Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol.S. Misoprostol. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. which starts contractions. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. Nearly half the women in the U. the cervix softens and opens. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. but a few take longer. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. Typically. and many suffered cramping. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. China. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. as well as certain other tumors. At the third visit. including the United States. and 3 percent aborted immediately. which starts the process.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. private research organization. treating breast and ovarian cancer. Under the trade name Mifeprex. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. a nonprofit. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. Instead. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. and the uterine lining breaks down. two weeks later. These include inducing fullterm labor. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. Without progesterone. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. Two days later. and as a therapy for endometriosis. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. given later. . In the United States. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone.

headache. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. weakness. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. However. diarrhea.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. is over much more quickly. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. and the procedure is not invasive. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. by making abortion potentially available in any . in a small number of women. where the drug has been in use since 1988. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. Theoretically. In contrast. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. no medical instruments are used. However. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. are that anesthesia is not required. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. in France. They also point out that. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. and fatigue. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral.

physician’s office. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. More than 10. Thalidomide. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. During this delay. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. Eventually. kidneys. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. eyes. . the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. Britain. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. drug introduced in 1953. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. respiratory tract. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. palate. heart. a German pharmaceutical company. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. gastrointestinal tract. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. lip. and other countries. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. and reproductive tract. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. spine.

The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. although not fully understood. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. . this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. A serious skin disorder. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. or chronic weight loss. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. when produced in excessive amounts.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. Under these restrictions. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. and the sores make eating difficult. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. Among other issues.

the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. All rights reserved. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. a n abnormally slow heart rate. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. 100-mg. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . persons with congestive heart failure. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. pregnant or breast-feeding women. cold hands and feet. fatigue. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. The regular tablet can be crushed. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. It comes in 50-mg. lightheadedness. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. the typical. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. more commonly known as beta blockers. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. and 200-mg tablets. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. and decreased sexual desire. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. in prolonged action tablets. For prevention o f heart attacks. For treatment of hypertension or angina. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. slow heart rate. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). This drug is available by prescription only. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. For treatment after a heart attack. Metoprolol. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers).

liver disease. dizziness. . Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. chlorpromazine. or severe impairment of kidney function. aminophylline. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug.sedative effect. diltiazem. oral antidiabetic drugs. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. theophyllinevenlafaxine. difficulty sleeping. albuterol. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. Brand Names:Lopressor. fluoxetine. oral hypoglycemic drugs. tranquilizers. taken orally. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. epinephrine. reserpine. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. clonidine. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. diarrhea. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. This drug is available by prescription only. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. furosemide. pregnant or breast-feeding women. cimetidine. digoxin. amiodarone. aspirin. calcium channel blockers. taken once a day or in divided doses. and verapamil. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. nifedipine. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. hydralazine. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. To minimize adverse side effects. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. These include bloating. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. All rights reserved. The typical. insulin. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. without missing doses. Nabumetone. barbiturates such as phenobarbital.

lightheadedness. liver disease. dizziness. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. joint or muscle pain. nervousness. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. including antibiotics. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. nosebleed. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. or cardiac arrest. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. seizures. diarrhea. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). headache. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. loss of appetite. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. sweating. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. Astemizole. aspirin. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. and liver or kidney damage. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. fatigue. skin rash. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. Astemizole is available only by prescription. diuretics. Possible side effects include drowsiness. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. or sore throat. indigestion. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. heartburn. asthma or difficulty breathing. dry mouth or throat. or vomiting. soreness of the mouth. irregular heartbeat. headache. Patients should not take more than a single. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. eyes. nausea. other salicylates. nervousness. or increased appetite. and probenecid. itching or tingling. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. drowsiness. . impairment of normal blood clotting. Less common are depression. beta blockers. Patients with asthma. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). All rights reserved. and skin.dizziness.

Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. Dosages of this drug vary widely. as it may seriously affect heart function. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. skin rash. blurred vision. drug used to treat heart problems. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). Digoxin is available in capsule. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. stomach pain. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. Children under age ten may take this drug.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. All are taken orally. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. It may be taken with food. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. Possible side effects include diarrhea. ranging from 0. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. fluvoxamine (Luvox). headache. and paroxetine (Paxil). Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known.5 mg) on the first day. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). Digoxin. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.125 to 0. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. vomiting. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. although one form of the liquid is injected. and liquid form. tablet. setraline (Zoloft). . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. nausea.5 mg per day. or breast development in males. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. nefazodone (Serzone). All rights reserved. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. loss of appetite. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. if necessary.

Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. blurred vision. another type of antidepressant. diuretics. antacids. seizures. thyroid hormones. high fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. diarrhea.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. liver ailments. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. drowsiness. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. dizziness. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. these include seizures. fatigue. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. an antidepressantdrug. insomnia. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. often once a day at bedtime. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. or stroke. breast enlargement. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Amitriptyline. vomiting. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. steroids. migraine headaches. headache. constipation. Typically used to treat mental depression. bulimia. the maximum daily dosage for adults. impotence. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. bronchodilators. heart attack. anxiety. these may . Brand Names:Lanoxin. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. Because of these many drug interactions. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. disorientation. including dry mouth. All rights reserved. In addition. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. heart or circulatory disorders. It is taken orally in tablet form.

muscular weakness. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal.include headache. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. sleep medications. or sleep disturbances. seizure medications. as it may harm the baby. or with . Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. oral contraceptives. nausea. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. fainting. diarrhea. and large doses of vitamin C. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. irritable bowel syndrome. Alprazolam. painkillers. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. operate dangerous machinery. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). loss of appetite. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. and certain phobias. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. or even death. premenstrual syndrome. muscle relaxants. barbiturates. irritability. usually three times a day. stuffy nose. nausea. chest pains. It should not be combined with alcohol. Dosages may range from 0. In addition. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. antihistamines. coma. thyroid hormones. Brand Names:Elavil. tranquilizers. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks).25 mg to 10 mg. confusion. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. twitching. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. drowsiness. drug used to treat anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. irritability. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. or depression. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. It has also been used to treat depression. constipation. All rights reserved. muscle cramps. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. with or without food. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. or engage in other risk-related activities. Endep. or seizures. decreased sex drive. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. headache. diarrhea. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. panic attacks.

sweating. with or without food. diarrhea. antispasmodic drugs. an eye disorder. or tremors. Available in tablet form. All rights reserved. digoxin. Dry mouth is a common side effect. . various antihistamines.narrow-angle glaucoma. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and other tranquilizers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. operate dangerous machinery. usually three times a day. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). All rights reserved. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. facial swelling. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. insomnia. abnormal heartbeat. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. When combined with rest and physical therapy. disulfiram. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. including carbamazepine. as serious or fatal reactions may result. constipation. high blood-pressure drugs. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. Less common side effects include anxiety. In addition. disorientation. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. cimetidine. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. indigestion. skin rash. but it does not interfere with muscle function. antidepressants. an irregular heartbeat. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. blurred or double vision. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. headache. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg.

Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly.Methylphenidate. and vermouth. meat tenderizers. sherry. preferably on an empty stomach. For sustained release tablets. bean curd. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. a chemical that raises blood pressure. and weight loss with long-term use. headache. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. canned fish. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. persons with glaucoma. It comes in 5 -mg. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. loss of appetite. chocolate. severe depression. anxiety. bologna. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. liver. pepperoni. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. meat extracts. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. or Tourette’s syndrome. 10-mg. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. and 20-mg regular tablets. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. stomach pain. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. For sustained release tablets. pickled herring. taken before breakfast and lunch. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. The regular tablet can be crushed. nausea. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. soy sauce. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. dried and salted fish. a dry mouth. raspberries. yeast extracts. . This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. chianti. presumably by activating the brain stem. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). pregnant or breast-feeding women. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. raisins. sour cream. salami. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. avocado. nervous tension. unpasteurized beer.

and nortriptyline. including high blood pressure. desipramine. heart blockage. All rights reserved. coronary artery disease. angina. (An injectable. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. Brand Names:Ritalin. imipramine. asthma. fatigue. pargyline. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. .Caffeine should not be taken in any form. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. impotence. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. Atenolol. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. skin rash or itching. and primidone. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. or a slow heartbeat. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. headache. and breathing difficulties. drowsiness. allergies. depression. It affects the autonomic nervous system. phenobarbital. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. Its safety for use in children is not known. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. and tranylcypromine. nausea. anxiety. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. and heart attack. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). Less common side effects are diarrhea. kidney disease. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. hair loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. with or without food. phenelzine. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. Potential side effects include dizziness. or slow heartbeat. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure.

and other drugs used to treat diabetes. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. constipation. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. anemia. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. or kidney function. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. . or liquid form. low blood pressure. and sweating. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. hallucinations. patients taking this drug should not drive. drowsiness. tongue. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. hair loss. or engage in other risk-related activities. headache. which requires immediate medical treatment. It also relieves neuralgia. However. as severe. itching. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blurred vision. continuous seizures may result. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. other blood pressure medications. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. Side effects that include fever. breathing problems. sensitivity to light. Both forms should be taken with meals. bruises. They include muscle or joint pain. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. or pain along a sensory nerve. sore throat. fainting. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. For neuralgia. usually taken four times a day. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). making seizures less frequent and less severe. liver. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. operate dangerous machinery. or throat. thereby reducing pain. in the jaw. and for depression or other emotional disorders. mouth ulcers. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. This process may take three months or more. usually taken twice a day. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. dizziness. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. or impairment of heart. All rights reserved. Children six years and older may take this drug. impotence.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. abdominal pain. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. insulin. for migraine headaches. and antacids that contain calcium.

