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Dr. Mohammad Al-tahat Department of Industrial Engineering. University of Jordan. Lab. Of Manufacturing Processes. Course No: 906412, 0906412
1. Objective: The main objective of this experiment is to study the process of rolling of metals and to examine the deferent factors influence the process. 2. Background: For more information about the subject of the experiments, it is recommended for the student to review section 6.3 of chapter six of the text. 3. Theory It is the first process in converting a cast material (ingot) into a finished wrought product, rolling process can be defined as: the Bulk deformation process of reducing the thickness or changing the cross-section of a long work-piece by compressive forces applied through a set of rolls (mills) similar to rolling dough with a rolling pin to reduce its thickness as demonstrated in figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Rolling process description.
Rolling accounts for about 90% of all metals produced by metal forming. The process first developed in the late 1500s the basic operation is flat rolling (simply) where the rolled products are flat plate and sheet. Plates: having greater than 6mm – 0.3 m thickness. Sheets: having less than 0.6 mm. A schematic outline of various flat and shape rolling process are shown in figure 5.2 the figure implies the sequence of operations needed to convert an ingot or a continues casting into a useful product like strip, plate, bar etc.
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Figure 5.2 Schematic Outline Of various flat-and shape rolling processes
1. Mechanics of Rolling
Strip Sliding. Schematic illustration for flat rolling is shown in figure [5.3]. Because of volume constancy, the velocity of the workpiece (strip) must increase as it moves through the roll gap. At the exit of the roll gap, the velocity of the strip is Vf. because Vr is constant along the roll gap, sliding occurs between the roll and the strip.
FIGURE [5.3]: Schematic illustration of the flat rolling process. A greater volume of metal is formed by rolling than by any other metalworking process.
Neutral point. At a certain point a long the arc of contact strip velocity and roll velocity are the same. It is known as neutral point, or no slip point to the left of the neutral point, roll moves faster than the workpiece, and to right the workpiece moves faster than the roll.
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FIGURE [5.4]: Relative velocity distribution between rolls and strip surfaces. Note the difference in the direction of frictional forces. The arrows represent the frictional forces acting on the strip.
Forward slip. In rolling is defined in terms of the exit velocity of the strip Vf and the surface speed of the roll Vr as: Forward slip = (Vf –Vr)/Vr State of Stress in Rolling and Roll Pressure The calculation of forces and stress distribution in flat rolling is more involved than in upsetting because of the curved surface of contact. In addition, the material at the exit is strain hardened, so the flow stress at the exit is higher than that at the entry.
FIGURE [5.5]: Stresses on an element in rolling: (a) entry zone and (b) exit zone.
The stresses on an element in the entry and exit zones are shown in figure [5.5]. Using the slab method of analysis for plane strain.
Figure [5.6]: Forces on the element.
From the equilibrium of the horizontal forces on the element in figure 5.6,
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(σ x + dσ x )(h + dh) w − (2 pRdφ sin φ ) w − σ x hw ± (2µpRdφ cos φ ) w = 0 (σ x + dσ x )(h + dh) − 2 pRdφ sin φ − σ x h ± 2µpRdφ cos φ = 0
σ x h + σ x dh + dσ x h + dσ x dh − σ x h = 2 pRdφ (sin φ m µ cos φ ) σ x dh + dσ x h = 2 pRdφ (sin φ m µ cos φ )
for unit width (w = 1)
FIGURE [5.7]: Stresses on an element in plane-strain compression (Rolling) between two rolls.
1 [σ 1 − υ (σ 2 + σ 3 )] E 1 In general ε z = E [σ 2 − υ (σ 1 + σ 3 )] 1 ε y = [σ 3 − υ (σ 1 + σ 2 )] E The maximum value for v (or that value for which volume change is zero) is 0.50 i.e. (In the elastic range 0< ν < 0.5 and there is a volume change). Since we have plain strain state, then we can write ε2=0, there we obtain 1 ε z = σ 2 − 0.5(σ x + σ y ) = 0 ⇒ σ z = 0.5(σ x + σ y ) E (5.1) i.e. σ z = 0.5(σ x + σ y ) as seen in figure 5.7
According to the distortion-energy criterion for plane strain, we have
( σ1 - σ 2 )2 + ( σ 2 - σ 3 )2 + ( σ 3 - σ1 )2 = 2Y 2 ( σ x - σ z )2 + ( σ z - σ y )2 + ( σ y - σ x )2 = 2Y
σy - σx =
' 2 Y =Y 3 ' ' 2 p - σx = Yf = Yf ⇒ σx = p - Yf 3
(5.4) Assume the following equation
H =2 ⎛ R ⎞ R tan −1 ⎜ φ⎟ ⎜ hf ⎟ hf ⎝ ⎠
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h m µH e R At entry, ø = α; hence, H = Ho with ø replaced by α. At exit, ø = 0; hence; H = Hf = 0. Also, at entry and exit, p = Yf`. Hence, in the entry zone, ∴ p = CY f`
C= R m µH i e hf
h µ ( Ho −H ) e ho , In the exit zone, ∴ p = Y f`
R hf C=
∴ p = Y f`
h µH e hf
FIGURE 5.8 Pressure distribution in the roll gap as a function of the coefficient of friction. Note that, as friction increases. The neutral point shifts toward the entry. Without friction, the rolls slip and the neutral point shifts completely to the exit.
