Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

treating breast and ovarian cancer.S. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. the cervix softens and opens. given later. a nonprofit. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. but a few take longer. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. Instead. Under the trade name Mifeprex. private research organization. Misoprostol. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. and 3 percent aborted immediately. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. These include inducing fullterm labor. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. Without progesterone. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. China. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. Two days later. and the uterine lining breaks down. including the United States. which starts the process. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. Typically. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. which starts contractions. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. In the United States. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. and as a therapy for endometriosis. and many suffered cramping. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. . Nearly half the women in the U. At the third visit. two weeks later. as well as certain other tumors.

The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. in France. no medical instruments are used. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. They also point out that. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. headache. However. by making abortion potentially available in any . Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. in a small number of women. where the drug has been in use since 1988. However. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. is over much more quickly. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. and fatigue. and the procedure is not invasive. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. Theoretically. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. In contrast. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. are that anesthesia is not required. weakness. diarrhea. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and.

In addition to stunted or missing limbs. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. Eventually. kidneys. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians.physician’s office. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. a German pharmaceutical company. More than 10. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. spine. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. gastrointestinal tract. drug introduced in 1953. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. heart. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. respiratory tract. During this delay. and reproductive tract. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. palate. Thalidomide.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. lip. All rights reserved. Britain. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. . reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. and other countries. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. eyes. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established.

Under these restrictions. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Among other issues. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. A serious skin disorder. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. when produced in excessive amounts. and the sores make eating difficult. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). although not fully understood.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. . and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. or chronic weight loss. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use.

Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. For treatment of hypertension or angina. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. The regular tablet can be crushed. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. All rights reserved. slow heart rate. This drug is available by prescription only.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. It comes in 50-mg. and decreased sexual desire. pregnant or breast-feeding women. cold hands and feet. the typical. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. For treatment after a heart attack. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. lightheadedness. 100-mg. fatigue. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . worsening angina in coronary heart disease. a n abnormally slow heart rate. more commonly known as beta blockers. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. persons with congestive heart failure. in prolonged action tablets. and 200-mg tablets. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. Metoprolol. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. For prevention o f heart attacks.

liver disease. hydralazine. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. To minimize adverse side effects. All rights reserved. constipation. furosemide. calcium channel blockers. taken orally. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. amiodarone. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. aminophylline. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. dizziness. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation.sedative effect. insulin. taken once a day or in divided doses. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. tranquilizers. These include bloating. cimetidine. aspirin. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. fluoxetine. This drug is available by prescription only. epinephrine. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). oral antidiabetic drugs. without missing doses. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. and verapamil. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. oral hypoglycemic drugs. digoxin. nifedipine. albuterol. theophyllinevenlafaxine. The typical. diarrhea. chlorpromazine. reserpine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. clonidine. Nabumetone. bleeding or blood cell disorders. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. diltiazem. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. Brand Names:Lopressor. pregnant or breast-feeding women. difficulty sleeping. or severe impairment of kidney function. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug.

asthma or difficulty breathing. nosebleed. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. other salicylates. headache. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Patients should not take more than a single. or sore throat. and drugs that affect heart rhythms.dizziness. irregular heartbeat. and liver or kidney damage. diarrhea. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. indigestion. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). Patients with asthma. fatigue. itching or tingling. headache. lightheadedness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. seizures. Astemizole is available only by prescription. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. and probenecid. Less common are depression. nervousness. nervousness. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. . antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. beta blockers. eyes. soreness of the mouth. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. joint or muscle pain. including antibiotics. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Astemizole. dizziness. All rights reserved. nausea. liver disease. aspirin. impairment of normal blood clotting. blurred vision. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. nausea. or increased appetite. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. skin rash. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. Possible side effects include drowsiness. or cardiac arrest. sweating. or vomiting. diuretics. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. drowsiness. and skin. heartburn. dry mouth or throat. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. loss of appetite.

and paroxetine (Paxil). headache. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. Digoxin. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. setraline (Zoloft). Digoxin is available in capsule. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. Children under age ten may take this drug. blurred vision. ranging from 0. or breast development in males.5 mg) on the first day. nausea. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk.5 mg per day. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use.125 to 0. fluvoxamine (Luvox). All rights reserved. skin rash. nefazodone (Serzone). as it may seriously affect heart function. It may be taken with food.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. drug used to treat heart problems. Dosages of this drug vary widely. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). loss of appetite. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. although one form of the liquid is injected. . Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. vomiting. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. stomach pain. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. All are taken orally. if necessary. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. and liquid form. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. tablet. Possible side effects include diarrhea.

seizures. headache. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. It is taken orally in tablet form. Amitriptyline. drowsiness. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. blurred vision. an antidepressantdrug. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. breast enlargement. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. insomnia. heart or circulatory disorders. dizziness. heart attack. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or stroke. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. diuretics. Because of these many drug interactions. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. migraine headaches. constipation. these include seizures. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. liver ailments. Typically used to treat mental depression. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. bronchodilators. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. In addition. thyroid hormones. vomiting. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. steroids. including dry mouth. these may . diarrhea. anxiety. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. often once a day at bedtime. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. another type of antidepressant. Brand Names:Lanoxin. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). bulimia.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. the maximum daily dosage for adults. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. disorientation. high fever. fatigue. antacids. impotence.

include headache. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. painkillers. irritability. confusion. tranquilizers. drowsiness. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. or even death. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. headache. diarrhea. irritable bowel syndrome. operate dangerous machinery. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. muscular weakness. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. stuffy nose. drug used to treat anxiety. nausea. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. and large doses of vitamin C. premenstrual syndrome. as it may harm the baby. It has also been used to treat depression. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. muscle cramps. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or with . or engage in other risk-related activities. or depression. fainting. Dosages may range from 0. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). usually three times a day. Alprazolam. decreased sex drive. coma. In addition. nausea.25 mg to 10 mg. loss of appetite. irritability. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. oral contraceptives. seizure medications. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. Brand Names:Elavil. diarrhea. barbiturates. It should not be combined with alcohol. chest pains. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. All rights reserved. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. or sleep disturbances. antihistamines. and certain phobias. twitching. Endep. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. thyroid hormones. panic attacks. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. with or without food. constipation. or seizures. sleep medications. muscle relaxants.

In addition. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. disorientation. sweating. various antihistamines. and other tranquilizers. an eye disorder. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. cimetidine. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. facial swelling. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. blurred or double vision. operate dangerous machinery. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. Less common side effects include anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. but it does not interfere with muscle function. including carbamazepine. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. constipation.narrow-angle glaucoma. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. skin rash. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. When combined with rest and physical therapy. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. digoxin. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. or tremors. diarrhea. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. antidepressants. disulfiram. . this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. insomnia. indigestion. usually three times a day. with or without food. an irregular heartbeat. All rights reserved. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. abnormal heartbeat. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. Available in tablet form. high blood-pressure drugs. All rights reserved. antispasmodic drugs. headache. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. Dry mouth is a common side effect. as serious or fatal reactions may result. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates.

sour cream. For sustained release tablets. nausea. presumably by activating the brain stem. liver. meat tenderizers. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. stomach pain. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. avocado. yeast extracts. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. loss of appetite. raspberries. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. anxiety. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. canned fish. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. 10-mg. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. It comes in 5 -mg. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. The regular tablet can be crushed. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. or Tourette’s syndrome.Methylphenidate. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. . the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). chocolate. a dry mouth. and 20-mg regular tablets. chianti. and weight loss with long-term use. persons with glaucoma. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. pepperoni. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. pregnant or breast-feeding women. a chemical that raises blood pressure. meat extracts. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. nervous tension. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. For sustained release tablets. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. raisins. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. bean curd. dried and salted fish. pickled herring. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. unpasteurized beer. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. and vermouth. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. salami. bologna. taken before breakfast and lunch. preferably on an empty stomach. soy sauce. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. severe depression. headache. sherry.

hair loss. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. . headache. skin rash or itching. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. and nortriptyline. fatigue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and primidone. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. Atenolol. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. or a slow heartbeat.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. phenobarbital. and heart attack. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. (An injectable. Its safety for use in children is not known. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. asthma. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. pargyline. depression. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. anxiety. with or without food. phenelzine. kidney disease. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. coronary artery disease. including high blood pressure. imipramine. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. or slow heartbeat. nausea. heart blockage. allergies. and breathing difficulties. impotence. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. desipramine. angina. and tranylcypromine. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. It affects the autonomic nervous system. All rights reserved. Less common side effects are diarrhea. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. Potential side effects include dizziness. Brand Names:Ritalin.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. drowsiness.

abdominal pain. which requires immediate medical treatment. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. as severe. impotence. hallucinations. liver. or liquid form. mouth ulcers. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. in the jaw. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. usually taken four times a day. or kidney function. low blood pressure. or impairment of heart. usually taken twice a day. thereby reducing pain. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. headache. dizziness. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. Children six years and older may take this drug. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. and sweating. constipation. Side effects that include fever. . Both forms should be taken with meals. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. However. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. sore throat. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. It also relieves neuralgia. for migraine headaches. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). operate dangerous machinery. blurred vision. For neuralgia. tongue. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. sensitivity to light. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. This process may take three months or more. and for depression or other emotional disorders. patients taking this drug should not drive. breathing problems. itching. other blood pressure medications. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. or throat. They include muscle or joint pain. or engage in other risk-related activities. making seizures less frequent and less severe. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. and antacids that contain calcium. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. fainting. hair loss. or pain along a sensory nerve. anemia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. insulin. drowsiness. continuous seizures may result. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. bruises. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine.

