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Contents

• Formulae and relationships

• Quantities, symbols and units

• Useful data

A booklet containing the values of physical data and mathematical formulae is supplied by

OCR for Advancing Physics examinations. It is available from the OCR Web site, or from the

Advancing Physics Web site at:

http://advancingphysics.iop.org/support_materials/student/PhysicsEquations.pdf

= + (object distance u, image distance

v u f

v, focal length f)

refractive index speed of light in vacuo (refractive index n )

n =

speed of light in medium

maximum bits per b = log2 ( ) or 2 b = total voltage variation Vtotal, noise

Vnoise Vnoise

sample voltage Vnoise

Electricity

I= interval Δt)

Δt

V= charge Q)

Q

current I, resistance R)

conductance R= G= potential difference V, current I)

I V

G = G1 + G2 + ....... (conductors in parallel)

resistivity G= R= section A, length l )

l A

Advancing Physics 1

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

C= capacitance C)

V

energy stored = 21 QV = 21 CV 2

discharge of Q = Q0 e

− t RC (initial charge Q0, time constant RC,

capacitor time t)

τ = RC (time constant τ)

Materials

ρ=

V

Hooke's law F = kx (tension F, spring constant k,

extension x)

stress, strain and tension

the Young stress =

cross - sectional area

modulus

extension

strain =

original length

stress

Young modulus =

strain

efficiency =

energy input

specific thermal capacity c,

temperature change Δθ)

Boltzmann factor ( −E

kT

) (energy difference E, kelvin

e temperature T, Boltzmann constant

k)

Waves

wavelength λ)

grating or double slit; slit spacing d ,

order n, wavelength λ, angles of

maxima θ)

Advancing Physics 2

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

Oscillations

d 2x ⎛k ⎞ (time t, acceleration a,

= a = −⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ x = −(2πf ) 2 x force per unit displacement k, mass

dt 2 ⎝m⎠ m,

displacement x, frequency f)

x = A sin 2 π ft

T = 2π m (periodic time T)

k

1 (frequency f)

f =

T

total energy E = 21 kA 2 = 21 mv 2 + 21 kx 2

Gases

moles n, molar gas constant R,

temperature T)

kinetic theory of 1 (pressure p, volume V, number of

gases pV = Nmc 2 molecules N, mass of molecule m,

3

2

mean square speed c )

uniformly taken t, acceleration a, distance

accelerated v = u + at travelled s)

motion v 2 = u 2 + 2as

power = Fv (force F, velocity v)

force = rate of change of momentum

Advancing Physics 3

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

components of a F

vector in two

perpendicular

directions

F cos

displacement in the direction of

the force x)

for circular mv 2 (radius of circle r )

v2

motion a= F=

r r

Special relativity

γ=

v2

1−

c2

momentum mass m, velocity v)

relativistic energy Etotal = γErest (total energy Etotal, relativistic factor γ,

rest energy Erest)

Etotal = γmc2

= −λ N

Δt

ln 2 (half-life T1/2 )

T1 =

2 λ

deposited per unit mass

dose equivalent = absorbed

dose × quality factor

risk = probability ×

consequence

expected random variation in

N random counts is of the

order N

relationship

Advancing Physics 4

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

light c)

energy-frequency E = hf (photon energy E, Planck constant h,

relationship for frequency f)

photons

λ= momentum p;

p

NOTE p = mv for slow moving

particles, p = E / c for photons and

particles moving close to speed of

light)

field strength = − ≈−

dr Δr gradient dV / dr )

g= gravitational force F, mass m )

m

Vgrav = − component of force F, gravitational

r r2

constant G, masses m and M,

distance r )

electric fields F (electric field strength E, electric force

E= F, charge q )

q

Velec = F= 2

r r component of force F, electric force

constant k, charges q and Q,

distance r )

Electromagnetism

carrying conductor

force on a moving F = qvB (charge q , velocity perpendicular to

charge field v )

ε=− turns linked N, time t)

dt

Advancing Physics 5

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

The following list illustrates the symbols and units which are used in Advancing Physics, and

in the AS and A2 question papers.

absolute temperature T K

acceleration a m s–2

acceleration of free fall g m s–2

activity of radioactive source A Bq

angle θ °, rad

angular speed ω rad s–1

amount of substance n mol

area A m2

atomic mass ma kg, u

Boltzmann constant k J K–1

capacitance C F

Celsius temperature θ °C

conductance G S

conductivity σ S m–1

decay constant λ s–1

density ρ kg m–3

displacement x or s m

distance d,r,x m

electric charge Q, q C

electric current I A

electric potential V V

electric potential difference V V

electromotive force (emf) ε V

Advancing Physics 6

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

elementary charge e C

energy E, W J

energy transferred thermally (heating) Q J

force F N

frequency f Hz

gravitational constant G N kg–2 m2

gravitational field strength g N kg–1

half-life t1/2 s

kinetic energy EK J

length l m

magnetic flux Φ Wb

mass m kg

molar gas constant R J K–1 mol–1

momentum p kg m s–1

neutron mass mn kg, u

neutron number N

nucleon number A

number N, n, m

period T s

permeability of free space μ0 H m–1

potential energy EP J

power P W

pressure p Pa

proton mass mp kg, u

proton number Z

resistance R W

resistivity ρ Wm

Advancing Physics 7

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

specific latent heat L J kg–1

speed u, v, c m s–1

speed of electromagnetic waves c m s–1

spring constant k N m–1

strain σ fraction or per cent

stress ε Pa

time t s

time constant τ s

velocity u, v, c m s–1

volume V m3

wavelength λ m

work W J

work function energy W J, eV

Young modulus E Pa

Advancing Physics 8

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

Useful data

This list of data is more comprehensive than lists issued with examination papers.

Values are given to three significant figures, except where more – or less – are useful.

Physical constants

k =

4πε 0

Advancing Physics 9

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

Other data

pressure (stp)

stp

at the Earth's surface in

the UK

Conversion factors

and cos θ ≈ 1 for small θ

4 3

volume of sphere = πr

3

Advancing Physics 10

Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM

Prefixes

1012 T

109 G

106 M

103 k

10–3 m

10–6 μ

10–9 n

10–12 p

Advancing Physics 11

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