The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. and bones. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. all of which are taken orally. However. capsule. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. The drug is effective within three to five days. Brand Names:Tegretol. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. as well as calcium channel blockers. All rights reserved. Cephalexin. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. It is known to appear in breast milk. It may also interact adversely with lithium. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. used to treat infections of the middle ear.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fluid retention. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. joint pain. abdominal pain. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Less common side effects include indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hallucinations. the entire course of medication should be taken. and other antiseizure medications. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. haloperidol. confusion. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. kidney disorders. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. . A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. reproductive system. urinary tract. theophylline. doxycycline. This drug is available by prescription in table t. skin rash. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. colitis (inflamed colon). vomiting. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. Brand Names:Keflex. Patients with drug allergies. and liquid form. vaginitis. All rights reserved. skin. dizziness. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). colitis. hives.

respiratory infections. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. . intestinal blockage. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. insomnia. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). irregular heartbeat. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. hives. tremors. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). or nervousness. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. glaucoma. and high fever. narcotics. change in urine color. and suppository form. or barbiturates. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. rapid heartbeat. antacids. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. emphysema. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. vomiting. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. including anemia. cimetidine. and violent hyperactivity in children. tablet. liquid.Chlorpromazine. anticonvulsants. blood-thinners. headache. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. breast cancer. nasal congestion. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. use dangerous machinery. seizures. fainting. or brain tumors. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. or epinephrine. and uncontrollable hiccups. In addition. a neurotransmitter in the brain. tetanus. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. light sensitivity. kidney or liver diseases. it does appear in breast milk. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. diuretics. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. anxiety before surgery. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. impotence. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. captopril. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. suppressed cough reflex. All rights reserved. so patients should not drive. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. or dizziness. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze.

or narrow-angle glaucoma. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. as well as cimetidine. Starting dosages usually range from 12. agranulocytosis causes fever. a history of seizures. nausea. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. other possible side effects include seizures. drowsiness. constipation. In addition to agranulocytosis. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. weight gain. atropine. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. and antidepressants. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). and behavior. low blood pressure. or engage in other risk-related activities. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. .5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. impaired liver or kidney function. tremors. operate dangerous machinery. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. and muscle weakness. In addition. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. blurred vision. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. an enlarged prostate gland. an eye disorder. drug used to treat schizophrenia. epinephrine. emotions. sore throat. rapid heartbeat. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. and warfarin. digoxin.Clozapine. Patients taking this drug should not drive. blood pressure medicatio ns. headache. dizziness. fever. and can lead to death in some cases. or nightmares.

constipation. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. Classified as a benzodiazepine. nausea. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. lightheadedness. ranitidine. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. while breast-feeding. Depending on the patient’s condition. and rifampin. tremors.Dizac Hydrocodone. fatigue. severe depression. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. muscle spasms. and birth control pills. or in children under six months of age. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. sweating. digoxin. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. or low blood pressure. confusion. barbiturates. fluoxetine. mild tranquilizer drug. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. capsule. A mild narcotic. or epilepsy. Valrelease. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. dizziness. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. headache. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. depression. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. or coma. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. These include other tranquilizers. vomiting. confusion. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. producing a calming effect. anticonvulsant drugs. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). It is not safe for use during pregnancy. and certain types of seizures.Diazepam. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. and liquid form. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. skin rash. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. . or convulsions. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. or poor muscle coordination. insomnia. all are taken orally. narcotics. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. operate dangerous machinery. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. Brand Names:Valium. slurred speech.

Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. who have a history of chemical dependency. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. nausea. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. impaired breathing. constipation.A common ingredient in cough medicines. All rights reserved. impaired kidney or liver function. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. delirium. dry mouth. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. skin rash. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. . uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. As a liquid cough remedy. vomiting. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. depression. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness.Triaminic Expectorant DH. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. blurred or double vision. urinary retention.

a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cream.Ketoconazole. have liver disease or reduced liver function. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. A cure may require many months of treatment. or shampoo. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. skin irritation and rash. patients with active liver disease. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. headaches. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. have a history of alcoholism. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. and liver problems. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. Pregnant and nursing women. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. . Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). It works by weakening fungal cell walls. nausea. and nausea. diarrhea. take any other drugs. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone.

A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. or lotion. or over a long period. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. If used over large surface areas. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. itching. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. . tingling. with bandages. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. in areas of broken skin. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. ointment. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. or dry skin. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body.Mometasone Furoate. this drug may cause skin damage. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. Available by prescription only. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. although its exact mechanism is unknown. of the adrenal glands. or cortex. stinging. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio.

The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. 50 mg. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. . Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. pregnant or breast-feeding women.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. 25 mg. It is also used to treat chronic. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. Nortriptyline. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. All rights reserved. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. However. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. and 75 mg. drug used to treat major mental depression. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly.

birth control pills. decreased urination. and weight gain or loss. narcotics. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. carbamazepine. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. irregular heart rhythm. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insomnia. and skin. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. confusion. a dry mouth. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. peculiar tastes in the mouth. antihistamines. blurred vision. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. urinary tract. and sleeping medications. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. nausea. memory problems. Brand Names:Aventyl. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. throat. nightmares. chest. or glaucoma. epinephrine. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. cimetidine. barbiturates. tranquilizers. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. seizures. headache.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. epilepsy. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. constipation. fluoxetine. All rights reserved. fluconazole. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. Depending on the severity of infection. hallucin ations. drowsiness. Available by prescription only. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. . lightheadedness. fa tigue. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

but to prevent a recurrence of infection. cholera. or rash. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. Ciprofloxacin. vomiting. colitis. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. .Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. infectious diarrhea. All rights reserved. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. However. itching. vaginitis. tuberculosis. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Common side effects may include diarrhea. nausea. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). or skin problems such as redness. The drug is effective within three to five days. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. and it does appear in breast milk. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. and skin. seizures. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. or yeast infection. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. joints. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. headache. the entire course of medication should be taken. urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. bones. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

Possible side effects include abdominal pain. or magnesium. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. Brand Names:Cipro.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired kidney function. Depending on the severity of infection. which are taken orally w ith or without food. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . headache. All rights reserved. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. sensitivity to light. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. operate dangerous machinery. breast-feeding women. nausea. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. hives. while rare. aluminum. or restlessness. .The drug is available by prescription in tablets. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. skin rash. as serious or fatal reactions can result. tingling or itchin g. which is used in the form of eyedrops. can be fatal. as allergic reactions to this drug. shortness of breath. Pregnant women. and in a liquid. Patients with severe liver disease. or unconsciousness. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. or engage in other risk-related activities. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture.

dizziness. Haloperidol. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. digoxin. Capsules are taken with or without food. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. weight loss. . low blood pressure. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. diarrhea. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. Patients with liver or kidney problems. gemfibrozil. constipation. usually a t bedtime. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash. All rights reserved.Fluvastatin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insomnia. ketoconazole. respiratory irritation or infection. headache. or rifampin. or coughing. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. or seizures should use this drug with caution. fatigue. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. erythromycin. muscle pain. ranitidine. nausea.

tremors. lips. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. eye damage. jaws. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. Patients suffering from depression. neck. diminished sexual function. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. active liver disease. insomnia. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. breast cancer. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. and tongue. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. skin rash. Other side effects may include nausea. or muscle rigidity. constipation. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. urinary retention. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. blurred vision. low blood pressure. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. eyelids. . The drug is present in breast milk. depression. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. dry mouth. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. and increased heart rate. use of the drug should be discontinued. Parkinson disease. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. and tongue after the first dose. kidney or liver disease. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. stroke. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. heart or blood vessel disease. extremities. Its safety for children has not been established. or systemic lupus erythematosus. eyes. However. Lisinopril. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. lips. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. All rights reserved.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. heart attack. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure.

driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. Nitrofurantoin. Indomethacin. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. All rights reserved. by breast-feeding women. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. It is taken orally in 25-mg. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. especially in the third trimester. or baby f ormula. 50-mg. a nonsteroidal. anti-inflammatory drug. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. milk. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. Brand Names: Prinivil. fruit juice. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. For prevention of recurrent in fections. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. and the dose may be diluted in water. persons with . Enterobacter. day and night. This drug is available by prescription only. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. Staphylococcus aureus.blood potassium.

oral antacids. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. Brand Names:Furadantin. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. diarrhea. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. or vomiting. Macrobid. causing heartburn. For gastric ulcer. Occasionally this drug may have serious. or infants less than one month old. sodium bicarbonate. electrolyte imbalances. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. or any debilitating disease. or upper part of the small intestine. All rights reserved. vitamin-B deficiency. Omeprazole. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. magnesium trisilicate.impaired kidney function. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. the usual adult dosage . nalidixic acid. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. and sulfinpyrazone. Stomach irritation is the most common. probenecid. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. anticholinergic medications. loss of appetite. diabetes. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. nausea. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

For adults over the age of 60. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. diazepam. amoxicillin. muscle pain. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. urinary tract infection. Less common side effects are chest pain. gas. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. pregnant or breast-feeding women. digoxin. and phenytoin. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. diarrhea. warfarin. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. dizziness. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. heartburn. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. constipation. All rights reserved. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. . kidney or liver damage. cyclosporine. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or yeast infection of the esophagus. headache. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. For excessive stomach acid conditions. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. nausea and vomiting. ketoconazole. skin rash or itching.

Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. Brand Name: Paxil . anxiety. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. a history of seizure disorders. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). and muscle weakness. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. skin rashes. preferably in the morning. decreased appetite. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. diarrhea. insomnia. warfarin. and tryptophan. constipation. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. dry mouth. nausea. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. nervousness. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. urinary disorders.Paroxetine or Paxil. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. and impaired sexual function. Within ten days of regular use. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. tremor. digoxin.

