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*!? architect's

sketch book

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tiiis

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is in

the Cornell University Library.

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text.

the United States on the use of the

http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924014761021

An Architedi''s Sketch Book .

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„||||||„>||||| . |||„„„||..ii|| m I I I |.lllllli IllinilllllinUlll Illl llllinlllll ill ll|j |||„„|lll I Illiiiilllln„>llll||.|. ||||. Robert Swain Peahody BOSTON AND NEW YORK HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY MDCCCCXII 7[I"""l|li"'"ljl l!llu..„„^ || r^ lllli... ..|„M„|| .illllii.i|i|i.| || ||„„„|. „ |||| „„. .|||.|„ .|..i'l|lll..|""l|l |l jl"''ni||i""i|||i''>"IP"'i||l""N|||«.<lllll j|i!"ii|j| |[|i""ii||ii"ii||!H"iil||i |||iiMii|j|iMMi|j]ih<iii||ii"ii|j|ii-ii|ji |||ii<'ii]|[ii«M|||iM<ii|||F |||i»>ii||| i|||rr>Mi[j|ii'<ii|||]i<>im|ii'<>i||[ii<iii||| \^-~ ill llllliiirllll llllliMillllllnillllllKllllllliiilllllliillllllliillllll lIllliiillllllMlllIll Ill llllliiilllllllitillmiiilllllllMitlllllnillillliHlltll Illlliiilllllliillllllliiirllhliiif .„„||||.„u||| .|| |L-= AN ARCHITECT'S SKETCH BOOK .

COPYRIGHT. BY ROBERT SWAIN PEABODY Published March igi2 . I9I2.

are gathered from many sketch books which record impressions gained in those portions of an architect's life which are as precious as they are infrequent. 1912 . Some of them see the light for the first time here. which illus- an imperfect manner the different essays. Some of them have reached the dignity of publication in the Atlantic Monthly. — his vacations. products of an active professional trate in The sketches. Boston March.ace Prefc SOME of these essays came into existence as contributions to the " papers " read at the Thursday Evening Club. %% The Fenway. All of them are bylife.

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. A VENETIAN DAY 1 II. ON THE DESIGN OF HOUSES BY THE SEA 75 91 VII.Contents I. FRENCH AND ENGLISH CHURCHES THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 45 61 V. IV. THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE RURAL ENGLAND 13 31 III. VI.

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SOMERSETSHIRE SAINT PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. SOMERSETSHIRE MULCHENEY CHURCH. 34 36 SEPULCHRE. NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 20 24 34 HIGHAM FERRERS CHURCH.Illustrations NORTHERN TOWER AT CHARTRES SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE. NORTHAMPTONSHIRE ST. NORTHAMPTON 36 RINGSTEAD CHURCH. — VENICE GOTHIC Frontispiece 6 WORK IN VENICE AND FLORENCE 10 FARM BUILDINGS NEAR FLORENCE NEAR MONTREUX. AND COUND CHURCH SALOP 38 40 40 KINGSBURY EPISCOPI CHURCH. NORTHAMPTONSHIRE RAUNDS CHURCH. LAKE OF GENEVA STANWICK CHURCH. LONDON 42 42 . LINCOLNSHIRE. NORTHAMPTONSHIRE 38 MARTOCK CHURCH. SOMERSETSHIRE YAXTON CHURCH.

80 82 TOURAINE 84 COTTAGE NEAR SEVEN OAKS. ROUEN 52 CHURCH OF ST. OUEN. 52 THE CATHEDRAL AT LAON THE CATHEDRAL AT PARIS THE CATHEDRAL AT PARIS THE PORTALS AT RHEIMS THE CATHEDRAL AT COUTANCES THE CATHEDRAL AT LE MANS THE WESTERN DOORWAY AT BOURGES CATHEDRAL THE WESTERN DOORWAY AT THE CATHEDRAL OF TOURS 54 54 56 56 58 58 60 60 THE SOUTHERN TOWER AT AMIENS CATHEDRAL CHATEAU DE MESNIERES. ROUEN OUEN. LINCOLNSHIRE 49 DURHAM CATHEDRAL LINCOLN CATHEDRAL 50 50 CHURCH OF ST. LINCOLNSHIRE HECKINGTON CHURCH. NORMANDY 60 78 CHATEAU DE LANGEAIS.xii Illustrations 48 BOSTON STUMP. KENT 86 . COMBOURG CHATEAU DE BLOIS. TOURAINE CHATEAU BRIAND.

MASSACHUSETTS 102 AT SEA 104 . MAINE 98 ON THE THAMES AT GREENWICH IN 100 THE BRITISH CHANNEL 102 OFF BOSTON LIGHT.Illustrations xiii LUDFORD HOUSE. LUDLOW. SALOP MARBLEHEAD. MASSACHUSETTS MASSACHUSETTS BAY 88 94 96 ON THE MAINE COAST OFF VENICE 96 98 ON THE PENOBSCOT RIVER.

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A Venetian Day .

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though classic. But from every side of approach the coupled domes of Santa Maria della Salute mark nobly the entrance to the Grand Canal. and except for its great size we canSt. not reckon its towering mass as peculiar to Venice alone. and the two pale domes of the " Salute.111I1 ill lllm. any single building in Venice landmark it is is conspicuous as a beautiful and characteristic this twin-domed church." shimmering sky. is Mark's Church general view. Its general scheme fantastic is and unusual. define themselves on the pale The Venetian day has begun. Many neighboring cities possess towers resembling those of Venice. Then little by little the fog grows transparent.. In fact there are one or two others here in Venice that are confusingly like the great Campanile.iilllli.111I111..iiilll 1I111.iiillf Nlii. If in the early sunlight.allll lIlliitillLiillllliinlllll lllimrrlll iLnllI An Architect's Sketch Book I A VENETIAN DAY 1892 WHEN we open our blinds all in the early morning a gray fog envelops Venice. We can just see the gondoliers at the boat landing beneath us busily polishing the steel prows and the brass sea horses that brighten their craft. too hidden to be a prominent landmark in a is The Ducal Palace too simple in outline to count from a distance as a noticeable feature. |[|ll'MI|||JI»l|||| |||1l'>l|||| ||[ll<il||||| |l|M"(||||MiiMl|||1H||M|TiilM|||)MMf||||li'l|||tirMI|||^^^^^^ lllihoillll ill lIllK.I"""l|l' llll I||I>"<II||I |[|"">l|||ll"l|||||l"|||j|||ii||||.iilllliiiiilIl lIltiKiilllliiiiillllh. are exuberant . Its details.

lines of piles Up the wandering channel that "trabaccoli. Although they and the "bragozzi" of Chioggia are boxlike. Because the Adriatic boats have always been thus adorned.4 An Architedt's Sketch Book both on the canal and not remarkable side. it forms a graceful composition. The green waters Fishing "burchios. and on the where its domes and slender towers overtop a green grove of trees. yet above a spreading flight of steps and a deserted side of the Giudecca. the sparkling lagoon entice us and its craft quickly away from buildings. we leave the Riva and gradually the city fades are flecked with white caps. where it rises for delicacy or purity. its the Salute's white walls rise visibly from reflected the sea and waters." with dragnets spread and drift broadside is with the wind.or weather-boards. The secret of their power lies in the great rudder which goes far below the boat's effective centreboard that bottom and forms an shallow waters. flat-bottomed structures with no centre. As the sun mounts high and the breeze freshens. but what an added charm is this gives to Though it may be that our errand in Venice to study architecture. the . As is fitting in Venice. domes are upon a mile or two if it of green Venice would doubtless be beautiful itself in it ! did not thus mirror these broad expanses. piazza. sails half raised. can be raised in Their rounded bows end in involved curves. Its general mass is perhaps the most pleasing that any Renaissance church can oflFer." their marked by long come huge bellying sails banded and starred with red and yellow. yet these great boats tack and go to windward very handily. On each side of the bow is carved and painted an immense eye. into the haze.

brilliant butterflies is They look like a row of sunning their outspread wings. or pale blue — is given to the views of the lagoon by the sails of all these vessels. or brown. is adorned with sacred painted on either side of the A handsome crew. looking and talking like pirates and cutamid holy pictures and images. On another a flying horse. the gondola glides in shallow. or red. somewhat similar craft the Greeks rowed from Athens to Syracuse or Romans cruised off the Carthaginian shore. A wealth of color — orange. They are seen in every variety as they cruise outside of Chioggia or along the coast by Rimini and Ancona. others have crosses. On one sail is drawn in bright colors a Still huge Madonna. thus dwell wears an amulet around his neck. their boats. or bands rudely is sponged upon the canvas. At the masthead swings a tangled flag-vane decked with pious emblems and surmounted by the cross. Remembering . draped with loose-hanging nets. Each sailor throats. When we and leave the broad and silvery stretches of the lagoon. When the fishermen come to Venice very early on Sunday morning to mass and to market. Through the dull canals of Murano amid heavy-laden barges and by deits serted houses we come to the lonely tower of Torcello keeping of flat watch over wide expanses and marsh. smooth waters by the white turrets of the church at dome the Campo Santo. are sails and drying moored in picturesque masses along the Riva and against the wooded banks of the Public Gardens. circles.A trabaccolo must have in Venetian its useless Day and has had them since eyes. The forecastle paintings and carvings and an angel stern.

like and a whole family welcomes us to a table where steaming polenta is served for the midday meal. shuddering at the damp and the cold. for they are free and open. and they make us think of winter evenings and Northern But.' 6 that An we are ArchiteSVs Sketch Book we hastily look at the Byzantine capitals architects. Then one is remarks at once their essentially modern character. the fresh greensward. and all. " ' A huge chimney on the outside of one house near the canal attracts us. climes. We land. with rows of windows and airy galleries. and ambones in the chill. You can walk all about in these fireplaces. after nooks. This true even of the f&gades of the Gothic buildings. — really modern The great groups of windows are framed in with broad bands enriched with dogtooth or carving. This great chimney is many others at Burano and Chioggia. toned by time. the distant snow-clad Alps. There no rudeness or coarse pictur- esqueness such as often characterizes Northern Gothic work. but come back. also lend them their hues and the mouldings of arch is and balcony and cor- nice have elegant profiles. front like that of A Desdemona's house would not look rough or . fronts. such as serpentine and porphyry. Colored materials. death-stricken church. and the far-stretch- ing luminous waters of the lagoon more beautiful and enchanting ' than ever. to find the azure sky. in it It serves all a fireplace large enough to have windows and a seat around the hearth. an architect does not if visit Venice to find cozy it would seem as even the enticing green lagoons city of palaces. should hot call him away from such a do assert Sooner or later the palaces their right to admiration.

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.

A
see in
it

Venetian
life

Day
in

7
city of to-day.

uncouth nor out of keeping with

any

We

the Northern Gothic detail become polished and re-

fined

and modern. was at
its

No wonder

that

when the English Gothic
its disciples

revival

height, fifty years ago,

drew

in-

spiration from Venice.
difficult

Without such help they found

it

a

problem to translate an English or French mediaeval

fagade, with great wall surfaces

and a few pointed windows, into
is

a modern front where the essential thing
light to penetrate a

to permit floods of

deep building.
the Grand Canal,

But, floating

down

we

also pass

one by one
in the
spirit.

the great Renaissance palaces.

Again we are struck, as

case of those of the Gothic period, with their

modern

There are good models for the great buildings

of to-day

among

these rich, well-lighted, stately fronts. Yet to any one

who has

been studying Renaissance detail at Urbinoor

Rome or among the
even on the
it

tombs

of Florence,

and who has recognized Donatello and Mino
of such work, the carving

da Fiesole as the masters

purest and best Renaissance work in Venice, beautiful though
be,
is

yet a disappointment.

We can

say this even remembering

the dainty work that covers the church of the Miracoli. It

may

be the material in which

it is

wrought, or

it

may

be the touch of
is

the workman, but despite

its

amount and

richness there

some-

thing hard and mechanical about even the Early Renaissance

carving in Venice. It

falls far

short of the Florentine and
is

Roman

standard. Perhaps, as the Venetian architecture
of incrustation

so largely one

and
it

of applied

and

inlaid marbles,

we uncon-

sciously miss in

the serious solid stonework of Florence and

8

An
cities.

ArchiteSfs Sketch Book
qualities of the terra cotta

Rome, or the rugged
northern

found in more

To

be sure, the great later palaces of Venice

are built of solid stone, but in

them the carving

is

distinctly-

bad.

We

should be glad to find there what

we

criticise in

the

earlier

buildings.

Except at Sansovino's stately library the

carvings and the details of the late
scale.

work are clumsy and out

of

We

wish that their superb masses were marked by such

mouldings and carvings as adorn the Cancelleria or the Farnese
palaces in
ence.

Rome,

or the Pandolfini

and Rucellai palaces

in Flor-

We

look in vain for the dainty architectural details that
used.

Bramante and Alberti and Peruzzi would have

Then

after wondering, as

we pass

along the Grand Canal,

how

the architects of these imposing piles were satisfied with such

clumsy
Palace.

detail,

we

enter the grand apartments in the Doge's

Here Scamozzi and Palladio and Sansovino worked

hand

in

hand with Tintoretto, Veronese, Titian, and Bonifazio,
and the glory
of their country. All over the

to record the victories

walls are paintings of the naval

combats of Venice. Galleys with
or Genoese.

many banks

of oars bear

down upon Saracens

Amid
sits

the golden frames and azure skies of the ceilings Venice

enthroned, and the heroes and heroines both of Parnassus and of
the Old Testament lend their vigorous presence to give color and
life

to the decorations.

Nowhere have

painter, carver,

and

archi-

tect

worked

in better accord,

and nowhere with more

brilliant

results.

What

a stately series of chambers!

What

combinations

of

dark paneling and gorgeous gold frames and decorative color-

ing!

They

are the

most splendid and sumptuous rooms

in

Europe.

A
Venice
a
thrill
is

Venetian

Day
first

9

indeed rich in buildings the

sight of

which sends

through the frame and which become indelibly impressed
is

on the memory. True, such moving architecture
elsewhere.

to be found

One does not
raised

forget the

nave of Amiens Cathedral, as
broods over the crowd of

the host

is

and solemn

stillness

worshipers; or St. Paul's

dome

in

London, looming above bridge
sky; or Saint-Ouen's "crown
traceries high
little

and
of

river

and

city into the

murky

Normandy," shooting its tangled

above roof and
at

pinnacle out of the green treetops in the

wooded park

Rouen; or the stately grandeur
inspiring size of the

of the Farnese Palace; or the

awe-

mighty Coliseum. Scenes made thus

effective

by architecture are to be met with throughout Europe, but they
are more abundant in Venice than in any other city. For here the

church of St. Mark, within and without,

is

unique, and cannot

be compared with any other Christian church; the Salute and San
Giorgio, the

Ducal Palace and the Piazzetta, are certainly objects

of wonderful grace;

and

possibly, to the architect, the interior of

the Ducal Palace yields to none of
leaves of grandeur

them

for the impression it

and

stateliness.

