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Although written by a missionary it contains a useful summary of the con. Goldziher. A. H. they become longer. 1951. Mohammadanism.' Eranos-Jahrbuch. Beacon Press. London. is often in discord with goes on. The Qur'an is divided into Chapters or Siiras. Allen & Unwin. A. Die Richtungen der islamischen Koranauslegung.Studies on the Civilization of Islam.). The Teaching of the Qur'iin. New York. 1955. Quran. F. Islam. The most balanced and useful of the well-known introductions to Islam in English. This tone gradually gives point of view of the Ai)madlyah and do not always reflect the traditional Muslim way. 1964. 1958. The voice from the depths of life spoke distinctly. however. The Holy Qur'cin. Not only does the word !i qur'iin. Chapter XI. The 3 most poetic translation of the Quran in English and one which conveys more than any other English translation some of the literary qualities of the original. London. The first work in a European language by the most understanding and penetrating Western authority on Islamic philosophy which deals with Islamic intellectual life in all its richness and discusses Fazlur Rahman the role of the Quran as the source and inspiration for Islamic philosophy. 1979. some of the most fundamental historical claims of the Judaeo-Christian tradition about Abraham and other Prophets. M. U. 114 in number and very An analysis of the Quran which has much scientific value by one of the founders unequal in length. to a more fluent and easy style as the understanding of the different verses of the Quran. An excellent study of the Sufi method of interpreting the Source: R. (with the collaboration of S. the Qur'an had passed to the tents of the Quran and an index of its subject matter. Paris. too. you would have unrivalled analysis of the inner significance of the Quran for Muslims. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW Suggestions for further reading Arberry. 2 vols. meaning 'recitation'. 21 ). J. construction of an actual social fabric. The New American Library. 1952. H. 1963. especially in the Medina period. M. especially in its treatment of the social and legal aspects of Islam and the role of the Quran in their formation. 30-42. Zurich.. however. The Meaningofthe Glorious Koran. A voice is crying from the English translation of the Quran made more useful by the fact that the translation very depths oflife and impinging forcefully on the Prophet's mind in order to appears side by side with the Arabic text. of purely moral and religious exhortation. Allen & Unwin. as time of Islamic studies in the West whose approach. 1963. This 'Other' through some channel 'dictated' the Qur'an with an absolute authority. Yahya). Chapter II. pp.. was unshakeably convinced that he was the recipient of the Message from God. God' (LIX. From the thud and impulse 1919. The early Meccan Siiras are among the shortest. seen it humbly submit (to the Command) and split asunder out of fear of Stanton.. XXVI. For the Qur'an itself. An excellent character of brief but violent volcanic eruptions. Ahmadiyyah Anjuman. Nasr and 0.. and consequently for the Muslims. But the task itself had changed. R.. Mubammad. written from the make itself explicit at the level of consciousness. --. Understanding Islam.. London. H. W. the totally Other (we shall presently try to discover more precisely the sense of that total otherness).. The Koran Interpreted. 1 82 83 ' . Corbin. An declares 'If We had sent down this Qur'an on a mountain. Lei den. This is certainly not to say either that the voice had valuable because of its exactness and conformity to the original. so much so that he rejected. 1962. they have the Muhammad Ali. Gallimard. The verses in the early Siiras are charged with the Islamic point of view especially concerning the lfadith and Sufism. the Qur'an is the Word of God (Ka/iim Allah). Fazlur (ed. on the strength of this consciousness. but the text of the Qur'an ii·· itself states in several places that the Qur'an is verbally revealed and not II. H. Gibb. clearly indicate this. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. legal content increases for the detailed organization and direction of the Pickthall. 1. Central Board of Missions.. unmistakably and imperiously. Neudruck. The notes are. Contains essays of much interest on the structure of religious thought in Islam. an extraordinarily deep and powerful 'psychological moment'. been stilled or even that its intensive quality had changed: a Medinese verse Schuon. 'L'Interiorisation du sens en hermeneutique soufie iranienne. What is the Qur' an? ti especially on the Quran and the Prophet. Chapter Ill. Lahore. Chapter I. Histoire de laphilo- THE QUR'AN sophie islamique. . The standard translation of the Quran by an English Muslim that is nascent community-state. I. Boston..

