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Chapter 22

Maximum material and least
material principles

Maximum material The symbol for maximum material condition is the
letter M enclosed by a circle, M . The symbol is
condition (MMC) positioned in the tolerance frame as follows:
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is that condition of a part or feature which (a) Ø 0.05 M X Refers to the tolerance only.
contains the maximum amount of material, e.g.
minimum size hole, or a maximum size shaft. In certain (b) Ø 0.05 X M Refers to the datum only.
cases its use allows an increase in the specified tolerance
if it is indicated that the tolerance applies to the feature (c) Ø 0.05 M X M Refers to both tolerance and datum.
at its maximum material condition.
The maximum material principle takes into account
the mutual dependence of tolerances of size, form,
orientation and/or location and permits additional
tolerance as the considered feature departs from its
maximum material condition.
Least material condition
The free assembly of components depends on the (LMC)
combined effect of the actual finished sizes and the
errors of form or position of the parts. LMC is that condition of a part or feature which contains
Any errors of form or position between two mating the minimum amount of material, e.g. maximum size
parts have the effect of virtually altering their respective hole or a minimum size shaft.
sizes. The tightest condition of assembly between two Circumstances do arise where, for example, a
mating parts occurs when each feature is at the MMC, designer would require to limit the minimum wall
plus the maximum errors permitted by any required thickness between a hole and the side of a component.
geometrical tolerance. In such a case we need to control the least material
Assembly clearance is increased if the actual sizes condition where a part contains the minimum amount
of the mating features are finished away from their of material.
MMC, and if any errors of form or position are less The appropriate tolerance would then be quoted,
than that called for by any geometrical control. Also, followed by the letter L inside a circle L .
if either part is finished away from its MMC, the Generally such examples are very few. The
clearance gained could allow for an increased error of applications which follow cover the more widely found
form or position to be accepted. Any increase of conditions of MMC.
tolerance gained this way, provided it is functionally
acceptable for the design, is advantageous during the
process of manufacture.
Maximum material
condition related to
Straightness
error geometrical form
Actual
diameter
The limit of size, together with geometrical form or
position of a feature, are factors of the maximum
Virtual size being
material principle, and its application is restricted to
Actual
diameter the effective those features whose size is specified by toleranced
assembly diameter dimensions incorporating an axis or median plane. It
can never be applied to a plane, surface, or line on a
Fig. 22.1 surface.
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squareness profile of a line.6 Datum face X size and the straightness tolerance. it follows that a straightness error Datum face X of 0. The squareness error will be Fig.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=1046 material condition.org/learning-resources. Maximum material 30. The effective assembly tolerance zone diameter will be equal to the sum of the upper limit of Ø 30.3 to 0.4 when the pin is finished at its low ∅ 30 limit of size of 20.2 shows a typical drawing instruction where limits of size are applied to a pin.6 condition applied to Ø 30. limits of size are applied to a pin. Figure 22.6 shows the condition where the pin is Ø 0. 22.7 could be acceptable.download-it. Effective Ø 30.2 M finished at the maximum material condition with the maximum squareness error of 0. ∅ 30. This increase may in some cases have no serious effect on the function of the component.5 the squareness error.download-it. 180 Manual of Engineering Drawing The characteristics to which it can be applied are as Ø 20 Ø 0. This permitted Fig.9 Effective The straightness error is contained within a assembly cylindrical tolerance zone of ∅ 0.3 maximum straightness error. 22.2 is applicable at the maximum material condition. it follows that the squareness the cylindrical tolerance zone error could increase from 0.0 Ø 0. The effective assembly diameter will be the sum of the upper limit of size and Ø 20. 22. and can be permitted.9 Figure 22.3 increase should be checked for acceptability. Fig.6 Effective assembly To provide the same assembly diameter of 30. and in addition a squareness tolerance of 0.3 M X straightness X Figure 22. profile of a surface.7 as tolerance zone shown in Fig.3.5 Figure 22. condition applied to roundness.3 shows the condition where the pin is assembly Squareness error contained diameter finished at the maximum material condition with the within the cylindrical Ø 0.7.org/learning-resources. assembly diameter squareness. 22.2 contained within a cylindrical tolerance zone of ∅ 0.7 Buy this file from http://www.7 straightness. and in addition a straightness tolerance of 0.9.0 20. angularity. concentricity. Straightness error contained within the cylindrical tolerance zone position.5 Ø 0.9.4 symmetry The characteristics to which the maximum material condition concept cannot be applied are as follows: Maximum material flatness.2.2 Tolerance zone Ø 20.3 is applicable at the maximum Buy this file from http://www. cylindricity. 22.0. 22.0. Effective parallelism. Ø 20. when the pin is finished at its low Straightness error contained within limit of size of 30. Fig.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=1046 .9 To provide the same assembly diameter of 20. 22. Squareness error contained within the cylindrical diameter ∅ 0. Fig.7 Tolerance zone follows: Ø 20.5 shows a typical drawing instruction where run-out. as diameter shown in Fig.3. 22.7 Fig.

8 condition.9 typical application and drawing instruction of a shoulder on a shaft.98 15.9) Minimum distance between hole centres and the coaxiality maximum material condition of holes.3. 22. Now the geometrical tolerance can also be specified Ø 12 in relation to a datum feature. Condition D (Fig.2 M X M 58. Shoulder and shaft at To give the same assembly condition as in B. 22. 22. the tolerance has increased when the feature has been finished away from the maximum material condition. 22. 22. Again.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=1046 . 22.13 shows a Fig.1 Fig.1 = 0. the geometrical tolerance 81. 22. 22.12 Maximum material Fig. 12. 22. 22. In the previous examples. which acts as the datum. Note that the increase in coaxiality error which could be permitted in these circumstances is equal to the total amount that the part is finished away from its Ø 12.8 Fig.org/learning-resources.11) To give the same assembly condition as in A.2 dimensions which can possibly arise.8 condition applied to Buy this file from http://www.8 30.e.13 69.2 + 0. 70.8 has been related to a feature at its maximum material 69.0 Ø 0.2 X Ø 12 Ø 29. i. and these are given in the drawings below. 22.10) the shaft.download-it.8 Various extreme combinations of size for the shoulder and shaft can arise. further relaxation of the quoted material condition of holes geometrical control can be achieved by applying the maximum material condition to the datum itself.download-it.1 70 2 Holes Ø 12.2 M Ø 12.14). the minimum distance between hole centres is reduced when the holes are finished away from the maximum material condition. the shoulder tolerance Fig.12) Condition A (Fig. 22. The shoulder is required to be coaxial with Condition B (Fig.org/learning-resources.10 Condition C (Fig. and.1 maximum material condition. 22.8.php?promoCode=&partnerID=&content=story&storyID=1046 Condition A (Fig. and therefore the positional tolerance can be increased where position the two holes have a finished size away from the maximum material condition. provided the Maximum distance between hole centres and maximum design function permits.0 Ø 14. Maximum material and least material principles 181 Maximum material when the holes are finished away from the maximum material condition.3 and the following illustrations show the various extreme 58. A typical drawing instruction is given in Fig. condition applied to Note that the total tolerance zone is 0. 81.11 plus the shaft tolerance.00 Fig. 70. and Fig. Buy this file from http://www.2 Ø 0. the maximum material condition. provided the design function permits. shoulder at maximum maximum distance between hole centres is increased permissible eccentricity to the shaft datum axis X.

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