They

let

us wander at will around the lofts and galleries of
of beaten gold"

San Marco. All through those "dim caves

we

can keep close company with the gaunt long-robed prophets, the
white-winged angels, the martyrs, and the patriarchs set in that
golden firmament.

Below we

see

the worshipers kneeling in

crowds on that intricate pavement, and our eyes try to pierce
the gloom where, under the baldacchino, rest in splendor the

much-traveled remains of

St.

Mark.

10

An
We

Archite6Vs Sketch Book
galleries

emerge upon the outer

amid the

forest of

marble

vegetation and the statues of angels, prophets, and saints.

We
on

touch the Greek horses that were. modeled perhaps in the days
of Pericles.

Then

we- look

down with a momentary

surprise

the sunlit piazza bright with the world of to-day, the smart Italian officers, the eager tourists, and the

happy children from

beyond sea feeding the To-day there
is

fluttering doves.

festa in

San Marco, and an unusual vesper

service at the high altar; so

we descend, and from a dark

corner

watch the solemn evening pageant. In the deep shadows of the
sanctuary blaze countless
lights.

The aged

dignitaries, in rich

and sparkling vestments, move here and
read.

there,

and kneel, and

Younger attendants serve the incense and reverently bear

the great books, while white-robed
sing the vesper music.

men

in the high balcony

As the loud organ begins

to

grow a

little

wearisome there
far aloft

is

a sudden hush.

Then on the
is

stillness,

from

above the sanctuary's gloom,

heard the sweet treble
vaults;

of a boys' choir.

The harmony floats through the golden

simple, innocent, solemn; "trauncing the soul with chaunting
choirs."

The organ

notes cease.

The day

dies.

We

grope our way

through the darkly glittering church, and come out upon the
Piazzetta to find the outer world also golden.

The white churches

and palaces

set against

a sky of gold are repeated in the golden

waters, and the last rays of the setting sun permeate and glorify
this other golden miracle.

Later,

when darkness

falls

over the city,

we turn the corner of

A- "VENICE.l.At <3*>lARiA-Navti. _-'sjjj„.i. fl .

.

A
ness of the sky
is

Venetian

Day
The
and above San Giorgio

ii

Sansovino's library and wander across the Piazzetta.

blackis

studded with

stars,

the moon, showering light on the surrounding waters and defining
in

dark masses the island church. The slender tower shoots high
line of

above that long

nave and dome. The buildings

of the

port and the convent bring
line.

down

the composition to the water-

Yes, perhaps the interior of San Giorgio, though correct and
Possibly there exists in the obvious faults of the

refined, is cold.

fagade some feeble justification for Mr. Ruskin
is

when he says, "It

impossible to conceive a design more gross, more barbarous,
childish in conception,

more

more severe

in plagiarism,

more

insipid in result,

more contemptible under every point must avow
that, whether

of rational

regard." Yet most observers

you

call it

scenic effect or architecture, a great thing

was done when the
and gave
Poised
it
is

architect turned this wonderful site to such advantage

to the world such a beautiful

and graceful church.

between the sky and the wide waters of the lagoon,
of the

one

few groups of buildings in this wide world which most

appeals to the traveler and which no visitor to Venice can ever
forget.

The
waters

night advances.

Tattoo

is

sounded. Across the moonlit

we hear the

bugles respond to the band as the patrol

marches merrily down the Riva.

We

look over to San Giorgio
its

from beneath the awnings of our balcony. The reflection of

tower comes in a long line to our feet across the rippling water.

Gondolas

flit

here and there and cross the track of the moonlight.

Tinkling guitars sound from the barges.

A

tenor on the steps of

12

An

ArchitedVs Sketch Book
From
far

the Salute sings.

up the canal the guitars and chorus

send an answering refrain. Our day in Venice closes!
"Venezia benedetta non te vogio piu lasar."

So
is

sings the chorus as it floats
silence,

away into the

night;

and then

all

save for the sound of lapping waves and the distant

warning cry of a belated gondolier.

The

Italian Renaissance

traveled over the Tus- cany." Accepting this view. But one can regard architectural detail as merely a decorative expression. are often told that Gothic art never took root in many a Gothic arch and crocket and gable show that it had for long a treatment of its own on Italian soil. and its detail imbued In mediaeval Florence the Gothic . Though we Italy. if Gothic architecture be held to be a complete principle of construction. Thus we had opportunity to review the causes of the wonderful overturn of the old sys- tems which we now call the Renaissance of architecture. universal. Alberti. in those fruitful We saw and studied the work done leschi. and crossed the furrowed plains of Lombardy. Peruzzi. we must promptly agree that neither the Italians nor any other people except its French inventors ever thoroughly mastered its principles. and the other architects of that great epoch.II THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE 1892 OUR also. little party of architects climbed from the Adriatic hills of to the heights of Urbino. we made a hurried visit to Rome. True. days by Brunel- Bramante. This the substance there is to most of the historical "periods. and as an indication of the trend of thought of those is all who use it. to which ornament is but an accessory. we must admit that in Italy of the Middle Ages pointed architecture was with native peculiarities. together.

like so It is remote from the railroad. city. of joy or sadness. and. For two hours we below us are the green waters "of reedy Thrasymene. shaggy and gray. and there has been hardly a change since the days when its streets. to the upwards. Pointed arch and cusp and trefoil abound Above steep street and grim palaces the city still "lifts to heaven her diadem of towers. it Tuscany was the birthplace of the Renais- for centuries had neglected its classic traditions and bore a thoroughly mediaeval character. In the mists far many of its neighbors. Above the Florentine Duomo the bells rang notes of triumph or alarm." These lofty eyries are so un- changed that in fancy we easily garrison them with the rioting factions of the Salvucci and Ardinghelli hurling rocks and blazing abundant remains on all sides pitch from tower to tower. Siena even to-day remains a Gothic Its narrow streets are closed in with mediaeval palaces and the shadow of its slender clock-tower tells off the hours on the fronts of Gothic houses encircling its great piazza. Not far away. from these mediaeval Gothic cities lies Montepulciano. spirit of Perhaps the the Middle Ages has clung more to San Gemignano city." and the broad plain that beheld the triumph of Carthage stretches far to . toil mountain top.16 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book stir tower of the Palazzo Vecchio looked down on the strife. Dante trod there. one of those Tuscan towns where the Renaissance spirit had free play. These indicate that although sance. however. than to any other Tuscan The Renaissance left little mark upon it. clings. and the the pageants and the troubles of the city. from amid the spiral shafts and pointed arches of Giotto's Gothic belfry.

and whose history forms the subject on the walls of the library at Siena. and. On the sides of the little square and down San the narrow streets are Renaissance palaces. of nothing in now sur- any interest to the traveler except the little square that jounded by the papal buildings. Here was born ^Eneas Sylvius Piccolomini. spirit how promptly and decidedly the Renaissance appealed to the Italian mind of the fifteenth century. Here a Renaissance cathedral faces a public palace. lie Siena and the heights of Perugia and Arezzo. and . who finally became Pope Pius II. church of San and the piazza of Pienza. of Ghirlan- daio's frescoes Before it. its prosperous son returned to it. which crowns the city.The The main Italian Renaissance 17 where. its enjoyed the building These Biagio. found illustrate in the midst of mediaeval Tuscany. street of the town climbs steep between crowded buildings to the battlemented tower of the Palazzo Publico. as being the plaything of a church dignitary who lived in the full tide of the Renaissance. The classic dwelling of the Pope is vis-a- vis to that of the Bishop. like his fellows. arts. If in San Gemignano we see a town that stopped building with the advent of the Renaissance. indicates its neigh- what happened to those which prospered and built favor. Still when this classical forms began to meet with little more is apparent in the town of Pienza. Montepulciano. as well as after he left for there is the town it is must have been a very humble one. bor. classic houses of Montepulciano. in the haze. The whole group surrounding the piazza is interesting. Biagio is The church of a successful example of the Renaissance domed church with four short arms.

the new almost full grown. surprise With ever-increasing we recognized the strength and spontaneity with which spirit. coins. another school arose in Milan.18 An Architedl's Sketch Book what seemed to us most remarkable. Apparently. but the Gothic carvers of the fagades of Paris and Amiens had done as much a hundred years earlier. here and throughout Tusmediaeval cany. to painters and sculptors and archi- . finally and these two branches at met and produced their highest results Rome. inspiration from we saw how ancient Nicholas. under Bramante. so far as architecture concerned. to scholars. and which was so beyond their own powers. Later. took immediate possession of the world. and ivories from Greece and Rome. who with avidity sought the classic manuscripts which until then had been buried in the monasteries. who were eager for jewels. This Renaissance of classic architecture began in Florence. under Brunelleschi and Alberti. was of course in Florence itself that we found the visible first fruits of the is Renaissance. was the sweeping manner in which all Gothic and traditions appear to have been. in the north. had drawn Roman models for the figures on his pulpits. for a hundred years after Nicholas of Pisa. At Pisa. however. The real awakening came almost simultaneously to collectors. men paid no heed to the architectural monuments of antiquity around them. the sculptor. and We tried it to trace these schools in their respective fields. but at once overturned in these their strongholds. it is true. not only forever. and the wonder is that artists and craftsmen should ever have ceased to cherish and assimilate the ancient work far by which they were surrounded.

we get glimpses of the city's . Italian Renaissance in the 19 classical anticiviliza- who suddenly saw beauty and strove to models of quity. Brunelleschi's was the guiding active mind. and Simone delight Memmi in Tuscany. this movement began in Florence. and the return to detail carefully studied upon the ancient Roman models was abrupt and without transition. and where. and Giotto. where by the wooded banks men are filling their trees. The hill country of Tuscany had appeared to us a rude and civiliza- savage nursery for the culture and refinement of modern tion. of and verdure. What the French sculptors of the twelfth century strove to imitate.The tects. On the con- trary. Its setting of hill and farm. all this finally took with the quattro-centists. long-prowed shallops with sand. Donatello's refined genius inspired the decoration. what Petrarch at Padua. The spirit of the Renaissance gradually became a patriotic fervor. Orcagna. gives to the "City of the Lily" half of its charm. seemed but fitting that from such surroundings should come river dignity and refinement. What walks and drives we take in these early spring days of the Arno. found in the classics to form them in the fourteenth century. but the same cannot be said of the Val it d' Arno. and wondered that they had ever fallen away from the wonderful models all around them. As for architecture. and was spread by many helping spirits over Tuscany and the world. what Nicholas of Pisa faintly saw in the thirteenth century. beneath the across the wide stretches of river. the Medici gave the opportunities. Men thought they had reclaimed their inheritance from the Caesars. graft the antique traditions on the tion of their own time.

where rise Arnolfo's palazzo and Giotto's campanile and the vast mass of Brunelleschi's dome. through olive orchards and oak woods. winding swiftly by and farm. Then we emerge and white walls among the green of villa fruitful fields. to purple mountains.20 An Architect's Sketch Book but soon domes and towers! We have to shut our eyes to the signs of neighborhood of the city. the thread of the Arno. modern progress in the close we find ourselves where boughs of flowering peach and almond hang over the walls that border the roads. poraries were amazed at as a work it. to the heights of Fiesole. with cowslip and primrose. the great work of the Early is. less a work of the highest art than a great engineering it His contemAlberti. in hope of learning from ancient examples how to roof the great church that Arnolfo ished. for instance. and Giotto had left unfin- At all events. and across the hazy Far beneath field checkered plains. A great work it surely but possibly feat. We climb the hills above these fertile plains. and returned full of thusiasm about quences. Perhaps the youthful Brunelleschi made his famous journey to Rome. The broad roofs and farmhouse are backed by dark and slender cypresses. measuring and sketching. divides the widespread city. and look away over dark pine grove and rocky hillside. Renaissance. generously praised but chiefly because such a . of construction. silver us. which had far-reaching conseBrunelleschi later crowned The huge dome with which is the church always spoken of as. tree the and beneath the vines that are festooned from tree to ground is bright with anemone and poppy. he and Donatello spent three years in Rome an en- together. in 1403. all they had seen.

.

.

the great dome of of is kind. we find him using dainty and elabo- His immediate predecessors. Brunelleschi as a constructor and engineer was visible in this enor- mous barren dome. Every ornament not is rigidly architectural excluded. but to more logical architectural methods. During a brief period Florence abounded in designers who . without doubt.The wonder was Italian Renaissance wooden centring. and classic caissoned ceilings are the substitute for Gothic is vaulted roofs. which forms one side of the cloister of Santa Croce. had cared for no matter to what extent it might mask fundamental constructive form. In these pure of Gothic and simple works. From these influences methods led men's Brunelleschi's simple and clear minds not only to the new fashion of ancient classic detail. 21 Its bar- built without the aid of ren grandeur certainly suggests little artistic excellence except such as first it obtains from immense its size. antique colonnades take the place piers. In Florence. It was. and the prototype of innumerable later it and has some better its designs. but to find Brunelleschi the artist. but in the Pazzi Chapel. who were infinite detail. The rugged walls due to Brunelleschi. the original inspiring spirit of Renaissance architecture. and what remains classic chaste and simple and strictly after of the Pitti Palace. we had to seek him in the churches of San Lorenzo and Santo Spirito. in the incrustations of Giotto's campanile. rate classic ornament. also Roman models. though devoid of ornament. but whatever impressiveness now due to being a vast and capacious object. We and see such of the work duomos at Orvieto and Siena. mainly decorators. are broad and grandiose.