There external agent. as it were. or He may send a messenger (an angel) who speaks mand'. if we are to deal with facts of Islamic history. therefore. overall character. who is an enemy of Gabriel (let him be). Even thus have We inspired you with a spirit of Our to it. these variations occur. however. through the l:fadith We have made it a light' (XLII. but the inner upon your heart that you may be a warner' (XXVI. We have explicitly stated in the preceding chapter that the not mean sound). for if it and wishes to re-create history.. The Qur'an says. through idea-word inspiration) or as well as on social justice. The variation is not only between different individuals. objectivity and verbal character. in order to be implemented. That is why his overall beha- the Qur'an itself makes no mention of any figure in this connection: it is only viour is regarded by the Muslims as Sunna or the 'perfect model'. is far superior to those of humanity in general. Further. controversies partly influenced by Christian doctrines. they are part of Him. The Qur'anic term for 'Revelation' is wahy factual statements of the Qur'an about itself call for some treatment. as tradition has it. being called 'ibiida or 'service to God'. this submission to it being called islam and its implementation in life Command . and again. an organic relationship between feelings. entirely the word of Mubammad. the 'objectivity' and the verbal perception it brings an extraordinary sense of 'gravity' and leaves the subject character of the Revelation. Yet. then has de- vis-a-vis the Prophet. we do Islamic demands. But the Moral Law and arose amung the Muslims about the nature of Revelation. the emerging spiritual values.. are. mature Jacked the necessary intellectual tools to combine in its formulation of the person whose average intellectual and moral character and calibre. it is a mistaken notion that ideas and him and regarded the angel or the spirit 'that comes to the heart' an entirely feelings float about in it and can be mechanically 'clothed' in words. 52). But experience is described as a spiritual one. many people to be primarily the God of justice. Now. The Qur'an obviously holds both. But. also man who is ab initio impatient with men and even with most of their ideals. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW THE QUR' AN merely in its 'meaning' and ideas. sense. of course. as we pointed out in section I of the last chapter. as does. must be known. this relationship is so complete that course. drew the logic- insists that it has come to the 'heart' of the Prophet. all medieval thought) and evolution. acute mount emphasis on the Moral Law that the Qur'anic God has seemed to differences of opinion. of course. where variation is most obvious. It declares. provided this latter is not following brief outline an attempt is made to do justice both to historical and supposed to exclude the verbal mode necessarily (by 'Word'. and through the science of theology based largely on the l:fadith. 51-52). there were moments when he. But even in a good. The modern Western picture of the Prophetic Revelation rests exists. also moral perception. 'The Trusted Spirit has brought it down grees. fixed. the sum total the Prophet on the other. ' (XLII. The moral Jaw is immutable: it is God's 'Com- from behind the veil. of inspiration.. But the moral law and religious values or the 'tradition' from the Prophet. 'transcends himself' and his Prophet's Ascension) that the Qur'an speaks of the Prophet having seen a moral cognitive perception becomes so acute and so keen that his conscious- figure or a spirit.e. which was at the time in the crucial stage of formulating power of cognitive perception men obviously differ to an indefinite degree. partly suitably interpreted and partly are God's Command. But orthodoxy (indeed. In the which is fairly close in its meaning to 'inspiration'. ness becomes identical with the moral Jaw itself.e. coined. In largely on this orthodox formulation rather than on the Qur'an. for it is he who has brought it down We are not here talking of an intrinsic moral and intellectual development upon your heart' (II. 194). 97). Muslim orthodoxy. in an ordinary sense. but had equally certainly rejected its externality significantly transformed. the with the moral law itself (indeed. purely divine. Mubammad was such a person. Man cannot make or unmake the Moral Law: he must submit himself through wahy . When Mubammad's The present work is not the place to elaborate a theory of the Qur'anic moral intuitive perception rose to the highest point and became identified Revelation in detail. ideas and words. in fact perceive also a projected figure. through basic elan of the Qur'an is moral. in these moments his own conduct at points I 84 85 l . 'God speaks to no human (i.. . The Qur'an is. indeed. even made the Revelation of the Prophet entirely through the ear and external to with regard to ordinary consciousness. it Jacked the intellectual capacity to say both of his actual conduct. 'Thus did we inspire you although here also. for an intrinsic quality of the former is that along with itself certainly maintained the 'otherness'. feeling-idea-word is a total complex with a life of its own. the belief of the common Muslim. moral and religious perception is also very different from a purely order to safeguard its 'otherness'. its precise content. It is because of the Qur'an's para- When. The Qur'an intellectual perception. even in poetic inspiration. in a dogma the otherness and verbal character of the Revelation on the one hand. whence flows its emphasis on monotheism sound-words) except through wahy (i. i. how can it be external to ally correct conclusion that Prophets must be regarded as immune from him? This. emphasized the externality of the Prophet's Revelation in Further.e. but it is remarkable that the only such person really known to history. with in connection with certain special experiences (commonly connected with the all this. But orthodoxy. Perception. in their Mus lim 'orthodoxy'. 'Say: He life of a given individual varies at different times from this point of view. or some other object 'at the farthest end' or 'on the horizon'. does not necessarily imply that the Prophet did not serious errors (the doctrine of 'i~ma). therefore. the with a Spirit of Our Command: You did not know what the Book was. during the second and the third centuries of Islam. He is a that the Qur'an is entirely the Word of God and. and although they are not identical with God entirely. and its intimate connection with the work and the religious personality of Now a Prophet is a person whose average.