which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. theophylline. Less common side effects include indigestion. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Cephalexin. kidney disorders. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. Patients with drug allergies.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. vomiting. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. reproductive system. haloperidol. skin. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. hives. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. vaginitis. as well as calcium channel blockers. all of which are taken orally. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). confusion. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. abdominal pain. The drug is effective within three to five days. and other antiseizure medications. Brand Names:Tegretol. urinary tract. skin rash. hallucinations. All rights reserved. However. doxycycline. It is known to appear in breast milk. colitis (inflamed colon). and bones. joint pain. All rights reserved. capsule. . but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and liquid form. It may also interact adversely with lithium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. the entire course of medication should be taken. fluid retention. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. This drug is available by prescription in table t. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Keflex. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. colitis. used to treat infections of the middle ear. dizziness.

constipation. and violent hyperactivity in children. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. cimetidine. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. so patients should not drive. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. or brain tumors. tablet. . Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. glaucoma. breast cancer. and high fever. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. respiratory infections. headache. or epinephrine. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. blood-thinners. tetanus. use dangerous machinery. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. nasal congestion. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. narcotics. or dizziness. and uncontrollable hiccups. emphysema. antacids. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. impotence. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. or barbiturates. rapid heartbeat. seizures. diuretics. captopril. liquid. fainting. tremors. kidney or liver diseases. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. change in urine color. including anemia. and suppository form. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Chlorpromazine. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). anxiety before surgery. or nervousness. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insomnia. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. light sensitivity. a neurotransmitter in the brain. hives. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. intestinal blockage. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. suppressed cough reflex. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. All rights reserved. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. In addition. irregular heartbeat. anticonvulsants. it does appear in breast milk.

tremors. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. Starting dosages usually range from 12. and warfarin.Clozapine. blurred vision. All rights reserved. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. operate dangerous machinery. blood pressure medicatio ns. an enlarged prostate gland. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). In addition to agranulocytosis. rapid heartbeat. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). Patients taking this drug should not drive. and muscle weakness. headache. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. or nightmares. nausea. drug used to treat schizophrenia. epinephrine. digoxin. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. and can lead to death in some cases. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In addition. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. other possible side effects include seizures. a history of seizures. impaired liver or kidney function. or narrow-angle glaucoma. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. an eye disorder. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. drowsiness. dizziness. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. low blood pressure. or engage in other risk-related activities. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. sore throat. and antidepressants. agranulocytosis causes fever. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. .5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. emotions. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. and behavior. fever. as well as cimetidine. constipation. weight gain. atropine.

Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. These include other tranquilizers. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or in children under six months of age. narcotics. and liquid form. or epilepsy. operate dangerous machinery. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. nausea. mild tranquilizer drug. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. all are taken orally. producing a calming effect. fatigue. capsule. muscle spasms. while breast-feeding. vomiting. ranitidine. or poor muscle coordination. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. digoxin. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). confusion. slurred speech. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. tremors. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. fluoxetine. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. or convulsions. sweating. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. confusion. lightheadedness. and rifampin. dizziness. or low blood pressure. skin rash. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. anticonvulsant drugs. and certain types of seizures. severe depression. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex.Dizac Hydrocodone. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. A mild narcotic. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Valrelease. Classified as a benzodiazepine. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. depression. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. insomnia. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. . used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. Depending on the patient’s condition. or coma. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages.Diazepam. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. barbiturates. constipation. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. headache. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. Brand Names:Valium. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. and birth control pills.

Triaminic Expectorant DH. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. dry mouth. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. As a liquid cough remedy.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. depression. skin rash. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. blurred or double vision. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. vomiting. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. who have a history of chemical dependency. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. urinary retention. constipation.A common ingredient in cough medicines. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. delirium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. All rights reserved. impaired kidney or liver function. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. impaired breathing. nausea.

Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). take any other drugs. skin irritation and rash. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. have a history of alcoholism. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. cream. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. patients with active liver disease. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections.Ketoconazole. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. and liver problems. . thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. headaches. A cure may require many months of treatment. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. have liver disease or reduced liver function. nausea. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. diarrhea. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. headache. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. All rights reserved. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. Pregnant and nursing women. or shampoo. and nausea. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer.

Avoid direct contact with the eyes.Mometasone Furoate. with bandages. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. ointment. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. stinging. of the adrenal glands. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. or over a long period. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. tingling. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. If used over large surface areas. this drug may cause skin damage. or dry skin. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. itching. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. or lotion. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. or cortex. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. although its exact mechanism is unknown. . in areas of broken skin. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. Available by prescription only.

It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. It is also used to treat chronic. Nortriptyline. drug used to treat major mental depression. All rights reserved. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. and 75 mg. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. . Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. pregnant or breast-feeding women. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. However. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. 50 mg. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. 25 mg. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided.

usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. birth control pills. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. fluoxetine. and sleeping medications. headache. epinephrine. Brand Names:Aventyl. and skin. and weight gain or loss. urinary tract. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cimetidine. nightmares. antihistamines. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. blurred vision. chest. decreased urination. epilepsy. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. Depending on the severity of infection. fluconazole. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. carbamazepine. Available by prescription only. insomnia. All rights reserved. confusion. memory problems. . a dry mouth. tranquilizers.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. seizures. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. nausea. hallucin ations. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. barbiturates. lightheadedness. constipation. drowsiness. peculiar tastes in the mouth. irregular heart rhythm. throat. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. fa tigue. or glaucoma. narcotics.

It is also used to treat serious ear infections. or skin problems such as redness. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. headache. infectious diarrhea. Ciprofloxacin. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. and it does appear in breast milk. colitis. vomiting. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. All rights reserved. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. or rash. joints. bones. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. the entire course of medication should be taken. However. vaginitis. urinary tract. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. . The drug is effective within three to five days. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. or yeast infection. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). nausea. and skin. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. itching. Common side effects may include diarrhea. cholera. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. seizures.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. tuberculosis.

aluminum. breast-feeding women. Depending on the severity of infection. All rights reserved. Pregnant women. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. . hives. can be fatal. shortness of breath. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. or restlessness. skin rash. as allergic reactions to this drug. while rare. or magnesium. as serious or fatal reactions can result. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. and in a liquid. headache.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. operate dangerous machinery. sensitivity to light.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. or engage in other risk-related activities. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. vomiting. Brand Names:Cipro. which is used in the form of eyedrops. tingling or itchin g. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. which are taken orally w ith or without food. Patients with severe liver disease. or unconsciousness. impaired kidney function. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline.

low blood pressure. All rights reserved. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. constipation. muscle pain. weight loss. or coughing. respiratory irritation or infection. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. or seizures should use this drug with caution. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. Capsules are taken with or without food.Fluvastatin. insomnia. fatigue. erythromycin. dizziness. usually a t bedtime. skin rash. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. gemfibrozil. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. diarrhea. Patients with liver or kidney problems. ranitidine. ketoconazole. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. Haloperidol. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. headache. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. or rifampin. digoxin. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. .

eyelids. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. diminished sexual function. tremors. use of the drug should be discontinued. active liver disease. The drug is present in breast milk. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. skin rash. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. . insomnia. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. depression. jaws. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. eye damage. dry mouth. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. or muscle rigidity. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. and increased heart rate. blurred vision. lips.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. constipation. low blood pressure. Other side effects may include nausea. breast cancer. neck. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. Patients suffering from depression. Parkinson disease. urinary retention. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. and tongue.

Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. Lisinopril. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. stroke. All rights reserved. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. Its safety for children has not been established. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. However. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. extremities. or systemic lupus erythematosus. eyes. heart attack. and tongue after the first dose. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). kidney or liver disease. lips. heart or blood vessel disease. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks.

may decrease the effect of lisinopril. or baby f ormula. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. milk. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. persons with . Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. by breast-feeding women. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. and the dose may be diluted in water. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. especially in the third trimester. Indomethacin. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. fruit juice. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. Enterobacter. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. anti-inflammatory drug. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only. It is taken orally in 25-mg. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. Brand Names: Prinivil. a nonsteroidal. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. day and night. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. For prevention of recurrent in fections. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. Nitrofurantoin. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.blood potassium. 50-mg. Staphylococcus aureus.

All rights reserved. and sulfinpyrazone. or upper part of the small intestine. Omeprazole. probenecid.impaired kidney function. For gastric ulcer. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. nausea. loss of appetite. Stomach irritation is the most common. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. vitamin-B deficiency. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. nalidixic acid. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. the usual adult dosage . Occasionally this drug may have serious. anticholinergic medications. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. magnesium trisilicate. sodium bicarbonate. Brand Names:Furadantin. or vomiting. causing heartburn. electrolyte imbalances. or any debilitating disease. Macrobid. oral antacids. diarrhea. or infants less than one month old. diabetes.

headache. Less common side effects are chest pain. diarrhea. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. skin rash or itching. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. For adults over the age of 60. nausea and vomiting.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. gas. and phenytoin. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. cyclosporine. heartburn. digoxin. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. dizziness. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. For excessive stomach acid conditions. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. constipation. or yeast infection of the esophagus. diazepam. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. kidney or liver damage. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. warfarin. urinary tract infection. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. muscle pain. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. amoxicillin.

Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. warfarin. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. Brand Name: Paxil . anxiety. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. urinary disorders. tremor. nervousness. insomnia. nausea. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. a history of seizure disorders. and tryptophan. skin rashes. decreased appetite. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets.Paroxetine or Paxil. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. constipation. dry mouth. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. digoxin. diarrhea. preferably in the morning. and impaired sexual function. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Patients with liver or kidney impairment. Within ten days of regular use. and muscle weakness.

usually once or twice a day. All rights reserved. Children may safely take this drug. vaginal inflammation. all of which are taken orally. itching. or colitis. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. although it is known to appear in breast milk. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. pneumonia. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Brand Name: Duricef . Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. urinary tract infections. capsule. vomiting. however. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. Cefadroxil or Duricef. skin rash or redness. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. coli) bacteria. and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. allergies.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. depending on the severity of infection. as it may lead to a secondary infection. streptococcus infections. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. and skin infections. the entire course of medication should be taken.

Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. nervousness. vomiting. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. pneumonia. abdominal pain. drowsiness. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash (including diaper rash). Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. as it may lead to a secondary infection. confusion. including strep throat. . ear. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. taken in one or two doses. insomnia. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Less common side effects include diarrhea. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. and respiratory tract. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). genital itching. as well as skin infections. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. hives. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. All rights reserved. However. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Cefprozil or Cefzil. which are both taken orally.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. the entire course of medication should be taken. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. dizziness. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. It is available in tablet and liquid form.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

also known as glibenclamide. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . or skin rash. Possible side effects may include nausea. vomiting. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. although some children have used it safely. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. It may be taken with or without food. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. with one liquid form made for injection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drugs that treat diabetes. abdominal pain. phenytoin. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. ulcer medications. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. swelling. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Glyburide. which requires immediate medical attention. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. rifampin. diarrhea. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. drop in blood pressure. All rights reserved. or hydrochlorothiazide. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. headache. It is available in tablet or liquid form. Additional symptoms such as hives.

those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. hypothyroidism. The usual dosage is from 1. indigestion. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. hives. dizziness. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. abdominal cramps. Patients with unstable diabetes. Most effective on an empty stomach. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. Pregnant women. fatigue. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. After an initially positive response with the drug. The drug takes effect within two hours. headaches. Other possible side effects include skin rash.25 to 20 mg daily. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. nausea. and heartburn. itching. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. For this reason. . All rights reserved. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. Brand Names: DiaBeta. peptic ulcer disease. as well as to watch for side effects. patients who prove allergic to glyburide.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. a condition of low blood sugar. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. nausea and vomiting. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide.

Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). gout. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). diabetes. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Some men experience impaired sexual function. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Brand Names: Aldoril.Hydrochlorothiazide. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. and skin rashes. and epilepsy. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. Capozide. After long-term use. low blood pressure. The drug appears in breast milk. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. imbalances in water. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. insomnia. nausea. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. . It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. prescription drug known as a diuretic. salt. drug used to treat anxiety. All rights reserved. and nursing women should avoid using it. Lorazepam. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Aprozide.

oral solution. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. antidepressants. headache. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. nausea. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. and unsteadiness. therapy begins with 0. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. dizziness. isoniazid. and as an injectable liquid.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. change in appetite.Available by prescription only. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. vision problems. For insomnia. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. Brand Name:Ativan . sleep disturbance. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. weakness. antihistamines. narcotics. barbiturates. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. the dosage is 0. and memory impairment. s kin problems. However. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. cimetidine. carbamazepine. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. phenytoin. levodopa. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. and rifampin. sedatives. agitation. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. depression.

and other types of Streptococcus. All rights reserved. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. This drug is available by prescription only. nausea. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. Mupirocin. stinging. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. reddening or dry skin. . characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. or itching at the infection site. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. pregnant or breast-feeding women.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. tenderness. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. For adults and children over the age of 12. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. fo r 5 days. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. morning and evening. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. pain. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. For children from 5 to 15 years old. Less common side effects are rash. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. Streptococcus pyogenes.

Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bronchitis. The typical. All rights reserved. Ofloxacin. in an injectable liquid. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Brand Names:Bactroban. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. gonorrhea. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. chlamydia. polyethylene glycol. and eyedrops. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. . in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. One of the ingredients in this ointment. however. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally.swelling. skin infections. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. and hives.

diarrhea. epilepsy. seizures. without missing doses. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). dizziness. nervousness. tearing. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. and insomnia. restle ssness. It should be taken on a regular schedule. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. speech problems. and zinc salts. iron salts. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). vomiting.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. or dryness in the eye. either one hour before or two hours after eating. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. theophylline. redness. drowsiness. warfarin. probenecid. excessive confusion. tremor. headache. or norfloxacin. lightheadedness. dizziness. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. ciprofloxacin. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. Brand Names: Floxin. All rights reserved. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. hallucinations. itching. sucralfate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug-induced hepatitis. nausea. or impaired vision. . pregnant or breast-feeding women. calcium supplements.

Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. low blood pressure. indigestion. dizziness. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. and. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). a protein that increases blood thickness. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. Because the drug appears in breast milk. Brand Name: Trental . and may include headache. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. skin rash. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Because nicotine narrows arteries. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. vomiting. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor.Pentoxifylline. Side effects are rare. and it prevents blood from forming clots. nausea. tremor.

fluid retention. dry mouth. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. weight g ain. twitching or tremors. usually three times a day. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. In general. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. heart disease. It may detract from sexual performance in males. All rights reserved. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. drug used to treat depression. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. Available by prescription only. dizziness. . and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. monoamine oxidase (MAO). or insomnia. or phobias. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. liver disease. headache. Phenelzine. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. muscle weakness. nightmares. or convulsions. or epilepsy. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. drowsiness or fatigue. with or without food. anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure.

Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. including death. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sinus and hay-fever medications. capsules. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. . All rights reserved. alcoholic beverages. It has many u ses. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. It is available in tablets. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. and other antidepressants. if combined with certain foods or drugs. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and bananas. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. products that contain yeast. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. and skin infections. appetite suppressants. and liquid form. bronchodilator inhalants. amphetamines. Amoxicillin. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. even after symptoms disappear. nasal decongestants. such as gonorrhea. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. ear. all of which are taken orally. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. including the treatment of respiratory.

or bruising. anxiety or hyperactivity. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. nausea. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. joint pain. the entire course of medication should be taken. liver disease. Patients with asthma. dizziness. genital sores. taken in one or two doses. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. throat. which are both taken orally. hives. diarrhea. diabetes. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. itching. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. or vomiting. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. confusion. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. skin rash. colitis. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. insomnia. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. Wymox. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. swollen lymph nodes.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Brand Names:Amoxil. Augmentin Cefixime. . chest. skin rash. and urinary tract. also in one or two daily doses.

vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). Common side effects may include indigestion. high . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. skin rash. fever. headache. severe diarrhea.However. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). as it may lead to a secondary infection. or seizures. usually once a day at bedtime. with or without food. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. shock. itching. mild diarrhea. hives. gas. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. or vomiting. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. but does not cure. stomach cramps. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. nausea. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Tablets are taken orally. Doxazosin Mesylate. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. although it is known to appear in breast milk. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. prolonged use is not recommended.

especially when the dosage is increased. operate dangerous machinery. indigestion. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Other possible side effects include constipation.25 mg per day. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. should not drive. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. the dosage is 1. subsequently relieving edema. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. which may be increased to 2. low white -blood-cell count.5 mg per day. eye pain. To treat fluid retention. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. drug used to increase urine production. and as a result. coronary artery disease. the dosage is 2.5 mg per day. insomnia. The . skin rash. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. lowering blood pressure.blood pressure. ringing in the ears. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. muscle cramps or weakness. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. mental depression. nausea. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. or engage in other risk-related activities. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. or depression. nosebleed.

Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. diarrhea. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. nausea. To avoid nighttime urination. upper respiratory tract infection. skin rashes.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. visual problems. diabetes. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. itching. the drug should be taken with breakfast. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . and drowsiness. . skin infection. weakness. headaches. urinary tract infection. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. pneumonia. gout.

Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. sleepiness. a history of colitis. at a reduced dosage. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. Loratadine. loss of appetite. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. swelling mucous membranes. an antigout drug. and skin rashes. nausea and vomiting.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. and dizziness. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. Available by prescription only. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. and itching eyes. insomnia. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. nervousness. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. penicillin allergies. headache. Use with probenecid. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. . abdominal pain. by persons with impaired kidney function. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. All rights reserved. Less common side effects are colitis. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. It should be used with caution.

Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. An analgesic. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. or dizziness. can increase the side effects of loratadine. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. itraconazole. or tricyclic antidepressants. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. also called methadon. headache. muscle relaxants. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. barbiturates. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. a class of antidepressants. tranquilizers. In the late 1940s. .Loratadine may impair mental alertness. and activities requiring mechanical skills. narcotics. pain medication. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. drowsiness. such as driving. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. clarithromycin. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole.

it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. some patients continue to be treated for many years. skin infections. Available in capsule form. headache. such as sexually transmitted diseases. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. which interferes with breathing. Because methadone itself is addictive.” Taken in large doses. bronchitis. It is typically prescribed for five days. and urinary tract infections. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). a potentially fatal allergic reaction. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. Azithromycin. light sensitivity. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. a severe form of diarrhea. nausea. dizziness. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. hives. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. or yeast infection. pneumonia. In typical methadone therapy. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. diarrhea. or vomiting. which kills the bacteria. Less common are chest pain. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). jaundice. and anaphylaxis.Unlike heroin. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. in digestion. Certain ailments. drowsiness. u nless approved by a doctor. .

triazolam. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. phenytoin. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. lovastatin. digoxin. drug used to control high blood pressure. Patients with certain medical conditions. Benazepril. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. cyclosporine. This usually takes several weeks. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). Benazepril may be taken with or without food. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). and warfarin. even after symptoms are relieved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. especially those that help the body retain potassium. . Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. should use this drug with caution. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. hexobarbital. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. which influence salt and water retention. but must be taken regularly to be effective. and lithium.