22 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book The city is not it followed in the steps of Brunellesehi. little remained to be . Alberti's generous the work of his friends. Brunellesehi. Ghiberti designing modeling his statues. after all. and Masaccio. Poggio with manuscripts cunningly rifled from monastery libraries. Delia Robbia. praising and of church. — that canon of the church who far embraced the Renaissance sentiment with such fervor that. Mino da Fiesole carving tomb and pulpit and altar. Donatello down the Arno. Delia Robbia dreaming of his blue-and-white Madonnas. he dreamed of a definite restoration of pagan life and a reestablish- ment of the ancient civilization. the bright-garbed crowds that Benozzo Gozzoli. and Masaccio. the astonishing is thing to note everywhere about the Tuscan Renaissance rapidity with which his it the reached maturity. Their labors can be traced in all the towns about Florence. Michelozzo and Sangallo directing the building of palace letter. When Brunellesehi and comrades left the field to their successors. But. and Masolino. and Fabriano depict. We see at Rimini pic- and elsewhere the gracious and elegant work of that most turesque personality. from being content with an inspiration gained from antiquity. of Sangallo's At Prato we find the classic elegance work in the church of the Carceri. We can forget for the and see in their places moment the fresh Itahan regiments treading these old gray streets to the merry notes of their bugles. suggests the enthusiasm which prevailed among this emulous band of artists. so changed but that imagination readily peoples life with the rich and ardent of these early days of the Renaissance. Alberti. Fra Angelico seeing brilliant angels in the golden sunsets his portals.

however. The later work of this Milanese school is seen in the richly carved and incrusted fagades of the Certosa at Pavia. school and another master its In Milan and of neighborhood we can are trace and study the early work Bramante. its imperfectly by others. infirm and unable to now in Rome first saw the Pantheon. Per- highest perfection in the Incoronata detail is where to the delicate Bramantesque added the charm of faded pale frescoes and golden-vaulted ceilings picked out with strong red and blue. Bramante. In the main they are a disappointing. vaguely recognized as a power working for elegance. at the age of draw.The done on the lines Italian Renaissance 23 they had laid down. and in 1499 Bramante left Milan for Rome. The Bramante of this period is a shadowy sort of person. another had been at work in the north. Abandoning his Milanese past h? . and daintiness. Broadly speaking. His was ardent enough to be stirred by the genius of antiquity. There either many buildings in the fiat Lombard country designed him that they little by him. they anticipated the greater part of what was perfected during the next hundred years. the spirit Baths of Diocletian. the Coliseum. fifty-five. or by pupils so near to are truly Bra- mantesque. While the Florentine school had been pursuing the course mapped out by Brunelleschi. His less successors in Lombardy paid dis- heed to that purity and simplicity of style which had tinguished him. proportion. One gains the impression that he less made sketches which were carried out more or haps the school reached of Lodi. In 1493 misfortune overtook Bramante's patron.

Under such influences. and was nur- tured in Milan by Bramante. but to found. and that his hand "rounded Peter's . or as his meaningless staircase at the Laurentian Library.24 An his Architedfs Sketch Book changed whole course and became imbued with the antique a degree attained before only by Brunelleschi. Peruzzi there added to the elegance of Bramante a richness and sumptuousness that the latter never permitted to himself. most of later great masters sooner or were attracted to the Eternal City. At the papal court his clients were both rich and cultivated. the Renaissance of architecture took and its in the Florence of Brunelleschi Alberti. classic spirit to In Rome he built and not in brick and terra cotta. in stone. however. Although. His work marks the high- est standard of the Early Renaissance. forget that he designed the mighty cornice of the Farnese Palace. In that capital he spoke to the world. as its rise we have said. one school in the freshness of the Early Renaissance in its North Italy. To him it was given not only to see. Almost began. for instance. such. and finally in the whole scheme of the Vatican courts and the church add some thing of St. and another in zenith in Rome. Peter. directly after his day the sway is of Michael Angelo Much of his architecture certainly careless and un- finished. His early training enabled of the variety him to and force and charm of northern and mediaeval work to the majesty of ancient building. as that which we see at the Medici tombs. he as naturally arrived at being great as before he had been pleasing. the Palazzo Giraud. So we find him at the Palazzo della Cancelleria. We cannot.

7^'- .

.

in It was certainly architecture pure and simple. reckon Scamozzi and Sansovino and Palladio and the other masters of the later Renaissance not as mechanical imitators but as great artists. and a nice study In the hands of these masters such qualities were not arrived at by means as mechanical as Mr.The. church stall and and panel." But his 25 example had the strongest and most lasting influence through his use of the great orders. other allied arts. tendril. Its effects were due wholly to proporof architectural detail. has remained the foundation for modern It quickly estab- . Ruskin. Italia?i Renaissance dome. of proportion. with leaf. so art. regret that the Early Renaissance Many of Most us may was turned aside results. The masters of the Renaissance never agreed proportion proper for an order. and flower. when skill to the love of antique form were joined the consummate graceful fancy which covered pilaster architrave. harmony. And so let us. among themselves on the The ancients used every variety good classic design with the orders requires even now individual judgment and offers liberty but not license. depending no way on tion. into other of us find paths before it had attained complete delight in the fanciful and poetic phase of its history. and a multitudinous world All these of real and imaginary ani- mal forms. not heeding Mr. In fact. Ruskin would have us think. but the close study of the orders rigid which succeeded to and the dependence upon them of its the artists of the Late Renaissance. and the color that enlivened them passed away with the earlier school. had peculiar merit. capital and and marriage chest. it As the Renaissance was in its origin a modern movement. it.

but the most enthusiastic could scarcely claim that he surpassed the mediaeval solution of the same problem. At the very outset Brunelleschi gave an elegant classic dress to the ancient Gothic forms. their elegant detail would have given richer results. however. somewhat vulgar in detail. Now we can only guess what might have been the perfected result of Renaissance church building. It is a wonderful experito the oldest of our not the Rome best known . but we spend one wontraverse its streets. it is and Milanese. Perhaps he intended to have color adorn those rather chilly interiors. Here stand before not only the highest results of that art. but also the ancient classic models which had inspired both Florentine ence. and. Rome. Our party are derful Easter all familiar with there. while the still later palaces of Venice. Day As we the whole is history of the Renaissance architecture we have been studying us' passed in review. Indeed. True. which. Peter's. as we have seen. are models for modern palatial work. came to Rome from Florence and Milan. In church architecture. the Early Renaissance never reached a final or consummate result. but one architect after another changed and marred the design of that mighty building. this idea There are many dainty examples of around Milan woi^ked out under the influence of Bramante.26 An Architedl's Sketch. During the entire Renaissance period the favorite scheme for a church was a domed building with short projecting arms. set off by gold and fresco. such was Bramante's design for St. modern Book and elegance if lished a type for palatial architecture in the frowning strength of the Florentine palaces and in the dignity of those of Rome.

In crossing the city. borne aloft beneath the ostrich plumes. Peter's was bril-' when the Pope. Accustomed as we are to line-engravings of the orders. the Italian Renaissance the Great Council. our road lies by the great temples and the forums. and the Ghetto's narrow lanes swarmed with picturesque contadini. as we do in the Forum. Modern improvements have despoiled the city of picturesque charm. Fergusson. last we enter tremendous mass of How humble and minute we feel before the that immense structure! How small and . when the Tiber flowed between marshy banks. but our duty to humanity compels us to look upon the walled river-banks. when Papal Zouaves made the streets and cafes bright. But our drive extends beyond the Forum. and to hearing ancient cal Roman architecture described as mechaniMr. and the destruction of dirt and filth. by archbishops and bishops beyond numbering. if with regret. better carved. yet with a certain approval. 27 Rome of when the streets were full of the state coaches of dignitaries. the wide streets. or more exuberant decoration of any period than that on the remains of Concord. Where can one find a richer. when St. it is and inartistic by writers like invigorating to get a fresh look at the real thing.? is of such a building as the juiciness of the Early Temple The freedom and Renaissance work only an echo from the work of Classic days. liant with processions.The party. was followed by gray -bearded patriarchs and red- robed cardinals. and death lay in wait for the "forestieri" who dared to breathe its pestilential miasma its at sunset. it is One appreciates in Rome that often hard to distinguish be- tween carvings of the two periods. and at the mighty Coliseum.

Later. Perhaps these or other grant defects exist. to Peruzzi at the Massimi. and in humble mood. the piers decked with red hangings. the giants who built it were unable to roof A paltry patch of velarium to keep the sun from the Emperor's eyes. a sad trouble in a gale. It a comfort to see that it. but our little party is satisfied to ignore them . All We have been living in Florence with such austere companions as Brunelleschi and Alberti and Sangallo. Peter's door. and have enjoyed a little lighter refreshment amid the pic- turesqueness of Siena and San Gemignano. The sun shines brightly as we reach the piazza before St. moving up to the doors. The breath catches! Mr. offensive. What a contrast it is when we pass through St. wide-spanned roofs.28 An Architedt's Sketch Book One insignificant seems the work that engrosses us moderns! is irreverent thought alone upholds us. Peter's Church. and there bursts on our ceilings. The fountains on each side of the obelisk flash gayly. useless. we continue back by the Forum of the Caesars to the neighbor- and the Temples and the Palaces hood of the Renaissance palaces. was the nearest they could come to our spider-web. Fergusson says that the great pilasters are unmeaning. Sangallo and Michael Angelo at the overpowering Palazzo Farnese. Men are ringing Easter peals with tremendous clangor on the tower bells as we join the crowds this fairly intoxicates us. the great choir singing the service. that the window details are in fla- the worst and most obtrusive taste. the view the sumptuous beauty of those gold-and-white crowded nave. at the Cancelleria We pay homage to Bramante to and the Giraud. and the cardinal standing at the lighted altar.

too. and thankful to be of The cleverness modern writers has not yet made the study of the English of Shakespeare. and on its domed the Pantheon. Our pilgrimage among shall their buildings is now memory. and vaulted the baths. who built the forums. for the style.The as Italian Renaissance 29 we sit in a row on the base mouldings of those very pilasters. we have seen. The modern same reasons. studies the works of those its who very a were not only the masters of modern architecture but inventors. Peter and the Palazzo Farnese. feeling modest and small. the grace and ornate beauty of the for those Roman We own have learned respect who built the church of St. there. . with our how closely they were the descendants and the rightful the heirs of those earlier giants who covered Campus Martins with temple and portico and circus. but we villas or not forget the daintiness of the Roman palaces. and who raised mighty arches the mass of the Flavian Amphitheatre. and eyes. and of the Bible useless to one who would arrive at excellence in literary architect. of Milton. and adorned the Palatine with palaces.

.

Rural England .

.

filled The ever-varying were now bright with sunshine. claimed our notice and our intense enthudries Coming from a land which the summer sun and scorches. and then again were serene and fair. Soon we were vil- bowling along over hard roads. . nosegay The are crumpled plains — the plains parterres. now with threatening clouds. . of was the month May. blood red with poppies or glowing with clover. changing landscape. The fields showed green with crops. Again they broke in drenching showers that called forth mackintoshes and rubbers.. Although we were two architects traveling with sketch book and camera. first was nature handiwork that siasm. "Not a grand nature . by field and farm. and our driving-journey through an English countryside was just beginning.. The roadside turf was filled with daisies. and England to in spite of all that art and human it life have done arid her interest just such travelers. . Are tied hills All the fields like. the hedgerow sweet with hawthorn and later with wild rose and honeysuckle. . up fast with hedges.Ill RURAL ENGLAND 1882 A for it in SMART trap met us at the little station. we were charmed by skies this humid. . . by lage inn and moss-grown country house and flowering hedges. .

were evidences of an open-air life. Hundreds of horses paraded the with colored tapes and wisps of straw skillfully woven in their tails and manes." Everywhere. A nature tamed' . the villagers were playing at bowls and making wonderful twisting shots across a perfectly level circle of turf perhaps two hundred feet in meter. . dia- Every cottage seemed to have a cared-for garden in which old-fashioned flowers flourished. Here and there were the brick kennels the hunting-packs. a park. scene recalled Rosa Bonheur's it familiar picture. . Our first days were passed in a hunting-country. The inn was in the saddle full of most of whom had come and pigs. at best. The whole Alcester. or touch your hand. and at Taporley the inn has served the hunt dinner for the last one hundred years. farmers. in the long twilights. on their stout cobs to the sale of sheep While their masters stowed away beef and ale in the inn. was market day.34 An And You Architect's Sketch if Book you seek for any wilderness find. stealing in child. The hedges were trimmed and cut into fanciful figures of bird and beast and. And grown domestic A sweet familiar nature. and twice we came on great bowling-greens. Each wind vane was a fox. Or pluck your gown. where. and humbly mind you so Of presence and affection. and one side of all the main roads was finished with a soft for surface for horsemen. crunched their corn in the cobble-paved and brick-walled The boys played cricket on the commons. at the larger . At where we stopped for lunch. too. the nags stables. We found Chester in the streets midst of a horse fair. to As a dog might.

i-f^Loiy' ie-l .

.

=^'o .Jw.

Rural England
places, the lawn, the garden,

35

and the

trees received the

same care

as the house itself.

But

if

nature and the Englishman's love of

it

impressed us

beyond anything

in our journey, the great contrasts of wealth

and poverty, of vast parks and huddled towns, of grand mansions and damp cottages were nearly
are people
as noticeable. Rarely in
in the

England

more

closely

crowded together than

back and

squalid parts of Chester; and then, just across the river,

you pass

through miles of beautiful park lands, where the pheasants and
rabbits of the

Duke

of

Westminster seem better

off

than

many

of his fellow citizens in the adjoining town.

Near Wrexham we

drove by the high walls of Wynstay Park, the home of a well-

known Welshman. Here again a
shaded by great
trees, is inhabited
is

beautiful piece of country,

only by deer and wild creathe crowded and ugly bricklarge
alter-

tures; but close to this paradise

making town

of

Ruabon. Thus, throughout the country,
where scattered houses are infrequent

tracts of fertile lands

nate with crowded and huddled towns.

A

poor

man
us
is

can have no

land on which to keep a cow; an old

woman

tells

how

her dis-

couraged neighbors have emigrated; no laborer
disfigure the landscape with a

permitted to

new home
for

of his

own; and such

evidences that England

is

no place

a poor

man are abundant.
Africa,

With the Great West and

Australia,

Canada and South

holding out great prizes to the energetic poor, one wonders that

any such remain
so very small.
It
is,

in a

country where the chance of betterment

is

however, resting and quieting, to us whose

lot is cast in a

36

An

Architedfs Sketch Book

land of progress and change, to find the shopkeeper or the farmer

having no apparent wish or ambition to change his
condition
is

lot.

Such a

natural,

no doubt, to a society that has been gov-

erned by the few, and in which even the Church has instilled in

each

man

the duty of being contented in that position to which

God has called him. To
view of
life,

the nervous American

it ofifers

a new

and a calm and peaceful one,
is

in spite of the thought

that the gain of the few

the loss of the many.

When we
little left

forget the poor

man and

his surroundings, there

is

in

England that

is

not beautiful. "Long and low" are

words that best describe the elements of English building design.

The

long, low walls of the cathedrals offer striking contrasts to

the masses of masonry that tower above such towns as Beauvais

and Amiens.

The minute

entrances at Wells have

little rela-

tionship with the gorgeous portals of the great French churches.

Castles like Penshurst, Stokesay,

and even Warwick have the
in vain

same English

qualities,

and you look

among them

for the

snap and dash and

fire of

the French chateaux, such as Pierre-

fonds or Falaise or Azay-le-Rideau, with their conical towers and

many-vaned

spirelets.

In the same way,

also,

the cottages which

throughout England blend so softly and so picturesquely with
the peaceful landscape have widespread homelike roofs, and
so close to the
lie

ground that you step down into most of them.

Naturally these houses, large and small, were a subject of great
interest to us,

and we soon noticed with surprise how natural

barriers, like a great hill,

had once caused

local diversity in

building,— a diversity largely continued after railroads had

mim-

.

.

.