as the Christians Qur'an). The Qur'an is thus have generally made it out to be. Indeed. comprehensive and revelatory law. i. God 'has ingrained in it (i. :. the moral order for men comes to assume a is not that which actually is an order but that which actually is a disorder central point of divine interest in a full picture of a cosmic order which is not wherein an order is to be brought about.. the most intense impression that the Qur'iin as a whole leaves upon section of the preceding chapter and as is evident from the pages of the a reader is not of a watchful. h~s uniqueness and greatness.I 'I 86 87 L -·---~-. became one with the moral all the Qur'iinic terms. This is because with reference to man. and from whom ice that immediately followed from it in the Qur'an. the entire time being. parallel to man but said to be created of a fiery substance. nor of a chief judge as the Muslim legalists pure Divine Word. 8). 156). order. the angels protested to Him saying that man as a substantive name of God besides Allah.e. is developed where the attributes of creativity. whereupon God replied. This amr. A concept of God. ------------.. while they were research has revealed. The Qur'anic teaching With reference to man (and possibly also to the jinn. is ceaseless. not merely conjoined or added to one another but interpenetrate completely. immediate inferences from the creative orderliness of the cosmos.. 54). The Qur'an portrays the moral dualism in man's character which gives rise To Him belong creativity and 'ordering' or 'commanding' (VII. that. in his Qur'anic moments.:. in fact. This is absolutely true so the devil is also said to have sprung). According to one. Of But if MuJ:tammad. frowning and punishing God. perhaps the most basic. As the Qur'an gradually worked are transformed. mental and spiritual faculties. but of a unitary and purposive will creative of order in inmost personality of the Prophet MuJ:tammad whose relationship to it can. the human soul) existence there could just as well be pure. that Ral:tmlin was used as name for the Deity in South Utterly obedient to the Divine Will. attributes is that God creates everything. the 'Merciful' (RaJ:tmlin) by two strikingly effective stories. evolve boldness and the will to transcend the actual towards the ideal constitutes into a cosmos. the Word was given with the inspiration itself. orderliness or command. as the Qur'an repeatedly tells us.. The actual moral disorder is the only charged with a high religious sensitivity but exhibits an amazing degree result of a deep-seated moral fact to remedy which God and man must of coherence and consistency. including man. the absolute author of the collaborate. which we have translated in the Islam knows of no way of assigning any meaning to the sentence. the universe: the qualities of power or majesty. and consider the rest Creation refused to accept it. existence is not the absolute desert of anything. but this fact of historical transportation from the South ledge of that which you do not know' (II. but. a discernment of good and evil' (XCI. true. 'My to the moral struggle. To everything that is created this and all Muslims worthy of the name have condemned as the gravest error is ipso facto communicated its amr which is its own law of being but which is associating (shirk) a creature with God.. of course. when God intended to is the only adjectival name of God that is very frequently used in the Qur'lin create man as his vicegerent. This fact is that coeval with man is the devil (shaytiin) who universe. The other story tells us that is obviously irrelevant from our point of view. and the potentialities man and man alone possesses. his specific spiritual-moral constitution. Mul:tammad insistently avoided lated above as order.. of watchfulness or justice and not be mechanically conceived like that of a record. and rather than 'go astray' from the ordained path.e. is waby. 30). There can be hardly a more penetrating and effective characterization creation order or 'command' is ingrained in things whereby they cohere and of the human situation and man's frail and faltering nature. and in the place of dimension in the case of man. mercy encompasses everything' (VII. empty nothingness. and that in the very act of this 72). 