All rights reserved. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Brand Name: Duricef . all of which are taken orally. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. pneumonia. usually once or twice a day. Cefadroxil or Duricef. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. skin rash or redness. as it may lead to a secondary infection. coli) bacteria. allergies. vaginal inflammation. depending on the severity of infection. however. or colitis. although it is known to appear in breast milk.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. urinary tract infections. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. itching. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. and skin infections. vomiting. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. the entire course of medication should be taken. Children may safely take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. capsule. streptococcus infections. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications.

nervousness. abdominal pain. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. insomnia. drowsiness. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. Less common side effects include diarrhea. skin rash (including diaper rash). The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. as well as skin infections. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. taken in one or two doses. However.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. confusion. which are both taken orally. as it may lead to a secondary infection. dizziness. ear. and respiratory tract. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. All rights reserved. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Cefprozil or Cefzil. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. hives. including strep throat. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. the entire course of medication should be taken. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). . bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. vomiting. It is available in tablet and liquid form. pneumonia. genital itching. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. headache. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Possible side effects may include nausea. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. It is available in tablet or liquid form. All rights reserved. abdominal pain. also known as glibenclamide. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. It may be taken with or without food. or skin rash.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . drugs that treat diabetes. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. swelling. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. drop in blood pressure. ulcer medications. which requires immediate medical attention. or hydrochlorothiazide. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. with one liquid form made for injection. Additional symptoms such as hives. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Glyburide. phenytoin. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. headache. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. although some children have used it safely. rifampin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. vomiting.

Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea and vomiting. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. The usual dosage is from 1. itching. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. Pregnant women. indigestion. Most effective on an empty stomach.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. fatigue. After an initially positive response with the drug. For this reason. a condition of low blood sugar. hives. hypothyroidism. . headaches.25 to 20 mg daily. Brand Names: DiaBeta. dizziness. as well as to watch for side effects. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. and heartburn. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. nausea. peptic ulcer disease. Patients with unstable diabetes. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. abdominal cramps. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. Other possible side effects include skin rash. All rights reserved. The drug takes effect within two hours. drowsiness.

and skin rashes. Lorazepam. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. The drug appears in breast milk. After long-term use. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. nausea. gout. insomnia. All rights reserved. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. Capozide. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. Some men experience impaired sexual function. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. and epilepsy. Brand Names: Aldoril. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). salt. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. and nursing women should avoid using it. imbalances in water. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. prescription drug known as a diuretic. low blood pressure. Aprozide. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). . or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. drug used to treat anxiety.Hydrochlorothiazide. diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician.

therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. and rifampin. phenytoin. cimetidine. the dosage is 0. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. vision problems.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. antidepressants. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. and unsteadiness. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. therapy begins with 0. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. change in appetite. oral solution. dizziness. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. For insomnia.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. and as an injectable liquid. sleep disturbance. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. nausea. sedatives. carbamazepine.Available by prescription only. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. However. narcotics. isoniazid. agitation. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. weakness. headache. levodopa. antihistamines. and memory impairment. depression. barbiturates. Brand Name:Ativan . s kin problems.

nausea. morning and evening. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. fo r 5 days. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. tenderness. and other types of Streptococcus. reddening or dry skin. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. For children from 5 to 15 years old. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available by prescription only. stinging. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or itching at the infection site. Less common side effects are rash. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. For adults and children over the age of 12. Streptococcus pyogenes. Mupirocin. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. . It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. pain. All rights reserved. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. pregnant or breast-feeding women.

Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. Brand Names:Bactroban. however. and eyedrops. One of the ingredients in this ointment. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. polyethylene glycol. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. gonorrhea. Ofloxacin. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. The typical.swelling. skin infections. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. . the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. bronchitis. All rights reserved. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. and hives. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). in an injectable liquid. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. chlamydia.

iron salts. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. Brand Names: Floxin. redness. tremor. nervousness. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. drug-induced hepatitis. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. lightheadedness. calcium supplements. drowsiness. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). It should be taken on a regular schedule. or dryness in the eye. and zinc salts. epilepsy.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. headache. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. seizures. excessive confusion. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. probenecid. or norfloxacin. dizziness. tearing. All rights reserved. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. either one hour before or two hours after eating. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. . and insomnia. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. restle ssness. warfarin. pregnant or breast-feeding women. nausea. without missing doses. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. or impaired vision. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. vomiting. speech problems. itching. dizziness. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. sucralfate. ciprofloxacin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. theophylline. hallucinations.

obstructions that can block off blood vessels. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. skin rash. indigestion. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. Side effects are rare. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. nausea. and may include headache. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. dizziness.Pentoxifylline. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. a protein that increases blood thickness. vomiting. and. tremor. Because the drug appears in breast milk. Because nicotine narrows arteries. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. and it prevents blood from forming clots. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. Brand Name: Trental . low blood pressure. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease.

Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. drowsiness or fatigue. drug used to treat depression.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Phenelzine. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. or epilepsy. or convulsions. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. . Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. Available by prescription only. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. headache. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. anxiety. dry mouth. usually three times a day. fluid retention. or insomnia. heart disease. with or without food. weight g ain. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. or phobias. twitching or tremors. In general. nightmares. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. dizziness. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. liver disease. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. It may detract from sexual performance in males. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. monoamine oxidase (MAO). or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. muscle weakness.

It is available in tablets. ear. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. including the treatment of respiratory. amphetamines. products that contain yeast. and bananas. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. It has many u ses. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. even after symptoms disappear. alcoholic beverages. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. capsules. bronchodilator inhalants. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. and skin infections. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nasal decongestants. including death. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. . The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. such as gonorrhea. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. Amoxicillin. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. all of which are taken orally. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. and other antidepressants. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. sinus and hay-fever medications. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. and liquid form.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. if combined with certain foods or drugs. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. appetite suppressants. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. All rights reserved. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor.

the entire course of medication should be taken. confusion. insomnia. which are both taken orally. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. Patients with asthma. liver disease. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. chest. anxiety or hyperactivity. hives. Wymox. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. or bruising. diabetes. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. taken in one or two doses. nausea. joint pain. and urinary tract. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. itching. . Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. dizziness. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. Augmentin Cefixime. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. skin rash. Brand Names:Amoxil. colitis. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. swollen lymph nodes. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. or vomiting. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). skin rash. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. also in one or two daily doses. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. throat. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. diarrhea. genital sores.

shock. severe diarrhea. or vomiting. All rights reserved. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. usually once a day at bedtime. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. hives. or seizures. stomach cramps. high . itching. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. mild diarrhea. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. Doxazosin Mesylate. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Tablets are taken orally. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.However. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although it is known to appear in breast milk. skin rash. fever. Common side effects may include indigestion. with or without food. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. nausea. but does not cure. prolonged use is not recommended. headache. as it may lead to a secondary infection. gas.

it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. subsequently relieving edema. Other possible side effects include constipation. or engage in other risk-related activities. nausea. and as a result. drug used to increase urine production. the dosage is 1. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function.25 mg per day. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. especially when the dosage is increased. the dosage is 2. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. or depression. insomnia. should not drive. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. operate dangerous machinery. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. To treat fluid retention. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. coronary artery disease. muscle cramps or weakness. skin rash. nosebleed. The . Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body.5 mg per day. ringing in the ears. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. low white -blood-cell count. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). lowering blood pressure. indigestion. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. eye pain. which may be increased to 2.5 mg per day. mental depression.blood pressure.

A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. upper respiratory tract infection. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . the drug should be taken with breakfast. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. gout. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. skin rashes. urinary tract infection. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. headaches. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. . skin infection. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. and drowsiness. pneumonia. diarrhea.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. weakness. itching. nausea. To avoid nighttime urination. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. visual problems. diabetes. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. abdominal pain. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. a history of colitis. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. It should be used with caution. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. an antigout drug. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. and itching eyes. Available by prescription only. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. . the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. nausea and vomiting. headache. and dizziness. All rights reserved. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. Use with probenecid. Loratadine. by persons with impaired kidney function. nervousness. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Less common side effects are colitis. insomnia. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. loss of appetite. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. at a reduced dosage. swelling mucous membranes. sleepiness. penicillin allergies. and skin rashes. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives.