The castle itself had a slabs. at Chipping Norton and Woodstock. or tower. into towns with house fronts of cut stone like those in France. surrounded by a moat filled with water and is is entered by a bridge. The latter lay in a fertile valley it ancient timber-and-plaster gatehouse gave access to through a wall inclosing church and castle. in Kent. the little — from the big castles at Ludlow and Shrewsbury to and an one at Stokesay. and a was to roof of large mossgrown stone Its great guest hall warmed by a centi*al hearth. walls were open only at ceiling covered in the an arcade surrounding the A wooden whole pew. fine keep. That such an obstacle as a large hill should make this serious variation in such a small region astonished us. All along our route lay castles. and a squire's pew where the high wainscoted top. Through Cheshire. and in some of the rooms were remains of richly carved mantels. walls The courtyard gables. timber-and-plaster farmhouses alternated with brick buildings. A staircase of solid oak blocks led above. within hemmed in by gray stone and plaster . from which the smoke curled up the open timber roof.Rural England made it 37 unnecessary. On leaving Shrews- bury you cross a lofty village of hill and come down into the rough stone Much Wenlock. The church had the ordinary square tower with mast and vane. Then the crossing of another ridge brings you. Ightham Mote. Within was an old Jacobean gallery and pulpit. once the defenders of the Welsh Marches. another mansion nearly as old and also is possessing a grand central hall. In such a structure the squire could sleep soundly through the sermon and not even the parson would know it.

such ted-in and run-together tones. walls. and the lattice-paned sashes. as now. We saw many such mansions. set in great trees. the hangings of tapestry or other coarse fabrics. some of brick and some of "post and pan. — these rooms harmony. either white or washed in some creamy contrast of black tint. Even in its early days the oak was probably very dark. often continuing even to the ceiling in The ceilings are covered with elaborate plaster work strap or rib patterns or in modeled subjects. next day he had a many-colored growth of mould on his In the Elizabethan and Jacobean interiors there is much high oak wainscoting on the itself.38 An ArchiteSfs Sketch Book When the need had passed of such moats and towers and of halls for retainers there came into vogue the great mansions which we see illustrated in Richardson's and Nash's books. and the mellowness of an old brick wall tile roofs. Our mossy coverIt is ing that lends the great charm to an English tile roof. as nature never lends to art in this roofs never gain the bright clear land of ours. so valued in England that we heard of one zealous housebuilder who had given his new walls and roofs a coat of flour paste and the tiles. the slabs. and noticed the cheery sparkle that the white plaster work gave to a green landscape. Though such a and white sounds raw. Grim wall surfaces gave way to long ranges of mullioned windows. Again. . yet. but the widespread and scattered group of buildings without striking "motifs" still kept the national long- and-low look." as the black oak and white plaster work is called. with surroundings in — the great stone fireplace. or the yet more beautiful roofs of great stone blot- assume in the wet atmosphere such varied hues. and the plaster work.

.

.

.

.

to be "taking down. For picturesque attrac- tion little can surpass the great buttressed chimney that serves is both the ingle-nook and the brick boiler in which ale brewed and the clothes are boiled. every cottage has well to catch live in these flowers or because the people its neat garden. and odd-shaped dressers are decked with bright tins and crockery. where the walls are lined with high -back and where bootjacks and tankards and pewter dishes sugand cheer. air if We should do can. The towns and villages are full of alehouses. we seemed luck.Rural England are the 39 most homelike and all delightful in the world. who was sup- . The full of interest for small country and village houses are er-by. gest possible comfort As we sat hastily sketching such if a room. but not and imitate all this homelike we damp and stuffy houses. because. with swinging signs of the Blue Bell. as he said. They possess a quiet charm to which modern decorative art seldom attains. the Mitre. cozy little places. where sides of bacon hang on the settles. For dryness and cleanliness and as healthy homes they certainly cannot stand comparison with our ugly Yankee cheap wooden cottages. Lattice-panes fill the windows. one of the two or three old gaffers watching us asked we were it all detectives. ceiling beams. Each has a snug bar and an inner kitchen. the Ship." Another day brought us better and our well- appointed trap surprised a zealous village shopgirl. the pass- But in entering them there is nearly always a step down to a brick or tile floor laid on the earth. illustrated They are the rooms that we love as Nash them. It is not alone the grand mansions that are suggestive. Whether because the climate favors are fond of them.

the village dead. into saying. on such a date. At Wrexham we climbed up into the richly decorated tower. Nearly always the ground abovQ the church floor. Generally the church-yard neatly cared and children play among the old stones and with the voices that in both notice as musical call to one another women and children we so often and sweet. The closely . Most of these churches are reached by a path among the graves is in the church-yard. On the walls were painted and gilded tablets. In the hill country sturdy towers rise spires soar from the gray walls of these ancient temples. a man to each bell. and found the great chime of bells arranged for striking by means of hand levers. with a blush. such a party of ringers had rung so many changes in such a time. recording how. But of all buildings that the English countryside offers for our admiration nothing can equal the village church. monuments on and old glass and stone tracery in its it windows. We shall long remember our Sunday in Ludlow. and lofty high from those on the fens and the plains. rich We certainly vil- how generally it is to be found in the English and stately. as at his we learned at the next village. with ancient its walls. and that in turn often surrounded by a wall and entered through a picturesque level is well it lych gate.40 An Archite&'s Sketch Book plying us with photographs. duly attested by the clerk. who was then expected home near by. suggestive of the ages through which is has received for. The houses of the living closely nestle around the dead sleep in its and shadow. "Is not this Sir Charles ? " — a noble being. never realized lages. and with history built into it. or for ringing peals by long stirrups.

imm mi ciiici .

.

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The mayor and council at the market-house in their robes carried before of oflBce. The surpliced choir-boys threw their youthful spirits into the chants. however. and so in turn we wanderers from remote shores followed them and the little rest of the town. In spite. also did the dissenting anglers with whom we had breakfasted. far made a rippling melody audible up the river valley. with the mace them by the clerk. often heard that Though we had was spelt Chumley as a family name of a "Cholmondeley. So them. and then the town seemed with one accord to go to service. and. walked to church and sat together in the state seats. We hated to part with it at the .Rural England peopled hill 41 flanked by a great on which the town stands is Edwardian castle and crowned by the high tower of the church. As we knew. and their voices rang most cheerily in the stone vaults of the tower. of his dogmatic platiin was most certainly divine worship that we joined on that Sunday morning. ringing merrily at that lofty height. service as if if The large congregation took it up their part of the ." we never expected to be bearers letter with that odd address. but ours was probably more inured to the influences of the old church than tudes. We were glad we had not far as discovered dis- senting chapels or meeting-houses. it we were. we wor- shipped with all the town folk and at the only church. they had as much to do with as the clergyman. The pretty after maid who had served our breakfast hastened away and so did the landlord. We met breakfasted in the Jacobean coffee- room. It seemed as such surroundings would arouse the dullest preacher. Early in the morning we were wakened by the chimes that.

. rooms had stone ceilings. besides in In the upper the family little apartments. we had stud- and had disposed of the grand lady who. and were in the adjoining church-yard. there a recumbent alabaster statue of a lovely young is The church are backed by heavy dark trees. but stories. with the old graves and the crosses and the sundial. After ied the interior of the mansion. with a holder on each door for the occupant's card. perhaps. were long ranges of visitors' bedrooms. This church. was of a late Gothic period. did us the honors.42 An Archite&'s Sketch Book may stand as the type of the great gate of a country-seat which remembrances which our journey left with us. cross. halls Towards this entrance side of the house the and corridors opened. beyond the church-yard gate the sparkling white gables of an old oak-and-plaster house. and modeled in somestill what too much "done up" good historical character. with great ranges of of a semiall muUioned windows. modern times. and over the moss-grown cottage roof proudly stalked a peacock with tail wide spread. and paneled wainscots. here a statue of a British officer on his knees holding aloft the hilt of his sword as a wife. and on the other or lawn side were terraces ranges of rooms opening by muUioned windows to stone lofty and to a view over a widespread lawn. Within many family monuments. The fireplaces. and terraced walls and balustrades Italian character. but who was not above receiving the Queen's money. From the lodge a sweeping avenue drove up to the fore court of a grand symmetrical stone house of the Elizabethan period. we found our way through the intervening hedge. as housekeeper. like it most were of those we saw.

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the rich. the sundial that had cast its shadow so many quiet centuries. a peaceful yew-shaded churchyard. pleasant voices of the few passing villagers. with the peacock sunning himself on the roof.Rural England An races 43 ancestral mansion with stately rooms and lawns and ter- and gardens. . a cozy farmhouse embowered in trees. an ancient village church. the tombs of rich and poor for generations. — such are the peaceful memories of our holiday in England.

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French and English Churches .

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low. fact the building of the cathedrals of only of religious feeling but also of the struggle for It was thus that the king. although England was long under a French domination and a large part of France was for one or two hundred years occupied by and ruled over by Englishmen. City vied with city in France in raising each a more glorious shrine than the other. civil ambitions gave birth to the to The Englishman's one thought seems have been to make his temples beautiful.churches of France and Eng- land were built by men of the same faith and for the same Catholic ritual. But no such English churches. In France was an expression not civil liberty. because national traits always assert themselves. Perhaps we can thus in part . set and majestic. On the one side we both cathedral and parish church modest. yet.IV FRENCH AND ENGLISH CHURCHES 1892 ALTHOUGH the mediaeval. English and French churches of the find differ as much as if an ocean parted them instead narrow waters of the English Channel. and the people power of of France asserted themselves against the monk and abbot. The English buildings are amid the green of cathedral close or village churchyard and blend with a rural landscape. long. the bishop. aspiring. and pic- turesque. and on the other side they are self -asserting. Those of France are of a grander type and rise from stone-paved streets and from amid the burghers' houses. stately.

Indeed it seems a lordly habitation for a priest of One lay his head. cattle more ex- favored brother's claim. When we reach walls in is we find them springing from emerald lawns and embowered trees. or their setting of close and cloister. its quaint approaches. ambitious. of garden and never clipped green lawn and ancient trees. and brilliant in the arts of design. with of Lady Chapel. and why the French buildings join consummate constructive work skill to majestic. Here at Wells the three time-worn towers rise high above us and group nobly with the chapter house and the great octagon of the tall trees. and with the backing of the bishop's Above the peace garden and terrace and the ivy-clad palace from hour to hour the chimes vibrate and die away: — "Lord. The Frenchman formed such harmonious features of church and scenery.48 explain An why JlrchiteB^s Sketch Book the distinguishing and precious qualities of English work are found in quiet beauty and picturesque composition. we and heaven too!" . From a distance we see the towers and lanterns of Wells rise its above rounded masses of green foliage. through this hour Be thou our guide." What an abode is this of the bishop's ! It is the finest example of a thirteenth-century house existing in England. That by thy power No foot may slide. the home of cawing rooks and soaring pigeons. "All this. There nothing in France like the picturesque grouping of these English buildings. and farm and and books. who had not where to who saw his With the New England fields minister.

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and we feel troubled that a building raised as a house of prayer should be treated so nearly as a museum of mediaeval art. visitor cease their rounds. At as we but dimly catch in the distant hum of priestly voice sonorous Old Testament sentences or familiar words from the Gospels. "Hif this sort hof thing goes hon. But as the fading sunlight shines through the western its window and on and casts color alike on the few living worshipers tomb and boss and gray stone wall.— French and English Churches The decency and 49 order which bring to such perfection the lawns and paths and trees of the close prevail also within the church. We are shown by the verger through effigies of aisle and chapel peopled only by the those who lie below. its poor. we shall soon 'ave people praying hall hover the habbey. tuneful "Amen" as it rings down the empty nave and echoes back again from distant vault ." However. the unhappy? Have the great multitude no part in this vast temple that was built that they might worship in it? We think of the West- minster verger who roughly disturbed the devout Catholic as he knelt to pray." The great solemn place is filled with the sweetness of boyish voices. its rich. saying. and " through the long-drawn aisle and echoing vault The pealing anthem swells the note of praise. the thankful. the organ notes. we feel how vain is the attempt to gratify in these vast interest in and echoing buildings a Protestant sermon and book." pulsate through the stony fabric. "wandering and lingering on as loath to die. We heartily join in the long. Where are the people of the town. there comes an hour when verger and first.

lofty and majestic. and the dwellings of the old town climb upon and cling to the sides of the church. however. steadied by countless flying buttresses which cross the low aisles in giant leaps and carry the thrust of the. It is. lofty fieche. or in many ways the ambitious designer we find in the Frenchman. a dignified but ascetic-looking abode. Under these that if anew the beauty around and feel the Englishman was not the engineer. How gloriously peopled are these triumphal arches! The . The bishop's palace hard by." and imprisoned front it in pier spire. Its traceried masonry between them seems too vaults. the sculptor. stone ceilings to those high-pinnacled piers which stand in ordered ranks about the building.50 An . overtopping the windows are so huge that the slight to carry the ceiling steep-roofed town. Far above them. over the crossing of nave and transept. enriched with pinnacles rises the and statues. where white-capped 6onnes and red-trousered soldiers gossip and chatter. and vault and tomb and glass. in carved and graceful Let us now turn from the gentle and pastoral beauty of the English cathedral and gain a closer view of a French church. no cozy dwelling for the priests joined to this great serious structure. he surely felt to the utmost the "beauty of holiness. ArchiteSPs Sketch Book influences we see and chapel us. There is no green lawn. its silver-white lead work brightened by faded is color and gold. From a distance we see it. At the east end these splendid scaf- foldings radiate around the circular apsis and span its chapels. but from the stone-paved place. broad steps lead to the platform before the three cavernous portals of the cathedral. no quiet close.