'Man is so ignorant and foolhardy!' (XXXIII. duplicate of man which is. but so artful and powerful is the 1: .. be translated as 'ingraining'.. With reference to inorganic things it should is Divine'. the interpretation of these three ultimate With a sympathetic rebuke. Besides this. 'I have know- Arabia before Islam. but a 'spirit-from-amr' (riih min al-amr). it is equally intimately related to the have tended to think. in general. finally. Man's duty is carefully to formulate this Law and to • command of God. through the Prophet's heart. The reason is that no man may say. both the nature and the content of amr far as man and his destiny are concerned. -· --·-·--:-=. 'So-and-so previous section as 'inspiration'. it is not just amr that is sent down from high. This fact of the devil creates an entirely new after all. as is shown by our account in the second Indeed. order or 'I am the Moral Law'. for the When God offered 'The Trust' to the Heavens and the Earth. more prone to evil. as modern would be prone to evil. all this is nothing but the sheer mercy of God for.:. a kind of Qur'an is moral and we have pointed to the ideas of social and economic just.~ ---~- . The Divine Word flowed of wisdom attributed to God in the Qur'an with unmistakable emphasis are. adding of the entire created universe.. If we leave out man. 'corrupt the earth and shed blood'.:. because amr really becomes here the moral command: it out its world-view more fully. i.e. and mercy are beguiles him unceasingly. The Qur'an categorically forbids this. It is of course. until man came forward and bore it. The term used to indicate the communication submit to it with all his physical. who constitutes a special case. of amr to all things. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW THE QUR'AN came under Qur'anic criticism. an invisible order of In the foregoing we have repeatedly emphasized that the basic elan of the creation. also a law whereby it is integrated into a system. he may not be absolutely identified either with God or even with a part at once of divine nature of the universe is the term amr which we have trans- of Him. yet his innate fall into a pattern.

In the Qur'an itself the two have declared jihad to be one of the 'pillars of the Faith'. the 'Invisible Book' into two. the zakat. Among impossible to support the view that the Muslims themselves added two new the later Muslim legal schools. even without there being any reason. are the penalties which man must face as a result of his failure. a considerably strenuous total abstention from eating With this background. the moral condemnation of which shrank back in fear from accepting. It was in the post-Prophetic written on a 'Preserved Tablet'. The Qur'an 'sent' to Mul)ammad is the Book that reveals the under the rising tide of the l:ladith which was put into circulation to support Command: Mul)ammad is the final Prophet and the Qur'an the last Book the idea that prayers were five. which it declares to be a cardinal opposed to fair commerce (bay'). 39).. have been So long as the small Muslim Community remained in Mecca. Men charged with these fateful messages to humanity are ive at five. So long as the Muslims were a The Qur'an emphasizes prayer because 'it prevents from evil' and helps small. however. however. 78) was split into two and similarly the noon be moved and impelled by it sufficiently strongly. who can not only pay their ation. -. the human repositories of the Divine 'your properties and yourselves in the path of Allah'. from the first to the last seeks to emphasize all those moral tensions that are . it is only the fanatic Kharijites who prayers to the three mentioned in the Qur'an. _. give zakat. the Qur'an emerges as a document that and drinking from dawn till sunset. The Qur'an is believed to have Qur'an's interest is man and his betterment. From this belief is held to of diverse races and cultures.j 'middle' prayer at noon was added. the purpose of which in revelation (the last in the series being Mul)ammad). with the possible excep- represent the later usage of the Prophet himself. 78.. So strong is the emphasis of Qur'an._ _. In Medina. First and foremost. etc. was duly ordained for the welfare of the supremacy and the majesty of God are most strikingly emphasized by the Community and tax-collectors were appointed. 