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Formulae, Symbols, Units and Data
• • • Formulae and relationships Quantities, symbols and units Useful data
Formulae and relationships
A booklet containing the values of physical data and mathematical formulae is supplied by OCR for Advancing Physics examinations. It is available from the OCR Web site, or from the Advancing Physics Web site at: http://advancingphysics.iop.org/support_materials/student/PhysicsEquations.pdf
Imaging and signalling
1 1 1 = + v u f
n = speed of light in vacuo speed of light in medium
Cartesian convention (object distance u, image distance v, focal length f) (refractive index n ) (maximum bits per sample b, total voltage variation Vtotal, noise voltage Vnoise
refractive index noise limitation on maximum bits per sample
b = log2 (
Vtotal V ) or 2 b = total Vnoise Vnoise
current potential difference
(current I, charge flow ΔQ, time interval Δt) (potential difference V, energy E, charge Q) (power P, potential difference V, current I, resistance R) (emf ε, internal resistance r )
P = IV = I2R Vload = ε – Ir
resistance and conductance
(resistance R, conductance G, potential difference V, current I) (conductors in parallel) (resistors in series) (conductivity σ, resistivity ρ , cross section A, length l )
G = G1 + G2 + ....... R = R1 + R2 + ....... conductivity and resistivity
G= ρl σA R= l A
time constant RC. volume V) (tension F. time t) (time constant τ) τ = RC Materials density Hooke's law stress. angles of maxima θ) Advancing Physics 2 .sectional area extension original length stress strain strain = Young modulus = 1 elastic strain energy = 2 kx 2 Energy and thermal effects efficiency energy efficiency = useful energy output energy input ΔE = mcΔθ (change in energy ΔE. wavelength λ. temperature change Δθ) (energy difference E. Boltzmann constant k) Boltzmann factor e ( −E kT ) Waves v = fλ nλ = d sinθ (wave speed v. mass m. strain and the Young modulus ρ= M V (density ρ. extension x) tension F = kx stress = cross .Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM capacitance Q V C= (potential difference V. specific thermal capacity c. spring constant k. capacitance C) 1 1 energy stored = 2 QV = 2 CV 2 discharge of capacitor Q = Q0 e − t RC (initial charge Q0. slit spacing d . wavelength λ) (on a distant screen from a diffraction grating or double slit. mass M. kelvin temperature T. charge Q. frequency f. order n.
acceleration a. number of moles n. distance travelled s) (momentum p. 2 mean square speed c ) kinetic theory of gases pV = 1 Nmc 2 3 Motion and forces equations for uniformly accelerated motion momentum 1 s = ut + 2 at 2 v = u + at v 2 = u 2 + 2as (initial speed u. time taken t. acceleration a. temperature T) (pressure p. mass m. displacement x. volume V. time t) x = A sin 2 π ft T = 2π f = 1 T m k (periodic time T) (frequency f) total energy 1 1 1 E = 2 kA 2 = 2 mv 2 + 2 kx 2 Gases ideal gas equation pV = nRT (pressure p. final speed v.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Oscillations d 2x dt 2 ⎛k ⎞ = a = −⎜ ⎟ x = −(2πf ) 2 x ⎜ ⎟ ⎝m⎠ (time t. force per unit displacement k. mass m. velocity v) (force F. velocity v) p = mv power = Fv force = rate of change of momentum impulse = FΔt (force F) Advancing Physics 3 . frequency f) x = A cos 2 π ft (amplitude A. number of molecules N. molar gas constant R. volume V. mass of molecule m.
decay constant λ. speed of light c) relativistic momentum relativistic energy p = γmv Etotal = γErest Etotal = γmc2 (momentum p.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM components of a vector in two perpendicular directions F F cos work = Fx (force F. velocity v) (total energy Etotal. component of displacement in the direction of the force x) (radius of circle r ) for circular motion a= v2 r F= mv 2 r Special relativity relativistic factor γ γ= 1 1− v2 c2 (speed of object v. relativistic factor γ. mass m. speed of Advancing Physics 4 . mass m. relativistic factor γ. rest energy Erest) Atomic and nuclear physics radioactive decay ΔN = −λ N Δt N = N 0 e − λt (number N. time t) (initial number N0) (half-life T1/2 ) T1 = 2 ln 2 λ absorbed dose = energy deposited per unit mass dose equivalent = absorbed dose × quality factor risk = probability × consequence expected random variation in N random counts is of the order mass-energy relationship N Erest = mc2 (rest energy Erest.