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skill Everywhere you recognize technical There is and brilliant execution. celestial choirs meet over your head as you Above the crocketed gables and pinnacles of these porches stand the statues of Judah's kings. the handicrafts. and to the tops two towers that long have waited for their spires. all The heavens and the powers therein." At every door these enter the church. Above ranks of angels and seraphim fill the retreating arches and seem to join in the Te " Deum and sing. the Gospel. and the employments of the seasons. bowed in solemn adoration before the mysteries of the is stir mass. People come and go with utter absence consciousness. the signs of the zodiac. To thee all angels cry aloud. of self- The city -dressed son escorts his country -clad . Crockets and leafage. and the vast nave is thronged with ardent wor- shipers. and over them story upon story of arcades rise around the great rose winof the dow to the pointed gable. Here we find Adam and Eve. and in the centre is portrayed the Last Judgment and Christ bearing all this. nothing tentative or simply picturesque. the Apostles. masculine and confident. statue and bas-relief. the Magi.French and English Churches 51 naive sculptors have crowded the stonework with representations of the virtues. the wise and foolish virgins. All is in key with the All is great doorways and the majestic scaffold of buttresses. It is Sunday. gargoyle and pinnacle are scattered over this fagade in sufficient abundance to furnish two or three such fronts as that of the Somersetshire cathedral. Around the entrances and in secluded aisles there and movement.

virtue and vice are portrayed in the carvings of the doorways. village The shrines are tawdry. Just as humble dwellings cluster against the walls of these great French churches. On other days than Sunday much the same. square eastern ending would seem to be the most universal and the most characteristic. daily and hourly close to last and certainly the people. live in But as. so these little incidents seem in no wise to affect their fulfillment of religious duties. and offer each other holy water with their finger-tips. Interest in these themes fills these great temples daily with a devout population to-day as they did when the cathedrals were built. and the aisle encircles that. all classes. Certainly whatstill ever religious devotion the town possesses centres here. Little children patter about the tering shoes.52 An wooden ArchiteSVs Sketch Book doorways in their clat- parents. alike in and town. and heaven. The inquisitive visitor stares and chatters. Riches and poverty no longer When in these churches it seems scarcely conceivable that a mighty power in France or that the is irreligion is lic Roman Catho- Church now passing through dark days. The beg- gars are at the doors. the judgment. Undisturbed they recite their prayers with that healthy. and is roofed in conse- . so distinctions of poverty and wealth have no place in this meeting-ground for count. unaffected simplicity and directness which is characteristic of it is French provincial people. In France the choir of a church has a circular end. Life religion here hell upheld gets the common and death. French people the view of their neigh- bors and do not mind trifles. all Of its the features that mark and identify the English church.

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This whole is thirty-one feet wider than that at Amiens. has a square ending. however. recalls in its Corinthianesque shafts details. built by a Frenchman. Throughout England. Beyond the aisle is the chevet or surrounding range of chapels. do front at Wells is we say? Well. involves vastly greater constructive produces by far the more magnificent effects. On the other hand. with apsidal east end plan. a church. Peterborough. and capitals. whether small or great. Lichfield.French and English. Churches 53 quence with much involved and irregular vaulting. skill. Nor- and encircling eastern chapels. In a few exceptional instances we find a church which its seems misplaced. Many may think that the simple quiet English termination should be preferred to the intricate vaulting and tangled perspective of the French chevet with its flanking chapels. greatness is relative. and Nowhere are the contrasts between French and English churches more striking than in their relative proportions. rises the western front of the great church. as well as in other its the cathedral in the French town of Sens. Westminster Abbey. and with those many statues that are un- rivaled in similar English work. Laon is one of the few French cathedrals that have that square eastern termination which is so nearly universal in England. We pass beneath a vaulted gatehouse and enter the preBefore us. and Canterbury have circular endings. from whence builder came to Canterbury. rich with carving and cincts of the cathedral at Wells. is built upon a French wich. and in the different relations that height bears to breadth in these structures. shafts and arcading. The choir of the latter. but . but the French method is the more ambitious. Great.

A man can span those head. both in actual height and in the relation of height to width. The dignity and seriousness of the south Caen. The Frenchman who built his churches to majestic heights also laid foundations for and sometimes built im- posing towers and spires. In opposite the aisles. But is Northamptonshire it if the same. This difference. and the nave at Wells as but twice as high its wide. or Who shall say that those of France travel across England are the finer ! If you Normandy. or of those at Saint-Etienne at at Vend6me are hardly to be found in England. At Wells the church entered through three small doors that are insignificant features in the rich fagade. In France they are stately and severe. you substitute towers the same in Somer- setshire. Every village there is as for spires. instead of these humble entrances. is further emphasized is by the scale of subordinate details. and. The same characteristics apply to those cases where both countries ambition prompted a central lantern or a group of towers or spires. grand and large triumphal arches lined with rank above rank of sculpture. though that of Amiens is three times own width.54 An it is ArchiteB's Sketch Book is only one half as high. size In both countries next to the eral and proportions is of the gen- mass of the church the bell tower the most impressive exterior feature of these cathedral churches. and of the parish churches that surround them. it is rich. you find almost every village possessed of a stone-spired church echoing those of in Bayeux and of Lisieux or of Saint-Etienne at Caen. and they do not rise much above his France you would steps of approach find. in England they in charm. or the spire spire at Chartres. At Coutances and .

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French and English Churches Bayeux and Caen. Some fallen. 55 we At Rouen well ad- and Bordeaux and Laon and Chartres construction was vanced for towers not only at the west end but at both transepts. where the column gave pier to the lofty clustered Gothic closer imitation of natural and where carving yielded to a . either be- cause what they aimed at was not beyond reach. In visiting French cathedrals one is to-day constantly wondering whether the early Corinthianesque work to be seen in Notre Dame at Paris and way at Sens is more or less noble than later work. and at the church of Saint-Ouen in Rouen. did often carry and towers. have oflFer now but France can hardly a central one to vie with those of Salisbury or Nor- wich. These great preparations for a group of towers rarely reached in France a final result. however. At the mediaeval Frenchmian was satisfied with simple cylindrical shafts between aisle and nave. and the vaulting that first one finds in the two countries present the same contrasts. to completion their clusters of spires spires. or because they truly prized a graceful and beautiful composition. such as the naves of Amiens and Bourges and Tours. The shafts. but did not emphasize the majestic heights that as time went on were so much prized. with arches and vault ribs roll adorned only with a large on the arrises. or of spireless towers such as those at Lincoln or Canterbury or Wells. the carving. and with carving of a Byzantine character. with square-topped capitals mod- eled on classical and Corinthian forms. This all gave a stately columnar design. find a great central lantern besides the western spires. The Englishmen. the mouldings. of the such as those of Lincoln. or such a group of three spires as those at Lichfield.

As the chisel displaced the axe in the shaping of stone. They appear in broad masses on arch and vault on label and jamb. base. you miss the aspiring Amiens and Beauvais and Tours. depending sometimes on the light and shadow in their carefully arranged waves and hollows and or tooth fillets. Even on such an important cathedral as Salisbury. is almost wholly absent and mouldings on and capital form the main enrichment. elegance. ful is full of its energy.. all and vigor. but English foliage was. sculpture arch. 56 forms. England grew incomparably rich in mouldings. if . An ArchiteEfs Sketch Book At the same time that you admire the dignity and nomassive colonnades and sculptured capitals of Paris vertical lines of the lofty piers of bility of the and Sens. less noble. and in its gracelife. rib. but more intricate aspiring. perhaps. Englishso expert with mouldings that in Early English of men became work even the caps and bases are round and formed wholly moulded annular work — a fashion entirely English and never adopted in France. But that duced such recasting of classic or fine results in Romanesque forms which pro- France never prevailed in England. The Gothic and more clustered shaft. nave and style There the simple shaft aisle for the great piers that separate was discarded when the round-arched Norman was superseded. curves and masses portrays the elements of plant In figure sculpture classic figures of England never made any approach to the almost Chartres and Amiens. But at other periods English Gothic carved foliage. was the constant English form. without exactly copying nature. and sometimes on the " foliation ornament interspersed among the mouldings.

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and the vault surfaces were covered with fanlike tracery. Finally also. ribs. Sir Walter Scott was among the earliest to praise the Gothic minster. barbarous. and by yet another . in an appreciation forms of the pointed arch introduced by crusaders. "Thou wouldst have thought some 'Twixt poplars straight the osier fairy's hand wand In many a freakish knot had twined. it. And changed the willow wreaths to stone. whitewash and lack of care wrought more destruction than Puritan and Roundhead. when the work was done." By later writers the origin of Gothic art is found by one in for the aspiring natural forms. at least more free and tender and flowing. who had be- come familiar with it in Sicily and the East. His idea was that the lines of these lofty arches were modeled upon forest forms. Then framed a spell.French and English Churches 57 not so noble and stately in conventional beauty as the French. the building of vaulted ceilings as practiced by the French was. except where the exigencies of the chevet complicated it. until these English ceilings became an important and splendid part constructive scheme. and not worthy of serious study. as simple as the mouldings of the arches that inclosed of vault ribs. of the decorative and The close study of these Gothic churches in either country is of surprisingly recent date. or than Time itself. by another. Not long since men thought them Indeed. at first simple. But in England a scheme was by degrees enriched ribs by subdividing The intersections of these were decorated with carved bosses. uncouth.

in his scholarly book. that the vaults are largely supported by thick walls and shallow buttresses. of buttress spirit of and pinnacle. Professor Moore. also the entire space between the piers is occuis pied by a traceried window. Recently. For in that the slender piers that carry the vaults are firmly marked inside and outside. Violletand that it le-Duc that actual origin was in France. and the thrust of the vault ribs carried in a visible piers over aisle in turn is manner by the flying buttress from the wall and chapel to the great outer buttress. clerestory He points out that in the English church the rarely windows occupy the entire space from pier to pier. was due to constructive needs. He finds such a church merely the earlier Romanesque structure with pointed arch details. to the difficulty of vaulting irregular spaces. and to facility of construction. and often spring from a wall instead of from strongly marked piers. He thinks that this brilliantly conceived framework of pier and vault. which loaded to security by the lofty mass of the pinnacle. Sir Gilbert Scott VioUet-le-Duc attributed the origin and introduction of Gothic to structural necessities. its He agrees with M. thrown new and these influences clear light on this sub- He admits that all may have been at work in the development of Gothic building.58 in a An Architedl's Sketch Book and M. contained the most essential Gothic art. serves to . and not the as the great same complete organism French fabric. has ject. development from Roman art. and that in France alone do we find the visible whole structure of a cathedral one fully organized and framework which the wealth of applied ornament only emphasize. that the flying buttresses are there neither essential nor very frequent.

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ap- window tracery and the flaming rays it whether covers with its dainty tabernacle it rises work the deep recesses of porches. On the other hand.French and English Churches now 59 In by far the larger part of the English churches the detail one sees is late and of the perpendicular period. and in the hands of great artists like William of Wykham it became the most lost stately period of English Gothic architecture. or whether in stone pinnacle or oak canopy to a forest network of buttress and crocket and finial that rivals the intricacies of woodland branches. What the Perpendicular style lost in poetry is and imagination it gained in formality and stateliness. Though the Early English and decorated periods had national peculiarities. This it French flamboyant work was a beautiful product. But Perpendicular Gothic was a distinctly English growth. You see that the work of the thirteenth century better satisfies this fairylike construction this reason. you try to sketch work. or in the chapel of Henry the Seventh at Westminster. There something almost classic in the regular repetitions and the grand and simple proportions of Winchester's nave or in the great chapels at Windsor and at Christ Church. but still your eyes delight in If and these fanciful creations. in the later work of France fantasy was given free rein and her later Gothic buildings were clothed with an exuberant abundance of intricate flamboyant detail. they were cousins of similar work across the Channel. whether pears in the flowing bars of of the great roses. What was by the substitution of mechanical and geometric detail for naturalistic carving was more than made up for by noble proportions and balanced symmetry. Oxford. you respect .

60 still An it Archite&s Sketch Book it more the poetic genius that invented and the art that car- ried to perfection. upon tangled nacle. . that. fiery burst of flaming beauty the end of mediaeval architecture was indeed glorious. with a fairy touch. — that the end has to say that come. you recognize that the farthest bound has been reached. But only a philosopher could bring himself its Gothic architecture thus met feels rather fate in a sad decline. yielded it itself wholly to romantic fancy. and that in this brilliant. spent itself upon flaring crocket and interwoven moulding. Before the lacelike portals of Saint-Maclou intricate convolutions of the and the "crown of Normandy" or the wonderful gables of the Courts of Justice in Rouen. The artist it that in its latest hours. snarls of miniature buttress of and complicated pin- upon a sylvan growth window tracery and panel work. when its work was done.

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The Five Orders of Architedture .

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and Composite orders. classic architec- Yet the orders have a history and a meaning. Doric. They lay before their readers little but the details and the appellations of the various parts of the Tuscan. and even through that period when the temples of Athens were the models for houses and public buildings throughout America. until the Thereafter they remained forgotten Chicago Exhibition introduced them again to a public thirsty for architectural display.V THE FIVE ORDERS OF ARCHITECTURE 1905 A LAYMAN must be puzzled when writers present "the orders "as the fundamental elements of good architecture. average American builder confidently but ignorantly believes. and if these con- ventional forms are far less flexible than the. Now there is a crying need for . He must wonder by what accidents or for what reason these very conventional arrangements of ornamental design are accepted as of such authority. Corinthian. They scarcely explain that "the orders" are but the orderly arrangement of the elements of tural design. Ionic. they are far more so than many books would give one to suppose. Textbooks rarely give any answer to such questions. The American people knew a good deal about the orders a hundred and fifty years in the last century ago.

But why do the " orders " persist. It was an obvi- ous and natural thing to decorate in these ways the simple post and beam construction. though possibly no other cause need be sought for them than the innate love that man has for grace and beauty. To such incidents has the origin of the different Capitals been attributed. In the same . or the lonians as the same point of junction with curled volutes. then. tistic and account. or simply because they found the form agreeable.64 An ArchiteSfs Sketch Book What. binations of architectural forms called the orders? The most in position tel. Is not the sonnet form too worn a framework to support new ideas? Why not use some new methods of expression? if Of find course no reason exists why you may not do this you can new methods. that Callimachus observed of The story may be true how a basket of toys. he carved the first Corinthian capital. primitive building involves the placing of two posts of the intervening space with a lin- and the spanning It is but a slight step beyond this to imagine an Egyptian easing the harsh angle of post of the lotus and lintel by binding the spray finishing around the top of the post. what new and Why use meter in poetry? Hexameters have been in use ages. had become overgrown by the that. left at the grave a child and covered by a tile.'' What have we do with them? suited to us tion? in America to Why is not some new and original decoration more original decorafor and our ways? Well. turning this incident to ar- leaves of the wild acanthus. perhaps to imitate •shavings or choppings from the wooden post itself. but your search is likely to be fruitless. are these com- restraint or discipline in their use.