183 ff.one threatening from that of the supremacy of the moral law.--. On the other hand among all creation. the idea of justice flows directly also started in Mecca. Again. messages ofthe Prophets. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW THE QUR'AN devil's seduction that men normally fail even to decipher properly this eternal of the Prophet's life the prayer 'from the declension of the sun unto the thick inscription of God on the human heart. equally immense.. The Command that is with Him is so sure. . therefore. so by the fact that the Prophet is reported to have combined these four prayers definite in what it affirms and denies that it is. that the prayers were fundamentally three is evidenced Command' that is 'with Him'. an idea equally emphasized by war from God and His Prophet against those who practised usury . -- . The ban on usury. including Pilgrimage to Mecca (see Chapter I) was made obligatory for every Muslim human power and weakness. indeed. XIII. created by God in him. One month's fast. is prescribed by the Qur'an (II. The the Islamic movement was unthinkable. but must be taken to changed and henceforth there is hardly anything. follow belief in angels (spirits of the Command) as transmitters of the Divine The Qur'an calls upon believers to undertake jihad. remained a voluntary donation conclusion that he can make and unmake moral law according to his 'heart's towards the welfare of the poorer section of the Community. infidelity. since it would be historically tion of prayer and zakat. Indeed. or welfare tax. man has been given the most the Qur'an on this point that even prayer is seldom mentioned without being immense potentialities and is endowed with the 'Trust' which entire creation accompanied by zakat. For this it is essential that men been first revealed in the month of Rama<.. finds and selects some human to whom he sends the angel 'the spirit of the The fact. which is to surrender message to man. desire' from the obvious fact that this law is therefor him..e. __.lan. jihad as a positive organized thrust of man to conquer difficulties. in the Prophets. and later on at Medina the have played it down for the obvious reason that the expansion of Islam had I . grounds that it rendered the debt 'several-fold' of the original capital and was ness and lack of trust in the mercy of God. at bottom the centre of the pone the fast until a more favourable time. . that has been so revealed. indeed. But with the same insistence the Qur'an condemns hopeless. the 'Book'. Other schools i! morning and the evening prayers are mentioned. command good and forbid evil' -i. the 'Mother of(all) Books' (LVI. once in a lifetime for 'Those who can afford it'. . absence. ~ 89 ..e. the situation five daily prayers are not all mentioned in the Qur'an. in the genuineness of the turn is to 'establish prayer. and in the Day of Reckoning.on the the Qur'an. operate within the framework of certain tensions which. But it appears that during the later part already occurred much too swiftly in proportion to the internal consolidation l 88 --. i. that receives greater emphasis than jihad.. . Those who may be sick (or experiencing difficulties) on a journey may post- necessary for creative human action.). to establish the Islamic socio-moral order.. way to Mecca and back but can also provide for their families during their therefore... LXXXV. In Medina. and the fact of the fundamental three prayers was submerged the Prophets. man may not jump to the suicidal even though very recurrently emphasized. persecuted minority in Mecca. especially when combined with 'patience'. however. The institution of pilgrimage has been a very potent vehicle of In pursuance of this picture. sufferance and retali. almsgiving. came in a series of pronouncements. belief in one God stands at the apex of the furthering Islamic brotherhood and a pan-Islamic sentiment among Muslims Muslim system of belief derived from the Qur'an. The same is true of the whole range of moral tensions. while some who can decipher it fail to darkness of the night' (XVII. Hence the absolute however.. period that the number of prayers was inexorably fixed without any alternat- 21-22. knowledge and ignorance. While the potentialities of man are immense. At times of such crisis God prayer and thus the number five was reached.

