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# Chapter 22

Maximum material and least
material principles

Maximum material The symbol for maximum material condition is the
letter M enclosed by a circle, M . The symbol is
condition (MMC) positioned in the tolerance frame as follows:
is that condition of a part or feature which (a) Ø 0.05 M X Refers to the tolerance only.
contains the maximum amount of material, e.g.
minimum size hole, or a maximum size shaft. In certain (b) Ø 0.05 X M Refers to the datum only.
cases its use allows an increase in the specified tolerance
if it is indicated that the tolerance applies to the feature (c) Ø 0.05 M X M Refers to both tolerance and datum.
at its maximum material condition.
The maximum material principle takes into account
the mutual dependence of tolerances of size, form,
orientation and/or location and permits additional
tolerance as the considered feature departs from its
maximum material condition.
Least material condition
The free assembly of components depends on the (LMC)
combined effect of the actual finished sizes and the
errors of form or position of the parts. LMC is that condition of a part or feature which contains
Any errors of form or position between two mating the minimum amount of material, e.g. maximum size
parts have the effect of virtually altering their respective hole or a minimum size shaft.
sizes. The tightest condition of assembly between two Circumstances do arise where, for example, a
mating parts occurs when each feature is at the MMC, designer would require to limit the minimum wall
plus the maximum errors permitted by any required thickness between a hole and the side of a component.
geometrical tolerance. In such a case we need to control the least material
Assembly clearance is increased if the actual sizes condition where a part contains the minimum amount
of the mating features are finished away from their of material.
MMC, and if any errors of form or position are less The appropriate tolerance would then be quoted,
than that called for by any geometrical control. Also, followed by the letter L inside a circle L .
if either part is finished away from its MMC, the Generally such examples are very few. The
clearance gained could allow for an increased error of applications which follow cover the more widely found
form or position to be accepted. Any increase of conditions of MMC.
tolerance gained this way, provided it is functionally
acceptable for the design, is advantageous during the
process of manufacture.
Maximum material
condition related to
Straightness
error geometrical form
Actual
diameter
The limit of size, together with geometrical form or
position of a feature, are factors of the maximum
Virtual size being
material principle, and its application is restricted to
Actual
diameter the effective those features whose size is specified by toleranced
assembly diameter dimensions incorporating an axis or median plane. It
can never be applied to a plane, surface, or line on a
Fig. 22.1 surface.