An analgesic. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. can increase the side effects of loratadine. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. or dizziness. and activities requiring mechanical skills. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. pain medication. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. also called methadon. . itraconazole. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. In the late 1940s. tranquilizers. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. such as driving. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. drowsiness. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. a class of antidepressants. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. headache. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. narcotics. muscle relaxants. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. or tricyclic antidepressants. clarithromycin. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. barbiturates. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood.

azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. u nless approved by a doctor. Because methadone itself is addictive. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. . pneumonia. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. Less common are chest pain. or vomiting.” Taken in large doses. and anaphylaxis. nausea. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. Certain ailments. which kills the bacteria. light sensitivity. headache.Unlike heroin. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. in digestion. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. dizziness. Available in capsule form. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. diarrhea. bronchitis. or yeast infection. some patients continue to be treated for many years. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. In typical methadone therapy. a severe form of diarrhea. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. jaundice. hives. drowsiness. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. such as sexually transmitted diseases. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). and urinary tract infections. It is typically prescribed for five days. Azithromycin. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. skin infections. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. which interferes with breathing.

such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. phenytoin. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. All rights reserved. which influence salt and water retention. digoxin. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). This usually takes several weeks. cyclosporine. drug used to control high blood pressure. but must be taken regularly to be effective. even after symptoms are relieved. and lithium. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). triazolam. lovastatin. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. hexobarbital. . Patients with certain medical conditions. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. especially those that help the body retain potassium. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and warfarin.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. Benazepril. should use this drug with caution.

or muscle cramps. pneumonia. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. skin rash. Children may take this drug. constipation. fatigue. also every eight hours. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. coli) bacteria. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. or vomiting. usually every eight hours. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. nausea. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. excessive thirst. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). although it is known to appear in breast milk. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. dizziness. which are both taken orally. impotence. urinary tract infections. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. headache. itching. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.especially in the second and third trimesters. the entire course of medication should be taken. . Less common are chest pain. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. Possible side effects include coughing. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. fluid retention. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . streptococcus infections. sweating. and skin infections. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. urinary infection. joint pain. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It also is known to appear in breast milk. irregular heartbeat. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections.

light sensitivity. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. certain diuretics. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). diarrhea medications. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). tablets. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. vomiting. headache. or blood disorders. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. and itching. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. skin rash. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. joint pain. although one form of liquid is made for injection. taken in one or two doses. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. vomiting. . nausea. liver disorders.Common side effects include diarrhea. which are taken orally. traveler’s diarrhea. hives. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. itching. thereby halting their growth. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. skin rash. and syphilis. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. vaginal inflammation. and liquid forms. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections.

asthma.facial swelling. Prednisone is available only by prescription. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. Vibramycin. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Brand Names:Doryx. Prednisone. penicillin. Vibra-Tabs. certain cancers. barbiturates. Children may develop discolored teeth. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. chest pain. . or bulging forehead (in infants). blood-thinners. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. All rights reserved. phenytoin. and carbamazepine. birth control pills. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. and severe allergic reactions. sodium bicarbonate. tuberculosis. multiple sclerosis. skin diseases. difficulty swallowing. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. especially with long-term use. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. It is usually discontinued gradually. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid.

or fluid retention. phenytoin. depression. Buspirone. weight gain. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. and purplish. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. mood swings. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. rifampin. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). acne. and certain diuretics. thick skin. estrogen supplements. high blood pressure. active tuberculosis. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. gastrointestinal disorders . dizziness. skin rash. headache. Brand Names: Deltasone. All rights reserved. osteoporosis. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. muscle weakness. Liquid Pred. or a history of tuberculosis. . It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. diabetes medications. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. diabetes. brittle bones. amphotericin B. Prednicen-M. Possible side effects may include insomnia. muscle cramps. impaired thyroid function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ketoconazole.Patients with widespread fungus infections. high blood pressure. Children may take this drug. peptic ulcer disease. carbamazepine. birth control pills.

trazodone. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. or nervousness. operate dangerous machinery. Patients taking buspirone should not drive.Tablets are taken orally. dry mouth. skin rash. Also possible are blurred vision. cough suppressants. or vomiting. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. usually three times p er day. Unlike many tranquilizers. upset stomach. . sweating. diarrhea. bone or muscle pain. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. narcotics. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. warfarin. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. constipation. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. nausea. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. fatigue. capsule. haloperidol. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. headache. with or without food. usually found in combination with antihistamines. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. and tablet form. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. depending on the patient’s condition. and fluoxetine. Possible side effects include dizziness. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. or engage in other risk-related activities. or decongestants. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. rapid heartbeat.

Dimacol Caplets. Comtrex Cold Formula. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. Prior to 1992 the drug .7 percent of the time. However. Triaminic Expectorant. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. Brand Names: Cheracol D. nausea. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. and diarrhea. In the United States. preventing pregnancy 99. vomiting. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. This drug is highly effective. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). stomach pain.

Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. Other possible side effects include weight gain. mood changes.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. headaches. Blood transfusions are often necessary. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. Also. In many cases. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). night and day. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). Taken every four hours. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. and abdominal pain. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. . However. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. sometimes for a year or more. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia.

ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. boisterous or violent behavior. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a long-acting barbiturate. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). . Phenobarbital. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. urinary tract. such as secobarbital. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). All rights reserved. and respiratory tract. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. anticonvulsant. An antibiotic like penicillin. overdoses can cause profound shock. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. or anesthetic effect. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). gastrointestinal tract.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Depending on the dosage or formulation. Ampicillin. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. or death. depression. Taken orally or intravenously. coma. Barbiturate. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. and sedation. a combination of urea and malonic acid. muscle incoordination.

In South America. brucei rhodesiense. mefloquine. atenolol. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. allopurinol. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. In cattle and other animals. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. another version of the protozoan. skin rash. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after.to ten-day course. Another liquid form is administered by injection. diarrhea. whereas a more local version is caused by T. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. mouth irritation. and sometimes epidemic. and probenecid. colitis (inflamed bowel). endemic. or anemia. fever. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. but an entire course of medication. usually a seven. Possible side effects may include nausea. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. the disease is called nagana. Children may take ampicillin. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. cruzi. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. . should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. also sleeping sickness. brucei gambiense. T. oral contraceptives. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. hives. vomiting. genus Trypanosoma. The most common is caused by T.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form.

Allopurinol. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). and. with accompanying mood changes. death. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. In the long term. All rights reserved. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. . It is also sometimes fatal. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). which more frequently attacks children. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. eventual coma. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. lack of appetite. In early stages. and rash and fever. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. an accelerated heartbeat. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. an enlargement of the spleen. sleepiness. frequently. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. Chagas' disease.

cortisone. Cholesterol. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone.Ephedrine. is a sterol. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. C10H15NO. Hormone). which are similar to but not identical with sterols. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). asthma and allergies. Testosterone). rheumatoid arthritis. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. tremor. with a great diversity of physiological activity. dry mouth. or fat-soluble chemicals. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. more specific drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. aldosterone. it has been superseded by safer. All rights reserved. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and progesterone. Endocrine System). or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. many important hormones. . Steroid hormones. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). some natural drugs. bile acids. and anxiety. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. Steroids. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. It is sometimes misused. and various eye diseases.

. are susceptible to streptomycin. These include gentamicin. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. Streptomyces griseus. such as tuberculosis. and cholera. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. See also Sports Medicine. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. leprosy. tobramycin. and kanamycin. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. it is still used for this condition. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. the aminoglycosides. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. amikacin. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria.

the dose may be lowered. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. Fluoxetine. All rights reserved. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression.Acetaminophen. prescribed for the treatment of depression. After the medication begins to take effect. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. as aspirin tends to do for some users. is taken orally in tablet form. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). and premenstrual syndrome. type of drug known as an antidepressant. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . obsessive -compulsive disorder. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. available by prescription only. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. and for the reduction of fever. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. Fluoxetine.

C3H8O3.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. or for those with kidney or liver disease. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. headaches. or a history of seizures. colorless. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. or propylene. sweet-tasting a lcohol. C3H6O. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. and diarrhea. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. nausea. dizziness. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. weight loss. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. the formula of which is given above. . with a specific gravity of 1. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking.4° F). Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. C3H6. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. diabetes.S. insomnia. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. odorless. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. changes in appetite. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. sometimes fatal results.26.

xylene. Left after distillation are residues of . The phenols. naphthalene. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). Because cheaper products are now available. Distillation produces benzene. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. Coal Tar. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. sulfur. phenanthrene. and water. and oxygen. phenols. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Its composition varies with the coal. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. that is. and the equipment used. anthracene. which are acidic. together with alcohols. toluene. they incite cancerous gro wths. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. as a plasticizer in cellophane. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. from which they are released later by acidification. can be extracted by alkali solutions. mostly hydrocarbons. including toothpastes. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. and other valuable products. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks.

gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. Salicylic acid is bitter. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. drugs. including dyes. acetylsalicylic acid. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. however. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism.pitch. however. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. however. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. found in the bark of the willow tree. to counter fever and pain. food flavorings. paints. synthetic chemical compound. mild to moderate pain. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. stains. paint removers. creosote oil. cause iron deficiency. insecticides. in roofing mixtures. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. preservatives. . It is made from salicylic acid. and irritates the stomach. and resins. explosives. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. Since then. used in making roads. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. among others. perfumes. Aspirin. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . artificial sweeteners. and plastics. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine.

Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. In prescription form. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. or fever. Nuprin . and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. Motrin. rapid breathing. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. and the sensation of pain. and may be taken with food. When taken in excessive amounts. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. diarrhea. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant.Ibuprofen. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. which usually involves vomiting. inflammation. In adults. drug used to reduce inflammation. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. liver disease. Brand Names: Advil. fever. or rapid heartbeat. suppressing the formation of blood clots. or high blood pressure. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary.

muscle weakness. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. hydrocortisone and related compounds. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. called corticosteroids. the retention of salt and water in the body. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. called cortisone. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. the activity of the nervous system. collagen diseases. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. or cortex. . high blood pressure. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. also cortisol. they must be used carefully. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. the maturation of white blood cells. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. Medical). and fat. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. and diabetes. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. Because of their widespread effects.Hydrocortisone. of the adrenal gland. protein. and the regulation of blood pressure. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. are employed for many medical purposes. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. and eye inflammations. weight gain. or corticoids. in 1935.

Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. heart rate. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. However. and hormone balance. such as sleep-wake cycles. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. jet lag. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. fluctuations in body temperature. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. water balance. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. night. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. for instance. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. or shift work. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. . Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter.Melatonin.

and hypertension.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. arthritis. Although it is easily available over the counter. All rights reserved. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. In times of excitement or emotional stress. large additional quantities are secreted. to prevent bleeding. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. Epinephrine. Parkinson disease. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. For example. epilepsy. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. liberates sugar stored in the liver. raises the blood pressure. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. constricts the small blood vessels. . epinephrine stimulates the heart. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. Alzheimer’s disease. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. The pure compound. however. but it is now made synthetically. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. is also known as adrenaline.

irregular heartbeat. called norepinephrine. These include but are not limited to antacids. dizziness. In general. with or without meals. high blood pressure. severe colitis. severe heartburn. nasal congestion. headache. and is taken orally four times a day. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. fainting. glaucoma. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). or myasthenia gravis. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. tingling. enlarged prostate gland. antihistamines. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. or constipation. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. An antispasmodic drug. This drug can also decrease sweating. hyperthyroidism. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. or short-term memory loss. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. corticoids. and liquid form.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. impotence. or levoarterenol. insomnia. They may include blurred vision. urinary tract blockage. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. tablet. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. muscular weakness. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. heart disease. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. drowsiness. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. diarrhea. nausea. or nervousness. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Because of this. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. It is available in capsule. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. digoxin. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. noradrenaline. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . dry mouth. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). lightheadedness. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug.

The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. and sweating. decreased sexual ability. antipsychotic drugs. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. excessive fatigue. fever. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. narcotic pain relievers. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. Nizatidine Nizatidine. headache. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. dizziness. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. and weakness. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. and bronchodilators. All rights reserved. unusual bleeding or bruising. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. diarrhea. itching. More serious effects include confusion. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. fatigue. stomach upset. . Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. nausea. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. increased heart rate.

reduced liver or kidney function. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). pentoxiylline. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. The safety and effectiveness of . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nifedipine Nifedipine. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. protein-rich foods. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. or a significant narrowing of the aorta.Alcoholic beverages. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. however. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. citrus fruit. and theophylline. onions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. All rights reserved. 60-mg. or persons with low blood pressure. if stomach irritation is a problem. For treatment of angina. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. garlic. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. and 90-mg extended release tablets. This drug is available by p rescription only. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. highdose aspirin. doses may be taken with food. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. not crushed.

flushing. low blood pressure. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. along with hydrocortisone. and otic (ear) drops. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. For skin conditions. and ranitidine. lightheadedness. insulin. oral hypoglycemic drugs. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive.. cyclosporine. Neomycin Neomycin. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. For eye infections. cigarette smoking. and ear infections.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. nausea. cimetidine. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. Brand Names:Adalat. nifedipine may increase angina. theophylline. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. eye. phenytoin. diltiazem. headache. and weakness. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. and certain drugs including amiodarone. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . Rarely. These combinations. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. digoxin. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. swelling of the feet and ankles. digitalis. magnesium. All rights reserved. grapefruit juice. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. To minimize adverse side effects. kidney or ear damage may occur. irritation. without missing doses. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. All rights reserved. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive.or the ear. taken once a day or in divided doses. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. The typical. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . This drug is available b y prescription only. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Nabumetone Nabumetone. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. or severe impairment of kidney function. or dryness. pregnant or breast-feeding women. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. bleeding or blood cell disorders. liver disease. itching. and chicken pox infections. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. taken orally. smallpox. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. Rarely. Brand Names:Corticosporin. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin.

These include bloating. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. This drug is available by prescription only. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. impairment of normal blood clotting. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. and liver or kidney damage. respectively. difficulty sleeping. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. diuretics. sweating. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. or angina pectoris (chest pain). thickens the mucus of the cervix. If tablets are missed. blurred vision. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. other salicylates.nabumetone has been determined. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. lightheadedness. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. headache. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). dizziness. nervousness. strokes. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. beta blockers. blood clots in the legs. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. diarrhea. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. known or . asthma or difficulty breathing. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. drowsiness. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. heartburn. loss of appetite. nausea. constipation. or eyes. or vomiting. and probenecid. soreness of the mouth. dizziness. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. aspirin. indigestion. lungs.

and vaginal infections. breast tenderness. fluid retention. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. diabetes. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. smoke. difficulty wearing contact lenses. and brown. cervix. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. These include rifampin. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. liver tumors. loss of scalp hair. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or vagina. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. and certain antibiotics. headache. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. phenylbutazone. vomiting. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. bleeding between menstrual periods. depression. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. or have high blood pressure. nervousness. In lowering blood cholesterol. unexplained vaginal bleeding.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. Because of the risk of blood clots. dizziness. blotchy spots on exposed skin. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. weight gain. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. All rights reserved. or high cholesterol. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. rash. or known or suspected pregnancy.

fever. Available in tablet and liquid form. blurred vision. barbiturates. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. liver disorders. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. lovastatin. excessive thirst. headache. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. narcotics. Possible side effects may include constipation. Patients with diabetes. diabetes. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). and lose weight as part of their treatment. confusion. itching. lightsensitivity. impotence. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Patients with liver or kidney disease. and liver disease. irregular heartbeat. dizziness. fainting. diarrhea. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. kidney disease. ringing in the ears. nausea. It reduces water and salt in the body. or various blood-thinning drugs. also known as a diuretic. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. with dosage based on body weight. gout. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. congestive heart failure. or sleepiness. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet.weeks of treatment. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. or blurred vision. muscle or joint pain. skin rash. Children may take this drug. nausea. indigestion. h eadache. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. diarrhea. dizziness. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. lupus erythematosus. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. vomiting. but it does appear in breast milk. gallbladder disease. thyroid problems. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. impotence. Possible side effects include constipation. exercise. skin rash. hives. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). or other abdominal problems. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. .

stomach acid decreases. or probenecid. rapid or slow heartbeat. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Famotidine Famotidine. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. pentoxifylline. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. Relief of symptoms may take several days. hair loss. impotence. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. Less common are diarrhea. All rights reserved. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. seizures. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. both taken orally. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. dizziness. joint or muscle pain. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. pancrelipase. anxiety. When histamine action is blocked. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. and also in a liquid form that is injected. or sleepiness. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. It is available in tablet and liquid form. Overdosage can cause confusion. ketoconazole. . All rights reserved. skin rash or itching. among other effects. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. drowsiness. or cardiac arrest.

headache. light sensitivity. aspirin. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. blood vessels and slowing the heart. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. or opening. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined.Diltiazem Diltiazem. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Brand Names:Cardizem. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. cimetidine. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. hair loss. The drug works by dilating. thereby reducing blood pressure. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. digoxin. or vision changes. fluid retention. Available in tablet and capsule form. dry mouth. skin rash. sleeplessness. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. and ranitidine. Diclofenac Sodium . or abnormally slow heartbeat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. carbamazepine. nausea. Also sometimes seen are constipation. diarrhea. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. muscular weakness. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. ringing in the ears.

Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. methotrexate. heart medications containing digitalis. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. skin rash. headache. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. drowsiness. ulcers. heart disease. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. All rights reserved. diuretics. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. hair loss. nausea. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. diarrhea. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. with food. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. and carteolol. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. ringing in the ears. or loss of consciousness. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. Classified as an antiasthmatic. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. light sensitivity. but it is known to appear in breast milk. lithium. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. lung inflammation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the two branch es that connect the . Patients with kidney or liver problems. in somnia. constipation. cyclosporine. blurred or double vision. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin.Diclofenac Sodium. or vomiting. indigestion. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). if stomach upset occurs. blood-thinning medications. facial swelling. or dizziness. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug.

to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. tablets are taken orally. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Nasalcrom. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. headache. including capsules (taken orally). Brand Names:Intal. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. All rights reserved. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. or swollen glands. frequent urination. although most are taken four to six times per day. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. nasal congestion. Available by prescription only. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. and bronchitis. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. usually in 250. dizziness. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. sneezing. joint pain.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. Possible side effects include coughing. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. They may be taken w ith or without food. . nausea. skin rash. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. or wheezing. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. difficulty swallowing. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). It comes in several forms. although the complete. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). or powder. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. nosebleed. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. throat irritation. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication.

astemizole. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. sedative b arbiturate drug.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. but may include nausea. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. digoxin. usually one or two tablets every four hours. acetaminophen.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. headache. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. requires immediate medical attention. and phenytoin. or an altered sense of taste. . It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. or other risk-related activities. should not take this drug. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. especially with long-term use. caffeine. indigestion. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. Patients with porphyria. Dependency on this drug can occur. Severe diarrhea. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. operating dangerous machinery. theophylline. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. diarrhea.

so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. These include antidepressants. sleepiness. fainting.or 10-mg doses. steroids. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. fatigue. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Fioricet. All rights reserved. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. Phrenilin. antihistamines. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. breathing difficulties. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Amlodipine Amlodipine. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. twitching. usually in 5. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. However. such as beta blockers. itching. thereby reducing blood pressure. headache. fluid retention or swelling. constipation. liver disease. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. The drug may be taken with or without food. back or chest pain. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. and theophylline. and vomiting. migraine. patients with low blood pressure. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or vomiting. including dizziness. Fiorinal. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether.Potential side effects include drowsiness. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. or coma. anxiety. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. flushing. shock. Brand Names:Norvasc. nausea. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. light-headedness. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. warfarin. and heart palpitations. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. dizziness. diarrhea. low blood pressure. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. oral contraceptives.

Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. tablet. in fact. and capsule form. usually within 15 minutes. diarrhea. increased blood pressure. dizziness. ringing in the ears. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. All rights reserved. muscle cramps. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended.Albuterol Albuterol. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. headache. cardiovascular problems. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. and vomiting. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. tooth discoloration. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). Some of the more common ones include agitation. an overactive thyroid gland. syrup. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. indigestion. can make symptoms worse. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. It is available in aerosol. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. nausea. restoring comfortable breathing. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. sleeplessness. liver disease. People with high blood pressure. Brand Names:Proventil. Ventolin. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. rapid heartbeat. an irregular heartbeat. nosebleeds. all of which are taken orally. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma.