fatigue. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or vomiting. sweating. Possible side effects include coughing. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. urinary infection. constipation. joint pain. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. although it is known to appear in breast milk. nausea. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. coli) bacteria. . impotence. skin rash. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. fluid retention. urinary tract infections. which are both taken orally. irregular heartbeat. also every eight hours. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. and skin infections. excessive thirst. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . headache. or muscle cramps. dizziness. Children may take this drug. streptococcus infections. It also is known to appear in breast milk. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12.especially in the second and third trimesters. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. the entire course of medication should be taken. itching. usually every eight hours. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Less common are chest pain. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. pneumonia.

hives. although one form of liquid is made for injection. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Possible side effects include diarrhea. or blood disorders. skin rash. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. vomiting. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. . and syphilis. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. traveler’s diarrhea. vaginal inflammation. nausea. diarrhea medications. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). taken in one or two doses. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. liver disorders. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. thereby halting their growth. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. light sensitivity. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. certain diuretics. skin rash. and itching.Common side effects include diarrhea. itching. joint pain. vomiting. headache. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. tablets. and liquid forms. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. which are taken orally. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections.

phenytoin. and severe allergic reactions. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. barbiturates. tuberculosis. skin diseases. especially with long-term use. asthma. Prednisone is available only by prescription. All rights reserved. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. difficulty swallowing. multiple sclerosis. It is usually discontinued gradually.facial swelling. penicillin. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Brand Names:Doryx. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and carbamazepine. Prednisone. sodium bicarbonate. Vibramycin. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. birth control pills. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. blood-thinners. Vibra-Tabs. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. Children may develop discolored teeth. or bulging forehead (in infants). chest pain. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). certain cancers.

Buspirone. peptic ulcer disease. diabetes.Patients with widespread fungus infections. Possible side effects may include insomnia. Prednicen-M. headache. osteoporosis. birth control pills. high blood pressure. muscle weakness. or fluid retention. Children may take this drug. mood swings. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. ketoconazole. amphotericin B. muscle cramps. acne. active tuberculosis. thick skin. All rights reserved. phenytoin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diabetes medications. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. high blood pressure. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. depression. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. dizziness. and certain diuretics. carbamazepine. Brand Names: Deltasone. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. Liquid Pred. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. weight gain. estrogen supplements. and purplish. brittle bones. gastrointestinal disorders . rifampin. impaired thyroid function. or a history of tuberculosis. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. skin rash. . It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect.

diarrhea. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. skin rash. usually found in combination with antihistamines. bone or muscle pain. depending on the patient’s condition. or nervousness. capsule. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. . Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. nausea. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. Unlike many tranquilizers. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. narcotics. or vomiting. and tablet form. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. sweating. upset stomach. operate dangerous machinery. cough suppressants.Tablets are taken orally. or decongestants. haloperidol. headache. and fluoxetine. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. with or without food. warfarin. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. dry mouth. fatigue. or engage in other risk-related activities. Possible side effects include dizziness. trazodone. rapid heartbeat. Also possible are blurred vision. constipation. usually three times p er day.

injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). preventing pregnancy 99. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. Triaminic Expectorant. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. Brand Names: Cheracol D. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. vomiting. However. nausea. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. Comtrex Cold Formula. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. This drug is highly effective.7 percent of the time. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. Prior to 1992 the drug . medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. stomach pain. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. In the United States. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. and diarrhea. Dimacol Caplets. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy.

a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. and abdominal pain. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). Other possible side effects include weight gain. mood changes. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. . night and day. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. sometimes for a year or more. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. headaches. Taken every four hours. Also. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. Blood transfusions are often necessary. In many cases. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. However. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987.

urinary tract. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. and respiratory tract. Depending on the dosage or formulation. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Phenobarbital. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. An antibiotic like penicillin.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). Taken orally or intravenously. Ampicillin. or anesthetic effect. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. a combination of urea and malonic acid. a long-acting barbiturate. and sedation. boisterous or violent behavior. gastrointestinal tract. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. or death. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. anticonvulsant. Barbiturate. muscle incoordination. . such as secobarbital. coma. overdoses can cause profound shock. depression. All rights reserved. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers.

Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. allopurinol. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. In cattle and other animals. Possible side effects may include nausea. mouth irritation.to ten-day course. diarrhea.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. also sleeping sickness. whereas a more local version is caused by T. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. endemic. or anemia. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. the disease is called nagana. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. usually a seven. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. mefloquine. vomiting. colitis (inflamed bowel). Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. T. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. and sometimes epidemic. and probenecid. atenolol. cruzi. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. hives. another version of the protozoan. Children may take ampicillin. but an entire course of medication. brucei rhodesiense. In South America. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. genus Trypanosoma. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. . oral contraceptives. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. fever. The most common is caused by T. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. Another liquid form is administered by injection. brucei gambiense. skin rash.

Allopurinol. death. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). All rights reserved. In the long term. frequently. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. In early stages. an accelerated heartbeat. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. sleepiness. .African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. lack of appetite. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. Chagas' disease. and rash and fever. eventual coma. It is also sometimes fatal. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. with accompanying mood changes. which more frequently attacks children. an enlargement of the spleen. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. and. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system).

dry mouth. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. asthma and allergies. cortisone. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. is a sterol. or fat-soluble chemicals. rheumatoid arthritis. bile acids. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. and various eye diseases.Ephedrine. C10H15NO. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. Testosterone). some natural drugs. or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. . All rights reserved. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. it has been superseded by safer. with a great diversity of physiological activity. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. more specific drugs. Steroids. many important hormones. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). and anxiety. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). Ephedrine is an alkaloid. Cholesterol. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). and progesterone. aldosterone. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. Steroid hormones. which are similar to but not identical with sterols. tremor. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. It is sometimes misused. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Endocrine System). Hormone).

In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. it is still used for this condition. . A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. These include gentamicin. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. such as tuberculosis. amikacin. are susceptible to streptomycin. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. and kanamycin. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. leprosy. tobramycin. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. the aminoglycosides. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. Streptomyces griseus. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. and cholera.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. See also Sports Medicine. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects.

nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. . type of drug known as an antidepressant. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. and for the reduction of fever. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. obsessive -compulsive disorder. the dose may be lowered. After the medication begins to take effect. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. Fluoxetine. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. available by prescription only. is taken orally in tablet form. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. Fluoxetine. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. as aspirin tends to do for some users. All rights reserved. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. prescribed for the treatment of depression. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. and premenstrual syndrome.Acetaminophen. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body.

insomnia. the formula of which is given above. odorless. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. colorless. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. changes in appetite. nausea. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. sometimes fatal results. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. C3H8O3. headaches. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. . Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. or propylene. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions.4° F). about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. diabetes. or for those with kidney or liver disease. weight loss. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. and diarrhea. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. C3H6O. dizziness. sweet-tasting a lcohol. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor.S.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. and people taking it should not consume alcohol.26. or a history of seizures. C3H6. with a specific gravity of 1.

Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. and water. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). phenols. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. together with alcohols. Coal Tar. sulfur. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). xylene. that is. phenanthrene. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. can be extracted by alkali solutions. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. Because cheaper products are now available. and oxygen. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. and other valuable products. including toothpastes. Distillation produces benzene. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. anthracene. Left after distillation are residues of . and the equipment used. which are acidic. naphthalene. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). from which they are released later by acidification. they incite cancerous gro wths. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. toluene. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. The phenols. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. Its composition varies with the coal. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. mostly hydrocarbons.

acetylsalicylic acid. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. Salicylic acid is bitter. found in the bark of the willow tree. It is made from salicylic acid. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. however. and resins. in roofing mixtures. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. preservatives. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. mild to moderate pain. explosives. synthetic chemical compound. paint removers. stains. paints. . Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. Aspirin. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. including dyes. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. and irritates the stomach. insecticides. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. however. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans.pitch. cause iron deficiency. and plastics. artificial sweeteners. to counter fever and pain. among others. creosote oil. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. drugs. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. food flavorings. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. used in making roads. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. perfumes. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. Since then. however.

and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. and may be taken with food. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery.Ibuprofen. or high blood pressure. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). In adults. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. which usually involves vomiting. and the sensation of pain. or fever. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. In prescription form. drug used to reduce inflammation. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Brand Names: Advil. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. rapid breathing. fever. inflammation. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. Motrin. Nuprin . Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. or rapid heartbeat. diarrhea. When taken in excessive amounts. liver disease.

and eye inflammations. the activity of the nervous system. in 1935. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. the maturation of white blood cells. hydrocortisone and related compounds. high blood pressure. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. protein. muscle weakness. also cortisol. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. called cortisone. the retention of salt and water in the body. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. weight gain. and the regulation of blood pressure. of the adrenal gland. . Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. called corticosteroids. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. and diabetes. Because of their widespread effects. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. or corticoids. they must be used carefully. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. collagen diseases. are employed for many medical purposes. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. and fat.Hydrocortisone. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. Medical). or cortex. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma.

night. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. jet lag. water balance. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. . heart rate. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. such as sleep-wake cycles. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. and hormone balance. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. or shift work. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. for instance. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. fluctuations in body temperature. However. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter.Melatonin. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process.

it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. however. liberates sugar stored in the liver. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. raises the blood pressure. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. but it is now made synthetically. and hypertension. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. In times of excitement or emotional stress. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. All rights reserved. arthritis. The pure compound. . Parkinson disease. is also known as adrenaline. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. to prevent bleeding. Alzheimer’s disease. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. For example. Although it is easily available over the counter. large additional quantities are secreted. epilepsy. constricts the small blood vessels. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. epinephrine stimulates the heart. Epinephrine.