at a stage. But the later Muslims did not watch the guiding lines of that in the very early period the Muslims interpreted the Qur'an pretty the Qur'an and. No alternative was possible since In our own age. is the stand of those modern Muslim apologists who have lutely impossible to solve. therefore. Here profits for people but their harm far outweighs their profits' (II. The spouses are declared to be each other's 'garments': the woman has responsibility in fresh legislation. along with feeding the poor and orphans. The overall logical consequence of these pronounce. with the rider meant to be literally eternal by the Qur'an itself. visionary statement. however. 'They ask when they want to be chaste. and how far it may employ methods of direct expansion. The use of alcohol was proposals if you think they are any good and give to them of the wealth that apparently unreservedly permitted in the early years. and only a dreamer could have issued such a tried to explain the jihad of the early Community in purely defensive te1 ms. The most unacceptable on historical liquidation would have created problems which it would have been abso- grounds. monogamy might be introduced. experimental legal tackling of mean that if a slave cannot show any earning capacity. the tations. Yet as an what its structure and what its inner dynamics. but if they act you about alcohol and gambling. Very soon. 90-91) on the ground that both alcohol and attitude was not worked out in actual history by Muslims. This is because no reformer draw a very sharp distinction between the clear wording (na~~). make it abundantly clear that whereas the spirit Qur'an immensely improved the status of the woman in several directions but of the Qur'anic legislation exhibits an obvious direction towards the pro- the most basic is the fact that the woman was given a fully-pledged personal. This shows the slow. ments of the Qur'an have been on the subjects of women and slavery. God is forgiving and merciful' (XXIV. for him to enjoy at least the protection of his master. This fact has no reference to that if a husband feared that he could not do justice among several wives. The words of gambling 'are works of the devil. Unlimited polygamy was This clearly means that the actual legislation of the Qur'an cannot have been strictly regulated and the number of wives was limited to four. no matter what its conditions.I i ' ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW of the Community in the Faith. with other systems. however. There is a good deal of evidence to believe visionary statements. . is faced slavery was ingrained in the structure of society. is a degree higher. Some of the economic enactments we have noted in the previous upon according to the situation of the slave. But after a period of juristic development during the late I st/7th and I i 90 91 . the text who means to be effective can neglect the real situation and simply issue and what was deducible therefrom. The ban on consumption of alcohol affords an interesting example of allow such a contract for freedom and may not reject it: 'And those of your the Qur'anic method of legislation and throws light on the attitude of the slaves who wish to enter into freedom-purchasing contracts. thwarted its intentions. 10-16). man. as time already existing institution polygamy was accepted on a legal plane. 33). being the earning partner. the Muslim lawyers and shall never be able to do justice among wives no matter how desirous you are dogmaticians began to confuse the issue and the strictly legal injunctions of (to do so)' (IV. Communism. One clear proof that. expected to stand on his own feet even if freed and therefore it may be better But the most important legal enactments and general reform pronounce. the Qur'an accepts the institution of slavery on the legal plane. nevertheless the actual legislation of the been granted the same rights over man as man has over his wife. 219). Say: in these there is great harm and also under sheer compulsion. Every virile and expansive ideology has. in its Russian and Chinese versions. if any. he the doctrine of the eternity of the Qur'an or to the allied doctrine of the verbal must marry only one wife. Finally again we are confronted by a situation where the clear logic of the Qur'anic a total ban was proclaimed (V. Later it is said. But at the same time every legal and moral effort was made to free the slaves and to create a milieu where slavery ought to disappear. to be that 'uphill path' The Qur'an is primarily a book of religious and moral principles and exhor. 128). the Qur'an were thought to apply to any society.. ments is a banning of polygamy under normal circumstances. THE QUR'AN The case of the Qur'anic treatment of the institution of slavery runs par- allel to that of the family. only rancour among you'. except that Qur'an had partly to accept the then existing society as a term of reference. 'Liberating the neck' (fakk raqaba) is not only praised as a virtue but is The Qur'anic legislation declared. in fact. then he cannot be problems as they arise. seeking thereby petty gains of life. accept their Qur'an to the nature and function of legislation itself. to ask itselfthe question as to what are its terms of coexistence. and its overnight wholesale with the same problems and choices.. Indeed. freely. Muslim legists became more and more literalists is reflected in the fact obvious guiding lines that when gradually social circumstances became more that sometime during the 2nd/8th century the Muslim legal doctrine began to favourable. which is absolutely essential for man to tread (XC. Then offering prayers God has given you. As an immediate solution. and is not a legal document. The devil wants to sow enmity and the Qur'an 'if you think they are any good' when properly understood. And do not compel your slave-girls to resort to a foul life while under the influence of alcohol was prohibited. 3. The These examples. To all this was added a general principle that 'you revelation of the Qur'an. gressive embodiment of the fundamental human values of freedom and ity. But it does embody some important Qur'an has categorically told the Muslims that if a slave wants to purchase legal enunciations issued during the community-state building process at his or her freedom by paying off in instalments a sum that may be decided Medina. with the passed. then the owner of the slave must section.

