Content Theories of Motivation

Focus is on the content (nature) of items that may motivate a person. They relate to the person's inner self and how that person's internal state of needs determines behavior Developer

Principle and Need levels
Lower-order needs:
1.Physiological, 2. Safety 3. Social /belongingness Desires for physical and social well being.

Hierarchy of needs theory

Abraham Maslow

Lower-order and higher-order needs affect workplace behavior and attitudes

Deficit principle
A satisfied need is not a motivator of behavior.

Progression principle
A need at one level does not become activated until the next lower-level need is satisfied.

Higher-order needs:
4. Esteem 5. Self-actualization needs. Desire for psychological growth and development.

Any/all needs can influence behavior at one time Clayton Alderfer.

Three need levels:
1. Existence needs desires for physiological and material wellbeing. 2. Relatedness needs desires for satisfying interpersonal relationships. 3. Growth needs desires for continued psychological growth and development. COMPONENTS 1. Hygiene/Maintenance factors: Elements of the job context. Sources of job dissatisfaction. 2. Motivational/Satisfier factors: Elements of the job content. Sources of job satisfaction and motivation.

ERG theory

1. In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time. 2. If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies. 3. It also contains the frustration-regression dimension

Frustration-regression principle.
An already satisfied lower-level need becomes reactivated when a higher-level need is frustrated In- trinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their nonpresence leads to demotivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.

Two-factor theory/Hygiene theory

Frederick Herzberg

Needs that are acquired:
1.Need for Achievement (nAch) Desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. * People high in (nAch) prefer work that: 1. Involves individual responsibility for results. 2. Involves achievable but challenging goals. 3. Provides feedback on performance. 2. Need for Power (nPower) Desire to control other persons, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for other people. Personal power versus social power. * People high in (nPower) prefer work that: 1. Involves control over other persons. 2. Has an impact on people and events. 3. Brings public recognition and attention. 3. Need for Affiliation (nAff) Desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with other persons. * People high in (nAff) prefer work that: 1. Involves interpersonal relationships. 2. Provides for companionship 3. Brings social approval.

People acquire needs through their life experiences. With the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievement increased rather than Affiliation. He also observed that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by this drives

Acquired needs theory

* the difficulty of these models of motivation is that the needs people have are not subject to observation by managers or to precise measurement for monitoring purposes

David McClelland.

Content Theories of Motivation .

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