The effect of reduction in thickness of the strip on the pressure distribution is shown in Fig 5.9. As reduction increases, the length of contact in the roll gap increases, which in turn increases the peak pressure. The curves shown are theoretical; actual pressure distributions, as determined experimentally, have smoother curves with their peaks rounded off.
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FIGURE 5.9 Pressure distribution in the roll Gap as a function of reduction in thickness. Note the increase in the area under the curves with increasing reduction in thickness, thus increasing the roll-separating force.
Front and Back Tension. The roll force F can be reduced by various means, such 1. A slower friction, 2. Smaller roll radii, 3. Smaller reductions, and 4. Higher workpiece temperatures. 5. Reduce the plain compressive yield stress of the material by applying longitudinal tension.
FIGURE 5.10 Pressure distribution as a function of front and back tension. Note the shifting of the neutral point and the reduction in the area under the curves with increasing tension.
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Roll Forces. The area under the pressure-contact length curves (figures 5.8, 5.9, 5.10) multiplied by the strip width, w, is the roll force, F, on the strip. This force can be expressed as:
F = ∫ ω . p.R.dφ + ∫ w. p.R.dφ
A simpler method of calculating the force is multiply the contact area with an average contact area with an average contact stress:
F = L.w. p average
Where L is the arc of contact, it can be approximated as in the following expression.
L = 2 R.∆h ∆h = h0 − h f
R is the roll radius, ∆h is the difference between the original and final thickness of the strip (draft).
h ⎫ ⎧Y ' , Low frictional conditions, Large Ratio. ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ L = ⎨ '⎛ ⎬ µ .L ⎞ ⎟ h ⎪ ⎪Y ⎜1 + ⎪ ⎜ 2.haverage ⎟, Higher frictional conditions, Small L Ratio ⎪ ⎠ ⎩ ⎝ ⎭
Where Y ' is the average flow stress in plane strain of the material in the roll gap, see figure 4.13. Roll Torque and Power. The roll torque T for each roll can be calculated analytically from the expression
The power required per roll is
Power = Tω
Where ω = 2πN and N is the revolutions per minute of the roll. Consequently, the power per roll is
Where F is in Newton’s, L is in meters, and N is the rpm of the roll. We can also express the power as
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2πFLN hp 33000
Where F is in lb and L is in ft.
Example 6.4: Power required in rolling
A 9 in. wide 6061-0 aluminum strips is rolled from a thickness of 1.00 in. to 0.80 in. If the roll radius is 12 in. and the roll rpm are 100, estimate the horsepower required for this operation. SOLUTION. The power needed for a set of two rolls is given by Eq. (5.15) as:
2πFLN 2π (297000)(0.13)(100) hp = = 735hp 33000 33000 F = L.w. paverage = 1.55 × 9 × 21275 = 297000 Ib
paverage = Y ' = 21275psi Y' = 2 Y = 1.15 × 18500 = 21275 3
L = 2 R.∆h ,
L = 2 R.(h0 − h f ) = 2 12.(1.0 − 0.8) = 1.55in. = 0.13 ft
ε = ln⎜ o ⎟ = ln⎜ ⎟ = 0.223 ⎜h ⎟ ⎝ 0.8 ⎠ ⎝ f⎠ n K (ε )
⎛ 1.0 ⎞
∆h = h0 − h f
⇒ From tables K = 30000, n = 0.2 1+ n 0.2 30000(0.223) Y= = 18500 psi 1.2
Roll bending and flattening. Roll forces tend to bend the rolls, as shown in Fig. 5.11a, with the result that the strip is thicker at its center than at its edges (crown). The usual method of avoiding this problem is to grind the rolls so that their diameter at the center is slightly larger than at the edges. This is known as camber.