nausea. urinary tract blockage. with or without meals. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). lightheadedness. enlarged prostate gland. or myasthenia gravis. severe heartburn. hyperthyroidism. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. antihistamines. diarrhea. These include but are not limited to antacids. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . called norepinephrine. digoxin. It is available in capsule. nasal congestion. severe colitis. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. Because of this. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. impotence. irregular heartbeat. dry mouth. or levoarterenol. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. An antispasmodic drug. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. noradrenaline. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. This drug can also decrease sweating. and liquid form. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. glaucoma. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. tingling. or constipation. dizziness. drowsiness. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. tablet. high blood pressure. headache. insomnia. muscular weakness. or nervousness. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. or short-term memory loss. They may include blurred vision. In general. heart disease. corticoids.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. fainting. and is taken orally four times a day. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm).

and bronchodilators.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. All rights reserved. Nizatidine Nizatidine. excessive fatigue. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. unusual bleeding or bruising. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. headache. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. . It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. nausea. itching. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. dizziness. fever. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. and sweating. increased heart rate. More serious effects include confusion. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. diarrhea. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. and weakness. stomach upset. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. antipsychotic drugs. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. decreased sexual ability. fatigue. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. narcotic pain relievers.

dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The safety and effectiveness of . Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. if stomach irritation is a problem. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. or persons with low blood pressure. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug.Alcoholic beverages. onions. protein-rich foods. reduced liver or kidney function. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. For treatment of angina. however. highdose aspirin. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. and 90-mg extended release tablets. All rights reserved. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available by p rescription only. 60-mg. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. citrus fruit. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nifedipine Nifedipine. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. pentoxiylline. doses may be taken with food. not crushed. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. garlic. and theophylline.

and ear infections. These combinations. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. cyclosporine. nausea. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. grapefruit juice. Rarely. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week.. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. magnesium. and ranitidine. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. along with hydrocortisone.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. cimetidine. Brand Names:Adalat. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. For skin conditions. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. nifedipine may increase angina. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. flushing. theophylline. and weakness. lightheadedness. eye. swelling of the feet and ankles. All rights reserved. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . digoxin. Neomycin Neomycin. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. digitalis. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. oral hypoglycemic drugs. and certain drugs including amiodarone. cigarette smoking. insulin. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. For eye infections. diltiazem. headache. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. and otic (ear) drops. phenytoin. low blood pressure. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day.

smallpox. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. pregnant or breast-feeding women. liver disease. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. without missing doses. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. taken orally. Rarely. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. itching. To minimize adverse side effects. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This drug is available b y prescription only. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. or dryness. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Nabumetone Nabumetone. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Brand Names:Corticosporin. The typical. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. irritation. or severe impairment of kidney function. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. All rights reserved. kidney or ear damage may occur.or the ear. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. and chicken pox infections. taken once a day or in divided doses. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

diuretics. If tablets are missed. lightheadedness. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and liver or kidney damage. and probenecid. loss of appetite. diarrhea. blurred vision. nausea. known or . aspirin. or angina pectoris (chest pain). This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. lungs. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. or vomiting. dizziness.nabumetone has been determined. impairment of normal blood clotting. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. This drug is available by prescription only. headache. heartburn. asthma or difficulty breathing. soreness of the mouth. respectively. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. other salicylates. beta blockers. nervousness. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. constipation. These include bloating. drowsiness. dizziness. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. indigestion. or eyes. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. blood clots in the legs. sweating. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. thickens the mucus of the cervix. difficulty sleeping. strokes. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. and other anti-inflammatory drugs.

difficulty wearing contact lenses. These include rifampin. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). vomiting. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. diabetes. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. bleeding between menstrual periods. or have high blood pressure. breast tenderness. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nervousness. Because of the risk of blood clots. or vagina. rash. loss of scalp hair. blotchy spots on exposed skin. and vaginal infections. dizziness. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . or known or suspected pregnancy. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. unexplained vaginal bleeding. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. cervix. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. and certain antibiotics. All rights reserved. phenylbutazone. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. liver tumors. or high cholesterol. headache. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. smoke. depression. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. In lowering blood cholesterol. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. fluid retention. and brown. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. weight gain. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

lightsensitivity. h eadache. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. vomiting. Patients with diabetes. or sleepiness. barbiturates. . lovastatin. liver disorders. hives. or various blood-thinning drugs. muscle or joint pain. dizziness. skin rash. It reduces water and salt in the body. Patients with liver or kidney disease. impotence. Children may take this drug. excessive thirst. impotence. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. lupus erythematosus.weeks of treatment. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. fainting. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. skin rash. ringing in the ears. Available in tablet and liquid form. thyroid problems. or other abdominal problems. Possible side effects may include constipation. headache. also known as a diuretic. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. fever. or blurred vision. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. diarrhea. gallbladder disease. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. itching. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. indigestion. blurred vision. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. and liver disease. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. kidney disease. confusion. dizziness. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. congestive heart failure. with dosage based on body weight. nausea. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. irregular heartbeat. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. nausea. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. Possible side effects include constipation. but it does appear in breast milk. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. narcotics. and lose weight as part of their treatment. diarrhea. exercise. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. diabetes. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. gout.

This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. . dizziness. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. Famotidine Famotidine. or sleepiness. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. When histamine action is blocked. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. seizures. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. Relief of symptoms may take several days. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. hair loss. All rights reserved. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. both taken orally. or cardiac arrest. or probenecid. It is available in tablet and liquid form. Less common are diarrhea. rapid or slow heartbeat. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. pentoxifylline. joint or muscle pain. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. impotence. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. stomach acid decreases. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. skin rash or itching. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. anxiety. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. drowsiness. Overdosage can cause confusion. and also in a liquid form that is injected. among other effects. pancrelipase.

Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. nausea. dry mouth. muscular weakness. thereby reducing blood pressure. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. cimetidine. or vision changes. The drug works by dilating. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. light sensitivity. headache. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. aspirin. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs.Diltiazem Diltiazem. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). skin rash. sleeplessness. or opening. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. digoxin. Brand Names:Cardizem. fluid retention. blood vessels and slowing the heart. or abnormally slow heartbeat. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. diarrhea. Diclofenac Sodium . which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. carbamazepine. Also sometimes seen are constipation. hair loss. ringing in the ears. and ranitidine. Available in tablet and capsule form. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. All rights reserved.

Occasionally seen are fluid retention. headache. light sensitivity. constipation. diuretics. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. heart disease. but it is known to appear in breast milk. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. cyclosporine. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. nausea. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs.Diclofenac Sodium. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. blurred or double vision. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. skin rash. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. with food. lung inflammation. in somnia. or loss of consciousness. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). indigestion. ulcers. blood-thinning medications. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. facial swelling. hair loss. ringing in the ears. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. All rights reserved. diarrhea. or dizziness. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. drowsiness. methotrexate. the two branch es that connect the . Classified as an antiasthmatic. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. and carteolol. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. or vomiting. lithium. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. if stomach upset occurs. heart medications containing digitalis.

All rights reserved. skin rash. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). or swollen glands. although most are taken four to six times per day.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. nausea. Available by prescription only. joint pain. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. difficulty swallowing. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. throat irritation. or wheezing. Nasalcrom. . Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Possible side effects include coughing. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. It comes in several forms. usually in 250. including capsules (taken orally). nasal congestion. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. frequent urination. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. or powder. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nosebleed. and bronchitis. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Brand Names:Intal. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Sometimes seen are facial swelling. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. dizziness. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. although the complete. They may be taken w ith or without food. sneezing. tablets are taken orally. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks.

It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. Severe diarrhea. headache. especially with long-term use. usually one or two tablets every four hours. or other risk-related activities. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. indigestion. . but may include nausea. requires immediate medical attention. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. acetaminophen. sedative b arbiturate drug. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. theophylline. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. or an altered sense of taste. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. should not take this drug. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. operating dangerous machinery. diarrhea. caffeine. astemizole. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. and phenytoin. Patients with porphyria. digoxin. Dependency on this drug can occur.

breathing difficulties. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. patients with low blood pressure. antihistamines. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. low blood pressure. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. Brand Names:Fioricet. including dizziness. or vomiting. anxiety. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. back or chest pain. . so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. oral contraceptives. usually in 5. light-headedness. and vomiting. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. However. flushing. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. sleepiness. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. and theophylline. steroids. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. These include antidepressants. Phrenilin. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. fainting. Fiorinal. diarrhea. fatigue. The drug may be taken with or without food. Brand Names:Norvasc. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers.Potential side effects include drowsiness. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or coma. headache. Amlodipine Amlodipine. twitching. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. dizziness.or 10-mg doses. constipation. itching. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. warfarin. shock. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. liver disease. nausea. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. migraine. such as beta blockers. thereby reducing blood pressure. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. fluid retention or swelling. and heart palpitations.

headache. in fact. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Proventil. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. can make symptoms worse. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. liver disease. cardiovascular problems. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. It is available in aerosol. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing.Albuterol Albuterol. and capsule form. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. tooth discoloration. restoring comfortable breathing. all of which are taken orally. muscle cramps. All rights reserved. Ventolin. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. People with high blood pressure. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. an irregular heartbeat. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. ringing in the ears. indigestion. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. diarrhea. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. syrup. Some of the more common ones include agitation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. an overactive thyroid gland. increased blood pressure. and vomiting. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. . usually within 15 minutes. tablet. nausea. sleeplessness. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. dizziness. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. rapid heartbeat. nosebleeds.