To-day our minds are often distracted from these main that essentials by the thousand petty suggest.The Five Orders of Architedture lintel 65 way. the whole being surmounted by a like frieze and is cornice. but the parts are those of an order. come to form the basis of most modern archi- tectural design. This is a division much that of an order. and it is . The doorways too have an architrave around them which represents the lower part of a door cornice. all the old reasons from which the orders sprang remain in force. made them almost indis- They pervade modern building even when no colonnade is visible. Still. the wall. with a lofty plain shaft of many repeated stories over it. details and complications modern life when we build a twenty-four story is ofiice its building the best arrangement yet discovered to divide vast height into a base of two or three stories. but the wall represents them. for good or bad. Columns pilasters may be present or may be lacking. The base. The wall of the room in which you and sit has a base and a wide wall space and a cornice. It for such reasons that the orders have. The old-fashioned. and the cornice may be elaborated to a greater or less degree. The study that was given them by the great artists of the Renaissance Greeks and Romans and by has only added to their authority and pensable as a means of expression. Painters tell the student to draw the human figure. dignified rooms that we owe their good qualities to a study of proportions that imply a recognition of these facts. plete state this door finish In its com- would also have a frieze like and cornice. so long as building remains fundamentally the placing of a on two supports.

common and what perfect manhood is to the painter. thus far our public ask with increasing insistence more for what is good than what is fresh or original. Of such are the adherents of "L'Art Nouveau" in Paris and a not insignificant class of skillful men in America. As some painters feel that painstak- . Some do all their this because they seek something new and fresh and own. It youthful architect is on somewhat the same principle that the is set to master the orders. The painter simplicity. But besides those who seek originality there are others who are akin to those landscape painters who can draw landscapes without much knowledge of the figure. learns to portray rugged age and stern The architect learns the details of the Tuscan and Doric orders. Hence among architects there are those who resent or decry the study of the orders. Also. It is true that in some very good architecture it is hard to find the influence of the orders. one can paint great pictures with- out being a perfect delineator of the human figure. Walt Whitman and Bret Harte have done it. In like manner it may be said that one can write poetry without any very apparent regard for the usual poetical meters. that Corinthian and Composite details represent to the architect. and so perhaps has Kipling. Womanly beauty and the beauties of the Ionic order have some attributes. the better architects is the result. Turner and Constable and many a landscape painter have done that. But. of especially as results indicate that the nearer work any style comes to the well-established principles that govern mass and proportion and detail.66 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book if almost an axiom that he can draw the figure he can draw anything well. happily.

to a school that would drop all conventions and be guided only by use of materials. of the almost the same objections are made to an extended study orders that are often urged against elaborate academic study of the nude. give the same pleasant results in architecture which in painting are derived forest from the color and joy of the fields and and the sea rather than from the study of a model. utility. "Hence. whether painters or architects. them influenced monk and The builders of the old stone houses of Somersetshire. of still the abbeys and cathedrals of England. and agrees with him when he says. nor anything done by but a freshly is and divinely imagined thing. or of the grander churches of France. it be good work it is not a copy. then. "If rule. Five orders! There not a side . had no knowing allegiance to the artists of Greece and Rome. and count sentiment and poetry higher than and knowledge and technique. so this class of architects set most store by honesty and naivete and skill quaintness. Men of this way of thinking. for it is true that there was during the Middle Ages little recognition of the classic orders. their kinship is may produce delightful work. however much the eternal principles that underlie artisan. forms. by the suitable and constructive and by ornament evolved from native natural is At all events to such a school probably Ruskin it a prophet. the more romantic qualities. Not unnaturally with mediaeval artists. They urge that these.The Five Orders of Architecture ing academic drawing of the figure crushes out life 67 interest and and that academy drawings become mechanical and pedantic. In short. mediaeval builders are perhaps the natural masters.

and a single inventive orders in an hour.68 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book it chapel in any Gothic cathedral but has fifty orders. to whom the picturesque and the poetical will feel make strong appeal. little same fundamental elements Still. and new. In the lofty moulded pillars of the perpendicular period in Eng- land or in the exuberant traceries of French flamboyant work it is difficult to trace close relationship with the colonnades of find the highest beauty in Rome. though the mediaeval architect perhaps did not of the know it. pointed arch and its logical The introduction of the use in vault and opening brought new elements to architecture with architecture then as always to the new ornaments. To them the others. the all worst of them better than the best of the Greek ones. There will always be men that this period. orders are not as indispensable objects of study as to . but the art of was a consecutive growth and subject of design as in classical periods. and that there really distinct dividing line between the art of the Middle Ages riods. and. All art of other pe- has a historical sequence. the base and shaft and capital French Gothic churches were evolved in natural sequence from the Corinthian orders of Rome." If there is human soul could create a thousand weakness in all this position it lies in the fact that the is human family in ages is more bound together than at no such absolute and and first appears. and in who most sympathy with building design which the influence of classic art is the least apparent. it must be conceded that there was to remind one of the classic orders in buildings at the close of the Middle Ages.

Scamozzi. Interpretations of his instructions tions of the buildings and restora- he described were favorite labors and pas- times for the architects of the Renaissance. of the last century. are within the reach of Mr. Serlio. That of Vignola . was the author of a treatise on architecture as practiced in his day." From the dogmatic way in which the authorities of the Renaissance period each stated the exact proportions that every member of every order should hold to every other it is not surprising that the orders are generally thought to be inflexible and to offer no opportunity for invention or variety.The Five Orders of Architecture The same revival the Greek and classic art. Alberti. determined the proportions of each. The . such as Sir William Chambers at the end every architect. and Vignola and many others reduced to proportional parts such a scheme for each order as they isting had individually composed from a study of the then ex- antique models and of such classical authors as wrote is about architecture. Brunelleschi and Bramante were early students of the ancient work that they found in Rome. This is surely far from being the case. 69 of learning that brought to the modern world Roman classic authors brought also the study of architect of about the time of Vitruvius. Ruskin says that one can "have no conception of the inanities and puerilities of the writers who with the help of Vitruvius reestablished its five orders. a Roman Augustus. and gave the various recipes for sublimity and beauty which have been thenceforward followed to this day. the most complete and the most studied but the orders as approved different artists by each of these and by many later ones.

its richness at the temples of Vespasian its and Concord and of the Sun. and Palladio's proportions were not those of Scamozzi. That consummate product of Greek art had a constructive scheme of the utmost simplicity. filled as they were with colonnades of which and porticos. a glance at the orders used in the Doric temples shows varied was that order as used by the Greeks. with vaulted halls and temples and forums left the varied and marvelous remains to us are but indications. and glorious opulence at the ! Temple No tol- invention and no variety Even precise and elegant Athens erated two different Doric orders and an Ionic order in the Propylsea. .70 An Archite&s Sketch Book order of Serlio differed from that of Alberti.' The Athenians applied to it a prod- igality of study and refinement that brought every line and contour and ornament to a perfection of Doric beauty. and few buildings are more picturesque or irreguliar in arrangement than the Erechtheum. Jupiter. there difference in the world is all the between its calm dignity at the Pan- theon. gradual progression is The same true of the Ionic order as in the hands of of Asia Greeks riper it was evolved from the rough forms Minor to the beauty of the Erechtheum. Then when Rome inherited the orders and carried the Corinthian order to that fulfillment of which the Greeks had seen but the early promise. Who supposes that there was Rome? Truly one any lack of variety or invention in Imperial can but faintly conceive of the variety and splendor of the cities of Augustus or of Constantine. and progression from the how very how sure was its stumpy columns with wide spreading caps of the temple at Corinth to the perfect order of the Parthenon. If we turn to the ancients.

and furniture of every kind. Later in England Elizabethan and Jacobean work showed a similar combination tail of classic de- on a picturesque body. Roman carving was from the hands of Greeks. and Vitruvius in his treatise on architecture says he derived the greatest assistance from the writings of Grecian architects upon architecture. The orders then were adorned with ara- Besides being applied to buildings they entered into the design of altars. These great artists may have lacked the pure Athenian refinement. Then in the more formal periods between the reigns of Louis XIII and Louis XVI in France and . even greater variety was prevalent during the whole Renaissance period. grafted them in a playful manner on the mediaeval stock of France. Passed on from age to age and through various countries these conventional forms days. and then Roman conquest spread throughout Greece It does not greatly matter whether this was done by true Romans or by Greeks under Roman influence. By means of them they obtained perhaps the most majestic and overpowering architectural effects that the world has ever seen. have come by devious paths to modern The artists of the time of Francis I. Still the Corinthian order it was never de- veloped until came under Roman it influence. finding them habitually used in the Italy they invaded. besques and carving. in the presence of the mighty remains of their work which we even now find in Rome. If in the works of antiquity the proportions of the orders varied greatly. yet. itself. one cannot but recognize that they were supreme in their use of the orders. wainscots.The Five Orders of Architecture We are told that the Greek was the great artist and the 71 Roman the great constructor.

? Shall he make his pilasters without entasis and flute them as at the Pantheon. or make them plain and with an entasis as at the Temple of Mars or . Thus in the by degrees they reached us and appeared Washington. them both flutings and an Then.72 An in ArchiteB's Sketch Book under the guidance of Sir Christopher Wren and Sir William Chambers England. as of charming echoes from the XVI and Queen Anne and the Georges. are When the American risian atelier student returns from his studies in a Pahis and uses the orders in monumental work. shall he dis- regard the advice of the wise and give entasis? face. where shall the entasis that the column does have be taken up in the pilaster? What proportions of the many that are possible shall be given to the modillions? Shall the capital be . in the White House at New York City Hall. but the principles that still govern the use of the orders and the making of a plan taught better in France than elsewhere. In the m6dern world the Ecole des Beaux Arts has been the nursery where the study of the orders has been most fostered. something fresh instead of a convention two thousand years Shall his order be light or heavy. he finds almost as many questions confronting him as if he were using old. the purer use of the orders obtained. It is first half of the " sometimes questioned whether Parisian " taste holds now to the standards of the past. how can he correct the bow-legged look on the If the pilaster has and how adjust the flutings on the return? no entasis. Nothing can exceed the grace and dignity with which they were used by the French masters of that school in the last century. and in King's Chapel and the State House courts of Louis in Boston.

in interest. for instance. Perhaps the chief objection to be found with such a general use of the orders as is now prevalent in monumental work is a certain uniformity in the design of clever people. To-day it often lacks out with consummate technique. questions that involve the nicest taste and clearest judgment and widest experience. or it will the then be too protruding. Thirty years ago the work of the designer it is was more it interesting and skill picturesque in intention than to-day. All the designs have one pervading spirit. . give a colonial air to some design in wood. he may vow to follow closely Vignola. he lies in may perhaps too late. and then. They are with us to stay. At present. They are questions that are perhaps best likened to those that must trouble the writer of a sonnet as he brings his lines into the accepted form. though carried We are not going to lose the orders. in a competition for a great government building its it is almost impossible to attribute any special design to author. in protest against the malformed orders he sees all around him. orders do on very delicate distinctions sonal Depending as the selections. or shall he adjust the whole scheme to give large pilasters in the corners? Perhaps. Surely the use of the orders offers questions enough to puzzle over. that the essence of such work attenuated orders and slender details. and shall he study after some other Classical or Renaissance type? Shall he place in the corner of a room a little fraction of a pilaster as a respond. but lacked in and knowledge.The Five Orders of Architecture modeled on the bell prescribed 73 horns by Vitruvius. the per- and and individual touch is not apparent to most eyes. in attempting to find.

lyrics to We must remember that there are ballads and be written as well as sonnets and epics. and intelligent use of X .74 just as An much as much ArchitedVs Sketch Book the poetical framework of the sonnet. and Millet a painter as well as Ingres. Charming and poetical designs are possible which show little affiliation with classical traditions. They will not be used everywhere. as though we may believe that in some degree such beauty principles these have rests on the same fundamental from which the orders have been evolved as convenient and long-accepted epitomes. It will be long before a better means of giving grandeur and stateliness to a building will be skillful found than can be obtained by the a noble order. Burns was a poet as well as Keats. But in modern monumental work majestic colonnades probably be the most usual means of express- and porticoes will ing these fundamental principles. which they so resemble.

On the Design of Houses .

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but his his ancestor in that this is position differs from that of but one of various courses open to him. what character or style of historical detail shall be used in its design. These have wrought a swifter revolution than any that has previ- ously affected the arts of design. Throughout our country the designs of Gibbs and Wren and Inigo Jones were reproduced in many forms. in mantel and cup- board. Up to their day architecture had shown a systematic and continuous growth. there at once arises the question. and every village builder. or whether as far as possible all such relations with the past shall be ignored. accepted such details as the only of expressing himself in method porch and cornice. They have also brought with them troubles that are quite new and very great-grandfathers were their buildings should little puzzling. without discussion or question. The man of to-day can continue in their steps. The last century moreover multiplied to countless in attractive guise numbers the books which show ture has ings what architecbless- meant in other times and to other people.VI ON THE DESIGN OF HOUSES 1905 WHEN a rich American who has no traditional ties wishes to build a mansion. . Even our concerned about the style in which be designed. In these days of photography and easy travel the history of art forces its treasures before him in blinding profusion.

To the informed mind the pitch of the roof. the preponderance of horimore. or forms that have served other people and other ages. even in a little house. But. Let such an objector. A trifling bit of detail gives a long historical ancestry even to an unimportant design. all promptly proclaim their origin. and the "practical man" cannot see why we moderns are not sufficient unto ourselves. however. the shape of the eaves or of the wall openings.? The traces of past human be life and art cannot be eradicated that all this detail shall colorless. the question may be dodged to a great degree in many simple houses. try to design even so familiar a building as a country house. The "laudator temporis acti" passes with many for an old fogy. or why we have to depend in any manner on the styles of buildings in vogue in the past. the porches. Obviously. furniture. this are tfie and possibly those designers who can stop with fortunate. . still mouldings and the spirit of the ornamental detail. in how much more pressing are they work of magnitude. its having some degree of arise some bygone If such questions with the small details of a small house. Many will certainly be found who object to the use of ornament. the profiles of zontal or vertical lines or shadows.78 An ArchiteSi's Sketch Book detail. more what shall be done with the and the so inevitable detail of the stairs. for it is out of affili- the power of ation with man to prevent art. the mantels. and he will soon agree that the world must needs be more artless and less sophisticated than we find it to- day to permit him to ignore the work of the past. Many buildings of may have that "style" which means only grace and beauty mass or of outline or color.

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for there 79 Why should not the rich American find safe models in the buildRome? is much days. although the mediaeval castle or cloister. to the seaside or the mountain. Cicero argues courts. he might do worse. farm. tennis and amphitheatres. has little in common with our life. his Sabine farm or of Pliny writes of his Tuscan and we are in the company country gentlemen who find a truly modern enjoyment in house. that are linked lawns surrounded by plane trees by festoons all of ivy and banked by masses of box and laurel. Lenox or Newport. riding-grounds flat of the sea. notwithstanding So. like and their richly decorated interiors. we find that the villa of the ancient Romans would almost meet Colonnades. and cattle. marble seats and basins. — these met the tired Roman when he drove. his cases as in one of our Caesar tells the story of his campaigns as Grant or Shertold rof theirs. in trees and gardens. its charm. we know though the general it spirit a building might be retained. we say this. that. They would accord well with the luxurious manners of modern wateringplaces. man have Horace describes villa.On ings of ancient the Design of Houses Indeed. in common between our life and that of those distant We read classic authors and we feel famiUar with their if ways and methods. great sunny baths from which the bathers have a view courts. in running streams and shady coppices. as of such to-day. life would make no unfitting back- ground for fashionable Yet. on an afternoon. would be scarcely pos- sible for a modern family to abide comfortably even in a luxu- . doubtless something those we see at Pompeii. courts and present needs at cloisters.

shaded walks. But instead of studying the ancient palaces of Rome or those of Italy during the fifteenth century. we are soon in imagination leading our rich client along a very different road in search of a style. rious villa such as the In the fifteenth century men were still living ruder lives than we do now. adapted dinals to their customs. the ports and casinos that stud the steep shores of Lake Como. terraced lawns. and sloping steps. if. The love of gardens. statues. Thus it happens that in them the history of art opens before us another line of wonderful examples. and porticoes. These Italian villas are in- deed the classic structures adapted to modern uses. they did not copy the old it Roman own villa. of fountains. with good common sense. anxious as the humanists of the Italian Renaissance were to restore classic ways.80 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book Romans built. and the his pupils built lovely vaulted porches which Julio Romano and and made to glow with dainty arabesque and sides of delicate color on the rugged Monte Mario. The villas on the around Florence and Siena and those that are fast vanishing from the neighborhood of Genoa. and yet. We find the Valois kings returning one after another from Italy with imaginations . the precipitous terraces and gushing fountains of the Villa d'Este. we turn towards France. all these must have resembled to a great degree the structures that covered the hillsides around imperial Rome. but. The car- and princes who built the villas of Italy succeeded natu- rally to the luxurious tastes and ample expenditure of the ancient Romans. was as great with a Prince of the Church as with a Senator hills of ancient Rome.