NOTE p = mv for slow moving particles. electric force constant k. distance r ) (electric field strength E. Planck constant h. time t) ε=− Advancing Physics 5 . potential gradient dV / dr ) (gravitational field strength g. charges q and Q. velocity perpendicular to field v ) (induced emf ε. radial component of force F.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM light c) energy-frequency relationship for photons E = hf (photon energy E. electric force F. mass m ) (gravitational potential Vgrav. Planck constant h. frequency f) (wavelength λ. gravitational force F. flux Φ. charge q ) (electric potential Velec. gravitational constant G. momentum p. distance r . radial component of force F. masses m and M. number of turns linked N. current I. p = E / c for photons and particles moving close to speed of light) λ= h p Field and potential for all fields gravitational fields field strength = − dV ΔV ≈− dr Δr (potential V. distance r ) g= Vgrav = − F m GM F = − GMm r2 r electric fields E= F q Velec = kQq kQ F= 2 r r Electromagnetism force on a current carrying conductor force on a moving charge F = ILB F = qvB d (NΦ ) dt (flux density B. length L ) (charge q .
Quantity absolute temperature acceleration acceleration of free fall activity of radioactive source angle angular displacement angular frequency angular speed amount of substance area atomic mass Avogadro constant Boltzmann constant capacitance Celsius temperature conductance conductivity decay constant density displacement distance electric charge electric current electric field strength electric potential electric potential difference electromotive force (emf) electron mass Usual symbols T a g A θ θ ω ω n A ma L. V m–1 V V V kg. rad rad s–1 rad s–1 mol m2 kg. u I E V V ε me Advancing Physics 6 .r. and in the AS and A2 question papers.x Q.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Quantities. q Usual unit K m s–2 m s–2 Bq °. symbols and units The following list illustrates the symbols and units which are used in Advancing Physics. u mol–1 J K–1 F °C S S m–1 s–1 kg m–3 m m C A N C–1. NA k C θ G σ λ ρ x or s d. rad °.
m n T μ0 ε0 h EP P p mp Z R ρ c or C W Wm J kg–1 K–1 m–3 s H m–1 F m–1 J s or J Hz–1 J W Pa kg. n. u Usual unit C J J N Hz N kg–2 m2 N kg–1 s J m Wb T kg J K–1 mol–1 kg m s–1 kg. u Advancing Physics 7 .Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Quantity elementary charge energy energy transferred thermally (heating) force frequency gravitational constant gravitational field strength half-life kinetic energy length magnetic flux magnetic flux density mass molar gas constant momentum neutron mass neutron number nucleon number number number density (number per unit volume) period permeability of free space permittivity of free space Planck constant potential energy power pressure proton mass proton number resistance resistivity specific thermal capacity Usual symbols e E. W Q F f G g t1/2 EK l Φ B m R p mn N A N.
eV Pa Advancing Physics 8 . c c k σ ε t τ u. v. v.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Quantity specific latent heat speed speed of electromagnetic waves spring constant strain stress time time constant velocity volume wavelength work work function energy Young modulus Usual symbols L u. c V λ W W E Usual unit J kg–1 m s–1 m s–1 N m–1 fraction or per cent Pa s s m s–1 m3 m J J.
007 3 u 1.646 × 10–27 kg = 4.673 × 10–27 kg = 1.000 55 u 1.38 × 10–23 J K–1 8.02 × 1023 mol–1 6. NA h mass of proton mass of neutron mass of alpha particle Avogadro constant Planck constant Boltzmann constant k molar gas constant R gravitational force constant G Advancing Physics 9 .675 × 10–27 kg = 1.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Useful data This list of data is more comprehensive than lists issued with examination papers. Values are given to three significant figures.008 7 u 6.98 × 109 N m2 C–2 4 π × 10–7 N A–2 (or H m–1) –1. except where more – or less – are useful.00 × 108 ms–1 8.60 × 10–19 C 9.85 × 10–12 C2 N–1 m–2 (or F m–1) 8.31 J mol–1 K–1 6.001 5 u 6. Physical constants speed of light c εn 3.67 × 10–11 N m2 kg–2 permittivity of free space electric force constant k = 1 4πε 0 permeability of free space μ0 e charge on electron mass of electron me mp mn mα L.11 × 10–31 kg = 0.63 × 10–34 J s 1.
64 × 104 s ≈ 3.3° circumference of circle = 2πr area of circle = πr 2 curved surface area of cylinder = 2πrh ln(xn) = n lnx ln(ekx) = kx volume of cylinder = πr 2h surface area of sphere = 4πr 2 4 3 πr 3 volume of sphere = Advancing Physics 10 .14 1 radian = 57.Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Other data standard temperature and pressure (stp) 273 K (0 °C).16 × 107 s ≈ 1016 m 1 day 1 year 1 light year Mathematical constants and equations e = 2. 1.24 × 10–2 m3 gravitational field strength at the Earth's surface in the UK g 9.01 × 105 Pa (1 atmosphere) molar volume of a gas at stp Vm 22.661 × 10–27 kg = 8.81 N kg–1 (or m s–2) Conversion factors unified atomic mass unit 1u = 1.72 arc = r θ sinθ ≈ tan θ ≈ θ and cos θ ≈ 1 for small θ π = 3.4 dm3 = 2.
Advancing Physics Revision Guide CD-ROM Prefixes 1012 109 106 103 10–3 10–6 10–9 10–12 T G M k m μ n p Advancing Physics 11 .
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