Pain relief begins within one to two hours. effect. constipation. as needed. operating dangerous machinery. antidepressants. Pravastatin Pravastatin . Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. Brand Names:Darvon. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. vomiting. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. or other narcotic pain relievers. or influenza. so patients should avoid driving. mood changes. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. sleep aids. ulcers. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. especially after long-term use at high dosages. asthma. or jaundice. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. muscle relaxants. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. chickenpox. weight loss. skin rash. kidney or liver problems.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or engaging in other risk-related activities. Possible side effects include nausea. antihistamines. or nursing women. headache. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). muscle weakness. anticoagulants. caffeine. blood-clotting problems. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. pregnant women. for pain relief. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. All rights reserved. or pain -killing. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it.

liver conditions. or flulike symptoms. diarrhea. should not take promethazine. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. constipation. and suppository form. Promethazine works quickly. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. erythromycin. prostate . Available only by prescription. niacin. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. Available by prescription in tablet. should not take pravastatin. usually at bedtime. Promethazine Promethazine. syrup. skin rash. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. fight insomnia. high blood pressure. drug used mainly to treat allergies. itchiness. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. colestipol.cholesterol. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). headache. Pregnant or nursing women. Patients with liver or kidney disease. cyclosporine. stomach pain. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. warfarin. injectable liquid. and immunosuppressive drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. heart disease. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. usually within 20 minutes. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. cimetidine. or children under the age of 18. muscular disorders. Typically. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. gas. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. gemfibrozil. It may be taken with or without food. muscle cramps. ketoconazole. Children may take this drug. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. peptic ulcers. cataracts. with dosages based on body weight. All rights reserved. including asthma and sleep apnea. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution.

Dependingon the site of the infection.enlargement. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. All rights reserved. . or light sensitivity. vomiting. Children may take most forms of this drug. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. or loss of consciousness. with dosages determined by body weight. ear and skin infections. and antidepressant drugs. ointment. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. jaundice. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. sedatives. whooping cough. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. impaired kidney function. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). tranquilizers. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. breathing difficulties. Brand Names: Phenergan. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. Other possible side effects include dizziness. disorientation. or narrow-angle glaucoma. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. and diphtheria. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). nausea. blurred vision. or abnormal heart rhythm. Erythromycin Erythromycin. blood pressure changes. syphilis. skin rash. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. tablets. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. gel. and various liquids. urinary tract infections. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. or engage in other risk-related activities. However. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. rheumatic fever. gonorrhea. preventing their multiplication and growth. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. operate dangerous machin ery. however.

tendinitis. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. Emgel. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. or diarrhea. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses.Erymax. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. yellowing of the eyes or skin. For acute disorders. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). and psoriasis. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. itching. lupus erythematous.Theramycin Z.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). it is usually taken for four to . Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.Erygel. and an enema. and to treat asthma. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). multiple sclerosis. an ointment. an injectable liquid. vomiting. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only.Benzamycin. carbamazepine. or temporary hearing loss. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. eczema. It reduces swelling. For tablets. and theophylline. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. hives. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. Also seen are skin rash. It comes in a tablet.Ilosone. blood-thinners. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. dizziness. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. nausea. and most forms of arthritis. bone cysts in children. Brand Names: Erythrocin. redness. rapid heartbeat. ulcerative colitis. phenytoin. croup. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. loss of appetite. eye irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. preferably right after a bowel movement. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat anemia. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. lovastatin. digoxin. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia.

peptic ulcer. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. and increased susceptibility to infection. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. retarded growth and development in children. barbiturates . rabies. and naproxen. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.ten days. ketoprofen. possible diabetes. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. smallpox. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. and certain vaccines. hypertension (high blood pressure). oral antidiabetic drugs. weight gain. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. antacids. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). aspirin. Medrol. Brand Names:Duralone. retention of salt and water. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. phenytoin. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. cyclosporine. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). glaucoma. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). digoxin. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. indomethacin. carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. ephedrine. For chronic disorders. All rights reserved. insulin. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. ketoconazole. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. drugs containing estrogen. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. peptic ulcer disease. Naproxen . osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. increased blood sugar. cataracts.

dental treatment. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and for strains and sprains. and liver or kidney damage. These include bloating. pregnant or breast-feeding women. changes in menstruation. indigestion. difficulty breathing. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. orthopedic surgery. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. tendinitis. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). If stomach irritation occurs. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. and as a liquid. menstrual cramps. osteoarthritis. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. 375 mg. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. For gout. lightheadedness. tendinitis. heartburn. nervousness. bursitis. liver disease. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. constipation. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. headache. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. soreness of the mouth. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. and 500 mg. sweating. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. it may be taken with food or antacids. without missing doses. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. . It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. diarrhea. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. osteoarthritis. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. and gout.Naproxen. and other pain. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. loss of appetite. or vomiting. or severe impairment of kidney function. Pain relief should begin within one hour. For bursitis. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. nausea. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. difficulty sleeping. If possible. To minimize adverse side effects. dizziness. bleeding or blood cell disorders. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. drowsiness.

the typical. aspirin. metoprolol. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). All rights reserved. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. beta blockers such as acebutolol. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It comes in 50-mg. pregnant or breast-feeding women. For treatment of hypertension or angina. more commonly known as beta blockers. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. lithium. an abnormally slow heart rate. and probenecid. atenolol. It may have a negative effect on . in prolonged action tablets. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. The regular tablet can be crushed. Metoprolol Metoprolol. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. and timolol. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. and 200-mg tablets. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. persons with congestive heart failure. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. 100-mg. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. This drug is available by prescription only. For prevention of heart attacks. Brand Names:Aleve. salicylates. For treatment after a heart attack. methotrexate. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents.

Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. aspirin. aminophylline. and decreased sexual desire. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. insulin. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . diltiazem. calcium channel blockers. cold h ands and feet. theophyllinevenlafaxine. . oral antidiabetic drugs. oral hypoglycemic drugs. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. and verapamil. albuterol. reserpine. which may trigger pain and inflammation. cimetidine. hydralazine. fluoxetine. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. and tendinitis. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. tranquilizers. amiodarone. furosemide. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. slow heart rate. fatigue. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. clonidine. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. chlorpromazine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. digoxin. osteoarthritis. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Lopressor. nifedipine. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug.driving or other risk-related activities. lightheadedness. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. gout. epinephrine. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days.

Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. methotrexate. and vomiting. diarrhea. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ulceration. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . To avoid adverse side effects.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. Etodolac Etodolac. itching. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. constipation. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. or a severe impairment of kidney function. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. such as aspirin. nausea. sulfinpyrazone. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. mouth sores. b eta blockers. All rights reserved. Etodolac is available only by prescription. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. anticoagulants. relieving swelling and stiffness. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. lithium. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. enoxaparin. depression. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. skin rash. indigestion. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. and bleeding. ringing in the ears. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. dizziness. or with a prescribed antacid. indomethacin. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. sleep disturbances. headache. with meals. valproic acid. aspirin. hives. should not take this drug. and warfarin.

diuretics. anemia. All rights reserved. dizziness. but it can be taken with food. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. fluid retention. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. Possible side effects include drowsiness. fever. tendinitis. diarrhea. bursitis. and menstrual cramps. indigestion. drug used to reduce the inflammation. fainting. and it may appear in breast milk. and suppository form. fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . blood-thinning medications. tablet. or muscle weakness. and nausea. nausea. ringing in the ears. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. indigestion. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. skin rash. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. and digoxin. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. depression. Patients with kidney or liver problems. with increased blood flow during menstruation. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. rapid heartbeat. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. sweating. milk.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. constipation.stomach upset. insomnia. headache. peptic ulcer. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. heart disease. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication.

blood supply to the heart muscle improves. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insulin.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. workload on the heart is reduced. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). and patients with ulcers. bleeding disorders. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. patients with allergies to the drug. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Breast-feeding women. steroids. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . As a result. For long-term prevention of angina. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen.4 mg from a spray container. impaired kidney function. one 1 .5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. verapamil. aspirin. lithium. phenytoin. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. applied on or under the tongue. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. nifedipine. and chest pain is alleviated. For prevention of angina. If necessary. All rights reserved. and diuretics. or one metered dose of 0. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain).15 to 0. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes.

5 -inch (7. Nitrocine Transdermal. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. Warfarin . Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. hyperthyroidism. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. acetylcysteine. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. All rights reserved. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. diltiazem. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. Nitrocap TD. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. headache. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. antihypertensive drugs. rather. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and coughs.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. rapid heart rate. recent head trauma. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. or a 0. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. aspirin. sudden drop in blood pressure . It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. and heart palpitations. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. colds. To maintain its effectiveness. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. heparin.

and hypertension (high blood pressure). a blood disorder. severe allergies. or recent surgery should not use this drug. For this reason. any infectious disease. asparagus. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. Verapamil Verapamil. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. Other side effects may include diarrhea. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. an aneurysm. headache. or intestinal problems. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. puncture. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. nausea. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. discolored (purplish) toes. After the first two to three days. s kin inflammation. All rights reserved. and ibuprofen (Advil. and bacon. fish. acetaminophen (Tylenol). hair loss. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. Verapamil works by . warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. cauliflower. joint pain. Patients with peptic ulcers. Motrin). impaired liver or kidney function. a heart-related infection. fever.Warfarin. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. chest pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. difficulty swallowing. beef liver. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or gangrene. cut. difficulty breathing. or patients with high blood pressure. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. Classified as an anticoagulant. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). some forms of irregular heartbeat. diabetes. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. ulcerative colitis. or swelling.

or s low heartbeat. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. and various diuretics. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. phenobarbital. Terazosin Terazosin . Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. hair loss. ringing in the ears. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . dry mouth. and in me n. rifampin. lithium. cimetidine.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. phenytoin. nausea. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. theophylline. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. Brand Names:Calan. taken in three or four doses. cyclosporine. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. thereby lowering blood pressure. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. skin rash. and it does appear in breast milk. Available in tablet and capsule form. congestive heart failure. sleepiness. fatigue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Isoptin. light sensitivity. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. fluid retention. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. an injectable solution is also available. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. headache. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. prostate gland enlargement. abnormally low blood pressure. All rights reserved. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. aspirin. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. digoxin. impotence. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. with meals and at bedtime with food. or congestive heart failure. constipation. carbamazepine.

Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). which influence salt and water retention. fluid retention. operating dangerous machinery. All rights reserved. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. drug used to control high blood pressure. . Capsules are taken orally with or without food. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. even when symptoms are relieved. fainting. taken in one or two doses. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. or blurred vision. stuffy nose. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. dizziness. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. it should be taken regularly. painful urination.problems of urine flow. reduce blood volume. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. headache. especially beta blockers. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. Available by prescription in capsule form. muscle weakness. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women.5 to 20 mg per day. or engaging in other risk-related activities. Ramipril Ramipril. estrogens. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. and lower blood pressure. At these times. Dosages range from 2. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. fatigue. numbness. or a history of stroke. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. coronary artery disease. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. sweating. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. and urinary tract infections. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. heart palpitations. difficulty breathing. patients should avoid driving. to dilate arteries. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

To avoid stomach irritation. scleroderma. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. It is also known to appear in breast milk. caused by epilepsy. nausea. capsule. All rights reserved. it must be taken regularly to be effective. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. it can react adversely with such drugs. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. and potassium supplements. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. especially in the second and third trimesters. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. . An allergic reaction to this drug. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. except for one liquid form made for injection. and liquid form. It also may react with aspirin. Taken orally. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. or low white blood cell levels. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. lightheadedness. drug used to treat the seizures. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired liver or kidney function. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. coughing. muscle pain. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. or light sensitivity. cyclosporine. requires immediate medical attention. heart disease. lithium.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. as it can harm the fetus. vomiting. or violent muscle contractions. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. systemic lupus erythematosus. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. including salt substitutes containing potassium. high potassium levels. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. fatigue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Side effects may include headache.

involuntary eye movement. headache. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. fever. impotence. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. theophylline. Also included are the drugs felbamate. and as eyedrops. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. phenobarbital. blood thinners. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . insomnia. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. These include. diazepam. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. four to six hours apart. estrogens.Patients with impaired liver function. joint pain. bedwetting. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. The injection is given within a muscle. steroids. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. Other observed side effects include nausea. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sodium valproate. furosemide. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. acute pain. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. abnormal hair growth. and antacids. diabetes. Ketorolac Ketorolac. The initial. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. All rights reserved. doxycycline. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. mental confusion. ulcer medications. dizziness. skin rash. methylphenidate. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. twitching. carbamazepine. aspirin. oral contraceptive s. and valproic acid. but are not limited to. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. or change in urine color. or slurred speech. certain tranquilizers. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies.

as well as with lithium. or high blood pressure. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. cefamandole. renal failure. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. allergic reactions. ulceration. edema. plicamycin. decrease in urine output. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. kidney or liver disease. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. constipation. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. naproxen. heparin. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. acetaminophen. dizziness. diabetes mellitus. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. . Less common side effects are eye irritation. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. burning or pain at the injection site. superficial eye infections. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. indigestion. and perforation. moxalactam. Abdominal or stomach pain. cefotetan. asthma. Brand Names:Acular. cefoperazone. increased sweating. diarrhea. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. nabumetone. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. ketoprofen. and oxaprozin. lupus erythematosus. and gastrointestinal bleeding. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. probenecid. heart disease.more than five days. methotrexate. edema. Glipizide Glipizide. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. colitis. bruising at the site of injection. vomiting. headache. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. All rights reserved. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes.

dizziness. . Tablets are taken orally. shallow breathing. in dosages ranging from 2. tranquilizers. These include. drowsiness. sweating. Enalapril Enalapril. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. aspirin. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. skin rash. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. with or without food. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. thyroid medications. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women.5 to 40 mg per day. anemia. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Patients with heart disorders. rapid heartbeat. disorientation. but depending on the patient’s response. All rights reserved. light sensitivity. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. The starting dose is 5 mg. impaired kidney or liver function. nausea. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. which control salt and water retention. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. estrogens. but are not limited to.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. sulfa drugs. Potential side effects may include headache. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). With long-term use (months to years). certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). birth control pills. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. corticoids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. stomach pain. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. or seizures. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. in one or two doses. antacids.

dizziness. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. loss of appetite. hives. nausea. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. herpes infections (including shingles). depression. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). including salt substitutes that contain potassium. and an overactive parathyroid gland. sensitivity to light. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. When histamine action is blocked. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. It has not been proven safe for use in children. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. abdominal pain.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. All rights reserved. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. rapid heartbeat. hair loss. and in a liquid form that is injected. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. dry mouth or eyes. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. impotence. secretion of stomach acid decreases. it may react adversely with such drugs. or abnormally low blood pressure. Depending on the condition being treated. acne. breast enlargement (in males). headache. blurred vision. It also may cause chest pain. both taken orally. excessive hair growth in women. muscle cramps or weakness. Brand Names:Vasotec. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. usually taken immediately . especially in the second and third trimesters. excessive sweating. skin rash or itching. Cimetidine Cimetidine. It is also known to appear in breast milk. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. It is used to treat reflux disease.

or hallucinations. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat seizures. impotence. theophylline. metronidazole. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. and excessive caffeine. nicotine. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. anemia. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. heart palpitations. Less common side effects are diarrhea. cigarette smoking. pentoxifylline. With prolonged use (one month or more). which is increased as needed (to a . such as those associated with epilepsy. All rights reserved. also known as valproic acid. Divalproex Divalproex. phenytoin. and sleepiness. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). narcotic pain relievers. skin rash or inflammation. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). dizziness. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease.after a meal. paroxetine. sucralfate. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. joint or muscle pain. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. metoclopramide. some patients experience anxiety. including medications for diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Available in tablet form.2 lb). It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. and aspirin. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. hair loss. and warfarin. quinine. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. confusion. cyclosporine. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. Relief of symptoms may take several days. digoxin. depression. rapid or slow heartbeat.

facial swelling. which is divided into several smaller doses. or weight gain. constipation. isoniazid. and loss of seizure control. muscle weakness. and other seizure medications. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. blood thinners.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. and birth control pills. fluid retention. should not drive. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. loss of appetite. heart attacks. tremors. This drug slows blood clotting. drowsiness. double vision. Captopril Captopril. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Patients are often started on a . Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. which influence salt and water rete ntion. yellowing skin or eyes. itching. vomiting. This drug can cause liver damage. behavior changes. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. as continuous seizures may result. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. Possible side effects include indigestion. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. antihistamines. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. or engage in other risk-related activities. or dental procedures. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It also may interact with erythromycin. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . operate dangerous machinery. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. sleep aids. skin rash. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. and vomiting. surgery. fever. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. Some patients experience drowsiness and. nausea. especially when used in children under the age of two. All rights reserved. tranquilizers. as a result .

lightheadedness. legs. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. A reaction that includes chest pain. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. skin rash. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which is increased as needed. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). vomiting. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. as it can harm the fetus. sleepiness. which usually takes several weeks. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. mouth. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. it can react adversely with these drugs. or heart failure. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution.small dosage. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. especially in the second and third trimesters. sweating. constipation. anti-inflammatory medications. diarrhea. nitroglycerin. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. muscle pain or weakness. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. lithium. peptic ulcer. even after symptoms are relieved. light sensitivity. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. It also may react adversely with aspirin. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. loss of taste. Possible side effects include itching. and extremely low blood pressure. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. . the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. All rights reserved. which also requires immediate medical care. fatigue. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. Lovastatin Lovastatin . a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. Less common side effects include blurred vision. fainting. confusion. or swelling of the arms. Brand Names:Capoten. depression. nausea. wheezing stroke. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium).

usually at bedtime. Less common side effects are blurred vision.Available by prescription only. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. nausea. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. and warfarin. Tablets are taken with or without food. Simvastatin Simvastatin. skin rash. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. weight loss. dizziness. which are taken orally. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. and 40-mg tablets. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. This drug should be taken with food. gemfibrozil. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . headache. and stomach pain. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. cyclosporine. fever. gas. muscle aches or cramps. 20-mg. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. severe stomach pain. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). diarrhea. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and unusual tiredness or weakness. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. All rights reserved. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. heartburn. niacin. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. preferably with evening meals.