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Rude walls were however pierced with muUioned tier windows. so they asserted their strength during the Renaissance of classic art. little by that domestic comfort and luxury suggested by recent con- tact with the higher civilization of Italy was introduced into the ancient fortresses of France. fundamentally unchanged. that Julio with the Villa or with the Madama Romano was building in Rome. Under their influence. and decorated with paneled pilasters forest of vers. and even to that . all gave an indigenous shape to the buildings. with arabesques and refined mouldings adapted from Italian models. modernizing the arts of France. The Renaissance be- came master in the old feudal dwellings. chimney and arcade. of What had the general mass common Chambord or Fontainebleau or Chenonceaux. a chimneys and dormers grew on the roof. enriched window and doorway. ists As the French had shown themselves during the mediaeval periods. except a general resemblance in detail. Whatever their the Valois were great builders.On fired the Design of Houses of si civilization. by what they had seen there an advanced and bringing in their train a host of ItaUan service in artists to render faults. with their high in roofs and multitudinous chimneys. In spite of the admiration of the Frenchman for the work of foreign artists. the conical turrets. the latter were not strong enough to crush out great art- native talent. Farnesina that was growing under Raphael's guidance? Hardly anything. and the car- abandoning the rugged mediaeval forms. the machicolated cornices. on tier. little. The high and the vigorous picturesque outlines of the mediaeval castle. The ancient structure remained roofs.

The English . was thoroughly French. showed nothing to indicate the coming change in art. favorite Leicester. When we turn to England we find repeated there all the various phases that occurred in the history of French architecture. their own uses the work Hence there are no better examples of the proper method of assimilating the art of other days and other countries than these French chS. windows ap- peared where before would have been blank walls. With the Re- formation. means of de- way to the desire for comfort and luxury and light and Long ranges of Courtyards were opened up. or on castles that were places of safety quite as much as dwellings. But during the fense gave air. The Italians had applied the art of ancient Rome to their own needs of and customs. of and capital and The work of Philibert Delorme and Pierre Lescott. much as was to the subjects of Frangois Premier. although influenced by ians and inspired by the antique. During the Middle Ages the efforts of English builders had been spent on churches and monastery buildings. Ital- Germain Pilon and Jean Goujon. church building practically ceased. but the increased luxury of the time produced the change of the defensible fortress into the comfortable dwelling-house. reigns of Elizabeth and James. only six years before Michael Angelo died. which is The castle of Elizabeth's familiar to us in Scott's novel "Kenil- worth.teaux. For such reasons they are full of suggestions for a people to it whom the world of art is presented.82 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book new touch in arabesque the Frenchmen gave a cornice." though not of the purer Gothic type. and yet Elizabeth came to the throne in 1558. The French adapted to Italy.

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wholesome. and direct architec- In these honest plain buildings the unbroken traditions of English building were continued throughout the Elizabethan style and Jacobean periods. It is diflScult name ties the age of to such buildings. ture. where free from ornaas ment and where builders adhered to the local traditions handed down from father to son. but which . Such delightful work it is to be found all over England. in the colleges at Oxford and Cambridge and to in the brick houses of Kent. Though this ornament adds greatly to the picturesque it is effect of the structures. rude versions of familiar classical designs. odd intermixtures of Gothic and Italian ornament. given period. They retained the picturesque group and outline that was a legacy of the Gothic tradition. its de- The larger houses and mansions demanded enrichment. ance of the scholarship of architecture. almost universally marked by extreme ignorIll-proportioned orders. but they soon were crowded with detail that is ill understood and with ornament that is poor.On buildings resulting the from Design of Houses this ss movement. But more important building could not remain thus without the ornament that betrays the thought and learning of signers. They have but little detail that them any They are simple. all show a desire to appear familiar with the modes which were then prevalent in Europe. were able beauty full of a quiet reason- due to the well-considered use of materials and the absence of desire to surprise by learning or technical dexterity. We see in stone cottages and manor houses. and formed a charming English unlike anything in France or Germany or Italy. in the plainer portions of great mansions.

and attractive in texture because of lavish and well-placed enrichment. caused by the same ment. was satisfied with rude suggestions of the original work.84 An ArchiteSl's Sketch Book I. and. although must be very naivete and picturesque crudeness. that the mythoancients logy. gives All this it a certain interest of its own. the ardor for classical erudition was so prevalent among the learned and great. joined to an abundant exuberance. England was adopt the " motifs" and be content with the richness they added to building. France under Francis made the Italian " motifs " her own and gave them a new and satisfied to peculiar beauty. This foppery described Walter Scott's novel of "The Monastery. was going on in literature at this same mo- Perhaps the most fashionable book of Spenser's day was Lilly's "Euphues. in England as elsewhere diction in Europe. As a result Elizabethan and Jacobean building charms by is its pic- turesque grouping." where a court gallant calls the cows "the milky mothers of the herd" and the youth who tends them "most bucolical juvenal. as well as the able. of the became fashion- It is impossible to read such a poem as Spenser's "Faerie . The enrichment it is not such as said that its bears the scrutiny of a purist. change was the same as that which." It was considered by the Court a proof its of refined manners to adopt parley phraseology. were not fully understood in England. "That beautie in court as she in Sir who could not Euphuisme " was as little regarded is who now cannot speak French. subjected to the same influences. influences. caring for no refine- ments. She accepted them as seen through the eyes of Dutchmen or other foreigners." Indeed.

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One is a Christian roclassical mance of the Middle Ages embroidered with names and ill-understood allusions to heathen gods and goddesses. are but the counterparts of the Italian mouldings and ornaments. The numerous foreign artists who came natives of to England during Elizabeth's reign were nearly all. The Englishmen with these surroundings made very the five orders. Germany and in all the Low Countries. such as on the staircases. or in the carving of screens and mantels. in strapwork gables. the others are Gothic palaces plastered over with such Corinthian pilasters and details as indicate the point which men of of taste had then reached classical allusions. It was largely by means of these pattern books that this taste was so quickly disseminated. the cherubs and wreaths and shells that are applied to the truly Enghsh buildings of the Elizabethan age. in realizing the charms Roman art. The applied to a truly English allegory.On Queene" and not same the Design of Houses it is 85 see that the expression of exactly the feelings as those which dictated the design of such great or mansions as Audley End WoUaton. These all show Dutch influence on Englishmen. They . but lacked the grace and of the elegance of the Italian. which was published in Antwerp in 1563. version of Italian detail and the crudeness Dutchman's made it far more easy for the ruder workmen of England to reproduce than the real Italian work. free with and depended for guidance and help mainly on pattern books like that of Vriedman de Vries. The workmanship was full of dexterity. in male and female figures ending in balusters. Their influence was prominent ornamental detail.

by the common ancestors of every Anglo-Saxon may legitimately delight in their beauties. In classes France the art of the aristocracy was imitated by humbler and the manor and farm dimly recalled the round towers and lofty roofs of the chateau. The designer's skill was also freely spent on man- oak or of colored marbles in houses. now became namental and stately. and in shape these houses form a type that built is distinct and national. and perhaps more design was lavished by them on interior wooden fittings than on the masonry of stone itself. we see that the work of a hundred years had produced from the mediaeval castle a modern mansion. with which in fact Eng- Hsh builders at that time were not familiar. then. But all English architecture starts . and on wooden screens or pulpits in the churches. which before this time had been and which had or- been valued solely as means of communication. They were generally of oak and very often with interlacing strapwork on the balustrades or rude figurework on the tels of posts. Towards the end of the reign of Elizabeth the workmen from the Low Countries in the found their principal employment making of monuinents and chimney-pieces. in all re- spects admirable in an artistic sense as long as plain building was adhered to. but adorned. enriched.86 An Architedf's Sketch Booh were used instead of the Italian treatises of Alberti and Palladio and the other interpreters of Vitfuvius. and as they were Englishmen and ourselves. There is also one more reason why we should like them. and beautified by ornament In spirit that does not bear close analysis. Staircases. But everywhere in all this detail Dutch taste made itself felt. In England.

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Blenheim inconsiderable compared with Versailles. distinct styles far with which he end. It the blessing and the burden of to-day. try to adapt the art of past despise it. like the^artists of the Renaissance in Italy. of The truly interesting grand houses England are such as Knole and Penshurst and Compton Wyngates. house in- creases.On with the the Design of Houses and as the grandeur of the 87 home as the unit. time. but is results from our being born in this century. The world has never known houses more homelike than these. We can despise it and try vainly to be we can copy we it exactly as many fashionable decorators advise. . it is in still an enlarged home. where features common to humble dwellings throughout England are found in the greatest perfection. and startling novelties in architecture will only please for a time. France. or can. mansion. and England. only ignorance is blind to the past. may and we are from the That we have is this wealth of authority prodigally placed it before us perhaps a misfortune. original. and that homely aspect is retained which characterizes cot- tage. manor house. or all indeed Uke the real artist of ages to immediate needs. ties. In fact. So we find scarcely a palace is England. for in them domestic charms take the place of splendor. The slang cowboy is not likely to supplant permanently our mother tongue. Saint James's Palace is as nothing by the side of the Louvre. Our wealthy client by this time will probably find this dis- cussion confusing. Here already are several very aflBliate his design. church and cathedral throughout the length and breadth of England. If we we may is create novel- but we have no guarantee that novelty of the improvement.

ignorantly groping blindly accepts almost for a sure guide. and inappropriate." and especially a French period. American fashion. the demand still for a new and wholly American There remains the possibility of adapting the art of past uses. and consequently vulgar. sometimes any room if only it be of a "period. it is it resemble a chateau in Touraine or a of course lifeless life. and whether the house be modeled upon the Petit Trianon or Haddon Tuscan Hall. and we go without bathrooms because an Englishit? man "tubs" Shall we forego piazzas because they are not needed under the foggy skies of England? At this moment.88 An Shall ArchiteB's Sketch Book slavish copying is On the other hand. stupid. When the result is beautiful propriate. the traditions of the past to the life and need and ways of the present. but to it many the name gives undue In many cases seems affected. It goes farther and makes each and apconfid- room of a different period. with- out pedantry or affectation. He is the true artist who can thus adjust in a natural and straightforward way. will surely The American house thus conceived advantage over its have one final ancient prototypes in the fact that clean. whether villa. ages to our own This is the only work worthy of an artist. pedantic. ence. all is well. and inappropriate unless adapted to our customs. For such reasons archaeology is we may be sure that strict as is as much out of place in American house design style. and habits. It is it will be new and sweet and impossible not to feel a certain sympathy with one distinguished though perhaps somewhat Philistine writer when he says: — . unmeaning.

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in short. or their children do. be they hovels or "'You should go with me sculptor to Donatello. full of death scents. to imagine. we may build almost immortal habitations.' " ' observed the 'In that fortunate land each generation has only its own sins and sorrows to bear! . musty. true.On "It is the Design of Houses 89 beautiful. but we can- not keep them from growing old. it is So. everywhere in Italy. when she obtained the precious boon of immortality. and exceedingly satisfactory to instincts. a misfortune analogous to that of the Sibyl. unwholesome. they incur. dreary. to my native country. when people insist on building indestructible houses. ghosts. habi- tations such as one sees palaces. and murder stains . no doubt. same roof-tree as ourselves. some of our natural dwelling under the our far posterity Still.

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By the Sea .

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air Rivers. the deepsea sailor on the ocean. Give him the briny blowing in from kelp-laden ledges. . the wet spray dashed from the bow of his boat. woods. it is because he hears the murmur of the ocean. and hills are for others. where coasters silently pass and repass and where ocean and sky blend together." Jerrold. In the break of day our boat glides silently from the sleeping harbor.VII BY THE SEA 1898 l^r EITHER forest nor stream. "What heed I of the dusty land and noisy town ? I see the mighty deep expand From its white line of glimmering sand To where the blue of heaven on bluer waves shuts down. No inventions have conquered fog. When fog settles down and thick over land and sea." "Love the sea?" says Douglas from the beach. -^ ^ can satisfy the lover of the sea. and the yachtsman along our shores must alike hold it in dread. . the wide spread of blue water stretching far to the horizon. the rollers breaking in a white crescent on the sand. we are certainly better off on the beach. "I dote upon lies it . We pass the green ramparts of the fort. lures But almost any weather that is not foggy many a man from the beach and gives him his best holidays. If the sough of the breeze through wind-swept woods in it is sweet to him. and the sentinel . neither mountain nor lake. and the fisherman on the Banks.

Away in the distance the world we have is left behind has faded clear into a mystery of haze." The waves sing the same song that they did when the boundless deep was gathered into one place and God saw that it was good. The sea remains upon the face as majestic as when the Spirit of God first moved of the waters. then down come our anchor. so unconfused are each full of change. The ocean and the sky tell is but the story they as simple as it is grand. Wide heaven above us and a . there is fense and the danger smooth green water flecked with foam. are advanc- ing rollers and ebbing torrents.94 An sea is Architedt's Sketch is Book pacing his lonely round darkly outlined on the morning sky. The rosy with the early sunlight. but man has been as powerless to change the heaven that arches over "Ten thousand fleets surface of the sea as of the it. but here and there the rising breeze breaks it into ripples and these grow and broaden and join until the whole sparkles. Man marks the earth with — his control Stops with the shore. a roar of waters and the scream of circling gulls. where the surges break. we get due sails bearings on the distant shores. Sailing far beyond all this. Certainly nowhere as on the sea. that are at once the deof our harbor. The ocean swell meets us as we haul ledges. is and we are at nature so large. to for a basket of bait at the herring traps by the outer In the wake of these rocks. sweep over thee ruin. so direct. in vain. For ages the dry land has been combed and furrowed and planted and sheared. Outside.

^m^smmi^ .

