 mW/MHz Explanation of the features Clock frequency: . Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 12 of 26 .25*10-8 seconds. SDRAM: .256 KB The ARM 7TDMI have read only memory of 256 Kb.80MHz • ROM:.

AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS General purpose I/O:. cost and power consumption • Low power consumption enables battery-powered devices • Instruction set can be extended for specific requirements using coprocessors Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 13 of 26 .8 The microprocessor can have a maximum of 8 10-bit analogue to digital converter.90 The microprocessors can have a maximum of 90 input and output devices. Benefits: • Generic layout can be ported to specific process technologies Unified memory bus simplifies SoC integration process. • ARM and Thumb instructions sets can be mixed with minimal overhead to support application requirements for speed and code density. 10 bit ADC channels: . • Code written for ARM7TDMI is binary-compatible with other members of the ARM7 Family • Small die size reduces overall SoC area.

AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS • ARM7TDMI Block Diagram Functions of a microprocessor is as follows: Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 14 of 26 .

The different systems are: • Click wheel system • Recording system • Data transfer System Click wheel system (User interface) Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 15 of 26 .AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit INPUT MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS MICROPROCESSOR OUTPUT STORAGE DEVICE It means that the input signals are fed to the microprocessor and the microprocessor executes the input signal. During the process. Similarly. information can also be stored. the microprocessor used in the IPod Nano is the ARM 7TDMI. retrieves information from the storage device and gives an output signal.

play. pause. Finally the signal is fed to a earphone and the user listens to his / her music.org/wiki/File:Ipodwheelwiki. digital-to-analog or D/A conversion. Output signals from the clickwheel:  To the LCD screen and the user is able to see information such as a picture. Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 16 of 26 . it executes this input signal and retrieves information from the flash memory and gives an output signal. OUTPUT ARM 7TDMI SIGNAL LCD screen . or name of music playing. Other operations. which is then amplified using an amplifier. the process of changing discrete digital data into an analogue form.svg It has five buttons The buttons perform basic functions such as menu. next track. an input signal is fed to the ARM 7TMI microprocessor.wikipedia. and previous track. such as scrolling through menu items and controlling the volume.  To the DAC. When the keys are pressed one at a time. are performed by using the click wheel in a rotational manner.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Figure 6 http://en.

As sound is in the analogue form.Which converts sound energy into electrical energy.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS OUTPUT SIGNAL ARM 7TDMI DAC Amplifier Ear Phone Flash memory 2. microphone Amplifier ADC ARM 7TDMI LCD screen Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 17 of 26 . Thus an ADC [Analogue to Digital converter] is used. how much time is remained for recording and it also shows that the IPod is being used for recording. The electrical signal that has been produced is then amplified since the electric signal is too small . The recording system The IPod Nano can also do recording as it has a microphone (piezo crystal) . The digital input is then fed in the microprocessor and the latter stores the information in the flash memory. therefore the signal formed is in the analogue form and it needs to be converted to digital form. During this process the microprocessor sends an output signal to the LCD screen where it shows how much time has been recorded. .

jpg/180pxApple_Dock_Connector.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Flash memory 3. However a signal (input) is also sent to the microprocessor which then send an output signal to the screen showing that devices is connected to a computer. Dock connectors are used to connect the IPod to computers or other devices. The dock connector also brought opportunities to exchange data. sound and power with an IPod.wikimedia. Data transfer System: The dock connector Dock Connector is a small connector attached to a cable. edited. During this process data is directly read. deleted and copied to the memory of the IPod. Microprocessor Dock connector Battery Charger Data can be sent or read from the flash memory. typically with a USB connector attached to the other end.jpg Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 18 of 26 . Figure 7: http://upload.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Apple_Dock_Connector.

monitoring user input through playback controls. According to the conservation of energy. an amplifier is used. Therefore energy [electrical] is supplied to the amplifier by the battery [Lithium Ion]. displaying all the statistics related to the Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 19 of 26 . BRIEF FUNCTION OF THE MICROPROCESSOR IN THE IPOD The microprocessor is the brain of the system. the latter cannot be created nor destroyed. The battery feeds different components found in the IPod such as:  The microprocessor[ electronic device which needs power to execute (work) data]  Flash memory  Amplifier: in order for a signal to be amplified. The IPod Nano has a battery which can be charged either by the USB port [when connected to a computer] or by a charger.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS The Power Management In order for the device to work. there should be a power management system.  DAC(Digital to Analogue converter) and ADC(Analogue to Digital converter) DAC and ADC exist as small Integrated circuits. This ICs needs power to work.