The Qur'an has also meaning of the Word of God. Muslims have developed a special art of its recitation (called tajwid). The Qur'an strenuously rejected the epithet 'poet' flung at Mul:lammad by his opponents and never allowed that it be called poetry. was status and found expression in various treatises specially devoted to this compiled by ai-Tabari (d. ar«ven opposed to. dates from the time of the third Caliph. throughout the world. For the purpose of understanding the text. therefore. and continues to exert it up to this day. of course. Indeed. based on reports from earlier generations. with its auxiliary branches of learning. Muslim orthodoxy had strenuously resisted any attempt to produce a as various schools of thought and converts of intellectual and spiritual life translation of the Book in any language without the Arabic text. The commonly accepted to keep its artistic beauty and grandeur. not only in content but even in literary were fulfilled came the scope for a free play of human reason. which probably sometimes diverged markedly from the shall see in Chapters III and IV . influence on the growth and development of Arabic literature. The role of themselves and the Community down to the 'text' of the Holy Book until the opinion or personal opinion in early Islam we shall discuss a little more fully content of Mus lim law and theology became buried under the weight of when we come to treat law in Chapter IV. Hence Arabic grammar. We quote below three passages from text. it is quite true contributed not a little to the unity of Muslims who. It was also written down on leaves. in its telling expressiveness and in its Commentaries on the Qur'an effective rhythm the Qur'an is not less than poetry of the highest order. the circumstantial Arabic grammar. and when the Qur'an is chanted in this way it does not fail to affect even a bones. Kemalist Turkey the Qur'an was translated and produced in Turkish without The language and the style of the Qur'an have also exerted a most powerful the original Arabic. reads: also effected the present arrangement of the Qur'an. is common to almost all Muslim schools. This has developed in Islam. although the Arabic text continued to be used in prayers. is based more or less on the length of the Suras.were the rise of the Tradition and the obvious meaning of the text and had an arbitrary character. First of all. commentaries came into existence. by many people and recited in prayers. Muslims have not only written innumerable control the progress of the science of Qur'anic commentary ('ilm al-tafsir). the Prophetic tradition. the backgrounds of the Qur'anic revelations called the 'occa- scholars with a good deal of justice that all the sciences in Islam which are sions of revelation' were recorded as a necessary aid for fixing the correct not absolutely secular owe their origin to the Qur'an. passage. it is impossible was collected together by the first Caliph Abu Bakr. as opposed to the chronological order. topic. parchments and such other material as was available. and has attained a cardinal of traditional commentary. which.. including the Prophet was requisite for a proper understanding of the Qur'an. In translation. lexicography and Arabic literature were intensively culti- background of the verses of the Qur'an. I were more or less coloured by the faiths and old ideas of the new converts. literalism. who. whenever his Lord trieth him by honouring him and is Whereas there is some evidence •:1at in the earliest generation after the gracious unto him. he says 'My Lord il Qur'an. The doctrine of the injunctions and statements was given great weight. accompanying the Qur'an. were severely development of technical. After these requirements 'inimitability' (i'jiiz) of the Qur'an. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW THE QUR'AN throughout the 2nd/8th century (the prominent features of which . indeed. the Vulgate edition. to say that whatever views Muslims have wanted to project and advocate recite the Qur'an in their prayers five times a day in Arabic. Next. production even to this day. this attitude soon gave way to all books of interpretations which despiseth me'. the principle was recognized that a knowledge not ent. But whenever . The need was thus felt to develop some scientific instruments whereby to Throughout the centuries. Nay. on the recommendation of a committee appointed for the lence but to illustrate the development of its content stage by stage. the lawyers neatly tied attacked as 'interpretation of arbitrary opinion (tafsir bi'l-ra'y)'. any interpretation of the He trieth him by straitening his means of life. Only recently in have taken the form of Qur'anic commentaries. Yet in its depth of feeling. however. not because they will convey to the reader its artistic excel- 'Uthman. the faithful servant of the Prophet. During the lifetime of the Prophet the Qur'an had been committed to memory Indeed. belonging to an early Meccan Sura. he saith 'My Lord honoureth me'. The entire Book hearer who does not know Arabic. lexicography. there has been a return to the Arabic text even for early developed the doctrine of the literary and artistic 'unsurpassability' of ordinary reading. Prophet people were shy of. In course of time. analogical reasoning). A monument form. it is claimed by Muslim vated. commentaries on the Qur'an from different points of view and with differ. and ye devour fl II l 92 kc -'--'<"~~~ 93 . but have evolved a science of Qur'anic only of the Arabic language but also of the Arabic idiom of the times of exegesis ('ilm al-tafsir). but even for the non-Muslim Arab it remains an ideal of literary translations in local languages are allowed. And urge (others) not on the feeding of the poor. etc. 310/922) in his extensive work. Indeed. but (this is because) ye honour not the orphan. historical tradition containing reports exerted an incalculable influence on the growth of Arabic literature and about how those among whom the Qur'an first appeared understood its literary style. Thirdly. The Muslims But even in Turkey.as we Such interpretations. The first purpose and headed by Zayd ibn Thabit. As for man. conflicting tendencies. different dates.