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roll. is Our Palinurus what they call a lucky fisherman. the seine boats with their groups of working- men. and just as the sun rises and as the tide begins to flood he dangles a tempting breakfast before the largest cod on the coast. Then. circle In a trice her two boats are dropping their nets in a around the frightened fish. Now a is school of porpoises rises near us and the surface of the sea broken by their gleaming bodies. to the sun starts from our feet. and the next all swing into one graceful a great is moment they drop behind and activity nothing roller. at three in the morning he six miles can be found rowing a heavy dory five or out to sea. is it not to such people in other walks of life that luck comes. After all. Then with snorts and puffs they vanish in the deep.'' But energy and laziness are strangely mingled in the dwellers will on our coasts. We watch the fall hauling of the fatal purse and see the shower of silver glancing into the boats. is What might be an powering loneliness lightly but constantly broken. unless detained by ardent companions. and of this scene of bustle visible but the schooner's sails. The whole picture rises and falls with the deep-sea The waiting schooner. A fishing schooner cruises down upon us and the lookout in her cross-trees sights menhaden. This means that he spends the afternoon before a fishing-trip wading over the mud flats and digging up "sweetmeats" less for bait. Palinurus himself make these trips without .By way the Sea The golden qb pathover- horizon bounds the waves that encircle us. the long sweep of the net buoys group.

Captain Mugford. doing men's work. here is told on one memorial stone how sixty-five of them back went down in one terrible gale on the Grand Banks. men of action. who. who with his boat crews captured an English war vessel. This little men across the icy town of Marblehead alone sent a thousand men to the~War of 1812. General Glover. There you see how the men of the town have met death in ship- wreck and battle. from his Long The same amphibious body rowed him and Delaware at Trenton. amid adventure and danger. but when aloft their interest men nowhere more ready to go or man a lifeboat or follow the flag by land or sea. who led the Marblehead regiment in the Revolution . when the call came . the butcher. The but local heroes are not the wise or the learned or the good. left his Martin. and yet scarcely a man or woman can be found for an odd job. of whom over seven hundred were on privateers. The people of our seashore towns in general have but modest means. or Captain Knott in 1861. is Every one aroused is independent to a are fault.96 An ArchitedVs Sketch Book compass or biscuit or water bottle. Bead the inscriptions above the graves on our rocky hillside. and when confronted by sudden gales returns in a condition of exhaustion wholly due to his own imprudence. Indeed. As it far as in the days of the Revolution in our was to the regiment recruited for help in his retreat town that Washington turned Island. The town of the an- nals are full of the stories of the courage and daring men who manned these ships and dred of the sufferings of the several hun- who were held as prisoners in Halifax and Chatham and Plymouth.

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The ships commanded by one captain alone captured more than a thousand guns from the enemy. were doing larger work. As prize after prize was sent in by him and his fellow fighters. When these venturesome sailors vanished from the sea the seafaring spirit to a great degree departed with them. Salem. The great range . our quiet waters must have been the scene of much activity and excite- ment. arrives. and Bombay. There were perhaps but two or three men from our town in the full Navy during the Spanish War. of Good Hope. still the ships of our richer neighbor. and" then the pure bLood of Old and New England While Marblehead was sending out fishermen and privateers. from Ceylon and Sumatra. Calcutta. They were to be found rounding the for the trade of the Cape Sea. Soft sea mists and life beside them sleepy until an emergency tells. armed ships. prizes. although she sent a into company the 'Army. There is no commerce to speak of at our of warehouses that line the long own wharves. such stuff are these the ocean render Of men made. pushing onward Red and bringing their cargoes from Madras. and the waters where we are of all these now fishing were the rendezvous ing the Revolution fifty-eight vessels.By newly killed the Sea his 97 hog half-dressed that he might notify men promptly. Later. Salem vied with our own town in sending out privateers. Dur- Salem equipped at in four least one hundred and forty-five They brought hundred and and during the War of 1812 forty privateers sailed from that now sleepy port. and then reported with his company at the State House before any other country troops reached Boston.

because of the indifference of Congress. so that the fish by trawls seines and and lobsters whose nurseries to multiply.98 An Archite6t^s Sketch filled Book now piers at Salem. bankers with nests of dories. Failing these. irrevocably suc- cumbed to modern Are the energy and brains that once cities? found employment at home now absorbed by the great Has manufacturing. like so many others through life? the country. our waters are swept clear traps. seiners with seine boats in tow. puffing tugs and ocean oflF. for instance. What we want here are laws of repression that will restrict the fisherman to the use of hand and are lines. is. all way hull down on the dim horizon. Have these old communities. moulder empty by the deserted harbor. Stone sloops with decks awash. and that new circum- may bring to these shores marine industries for which nature has fitted them. To-day. hostile to things Our lawmakers do indeed seem hopelessly marine. at any rate. once with silks and teas and nankeens. liners and three-masted coasters. a thing of the past not only here but all along our shores. they all go by us. — as well as the pleasure yachting that harbor is life. giving us so much glory and gain. — shipbuilding. Even here where we are fishing the world's business in sight. the coasting cargoes but coal go to other ports. definitely supplanted the seafaring life of New England? Let us hope that the old stances spirit is but dormant. among our rocky headlands have no chance . we might as we now talk be catching more codfish. shipping. With a little help from them. which came in with the great Embargo. and the American shipping which sailed to foreign ports. and now absorbs its fishing.

.

.

By
When November comes and
side to

the

Sea

99

the great codfish come in from outledges, they are

spawn on the rocky

met by

trawls, four
of

to a boat, with five

hundred hooks to each trawl, or by ranks
floats,

cod seines floated near the bottom by glass
that carry naptha engines.

tended by dories

When

the fishermen underrun these
that swims.

murderous

outfits,

they bring up

all

No wonder that
An
but

where once hand-line fishing was a good occupation, there now
are but poor

and ever lessening

fares for the shore fisherman.

absolutely close season for lobsters

would

also

be

effective,

the present laws only limit the length of those that

maybe taken;

The fisherman
in the trap.

is

expected to throw back the small lobsters found
as these

But
is

meet a ready purchaser and can be

used for bait,

not this asking too
will

much

of

him?

If

he

fails

to

throw them back there

soon be no lobsters on our coast.

Such subjects occupy us
while

in the intervals of fishing, and, as

we

away the time with

talk, the ever-varying

hours pass, and

gradually

we find the sea changing

in color to

a deep indigo* The

scudding vessels show hard and dark against the horizon. In
the west the clouds pile

up leaden and brown in ponderous masses.

Slowly the threatening curtain moves towards us, the edge of the

storm cloud showing ragged and frayed against the dead white
sky.

Then with thunder growls and

lightning flash

and furious
on the

wind and drenching

rain, the line of shower, clean-cut

water, comes driving white towards us.

The gusts

strike us,
is

and

while the

windows

of

heaven are open the world
falling torrents.

for

a space

blotted out

from view by the

Clad in "oilies"

and tarpaulins, with everything snugly stowed, we wait patiently

100
until the

An

ArchiteB's Sketch Book

tempest passes down the coast and long slanting gleams

of sunshine break
ally the

through the scattering clouds, and thus gradu-

heavens clear and smile again.
is

There are days when the sea
laden with the smell of
hard; but even then
it

leaden and oily,

when the

air is

fish

and the distant shores look near and

needs but a fresh wind from the north-

west to change

all this,

and

in their turn

come

clear air

and

sparkling waters and a bright gladness everywhere.

Then down

the opposite shore
coasters that

sails

the great white-winged procession of
lee

have sought a

during the bad weather. There
file

they go,

fifty sail of

them, in long single

laden with lumber

and

laths

and

coal

and lime and bound across the bay.
sails.

"Behold the threaden
Borne with the
invisible

and creeping wind.

Draw

the huge bottoms through the furrowed sea.

Breasting the lofty surge."

With another morning the scene again changes. The dawn
comes calm and windless and a summer haze sends the other
shore into remoteness.

Nature dreams, and over the watery

mirror come in broad patches the reflections of idle sails and of
"Ships softly sinking
in the sleepy sea."

Can

it

be that these changes go on every day; that daily this

endless succession of cloud

and storm and sunshine continue and

the vast circle of ocean smiles or frowns or laughs in the sunshine,
veils itself in

impenetrable fogs, or lashes

itself

with the gale?

Why

are we, cooped

up

in dull offices, shut off

from these great

wonders? Perhaps we should find hard the lot of the lobsterman

::::-\

'^-

f

_

1>0

/j

noj

nothing like the great Thames of barges with their brightly varnished spars are and great expanse sees brown sail.By who fisherman the Sea loi hauls his pots off the brown rocks of our shores. Doubtless the painter wishes that the foreground of this picture offered some of the picturesque models that the ports of the Old World offer. flat-bottomed and tough. there no such brilliant winged boats as one on the Adriatic. We have not even the square-rigged brigantines that monopolize the coasting trade around the British Isles. except for these. It is the most rise picturesque one on our coast. the boats in . full-breasted fishing-boats such as France and Holland and England send to the North Sea and the Channel. The town is old and the houses above the wharves in straggling masses. fitted to thump on unprotected ocean beaches and start forth again on the returning tide. hill This tower-crowned varied shipping as coasters forms a pleasing background to the we thread our devious way among yachts and and fishermen. for "These men see the works of the Lord. sterns It is true that a few old pinkie castles of on the Maine coast recall by their high poops the mediaeval vessels and can claim close descent from the flower Maywhich and the Arbella. nor round-bodied." is Sailing about our harbor never tiresome. or of the who sets his seines on the broad sea. but they have their compensations. But. But the harbor's unique beauty is mainly due to the red-towered building that tops the closely built town. There are no long-winged lateen rigs. it is so well placed that it commands and dominates the hill and dignifies every view. and his wonders in the deep. Though a simple structure.

But our curiosity is greater still about the feats of those early sailors who depended on wind alone. one may envy the occupations of painters De Haas and Norton life and Quartley and Winslow Homer.102 Irish An Architedfs Sketch Book cruise and Portuguese fishermen about Massachusetts Bay. The ancient and the pic- turesque have vanished before the desire to carry great cargoes rapidly or to ride out the gales on the speedily to port. When it storm and stress overtook the ships of Philip's Armada.and four-masted schooners and the Gloucester fisherman and the yacht. But like for all that. sailingr vessels to us of only the three. jerky stroke or at his labor. all and the Johnny wood boats from Nova Scotia are about that we can show of the ancient fashions. torial These models are less pic- than those that Vander Velde had before him when paint- ing those'pictures of Dutch men-of-war in harbor and in battle that well we see at Antwerp and The Hague. Banks and bring fish The American vessel now embodies the hope Hence are left of the future rather than respect for the past. What modern a short history has been that of the evolution of the ship! In the days when Columbus "sailed the ocean blue. these vessels were controlled and what happened when a fell able oarsman missed his short." oars were relied on for propulsion quite as much as sails. seems but natural that their . who have pictured sea and who daily drew the beauties of sea and sky on our coasts. It pelled a confused mass of charging galleys prooars. We wonder how miser-. At the Ducal Palace in Venice we see on the walls a painting of the is Battle of Lepanto. by serried banks of These terrible oars were often sixty feet long and manned by four or five men.

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in British and even that men-of-war up to the days of our Revolution. and how did Cabot and Columbus and Magellan cross the wide oceans on their unwieldy craft? Doubtless they drifted on merrily enough with favoring winds. easy runs beneath the water. galleries. in Spanish galleons. in British East-Indiamen. that the ships of the early navigators were in we may feel sure form as clumsy as and perhaps not unlike Chinese junks. why did they not If they had gained and more? they once did strike a trade wind that wafted did they them across. But even this is so the enormous poops and forecastles were so long perpetuated in Dutch carracks. But how did Sir Francis Drake bring home safe his almost equally clumsy ships. when the lose all gale came out ahead. We must admit that they were wonders! Possibly the curious drawing of many artists in those old days made the ships if appear more clumsy than they really were. how know where to seek an equally fair wind to bring them back over strange waters? Yet Columbus and Magellan did somehow knock as off as many miles of progress a day many vessels still in service on the Down East coast can do to-day. Nelson fought with ships of boxlike hulls.By high castles fore and ners the Sea los aft. The hulls of the American clipper packets and Baltimore slavers assumed the finer lines that give . but. their bellying sails and flaunting ban- and their more or less open hulls should have made them an easy prey to the hungry rocks and the tempests of the North Sea. though they were well rigged and well but on some of the American frigates clumsiness of the hull above water changed to sharp entrances and graceful. that had heavy quarters and overhanging handled .

His world his own and landsman indeed a stranger. Through every chance and change know- though applied to new and varying problems and to the rapid changes in shipbuilding. for certainly no modern structure has changed more from its early prototype than has the modern ship from that all of the days of Columbus. Curiously enough. never lets go of the methods and ways that have been proved fit by centuries and wave and tide of fighting with wind and calm. but whether he be laying down patterns. . guided conventions and customs. the evolution of the modern ship has been so rapid an achieve- ment. or doing joiner is is work. whether yacht or merchantman or fish- erman or fighter. An The ArchiteB's Sketch Book introduction of steel rigging and masts and hulls. Indeed. more than of steam. his peculiar language. until beis tween a modern battleship and Nelson's Victory there but a shadowy resemblance. all this has happened at the hands of seamen. because the vessel that thus comes from his hands has lines in sympathy with the ele- ments that surround her. or paint- ing and rigging his craft. or framing and planking his hull. who of all people are the most conservative and who hold fast to speech and ways and facts wrung from the bitter experiences of generations of sailors. he bound on every hand by marine strange that. But his methods. completed the revolution. sense. all. He uses head as well as hands. It by such men. and his prejudices persist because they are founded on experience and his common ledge. Jack Tar through is still all the changes keeps in it the much is the same.104 fleetness. and. The shipwright has the best of trades. she is a thing of beauty.

f 5 jfi^ .

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the sky is aflame with red and purple and gold. THE END . With these thoughts before us let us paddle ashore past the tall. white hull and shining masts of the crack yacht. These conventions are bent and adapted to special adaptation is needs. scent of From bay and fern and fort.By A occupy other days. The harbor begins to sparkle with riding We near the wharves and they lower over us black and forbid- ding. of the vessels brighten the surface of the rattle as Over by the fort an anchor chain runs out with a the fishing schooner ends her day's work. Bugles sound from the and as the sun dips in the west the flag lights. rose. When the perfect the result is beauty. but behind the tower-topped hill. freshened by the recent rain. The click of the lobsterthe fields comes the men's oars sounds across the harbor. and by the plutocrat's ocean steamer populous with white-shirted jackies. and above us is a pale and slender moon. The quivering reflections water. steps taken Still the Sea 105 holiday on the sea gives respite from the thoughts that no architect can fail to notice that the by the art of shipbuilding are very like those by which the art of architecture progresses. The conventions by which both express themselves are founded on necessity and experience. comes down.

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