can be added to or removed from the IPOD. While powering up. The DSP withdraws the MP3 file. Again it's the software on the EEPROM that does this. First. Then. It exposes itself over the USB as a mass storage device with the CF card as its storage medium. The CODEC converts the digital sample into an analogue audio signal. In fact it is the software found on the EEPROM that enables the DSP to do the decoding and the microprocessor to manage the player tasks. Suppose you want to listen to a song. Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 20 of 26 . In this case. which are amplified and sent to the EARPHONE S. the microprocessor loads itself by reading its firmware from the EEPROM. the microprocessor transfers files between USB and CF card. after you have selected the track you want to listen to. When plugged into the USB port of a PC.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS song playing on the DISPLAY panel and sending instructions to the DSP chip that tells exactly how to process the audio. the microprocessor communicates with the PC through USB. the microprocessor sends a command to the DSP which in turn commands the CODEC to raise the volume. For example if the “raise volume” button is pressed. decodes it and sends it over to the CODEC chip. Files can be transferred to the CF card using Windows Explorer. the power button is pressed to switch it on. you press the PLAY button. Tracks. Windows shows it as a removable drive in My Computer.

common features Application 1: Application 2: IPOD Application 3: Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 21 of 26 .AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS 3 CONCLUSIONS 3.t.r.1 Tabulation of types of microprocessors w.

2 Comment on performance comparison Since the early 1970’s.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS 3. Also.3 Research on alternatives Alternatives:Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 22 of 26 . ARM7TDMI is far much faster in terms of processing speed and has a greater amount of ROM to store programming instructions. 3. we can say that the ARM7TDMI is a more robust processor than the TMP88CS42 and mc68322. From the above tabulation. Therefore it will be more appropriate to use in various applications other than a media player. As there is incredible development in technology. many new machines and technologies have emerged and are much present on our daily life like the examples described before in this report. It can accept greater amount of input and output devices. the introduction of microprocessors have increased efficiency in electrical appliances in terms of energy saving as well as performance. we can say that the use of microprocessor will expand drastically to an extent that we cannot define today.

com/pdfs/ARM7_thumb_flyer_35_4.4 mm2 0.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Another microprocessor which could be used to replace the ARM7TDMI would be the ARM720T.arm. The µP has the following specifications: 100 MHz 2. It does form part of the ARM family.pdf Research Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 23 of 26 .2 mW (power consumption) www.

slashgear.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ipodwheelwiki.JPG Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 24 of 26 .wikimedia.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS http://www.htm http://upload.com/microprocessor.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/27/Apple_Dock_Co nnector.wikimedia.com/gallery/data_files/7/4/ARM_processor.jp g http://upload.wikipedia.jpg/180px-Apple_Dock_Connector.com/microprocessor.JPG http://upload.abcofelectronics.jpg http://en.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/PIC18F8720.svg http://www.org/wikipedia/en/f/fa/Pentiumd.jpg http://www.org/wiki/File:PIC18F8720.htmREFERENCES http://en.wikimedia.abcofelectronics.

Infineon. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles. Toshiba. Motorola. TSMC. Signetics. Intel. Speed-critical control signals are pipelined to allow system control functions to be implemented in standard low-power logic. its successor is being decoded. and a third instruction is being fetched from memory. Analog Devices. Renesas. Winbond. The ARM memory interface has been designed to allow the performance potential to be realised without incurring high costs in the memory system. and these control signals facilitate the exploitation of the fast local access modes offered by industry standard dynamic RAMs. Pipelining is employed so that all parts of the processing and memory systems can operate continuously. The ARM7TDMI is a member of the Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) family of general purpose 32-bit microprocessors. UMC.AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS APPENDIX Manufacturers of Microprocessors AMD. Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 25 of 26 . Intersil. Cypress . Samsung. Fujitsu. which offer high performance for very low power consumption and price. Hitachi IBM. and the instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of micro programmed Complex Instruction Set Computers. Fairchild. Typically. This simplicity results in a high instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt response from a small and cost-effective chip. Zilog Atmel. while one instruction is being executed. NXP . Microchip. Mitsubishi.

AUTOMATION TRAINING UNIT – HND IN INSTRUMENTATION & CONTROL ENGINEERING Assignment Title Unit MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS – Outcome #1 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEMS Date 24/11/2010 Name Page 26 of 26 .

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