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FIGURE5.11 (a) Bending of straight cylindrical rolls because of the roll separating force. (b) Bending of rolls, ground with camber, that produce a sheet of uniform thickness during rolling.
Forces also tend to flatten the rolls elastically, much like the flattening of tires on automobiles. Flattening of the rolls increases roll radius and hence yields a larger contact area for the same reduction in thickness. Thus the roll force F increases. Spreading of Rolled Metals the width increases considerably during rolling. This increase in width is known as spreading Spreading decreases with increasing width-to-thickness ratios of the entering material, decreasing friction, and increasing ratios of roll radius-to-strip thickness.
2. Miscellaneous Rolling Operations.
Shape Rolling. This process is used to produce straight structural by passing a bloom through a number of pairs of specially designed rollers as seen in figure 5.12.
FIGURE 5.12 Stages in shape rolling of an H section part. This process also rolls various other structural sections, such as channels and I-beams.
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Ring Rolling. A small-thick diameter for a ring is expanded into a larger one (thinner diameter). The ring to be expanded is placed between two rolls, one of which is driven and the other is idler as seen in figure 5.13, the ring thickness is reduced by bringing the rolls closer as they rotate.
FIGURE 5.13 Schematic illustration of a ring-rolling operation. Thickness reduction results in an increase in the part diameter.
Thread and Gear Rolling. Threaded Screws and threaded bolts are formed on round rods or work pieces by passing them between reciprocating or rotating dies as in the figure 5.14 below:
Figure 5.15: Thread and gear rolling operation
Figure 5.16: Required diameter s for both Machined and rolled thread.
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Rotary Tube Piercing. Rotary tube piercing is used to make long and thick-walled continuous tubing, as shown in figure 5.17. FIGURE 5.17
Cavity formation by secondary tensile stresses in a solid round bar and its utilization in the rotary tube piercing process. This is the principle of the Mannesmann mill for seamless tube making. The mandrel is held in place by the long rod, although techniques have been developed in which the mandrel remains in place without the rod.
Tube Rolling. The diameter and the thickness of tubes and pipes can be reduced by tube rolling using shaped rolls, either with or without mandrels.
3. Defects in Rolling
Defects may be on the surfaces of the rolled plates and sheets, or they may be structural defects within the material. Surface Defects. Surface defects may result from inclusions and impurities in the material, scale, rust, dirt, roll marks, and other causes related to the prior treatment and working of the material. Torch (scarfing), is a preconditioning process to remove scale from the surfaces of some hot rolled product. Structural Defects. Some typical defects are shown in Fig. 5.18. Bending of the rolls causes wavy edges. The cracks shown in Fig. 5.18b and c are usually caused by low ductility and barreling. Alligatoring is a complex phenomenon resulting from inhomogeneous deformation of the material during rolling or defects in the original cast ingot, such as piping. Also Residual stresses considered as a major defect.
FIGURE 5.18 Schematic illustration of typical defects in flat rolling: (a) Wavy edges; (b) Zipper cracks in center of strip; (c) Edge cracks; (d) Alligatoring.
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4. Materials: Commercial pure lead (98%). 5. Equipments: Rolling Mill, Vernier Caliper and measuring instruments, Set of flat lead sheets. 6. Procedures: 1. Adjust the gap between the two rolls. 2. Measure the diameter of the rollers. 3. Set the rolling mill for operation. 4. Measure the thickness of the lead sheet before and after rol1ing. 5. Measure the width of the lead sheet before and after rolling. 6. Measure the length of the lead sheet before and after rolling. 7. Roll the lead sheet by setting the flat sheet between the two rollers. 8. Repeat the rolling sequence for different ratio of sheet width to thickness. 9. Repeat the rolling sequence for different reduction with initial sheet thickness constant. 10. Repeat the rolling sequence fixed reduction ratio with different initial sheets thickness. 7. Requirements: 1. Describe the rolling process illustrating with sketch. 2. Make a line diagram showing the method of operation of the rolling mill. 3. Find the reduction ratio (r) for the rolled sheet. r = [tl-tf)/ t1, where tl =initial sheet thickness before rolling, tf= final sheet thickness after rolling. 4. Find the ratio of initial sheet width to thickness (W1/ t1), for plain strain condition where there is no or very slightly change in sheet width before and after rolling. 5. Measure main rolling defects. 8. Questions. 1) Discuss rolling methods and rolling defects?
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