or other narcotic pain relievers. asthma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. effect. ulcers. Possible side effects include nausea. weight loss. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. anticoagulants. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. or engaging in other risk-related activities. for pain relief. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. sleep aids. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. chickenpox. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. or influenza. Pravastatin Pravastatin . Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. as needed. so patients should avoid driving. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. blood-clotting problems. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. mood changes. or nursing women.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. antihistamines. especially after long-term use at high dosages. headache. kidney or liver problems. All rights reserved. or jaundice. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. muscle relaxants. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. operating dangerous machinery. or pain -killing. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. pregnant women. muscle weakness. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. skin rash.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. antidepressants. constipation. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. Brand Names:Darvon. caffeine. vomiting. Pain relief begins within one to two hours.

and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. with dosages based on body weight. ketoconazole. Children may take this drug. All rights reserved. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. peptic ulcers. usually at bedtime. cimetidine. Patients with liver or kidney disease. or flulike symptoms. syrup. nausea. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. heart disease. diarrhea. Promethazine Promethazine. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. Typically. Available by prescription in tablet. should not take promethazine. itchiness. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. usually within 20 minutes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used mainly to treat allergies. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. It may be taken with or without food.cholesterol. liver conditions. warfarin. and suppository form. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. Promethazine works quickly. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). muscle cramps. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. constipation. high blood pressure. skin rash. cataracts. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. niacin. injectable liquid. Pregnant or nursing women. stomach pain. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. gemfibrozil. gas. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. and immunosuppressive drugs. colestipol. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. erythromycin. should not take pravastatin. Available only by prescription. fight insomnia. or children under the age of 18. cyclosporine. prostate . including asthma and sleep apnea. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. muscular disorders. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started.

the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. or abnormal heart rhythm. Dependingon the site of the infection. ointment. tranquilizers. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. impaired kidney function. jaundice. and various liquids. disorientation. or narrow-angle glaucoma. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). All rights reserved. or engage in other risk-related activities. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. urinary tract infections. or light sensitivity. blood pressure changes. however. tablets. and diphtheria. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. skin rash. However. Other possible side effects include dizziness. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules.enlargement. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. sedatives. ear and skin infections. with dosages determined by body weight. Brand Names: Phenergan. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. Children may take most forms of this drug. Erythromycin Erythromycin. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. blurred vision. syphilis. breathing difficulties. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. operate dangerous machin ery. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. rheumatic fever. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. preventing their multiplication and growth. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or loss of consciousness. gel. vomiting. gonorrhea. and antidepressant drugs. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. . It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). whooping cough.

preferably right after a bowel movement. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. or diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. itching. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. All rights reserved.Erymax. eczema. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. carbamazepine. or temporary hearing loss. bone cysts in children. multiple sclerosis. yellowing of the eyes or skin. redness. It is also used to treat anemia. It reduces swelling. ulcerative colitis. and theophylline. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Theramycin Z. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. blood-thinners. tendinitis. dizziness. For acute disorders. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. and most forms of arthritis. eye irritation.Benzamycin. loss of appetite. and an enema. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. nausea. and to treat asthma. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. lovastatin.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). rapid heartbeat. lupus erythematous. an injectable liquid. an ointment. it is usually taken for four to . It comes in a tablet. This drug is available by prescription only. Brand Names: Erythrocin.Erygel. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. Also seen are skin rash. digoxin. phenytoin. hives. Emgel. and psoriasis. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. croup. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. vomiting. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy.Ilosone. For tablets. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).

reactivation of latent tuberculosis. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. aspirin. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). rabies. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. ketoprofen. barbiturates . Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. peptic ulcer. weight gain. carbamazepine. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). ketoconazole. and increased susceptibility to infection.ten days. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. All rights reserved. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. ephedrine. For chronic disorders. and certain vaccines. increased blood sugar. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hypertension (high blood pressure). It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. indomethacin. phenytoin. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. smallpox. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. peptic ulcer disease. Brand Names:Duralone. oral antidiabetic drugs. retarded growth and development in children. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). insulin. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. drugs containing estrogen. cataracts. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. cyclosporine. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. antacids. possible diabetes. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). glaucoma. retention of salt and water. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. Naproxen . and naproxen. digoxin. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. Medrol.

indigestion. bleeding or blood cell disorders. orthopedic surgery. drowsiness. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. . Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. headache. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. loss of appetite. without missing doses. tendinitis. and as a liquid. and 500 mg. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. For bursitis. changes in menstruation. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. lightheadedness. and for strains and sprains. difficulty sleeping. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. and other pain. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. constipation. If stomach irritation occurs. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. menstrual cramps. If possible. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. nausea. liver disease.Naproxen. diarrhea. it may be taken with food or antacids. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. difficulty breathing. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. 375 mg. These include bloating. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. and liver or kidney damage. Pain relief should begin within one hour. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or severe impairment of kidney function. sweating. To minimize adverse side effects. or vomiting. osteoarthritis. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. and gout. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. For gout. bursitis. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. heartburn. dizziness. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. tendinitis. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. nervousness. osteoarthritis. dental treatment. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. soreness of the mouth.

and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. salicylates. atenolol. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. methotrexate. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. and probenecid. aspirin. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). 100-mg. It may have a negative effect on . and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and 200-mg tablets. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. more commonly known as beta blockers. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. All rights reserved. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. pregnant or breast-feeding women. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. For treatment of hypertension or angina. For treatment after a heart attack. lithium. Metoprolol Metoprolol. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. The regular tablet can be crushed. For prevention of heart attacks. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. persons with congestive heart failure. an abnormally slow heart rate. metoprolol. the typical.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. in prolonged action tablets. This drug is available by prescription only. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). or other anti-inflammatory drugs. and timolol. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. It comes in 50-mg. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. beta blockers such as acebutolol. Brand Names:Aleve.

. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. and tendinitis. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. lightheadedness. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. calcium channel blockers. tranquilizers. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. aspirin. fluoxetine. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. furosemide. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. and verapamil. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days.driving or other risk-related activities. gout. fatigue. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. oral antidiabetic drugs. Brand Names:Lopressor. digoxin. cold h ands and feet. diltiazem. oral hypoglycemic drugs. insulin. osteoarthritis. cimetidine. which may trigger pain and inflammation. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. albuterol. clonidine. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. epinephrine. nifedipine. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). slow heart rate. and decreased sexual desire. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. reserpine. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. theophyllinevenlafaxine. chlorpromazine. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . hydralazine. aminophylline. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. amiodarone.

Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. indigestion. or a severe impairment of kidney function. relieving swelling and stiffness. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. sulfinpyrazone. sleep disturbances. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. such as aspirin. Etodolac Etodolac. enoxaparin. and warfarin. itching. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. Etodolac is available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hives. dizziness. mouth sores. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. with meals. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. skin rash. or with a prescribed antacid. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. constipation. should not take this drug. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. To avoid adverse side effects.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. aspirin. ulceration. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. nausea. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. depression. All rights reserved. anticoagulants. b eta blockers. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. headache. ringing in the ears. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . diarrhea. and vomiting. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. indomethacin. valproic acid. and bleeding. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. lithium. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. methotrexate. drug used to treat osteoarthritis.

but it can be taken with food. depression. and menstrual cramps. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. blood-thinning medications. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. rapid heartbeat. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects include drowsiness. ringing in the ears. tendinitis. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. sweating.stomach upset. . diuretics. tablet. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. or muscle weakness. fainting. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. and suppository form. constipation. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. peptic ulcer. milk. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fluid retention. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. All rights reserved. drug used to reduce the inflammation. and it may appear in breast milk. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. and digoxin. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. fever. skin rash. insomnia.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. indigestion. fever. and nausea. indigestion. headache. bursitis. Patients with kidney or liver problems. with increased blood flow during menstruation. anemia. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. dizziness. diarrhea. skin rash. heart disease.

15 to 0. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. phenytoin. bleeding disorders. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis.4 mg from a spray container. As a result. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. and patients with ulcers. insulin. one 1 . aspirin. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. workload on the heart is reduced. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. or one metered dose of 0. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. steroids. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). Breast-feeding women.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. For prevention of angina. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). applied on or under the tongue. All rights reserved. If necessary. verapamil. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. impaired kidney function. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. and chest pain is alleviated. and diuretics. nifedipine.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . lithium. patients with allergies to the drug. For long-term prevention of angina.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. blood supply to the heart muscle improves.

Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nitrocap TD. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. heparin. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. diltiazem. Nitrocine Transdermal. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. antihypertensive drugs. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. sudden drop in blood pressure . or a 0. and coughs. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. Warfarin . The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. colds. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. To maintain its effectiveness. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. All rights reserved. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. recent head trauma.5 -inch (7. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. acetylcysteine.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. rapid heart rate. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. and heart palpitations. aspirin. hyperthyroidism. headache.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. rather. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack.

cut. Patients with peptic ulcers. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. or swelling. Classified as an anticoagulant. a heart-related infection.Warfarin. Verapamil Verapamil. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. discolored (purplish) toes. chest pain. or patients with high blood pressure. difficulty breathing. or recent surgery should not use this drug. acetaminophen (Tylenol). an aneurysm. Verapamil works by . some forms of irregular heartbeat. and hypertension (high blood pressure). ulcerative colitis. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. cauliflower. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. or gangrene. asparagus. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. impaired liver or kidney function. and bacon. After the first two to three days. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. any infectious disease. fish. s kin inflammation. Motrin). Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). or intestinal problems. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. a blood disorder. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. diabetes. headache. nausea. severe allergies. joint pain. hair loss. Other side effects may include diarrhea. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. beef liver. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. difficulty swallowing. and ibuprofen (Advil. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. For this reason. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. puncture. fever. All rights reserved. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ringing in the ears. carbamazepine. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. lithium. aspirin. hair loss. cyclosporine. Available in tablet and capsule form. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. with meals and at bedtime with food. abnormally low blood pressure. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. headache. and it does appear in breast milk. and various diuretics. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. digoxin. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. and in me n. rifampin. light sensitivity. sleepiness. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. fatigue. All rights reserved. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). taken in three or four doses. prostate gland enlargement. phenytoin.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. nausea. cimetidine. Terazosin Terazosin . fluid retention. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. congestive heart failure. constipation. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. phenobarbital. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. Brand Names:Calan. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. or s low heartbeat. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. dry mouth. impotence. skin rash. Isoptin. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. thereby lowering blood pressure. theophylline. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. or congestive heart failure. an injectable solution is also available.

to dilate arteries. fatigue. it should be taken regularly. patients should avoid driving. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. Ramipril Ramipril.5 to 20 mg per day. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. stuffy nose. fainting. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. or blurred vision. or a history of stroke. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. taken in one or two doses. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. At these times. drug used to control high blood pressure. muscle weakness. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. headache. dizziness. operating dangerous machinery. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. and urinary tract infections. Available by prescription in capsule form. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. . which influence salt and water retention. estrogens. fluid retention. heart palpitations. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure.problems of urine flow. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. painful urination. numbness. Dosages range from 2. coronary artery disease. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. difficulty breathing. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. nausea. sweating. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). or engaging in other risk-related activities. even when symptoms are relieved. All rights reserved. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. and lower blood pressure. especially beta blockers. reduce blood volume. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body.

the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. or light sensitivity. An allergic reaction to this drug. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. Taken orally. muscle pain. or violent muscle contractions. It is also known to appear in breast milk. especially in the second and third trimesters. caused by epilepsy. requires immediate medical attention. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. or low white blood cell levels. capsule. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. scleroderma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. high potassium levels. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. vomiting. it can react adversely with such drugs. It also may react with aspirin. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. impaired liver or kidney function. coughing. . lightheadedness. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. To avoid stomach irritation. All rights reserved. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. it must be taken regularly to be effective. heart disease. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. systemic lupus erythematosus. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. drug used to treat the seizures. as it can harm the fetus. fatigue. lithium. except for one liquid form made for injection. and potassium supplements. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. Side effects may include headache. and liquid form. nausea. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. cyclosporine.

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. sodium valproate. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. oral contraceptive s. mental confusion. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. abnormal hair growth. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. twitching. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. diazepam. headache. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). The initial. ulcer medications. doxycycline. insomnia. blood thinners.Patients with impaired liver function. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and antacids. or change in urine color. acute pain. Also included are the drugs felbamate. The injection is given within a muscle. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. methylphenidate. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. estrogens. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. four to six hours apart. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. Ketorolac Ketorolac. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. impotence. dizziness. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. fever. These include. and as eyedrops. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. and valproic acid. joint pain. skin rash. or slurred speech. theophylline. bedwetting. carbamazepine. diabetes. Other observed side effects include nausea. aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. phenobarbital. certain tranquilizers. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . but are not limited to. furosemide. steroids. involuntary eye movement. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). All rights reserved. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer.

cefoperazone. asthma. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. probenecid. indigestion. burning or pain at the injection site. edema. increased sweating. superficial eye infections. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. All rights reserved. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. acetaminophen. Brand Names:Acular. Glipizide Glipizide. cefotetan. allergic reactions. nabumetone. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. dizziness. kidney or liver disease. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. edema. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. plicamycin. diarrhea. headache. cefamandole.more than five days. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. colitis. vomiting. . lupus erythematosus. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. bruising at the site of injection. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. or high blood pressure. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. decrease in urine output. ulceration. naproxen. and perforation. drowsiness. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. and oxaprozin. heart disease. renal failure. Less common side effects are eye irritation. diabetes mellitus. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. methotrexate. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. Abdominal or stomach pain. moxalactam. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. as well as with lithium. heparin. ketoprofen. and gastrointestinal bleeding.

or seizures. drowsiness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. in dosages ranging from 2. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. aspirin. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. estrogens. corticoids. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. in one or two doses. dizziness. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). rapid heartbeat. .5 to 40 mg per day. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. but are not limited to. impaired kidney or liver function. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). but depending on the patient’s response.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. sweating. which control salt and water retention. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. anemia. stomach pain. tranquilizers. light sensitivity. shallow breathing. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. skin rash. antacids. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. These include. thyroid medications. Potential side effects may include headache. sulfa drugs. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). disorientation. Tablets are taken orally. All rights reserved. with or without food. birth control pills. Enalapril Enalapril. nausea. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Patients with heart disorders. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. The starting dose is 5 mg. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. With long-term use (months to years).

Depending on the condition being treated. loss of appetite. especially in the second and third trimesters. hives. When histamine action is blocked. and an overactive parathyroid gland. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. usually taken immediately . both taken orally. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. Cimetidine Cimetidine. sensitivity to light. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. nausea. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. It is also known to appear in breast milk. or abnormally low blood pressure. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. dry mouth or eyes. abdominal pain. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. breast enlargement (in males). drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. It also may cause chest pain. excessive hair growth in women. secretion of stomach acid decreases. herpes infections (including shingles). Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). dizziness. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. All rights reserved. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. acne. It is used to treat reflux disease. excessive sweating. headache. depression. blurred vision. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. impotence. Brand Names:Vasotec. it may react adversely with such drugs. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. hair loss. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. rapid heartbeat.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. muscle cramps or weakness. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). skin rash or itching. It has not been proven safe for use in children. and in a liquid form that is injected.

Available in tablet form. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2.2 lb). Less common side effects are diarrhea. and warfarin. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. rapid or slow heartbeat. also known as valproic acid.after a meal. confusion. including medications for diabetes. such as those associated with epilepsy. cyclosporine. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. pentoxifylline. or hallucinations. and excessive caffeine. dizziness. metoclopramide. which is increased as needed (to a . Relief of symptoms may take several days. quinine. With prolonged use (one month or more). Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. heart palpitations. some patients experience anxiety. sucralfate. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. anemia. depression. drug used to treat seizures. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. metronidazole. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). All rights reserved. phenytoin. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. Divalproex Divalproex. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. digoxin. and aspirin. theophylline. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. skin rash or inflammation. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. paroxetine. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. narcotic pain relievers. hair loss. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. cigarette smoking. joint or muscle pain. impotence. nicotine. and sleepiness.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or weight gain. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. constipation. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. which is divided into several smaller doses. and birth control pills. tremors. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . yellowing skin or eyes. sleep aids. itching. operate dangerous machinery. tranquilizers. especially when used in children under the age of two. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. fluid retention. vomiting. which influence salt and water rete ntion. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. double vision. should not drive. All rights reserved. This drug can cause liver damage. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. It also may interact with erythromycin. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. Captopril Captopril. isoniazid. or engage in other risk-related activities. as a result . Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. antihistamines. and loss of seizure control. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. nausea. behavior changes. and other seizure medications. drowsiness. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. as continuous seizures may result. Possible side effects include indigestion. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. fever. muscle weakness. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. This drug slows blood clotting. Patients are often started on a . Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. surgery. Some patients experience drowsiness and. facial swelling. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. skin rash. and vomiting. loss of appetite. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. blood thinners. heart attacks. or dental procedures.

lightheadedness.small dosage. or heart failure. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. confusion. diarrhea. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. which is increased as needed. Less common side effects include blurred vision. . Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). A reaction that includes chest pain. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). especially in the second and third trimesters. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. Possible side effects include itching. It also may react adversely with aspirin. even after symptoms are relieved. fainting. depression. wheezing stroke. peptic ulcer. and extremely low blood pressure. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. light sensitivity. nitroglycerin. sweating. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Brand Names:Capoten. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. sleepiness. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. which usually takes several weeks. Lovastatin Lovastatin . or swelling of the arms. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. mouth. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. vomiting. fatigue. loss of taste. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). constipation. All rights reserved. it can react adversely with these drugs. muscle pain or weakness. skin rash. legs. anti-inflammatory medications. nausea. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. which also requires immediate medical care. lithium. as it can harm the fetus.

gemfibrozil. 20-mg. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. dizziness. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. weight loss. which are taken orally. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol.Available by prescription only. severe stomach pain. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. diarrhea. and warfarin. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. gas. Tablets are taken with or without food. and 40-mg tablets. skin rash. fever. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. usually at bedtime. and stomach pain. and unusual tiredness or weakness. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. nausea. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. muscle aches or cramps. All rights reserved. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. cyclosporine. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. preferably with evening meals. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. This drug should be taken with food. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. heartburn. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. niacin. Less common side effects are blurred vision. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Simvastatin Simvastatin. headache.

in tablets and an injectable liquid. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. This drug is available by prescription only. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. and for infants with cretinism. by pregnant or nursing women. including high blood pressure. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). diarrhea. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. gas. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. warfarin. and spironolactone. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. or thyrotoxicosis. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. clofibrate. digoxin. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. stomach pain. or by young people under the age of 20. nicotinic acid. Levothyroxine may be used during . gemfibrozil. nausea. skin rash. muscular disorders.weeks of treatment. erythromycin. or hepatitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ketoconazole. muscle weakness. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. All rights reserved. The drug is effective within 48 hours. or lowered blood pressure. cataracts. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. Patients with impaired liver function. constipation. impaired vision. and diabetes. cyclosporine. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. cimetidine.

Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Brand Names: Levothroid. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. sweating. and skin. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . diarrhea. eyes. agitation. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Astemizole is available only by prescription. weight loss or gain. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. Levoxine. All rights reserved. heart palpitations. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. Astemizole Astemizole. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. or chest pain. Patients should not take more than a single. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. tiredness.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. which causes thyroid overactivity. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. flushed skin. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Brand Names:Bactrim. abdominal cramps. sore mouth. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. or increased blood potassium. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. phenytoin. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. or pain associated with cancer. with dosages based on body weight. and traveler’s diarrhea. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. All rights reserved. Available by prescription only. diarrhea. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. pneumonia. procainamide. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. vomiting. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. loss of appetite. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. bronchitis. Tramadol Tramadol. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. Patients with anemia. rifampin. impaired liver or kidney function. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. dapsone. with or without food. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. back or joint pain. cyclosporine. especially of the urinary tract and eye. headache. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. and cholestyramine. nausea. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria.

All rights reserved. cream and ointment forms applied topically. diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for children under the age of 16. . steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. people taking this drug should not drive. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. vomiting. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. constipation. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. tablets. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. sweating. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. quinidine. including an oral inhalant. operate dangerous machinery. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. or dry mouth. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. Other possible side effects include nausea. For this reason. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. two to three times a day. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. or engage in other riskrelated activities. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. and a liquid form that is injected. In addition. sedatives.

and primidone. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. wheezing. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). digoxin. weight loss. memory loss. mottled skin. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. warfarin. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. All rights reserved. Taken orally. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. carbamazepine. Tretinoin Tretinoin. hoarseness. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. skin rash. phenytoin. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. sneezing. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. but helps alleviate symptoms. or a history of tuberculosis. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. Brand Names:Azmacort. peptic ulcer. . headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fluid retention. nosebleed. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nasal irritation or congestion. diabetes drugs (including insulin). glaucoma (an eye disorder).

It is applied to the skin. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. It should not come in contact with the eyes. citrus scents. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. and solution. . Renoval. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. salicylic acid. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. mouth. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. as well as with medicated soaps. darkening or lightening of skin color. although maximum improvement may take several months. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. The tablet form is taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or resorcinol. and s kin products containing alcohol. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed.Tretinoin is available in a gel. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. This drug is available in liquid form. cream. or spices. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. Brand Names:Retin-A. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. preferably an hour before meals. Hands should be washed immediately after application. All rights reserved. especially those containing sulfur. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. temporary worsening of acne. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. astringents. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. usually once a day at bedtime.

insulin and other diabetes drugs. hay fever or other allergies. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. low blood pressure. a chronic disease of the respiratory system.Patients with asthma. All rights reserved. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. Theophylline is available in capsule. tablet. Brand Names: Timoptic. All are taken orally. muscle weakness. or heart failure. lung disease. theophylline. Theophylline Theophylline. impaired liver or kidney function. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. and pulmonary (lung) disease. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. chronic bronchitis. prescription drug used to treat asthma. nausea. shortness of breath. an overactive thyroid gland. Blocadren. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. especially in patients with heart disorders. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). Possible side effects may include headache. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). tingling or numbness. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. cimetidine. hair loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. chlorpromazine. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. dizziness. . This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. and liquid form. improving circulation. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. As a bronchodilator. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. which may be increased if needed. as well as epinephrine. chest pain. vomiting. or impotence. low blood sugar. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing.

Patients with peptic ulcers. gum disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). or heart disease should use this drug with caution. thereby halting their growth. doxycycline. high blood pressure. headache. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. taken in one to four doses. ciprofloxacin. irregular heartbeat. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. All rights reserved. impaired liver or kidney function. propanolol. insomnia. It also may interact with cimetidine. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. or coma. low blood pressure. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. increased urination. taken orally. applied topically. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. including urinary tract infections. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. and in a reconstituted powder solution. and gonorrhea. . Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. should be checked by a doctor. Brand Names:Slo-bid. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. phenytoin. and birth control pills. Changes in heart rate. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. Tetracycline Tetracycline. acne. or skin rash. another possible side effect. convulsions. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. clarithromycin. seizure disorders. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. erythromycin.

oral contraceptives. ischemic heart disease. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. increased intraocular pressure. isotretinoin. or prostatic hypertrophy. or seizures. lithium. irregular heartbeat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Achromycin V. Possible side effects include headache. insomnia. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. and sucralfate. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. penicillin. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. chest pain. blurred vision. cholestyramine. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. light sensitivity. fatigue. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. or in infants. and throat. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. Unlike many other antihistamines. headache. eyes. Topicycline. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. blood thinners. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. sore throat. indigestion. skin rash. As an antihistamine. All rights reserved. diabetes mellitus. difficulty swallowing. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. itching. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. hyperthyroidism. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. a bulging soft spot on the head. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. facial swelling. nausea.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. nausea. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. and menstrual pain. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Brand Name:Allegra . vomiting. renal impairment. confusion. cold or flu.

This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. or chills. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. producing a calming effect. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. All rights reserved. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. drug used to treat insomnia. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. All rights reserved. . preventing its reproduction and growth. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. fever. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . Temazepam Temazepam. which can interact with terconazole. As a result. headache. a yeastlike fungus. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. body pain. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period.

operating dangerous machinery. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. diarrhea. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. Other possible side effects include fatigue. restlessness. barbiturates. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. All rights reserved. or nausea. convulsions. especially when starting treatment. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. In addition. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antihistamines. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. including antidepressants. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. nervousness. and oral contraceptives. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. seizures. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. increased dreaming. . If needed. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. or coma. tremors. tremors. depression. or hallucinations. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. Also observed in some patients are sweating. or engaging in risk-related activities. blurred vision. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. difficulty in breathing. narcotics. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. tranquilizers. confusion. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. or by young people under the age of 18. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. usually in a 15-mg dose.Available only by prescription. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. or vomiting. When treatment is stopped. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). headache. With long-term use (more than a few weeks).

antispasmodic drugs. tightness in the chest or throat. tetracycline. change in blood pressure. digoxin. or va gina. irregular heartbeat. Possible side effects may include constipation. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. tingling. or a dry mouth. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. Sucralfate Sucralfate. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. certain antibiotics. and blood-thinners. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. has not been determined. Possible side effects may include dizziness. nausea. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. difficulty breathing. or skin rash. stiff neck. or allergies. diarrhea. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. and theophylline. Its safety for children. preferably with water. ranitidine. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Brand Name:Carafate . or fainting are sometimes observed.Patients with heart disease. muscle weakness. sucralfate is taken orally. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. All rights reserved. sore throat. uncontrolled high blood pressure. digestive tract. Raynaud’s syndrome. esophagus. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. This drug heals existing ulcers. phenytoin. drug used to treat ulcers. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. dizziness. especially angina. ketoconazole. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. as well as cimetidine. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. Irregular heartbeat. quinidine.

cimetidine. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. or hepatitis. nausea. and spironolactone. ketoconazole. by pregnant or nursing women. stomach pain. Patients with impaired liver function. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). cyclosporine. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. erythromycin. drug used to treat depression and. Simvastatin Simvastatin. usually at bedtime. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Tablets are taken with or without food. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). gemfibrozil. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. or by young people under the age of 20. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. clofibrate. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . cataracts. muscle weakness. muscular disorders. digoxin. or lowered blood pressure. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. weight loss. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. skin rash. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. constipation. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. diarrhea. All rights reserved. gas.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired vision. Sertraline Sertraline. nicotinic acid. All rights reserved. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. obsessive -compulsive disorders. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. warfarin. less often.

digitoxin. . a dry mouth. All rights reserved. including headache. or behaviora l changes. agitation. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. or problems with male sexual performance. The starting dose is 50 mg. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. constipation. difficulty breathing or swallowing. weight loss. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. twice daily. Parkinson disease. warfarin. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. drug used for the treatment of asthma. which a doctor may slowly increase. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. fatigue. tolbutamide. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. or two inhalations.Available only by prescription. cimetidine. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. if needed. tremors. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. breast enlargement (in both females and males). This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. insomnia. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. seizures. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. Available only by prescription. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. vomiting. sweating. irregular heartbeat. The typical dose is 42 mg. sensitivity to bright light. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. various diabetes medications including insulin. sleepiness. lithium. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. Salmeterol Salmeterol. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. diarrhea.

drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. headaches. It is also available as an injectable liquid. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. or taking antacids. causing chronic heartburn. joint or muscle pain. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. dizziness. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. Ranitidine Ranitidine. or skin rashes. diabetes. fatigue. anemia. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. heart attack. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. Less common side effects are diarrhea. dizziness. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. nervousness. skin rash. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. All rights reserved. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. as well as theophylline and caffeine. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. liver disease. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. all taken orally. or muscle cramps. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. capsule. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. and drowsiness. or overactive thyroid gland. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. . hair loss. and liquid form. smoking cigarettes. rapid or slow heartbeat. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. sucralfate. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. including salt substitutes containing potassium. or vomiting. reduces blood volume. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. . glipizide. lightheadedness. enoxacin. Available by prescription. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. as it can harm the fetus. high potassium levels. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. It also may react with lithium. heart disease. An allergic reaction to this drug. it must be taken regularly to be effective. theophylline. coughing. systemic lupus erythematous. Possible side effects include dizziness. requires immediate medical attention. tetracycline. which influence salt and water retention. ketoconazole.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. and triamterene. especially in the second and third trimesters. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. The drug relaxes arterial walls. it can react adversely with these drugs. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. chest or abdominal pain. as well as with diazepam. scleroderma. cyclosporine. nausea. muscle pain. and potassium supplements. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. midazolam. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Quinapril Quinapril. itraconazole. thereby reducing blood pressure. fatigue. or low white blood cell counts. All rights reserved. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. procainamide.

All rights reserved.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful