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- Literature Survey

Instructor: Brian L. Evans

Authors: Yue Chen, Yu Wang, Ying Lu

Date: 10/19/1998

3. cost function/evaluate function. Block matching techniques are widely used motion estimation method to obtain the motion compensated prediction. search range parameter p. All possible displacements in the search window are evaluated using block-matching criteria (cost function). owing to its high compression efficiency. we can reduce the complexity of the motion estimation algorithms by reducing the complexity of the applied search algorithm and/or the complexity of the selected cost function. motion vector of each macroblock is obtained by using block matching algorithm (or motion estimation algorithm). Actually. The advantage of full search is that we can find the absolute optimal solution. The hybrid video coding techniques based on predictive and transform coding are adopted by many video coding standards such as ISO MPEG-1/2 and ITU-T H. the most obvious and simplistic method is full search algorithm. By splitting each frame into macroblocks. In order to get motion vector of each macroblock. the compression efficiency and the compression quality is determined by the motion estimation algorithm. its high computational complexity makes it impossible for real-time implementation. The computational complexity of a motion estimation technique can then be determined by three factors: 1. Motion +compensation is an predictive technique for exploiting the temporal redundancy between successive frames of video sequence. An . development of Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm for real-time application becomes compelling. search algorithm. 2.261/263. Abstract Video compression is vital for efficient storage and transmission of digital signal. A New Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm 1. Because the computational complexity of video compression. However.

which include three kinds of sequences: one is little motion sequences. especially in hybrid estimation algorithms: how they get the trade-off between video quality and compression efficiency? Based on this.262/263). 1. 2. It is also adopted by many video coding standards (MPEG-1/2 and H. second is moderate motion sequences. we will propose our new motion estimation algorithm produced our new video encoder. Fast Block Motion Estimation Algorithms Block-matching methods are the most widely used motion estimation methods for the low computation complexity compared with other methods such as optical flow based methods and pel- recursive methods. we used the standard tested video sequences. and a more efficient. and third is the fast motion sequences. 2. The block of pixels has the same translation motion from frame to frame. To test its validation and its efficiency. less complex search algorithm will decrease the search space. there are two assumed by many block-matching methods. We will identify and evaluate the recent and widely used fast estimation algorithms. Among them. We change some parts and formed our new encoder (Abided by H.263 standard).261. Many fast block-matching methods are developed based on some basic assumptions.full search algorithm evaluates all the weights in the search window. Block distortion measure (BDM) increases monotonically as the checking point moves . The encoder software will download from Internet.

. The 'F' block is the block of the current frame and 'G' block is the block of the reference frame. The maximum number of the checking point in vertical direction of the search window is 2m+p and 2n+p in horizon direction. A best-matched motion vector is obtained by finding within a search window of size (2m+p)(2n+p) in the reference frame. 2. For each blocks the motion displacement is achieved by finding the displaced coordinate of a match block within the search window of a reference frame. away from the global minimum BDM point. n+2p n m p F p m+2p G Figure 1. The current frame is divided into many rectangle blocks. The search area in block matching methods Figure1 depicts the search area of the block-matching methods. three matching cost functions are defined: Mean square error (MSE).1 Cost function In order to measure the similarity between the block of the current frame and a candidate block of the reference frame.

Some algorithms were proposed based on such technique [5]. 2. which is practical to be implemented using the available hardware. which is O(n) for a n-point block-matching search. The main idea of these algorithms is to firstly predict the types of the motion as stationary. The best- matched motion vector is obtained by searching the all the checking points within the search window. since it doesn't need multiplication operation. the partial distortion is compared with the current minimum total distortion. In such algorithms. These algorithms also serve as the benchmark for the development of the new algorithms. If the partial distortion of the candidate motion vector is greater than the current minimum total distortion. These algorithms can adapt to the different type of motions.Mean absolute error (MAE) and Pixel Difference Classification (PDC). small or large using a pre-defined threshold and then use proper algorithms to search for the best- matched motion vector. Many BMAs have been proposed to reduce the computation complexity by reducing the number of the checking point or the size of the search window. Based on these mature algorithms. Full search algorithm can achieve the most accurate motion vector but it is impractical to use due to its computation complexity. two-dimension logarithmic search algorithm [2] and hierarchical block-matching algorithm [3].2 Block-matching algorithms (BMA) The most straightforward block-matching method is the full search algorithm. this vector is . The most commonly used methods are three-step algorithm [1]. Another way to reduce the number of the checking point is to use halfway-stop technique in the BDM calculation. some novel hybrid search algorithms have been proposed [4]. Their computation complexity may be as low as O(log n). Mean absolute error (MAE) is the most commonly used cost function. thus is more suitable for the real world video sequence.

Many coding standards such as MPEG-1/2 and H. we can get halfway stop. we keep the image quality.10]. So. Implementation A lot of motion estimation algorithms have been invented to reduce the complexity of motion estimation associated with full search. in which the comparison operation is relatively lower compared with the multiplication.rejected. On other hand.9. at the same time. hybrid search algorithms [4] can get excellent result.262/263 permit motion vectors to be a half-pixel accuracy. we will use the previous motion vectors in our new algorithm. in each step of searching the optimal motion vector. half-pixel technique was proposed. Specially. We will do as follow: First. Hybrid algorithms can use different motion estimation algorithms by judging object's motion scope. We will propose a new algorithm combined the two fields together to aim to get more high compression efficiency. Some reduce the calculation of cost function [11]. Second. By comparing the sub-block's MAE with the previous minimum MAE. We choose 16X16 macroblock. we choose the mean absolute error (MAE) as our search criterion. almost all the algorithms mentioned above can get the half-pixel accuracy by incorporating half-pixel technique. we use partial distortion instead of using full distortion [4]. we can improve search speed . With minor alteration. the true frame-to-frame displacements are not always related to the integer pixel sampling grids. we predict the motion vector based the hybrid search algorithm [4]. Others reduce the search points [7. which is divided into 16 sub-blocks. 3. To increase the accuracy of the motion prediction. In the real world video sequence. These algorithms can reduce the computation complexity greatly by using the MAE cost function. Few algorithms combine the reducing of the calculation of cost function with the reducing the search points.

942-951. Aug. Iinuma. Jan. R." IEEE Trans. Commun. K. "Motion compensated interframe image coding for video conference. [7]. 1001. K. Signal Proc. [5]. "A New Fast Motion Estimation Algorithm Based on Search Window Sub-sampling and Object Boundary Pixel Block Matching. vol. Bierling. At last." IEEE International Conference on Image Processing." Proc. [4]. C. Dec. we implemented our software encoder. Ng and Bing Zeng. 606- 609. K. "Displacement estimation by hierarchical block-matching. 1996.601-604. Jain. Cheung and L. J. By the above-described method.3. pp. we can use the previous motion vector to predict the initiate predicting point and use for adaptively choosing the searching step. pp. 1981. Oct. Nov. Cheung and L.365-368. A.1. Jain and A. M. And Image Proc. Third." IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. [6]. C. vol. "Adaptive Motion Estimation Based on Statistical Sum of Absolute Difference. K. 29.Oct. III.." in Proc. Y Iijima. References [1]. and its Appl. Ishiguro. Commun. Koga. M.263 standard. pp. SPIE Conf. [2]. which is abided by H. use the standard sampling sequences to test our encoder. "Displacement measurement and its application in interframe image coding. pp. 1981. K. M. vol." IEEE International . T.and performance. 1.III." IEEE International Symp. NTC81. G5. 1799-1806. 1988. Alan C. Hirano. vol. pp. pp. [3]. "A hybrid adaptive search algorithm for fast block motion estimation. 1998. On Vis. and get the simulation result. vol. Po.. Kai Sun. "A hierarchical block motion estimation algorithm using partial distortion measure.. 1997. and T. Po.

pp. vol.Oct." IEEE Transactions on circuit and systems for video technology.6.6. Lai-Man Po and Wing-Chung Ma. III. [11]. Yuen-Wen Lee.7. vol. vol. "Optimization of Fast Block Motion Estimation Algorithms. pp. pp. No. pp. Oct.June. 1996.627-635. . pp. [9]. II.313-317. No.3.6. No.December.803-806. "A Fast Hierarchical Motion Compensation Scheme for Video Coding Using Block Feature Matching.605-608. Bing Zeng. Renxiang Li and Ming L.6." IEEE International Conference on Image Processing. Liou. Conference on Image Processing. 1998. 1997. "A Novel Four-Step Search Algorithm for Fast Block Motion Estimation. 1997. [8]. vol. Faouzi Kossentini and Rabab Ward. Xiaobing Lee and Ya-Qin Zhang. [10].833-844. vol. 1996. "Efficient RD Optimized macroblock coding mode selection for MPEG-2 video encoding. December." IEEE Transactions on circuit and systems for video technology." IEEE Transactions on circuit and systems for video technology.

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