and who pay up the welfare tax. Sahih Muslim. 15-22) PERSONAL LIFE. whoso craveth beyond that. Nay. His life was so but bring not four witnesses. I-ll) This passage is from a Medinese Sura: "0 Muhammad verily thine will be a reward unending. helmet. fasting. indeed. They record / the minutest details of his life both private and public. his I! way of eating. walking. Prophet Muhammad and His Mission. turban. his surroundings and connections. in course of time. therefore. 4 grinding. sword. like the Quran. 1-5) attentively listened to and closely observed and remembered by heart. The adul- terer and the adulteress strike ye each one of them with a hundred Muhammad (Peace on him) was born in the full blaze of history. 4) have revealed plain tokens. Sunan Tirmizi. such are transgressors. dress. by hundreds of his devoted disciples and carried to the farthest corner of Arabia and. but when the earth is ground to atoms. his prayers. ring. that what he said or did was (XXIV. political and economic life of the those who afterward repent and make amends. and who pay heed to their prayers. cultural. eating utensils. strike them with eighty stripes and dynamic. 119-49. his youth and manhood. socks. Sunan Nisai. country.save their wives or the (slaves) that their right hands possess (for them they are not blameworthy). There is no stripes. so packed with thrilling and consequential events that it caused an never accept their testimony -they. indeed. rank and rank. talking. sleeping and scenting. Athar Husain and who guard their modesty. All that is forbidden unto caused such an uproar and turmoil that thereafter he came into dazzling believers. It is not at all surprising. bed. and who guard pp. London: Asia Publication House. The adulterer shall not marry childhood. that haply ye may take heed. (LXXXIX. comb. and who shun vain conversation. How detailed they are can be gathered from the fact that Tirmizi alone has fifty-two chapters devoted to his appearance. drinking. recorded in writing. And those who accuse honourable women (of unchastity) limelight and became the focus of attention of all Arabia. ISLAM AS RELIGION AND LAW heritages with devouring greed and are attached to wealth with excessive attachment. gray hairs.except upheaval in the religious. grinding and thy Lord shall come with angels. Sunan Ibn Maja and Sunan Abu Dawud. armour. There they will :I abide. 68: 3. Allah. 1967. pillow. what he ate. recitation II 94 95 L . gait." (Here is) a Sura We have revealed and enjoined and wherein We (Q. there are no fairy tales woven around him. And let a party of There is an authentic account of his lineage and parentage. These are the heirs who will inherit Heaven. if ye believe in Allah and the Last Day. are evil-doers. shoes. His sayings and prac- tices form the enormous literature of Hadith (Traditions) of which the more well-known are Mawatta by Ibn Malik. ~I (XXIII.but Source: A. Husain. sitting. and the adulteress none shall dawn of apostleship in him was such a tremendously striking event and marry save an adulterer or an idolater. TRAITS AND The following verses belong to the later Meccan period: PRACTICES OF THE PROPHET Successful. trousers. Sahih Bukhari. his birth and early believers witness their punishment. The save an adulteress or an idolatress. are the believers who are humble in their prayers. And let not pity for them withhold you from obedience to mystery about his personality. ). his way of doing ablutions for prayers. I their pledge and fulfil their covenant. hair. social. and thou art of a highly elevated character.