All rights reserved. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. The drug is effective within 48 hours. This drug is available by prescription only. ketoconazole.weeks of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or thyrotoxicosis. gas. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. stomach pain. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. digoxin. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. or lowered blood pressure. nicotinic acid. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. diarrhea. or hepatitis. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. Patients with impaired liver function. and diabetes. and spironolactone. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. skin rash. muscular disorders. including high blood pressure. clofibrate. Levothyroxine may be used during . Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. cimetidine. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. in tablets and an injectable liquid. gemfibrozil. and for infants with cretinism. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. nausea. or by young people under the age of 20. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. warfarin. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). cataracts. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. cyclosporine. by pregnant or nursing women. constipation. erythromycin. muscle weakness. impaired vision. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. flushed skin. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Brand Names: Levothroid. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. heart palpitations. or chest pain. weight loss or gain. Astemizole is available only by prescription. Levoxine. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. which causes thyroid overactivity. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sweating. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. eyes. and skin. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). agitation. Astemizole Astemizole. Patients should not take more than a single. diarrhea.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. tiredness. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. All rights reserved. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. with dosages based on body weight. back or joint pain. diarrhea. Patients with anemia. with or without food. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. dapsone. and cholestyramine. cyclosporine. bronchitis. rifampin. abdominal cramps. or increased blood potassium. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. nausea. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. impaired liver or kidney function. especially of the urinary tract and eye. All rights reserved. . The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. sore mouth. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. loss of appetite. vomiting.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. pneumonia. Brand Names:Bactrim. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. procainamide. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. Available by prescription only. or pain associated with cancer. headache. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. phenytoin. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. Tramadol Tramadol. and traveler’s diarrhea. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops.

tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. constipation. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. Its safety for children under the age of 16. vomiting. tablets. All rights reserved. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. . people taking this drug should not drive. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. sedatives. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. diarrhea. two to three times a day. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. sweating.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. or dry mouth. In addition. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. and a liquid form that is injected. For this reason. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. Other possible side effects include nausea. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. including an oral inhalant. cream and ointment forms applied topically. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. operate dangerous machinery. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. quinidine. or engage in other riskrelated activities. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine.

It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. fluid retention. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. sneezing. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. skin rash. nasal irritation or congestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Taken orally. diabetes drugs (including insulin). . Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. wheezing. Brand Names:Azmacort. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. carbamazepine. glaucoma (an eye disorder). It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). headache. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. digoxin. memory loss. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or a history of tuberculosis. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. All rights reserved. but helps alleviate symptoms. nosebleed. weight loss. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. phenytoin. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. and primidone. warfarin. Tretinoin Tretinoin. hoarseness. mottled skin. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). peptic ulcer.

as well as with medicated soaps. The tablet form is taken orally. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. Brand Names:Retin-A. temporary worsening of acne. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. Renoval. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. This drug is available in liquid form. although maximum improvement may take several months. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and solution. It is applied to the skin. or resorcinol. darkening or lightening of skin color. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. salicylic acid. and s kin products containing alcohol. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. astringents. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. especially those containing sulfur. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. Hands should be washed immediately after application. or spices. citrus scents. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. . Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. It should not come in contact with the eyes. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. All rights reserved. usually once a day at bedtime. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. mouth. cream. preferably an hour before meals.Tretinoin is available in a gel.

Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. chronic bronchitis. and liquid form. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. an overactive thyroid gland. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. especially in patients with heart disorders. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. chest pain. low blood pressure. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. Theophylline is available in capsule. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). hair loss.Patients with asthma. hay fever or other allergies. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Brand Names: Timoptic. diarrhea. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. All rights reserved. vomiting. as well as epinephrine. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. impaired liver or kidney function. tablet. insulin and other diabetes drugs. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. shortness of breath. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. dizziness. As a bronchodilator. low blood sugar. tingling or numbness. lung disease. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). muscle weakness. All are taken orally. theophylline. improving circulation. Possible side effects may include headache. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. prescription drug used to treat asthma. cimetidine. . It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. or impotence. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. Blocadren. Theophylline Theophylline. and pulmonary (lung) disease. chlorpromazine. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. or heart failure. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. which may be increased if needed.

thereby halting their growth. headache. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. ciprofloxacin. Tetracycline Tetracycline. increased urination. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. convulsions. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water.Patients with peptic ulcers. insomnia. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. gum disease. should be checked by a doctor. another possible side effect. erythromycin. including urinary tract infections. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. doxycycline. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. and birth control pills. taken in one to four doses. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. taken orally. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. propanolol. applied topically. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. . and in a reconstituted powder solution. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. low blood pressure. or skin rash. seizure disorders. high blood pressure. All rights reserved. irregular heartbeat. or coma. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Brand Names:Slo-bid. acne. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Changes in heart rate. It also may interact with cimetidine. and gonorrhea. impaired liver or kidney function. phenytoin. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. clarithromycin.

fatigue. nausea. confusion. isotretinoin. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. difficulty swallowing. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. a bulging soft spot on the head. ischemic heart disease. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. Possible side effects include headache. skin rash. As an antihistamine. and sucralfate. indigestion. cholestyramine. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. or in infants. Brand Names:Achromycin V. or prostatic hypertrophy. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. and menstrual pain. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. Brand Name:Allegra . blurred vision. insomnia. penicillin. Unlike many other antihistamines. Possible side effects include diarrhea. facial swelling. or seizures. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. lithium. diabetes mellitus. increased intraocular pressure. chest pain. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. irregular heartbeat. Topicycline. sore throat. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. light sensitivity. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. renal impairment. eyes. cold or flu. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. blood thinners. and throat. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. vomiting. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. itching. All rights reserved. headache. oral contraceptives. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. hyperthyroidism.

preventing its reproduction and growth. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. producing a calming effect. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. drug used to treat insomnia. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. Temazepam Temazepam. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . which can interact with terconazole. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. headache. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. fever. All rights reserved. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. As a result. or chills. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. a yeastlike fungus. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. body pain. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms.

especially when starting treatment. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. increased dreaming. In addition. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. tremors. convulsions. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. depression. tranquilizers. Other possible side effects include fatigue. seizures. including antidepressants. narcotics. Also observed in some patients are sweating. . Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). diarrhea. usually in a 15-mg dose. If needed. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Available only by prescription. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. or nausea. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. All rights reserved. headache. restlessness. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. nervousness. or by young people under the age of 18. blurred vision. When treatment is stopped. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and oral contraceptives. or engaging in risk-related activities. tremors. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. or vomiting. confusion. operating dangerous machinery. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. difficulty in breathing. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. or coma. antihistamines. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. or hallucinations. barbiturates. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Possible side effects may include constipation. tetracycline. or va gina. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. ranitidine. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. digoxin. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Its safety for children. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. diarrhea. Possible side effects may include dizziness. uncontrolled high blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug heals existing ulcers. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. certain antibiotics. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. or skin rash. or fainting are sometimes observed. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. Irregular heartbeat. digestive tract. and theophylline. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. Brand Name:Carafate . esophagus. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations.Patients with heart disease. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. drug used to treat ulcers. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. Raynaud’s syndrome. irregular heartbeat. tingling. muscle weakness. change in blood pressure. All rights reserved. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. preferably with water. stiff neck. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. difficulty breathing. nausea. tightness in the chest or throat. has not been determined. or allergies. phenytoin. sore throat. Sucralfate Sucralfate. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. as well as cimetidine. dizziness. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. ketoconazole. antispasmodic drugs. drowsiness. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. especially angina. sucralfate is taken orally. or a dry mouth. quinidine. and blood-thinners.

and spironolactone. impaired vision. obsessive -compulsive disorders. less often. Patients with impaired liver function. or by young people under the age of 20. cataracts. gas. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. ketoconazole. weight loss. by pregnant or nursing women. or lowered blood pressure. nausea. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cyclosporine. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. erythromycin. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. digoxin. constipation. Tablets are taken with or without food. nicotinic acid. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. or hepatitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cimetidine. Sertraline Sertraline.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. diarrhea. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. usually at bedtime. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. warfarin. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). drug used to treat depression and. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. muscle weakness. gemfibrozil. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . clofibrate. stomach pain. Simvastatin Simvastatin. All rights reserved. skin rash. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. muscular disorders. All rights reserved.

Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. or two inhalations. if needed. The starting dose is 50 mg. Salmeterol Salmeterol. digitoxin. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. various diabetes medications including insulin. agitation. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. sensitivity to bright light. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. .Available only by prescription. insomnia. irregular heartbeat. or behaviora l changes. tremors. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. which a doctor may slowly increase. The typical dose is 42 mg. sweating. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. Available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. vomiting. cimetidine. twice daily. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. including headache. seizures. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. tolbutamide. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. warfarin. or problems with male sexual performance. weight loss. drug used for the treatment of asthma. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Parkinson disease. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. a dry mouth. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. breast enlargement (in both females and males). Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. fatigue. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. sleepiness. constipation. diarrhea. lithium. difficulty breathing or swallowing. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. All rights reserved.

Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. Ranitidine Ranitidine. skin rash. It is also available as an injectable liquid. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. as well as theophylline and caffeine. diabetes. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. hair loss. causing chronic heartburn. all taken orally. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. All rights reserved. fatigue. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. and liquid form. or taking antacids. or muscle cramps. anemia. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. liver disease. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. or skin rashes. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. and drowsiness. rapid or slow heartbeat. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. capsule. or overactive thyroid gland. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. joint or muscle pain. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. headaches. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. . nervousness. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. dizziness. Less common side effects are diarrhea. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. smoking cigarettes. heart attack.

or vomiting. reduces blood volume. especially in the second and third trimesters. chest or abdominal pain. glipizide. Available by prescription. as it can harm the fetus. including salt substitutes containing potassium. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. and triamterene. Possible side effects include dizziness. fatigue. and potassium supplements. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. as well as with diazepam. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. All rights reserved. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. tetracycline. scleroderma. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. An allergic reaction to this drug. enoxacin. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ketoconazole. it can react adversely with these drugs. cyclosporine. sucralfate. it must be taken regularly to be effective. heart disease. muscle pain. systemic lupus erythematous. The drug relaxes arterial walls. Quinapril Quinapril. lightheadedness. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. thereby reducing blood pressure. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. requires immediate medical attention.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. which influence salt and water retention. It also may react with lithium. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. midazolam. itraconazole. nausea. high potassium levels. coughing. or low white blood cell counts. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. procainamide. theophylline. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. .Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful