Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. and the uterine lining breaks down. Nearly half the women in the U. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. Instead. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. given later. Without progesterone. which starts the process. a nonprofit. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. but a few take longer. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion.S. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. At the third visit. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. Under the trade name Mifeprex. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. . In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. These include inducing fullterm labor. Typically. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. as well as certain other tumors. China. Two days later. and 3 percent aborted immediately. and many suffered cramping. private research organization. Misoprostol. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. In the United States. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. which starts contractions. treating breast and ovarian cancer. and as a therapy for endometriosis. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. the cervix softens and opens. two weeks later. including the United States. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy.

IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. They also point out that. However. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. in France. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. However. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. Theoretically. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. by making abortion potentially available in any . in a small number of women. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. weakness. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. and the procedure is not invasive. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. no medical instruments are used. are that anesthesia is not required. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. is over much more quickly. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. headache. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. where the drug has been in use since 1988. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. In contrast. diarrhea. and fatigue. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret.

and other countries. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. .000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. drug introduced in 1953. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. All rights reserved. kidneys. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. heart. gastrointestinal tract. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. a German pharmaceutical company. palate. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. spine.physician’s office. During this delay. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. and reproductive tract. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. lip. More than 10. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. Thalidomide. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. eyes. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. Eventually. respiratory tract. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Britain. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). . Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. A serious skin disorder. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. or chronic weight loss. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. and the sores make eating difficult. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Under these restrictions. Among other issues. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. when produced in excessive amounts. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. although not fully understood. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use.

All rights reserved. and decreased sexual desire. persons with congestive heart failure. It comes in 50-mg. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. more commonly known as beta blockers. The regular tablet can be crushed. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. For treatment of hypertension or angina. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. fatigue. Metoprolol. a n abnormally slow heart rate. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. For prevention o f heart attacks. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. This drug is available by prescription only. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. 100-mg. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. slow heart rate. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. cold hands and feet. and 200-mg tablets. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. For treatment after a heart attack. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the typical. lightheadedness. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). in prolonged action tablets. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons.

. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. insulin. hydralazine. Brand Names:Lopressor. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). clonidine. nifedipine. The typical. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To minimize adverse side effects. albuterol. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. epinephrine. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. chlorpromazine. These include bloating. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. tranquilizers. oral antidiabetic drugs. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. and verapamil. digoxin. theophyllinevenlafaxine. diltiazem. difficulty sleeping. without missing doses. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. oral hypoglycemic drugs. amiodarone. constipation. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. furosemide. aspirin. liver disease. aminophylline. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. taken orally. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. calcium channel blockers. or severe impairment of kidney function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. fluoxetine. This drug is available by prescription only. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. cimetidine. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. reserpine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. All rights reserved.sedative effect. Nabumetone. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. taken once a day or in divided doses. diarrhea. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. dizziness.

impairment of normal blood clotting. aspirin. drowsiness. and probenecid. Patients with asthma. lightheadedness. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. joint or muscle pain. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. nervousness. other salicylates. seizures. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. beta blockers. dizziness. All rights reserved. heartburn. irregular heartbeat. diuretics. skin rash. headache. or vomiting. sweating. Possible side effects include drowsiness. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. nausea. loss of appetite. Less common are depression. dry mouth or throat. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. or cardiac arrest. including antibiotics. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. Astemizole is available only by prescription. soreness of the mouth. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. eyes. or increased appetite. indigestion. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). nausea. and skin. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. and liver or kidney damage. Astemizole. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. itching or tingling. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. asthma or difficulty breathing. liver disease. . headache. Patients should not take more than a single. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief.dizziness. fatigue. diarrhea. blurred vision. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. nervousness. or sore throat. nosebleed. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

Digoxin. Digoxin is available in capsule. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. vomiting. Possible side effects include diarrhea. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat.5 mg per day. setraline (Zoloft). stomach pain. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. . Children under age ten may take this drug. loss of appetite. nefazodone (Serzone). and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). It may be taken with food. drug used to treat heart problems. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products.5 mg) on the first day. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). tablet. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. nausea. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use.125 to 0. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. headache. All rights reserved. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. although one form of the liquid is injected. as it may seriously affect heart function. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. if necessary. or breast development in males. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fluvoxamine (Luvox). and liquid form. skin rash. and paroxetine (Paxil). blurred vision. which is usually divided into two or more small doses.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. Dosages of this drug vary widely. ranging from 0. All are taken orally.

Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. dizziness. liver ailments. high fever. Because of these many drug interactions. All rights reserved. drowsiness. bronchodilators. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. fatigue. the maximum daily dosage for adults. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). Amitriptyline. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. It is taken orally in tablet form. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. insomnia. an antidepressantdrug. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. diuretics. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. Typically used to treat mental depression. including dry mouth.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. steroids. often once a day at bedtime. another type of antidepressant. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. migraine headaches. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. these include seizures. Brand Names:Lanoxin. constipation. disorientation. seizures. antacids. impotence. anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. heart attack. breast enlargement. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. heart or circulatory disorders. blurred vision. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. headache. or stroke. but it is known to appear in breast milk. thyroid hormones. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. these may . bulimia. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. In addition. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. diarrhea.

An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or depression. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. or engage in other risk-related activities. decreased sex drive. and large doses of vitamin C. premenstrual syndrome. chest pains. irritability. muscle relaxants. operate dangerous machinery. and certain phobias. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. loss of appetite. usually three times a day. tranquilizers. drowsiness. seizure medications. nausea. headache. or sleep disturbances. stuffy nose. thyroid hormones. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. sleep medications. antihistamines. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. All rights reserved. fainting. painkillers.25 mg to 10 mg. Dosages may range from 0. Endep. It has also been used to treat depression. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). with or without food. or with . as it may harm the baby. drug used to treat anxiety. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. In addition. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. confusion. barbiturates. panic attacks. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. irritability. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. Alprazolam. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. It should not be combined with alcohol. diarrhea. twitching. muscle cramps. constipation. or seizures. nausea. oral contraceptives. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. or even death. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. muscular weakness. coma. Brand Names:Elavil. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. diarrhea. irritable bowel syndrome.include headache.

cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. an eye disorder. blurred or double vision. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. All rights reserved. indigestion. constipation. . skin rash. Available in tablet form. antispasmodic drugs. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. disorientation. digoxin. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. including carbamazepine. sweating. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cimetidine. All rights reserved. an irregular heartbeat. and other tranquilizers. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. In addition. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. as serious or fatal reactions may result. insomnia. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. various antihistamines. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. disulfiram. facial swelling. operate dangerous machinery. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. antidepressants. high blood-pressure drugs. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. headache. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. with or without food. usually three times a day. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. When combined with rest and physical therapy. Less common side effects include anxiety. Dry mouth is a common side effect. abnormal heartbeat. diarrhea. or tremors.narrow-angle glaucoma. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. but it does not interfere with muscle function. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates.

the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. nausea. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). pregnant or breast-feeding women. taken before breakfast and lunch. salami. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. or Tourette’s syndrome. pepperoni. For sustained release tablets. meat extracts. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. meat tenderizers. sour cream. sherry. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. a chemical that raises blood pressure. chocolate. preferably on an empty stomach. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses.Methylphenidate. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. a dry mouth. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. bean curd. soy sauce. bologna. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. pickled herring. headache. liver. chianti. canned fish. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. The regular tablet can be crushed. raisins. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. 10-mg. and weight loss with long-term use. and 20-mg regular tablets. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. stomach pain. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. dried and salted fish. nervous tension. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. persons with glaucoma. loss of appetite. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. anxiety. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. and vermouth. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. unpasteurized beer. yeast extracts. avocado. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. presumably by activating the brain stem. For sustained release tablets. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. It comes in 5 -mg. raspberries. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. severe depression. .

nausea. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. Potential side effects include dizziness. skin rash or itching. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. angina. Atenolol. phenobarbital. phenelzine. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. coronary artery disease. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. It affects the autonomic nervous system.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. . liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. All rights reserved. kidney disease. and primidone. depression. or slow heartbeat. drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and tranylcypromine. and nortriptyline. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. asthma. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). Brand Names:Ritalin. including high blood pressure. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. impotence. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. pargyline. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. desipramine. and breathing difficulties. hair loss. headache. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. and heart attack. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. (An injectable. or a slow heartbeat. anxiety. with or without food. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. Its safety for use in children is not known. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. fatigue. Less common side effects are diarrhea. imipramine. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. heart blockage. allergies.Caffeine should not be taken in any form.

the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. operate dangerous machinery. However. sore throat. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. or throat. impotence. fainting. constipation. which requires immediate medical treatment. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. as severe. usually taken twice a day. continuous seizures may result. Children six years and older may take this drug. For neuralgia. mouth ulcers. or impairment of heart. or pain along a sensory nerve. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. All rights reserved. or liquid form. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. itching. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. drowsiness. and antacids that contain calcium. for migraine headaches. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). or engage in other risk-related activities. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. and for depression or other emotional disorders. low blood pressure. breathing problems. Both forms should be taken with meals. . The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. liver. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. anemia. other blood pressure medications. blurred vision. This process may take three months or more. making seizures less frequent and less severe. headache. dizziness. usually taken four times a day. hallucinations. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. thereby reducing pain. abdominal pain. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. sensitivity to light. hair loss. or kidney function. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. They include muscle or joint pain. and sweating. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. It also relieves neuralgia. tongue. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. bruises. in the jaw. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. Side effects that include fever. patients taking this drug should not drive. insulin. and other drugs used to treat diabetes.

and yellowing of the eyes or skin. However. all of which are taken orally. Patients with drug allergies. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. hallucinations. confusion. colitis. theophylline. haloperidol. The drug is effective within three to five days. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. . but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. used to treat infections of the middle ear. vaginitis. All rights reserved. kidney disorders. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. reproductive system. All rights reserved. Less common side effects include indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and bones. as well as calcium channel blockers. Brand Names:Keflex. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. the entire course of medication should be taken. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. colitis (inflamed colon). joint pain. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). capsule. urinary tract. Cephalexin. skin rash. It may also interact adversely with lithium. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. This drug is available by prescription in table t. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. doxycycline.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. dizziness. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. abdominal pain. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. and liquid form.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. skin. It is known to appear in breast milk. fluid retention. hives. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and other antiseizure medications. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. Brand Names:Tegretol.

hives. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. constipation. All rights reserved. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. narcotics. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. kidney or liver diseases. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. breast cancer. and uncontrollable hiccups. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. and high fever. and suppository form. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Chlorpromazine. anxiety before surgery. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. respiratory infections. a neurotransmitter in the brain. cimetidine. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fainting. suppressed cough reflex. antacids. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. or epinephrine. including anemia. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. diuretics. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. tablet. irregular heartbeat. headache. seizures. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. liquid. nasal congestion. In addition. insomnia. or barbiturates. vomiting. or nervousness. emphysema. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. and violent hyperactivity in children. glaucoma. light sensitivity. or brain tumors. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. tetanus. or dizziness. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. so patients should not drive. captopril. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). change in urine color. blood-thinners. anticonvulsants. use dangerous machinery. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. tremors. intestinal blockage. . or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. rapid heartbeat. it does appear in breast milk. impotence. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. emotions. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. . drug used to treat schizophrenia. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. operate dangerous machinery. digoxin. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. epinephrine. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. weight gain. and muscle weakness. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. or narrow-angle glaucoma. constipation. nausea. sore throat. tremors. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. blurred vision. or engage in other risk-related activities. In addition. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. impaired liver or kidney function. and antidepressants. drowsiness. headache. rapid heartbeat. agranulocytosis causes fever.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. fever. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. In addition to agranulocytosis. an enlarged prostate gland. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). Patients taking this drug should not drive. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). and can lead to death in some cases. an eye disorder. and behavior. or nightmares. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. dizziness. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. Starting dosages usually range from 12. as well as cimetidine. blood pressure medicatio ns. atropine.Clozapine. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. low blood pressure. a history of seizures. other possible side effects include seizures. All rights reserved. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. and warfarin.

Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. confusion. tremors.Dizac Hydrocodone. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. fluoxetine. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. Valrelease. and rifampin. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. or convulsions. mild tranquilizer drug. muscle spasms. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. These include other tranquilizers. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. Depending on the patient’s condition. digoxin. confusion. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. or epilepsy. slurred speech. vomiting. Brand Names:Valium. operate dangerous machinery. capsule. . all are taken orally. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). or low blood pressure. ranitidine. skin rash. producing a calming effect. and liquid form. A mild narcotic. and certain types of seizures. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet.Diazepam. fatigue. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. headache. and birth control pills. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. constipation. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. while breast-feeding. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. dizziness. sweating. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. barbiturates. insomnia. Classified as a benzodiazepine. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. lightheadedness. or coma. anticonvulsant drugs. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. nausea. narcotics. depression. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. severe depression. or poor muscle coordination. or in children under six months of age. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps.

hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. As a liquid cough remedy. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. impaired kidney or liver function. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. constipation. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. .Triaminic Expectorant DH. urinary retention. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. depression. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. delirium. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours.A common ingredient in cough medicines. blurred or double vision. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. skin rash. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. All rights reserved. dry mouth. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. who have a history of chemical dependency. vomiting. nausea. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. impaired breathing.

take any other drugs. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. and nausea. patients with active liver disease. have a history of alcoholism. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. nausea. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. Pregnant and nursing women. skin irritation and rash. All rights reserved. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). A cure may require many months of treatment. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. cream. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . It works by weakening fungal cell walls. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. and liver problems. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. diarrhea. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. have liver disease or reduced liver function. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. or shampoo. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. headache.Ketoconazole. headaches.

Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. stinging. If used over large surface areas. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. tingling. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. with bandages. itching. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. of the adrenal glands.Mometasone Furoate. or over a long period. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. although its exact mechanism is unknown. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. . Available by prescription only. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. or cortex. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. in areas of broken skin. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. this drug may cause skin damage. ointment. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. or lotion. or dry skin. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer.

The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. 25 mg. It is also used to treat chronic. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. . Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. drug used to treat major mental depression. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. Nortriptyline. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. pregnant or breast-feeding women. However. and 75 mg. 50 mg. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses.

peculiar tastes in the mouth. seizures. fluconazole. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. hallucin ations. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. a dry mouth. throat. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. decreased urination. confusion. cimetidine. barbiturates. and skin. fa tigue. headache. memory problems. chest. birth control pills. Depending on the severity of infection. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. irregular heart rhythm. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. tranquilizers. fluoxetine. and weight gain or loss. narcotics. insomnia. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. Brand Names:Aventyl. nausea. urinary tract. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. lightheadedness. Available by prescription only. or glaucoma. nightmares. epinephrine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. carbamazepine. and sleeping medications. drowsiness. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. All rights reserved.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. . constipation. epilepsy. antihistamines. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. blurred vision.

and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). All rights reserved. the entire course of medication should be taken. tuberculosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. and it does appear in breast milk. or skin problems such as redness. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. itching. cholera. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. vaginitis. Common side effects may include diarrhea. . and skin. infectious diarrhea. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. joints. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. headache. colitis. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. The drug is effective within three to five days. nausea. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. urinary tract. vomiting. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. Ciprofloxacin. seizures. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. bones. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. However. or rash. or yeast infection. It is also used to treat serious ear infections.

shortness of breath. sensitivity to light. skin rash. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. . tingling or itchin g. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. Depending on the severity of infection. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. and in a liquid. Brand Names:Cipro. as allergic reactions to this drug. or engage in other risk-related activities. or restlessness. impaired kidney function. which is used in the form of eyedrops. aluminum. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. can be fatal. hives. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. or unconsciousness. Pregnant women. nausea. or magnesium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. breast-feeding women. which are taken orally w ith or without food. while rare. Patients with severe liver disease. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. All rights reserved. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. operate dangerous machinery. as serious or fatal reactions can result.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. vomiting. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive.

and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. Patients with liver or kidney problems. nausea. Capsules are taken with or without food. respiratory irritation or infection. or coughing. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. skin rash.Fluvastatin. muscle pain. Haloperidol. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. low blood pressure. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. constipation. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. headache. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. gemfibrozil. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. erythromycin. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. weight loss. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. digoxin. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. ranitidine. fatigue. insomnia. dizziness. or seizures should use this drug with caution. . or rifampin. diarrhea. usually a t bedtime.

active liver disease. blurred vision. or muscle rigidity. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. breast cancer. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. depression. lips. constipation. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. Parkinson disease. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. Other side effects may include nausea. low blood pressure. The drug is present in breast milk. use of the drug should be discontinued. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. eyelids. tremors. and increased heart rate. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. Patients suffering from depression. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. diminished sexual function. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. neck. urinary retention. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. eye damage. and tongue. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. skin rash. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. jaws. dry mouth. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. . insomnia.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia.

Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. kidney or liver disease. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. All rights reserved. Its safety for children has not been established. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. and tongue after the first dose. heart or blood vessel disease. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. heart attack. stroke. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. lips. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. eyes. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. Lisinopril. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. or systemic lupus erythematosus. extremities. However. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face.

To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. anti-inflammatory drug. Enterobacter. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. fruit juice. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Staphylococcus aureus. For prevention of recurrent in fections. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. milk. a nonsteroidal. All rights reserved. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. day and night. It is taken orally in 25-mg. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. Brand Names: Prinivil. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. This drug is available by prescription only. Nitrofurantoin. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime.blood potassium. especially in the third trimester. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. persons with . by breast-feeding women. and the dose may be diluted in water. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Indomethacin. or baby f ormula. 50-mg. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule.

or any debilitating disease. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Furadantin. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. or infants less than one month old. anticholinergic medications. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Macrobid. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. electrolyte imbalances.impaired kidney function. loss of appetite. probenecid. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. oral antacids. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. Occasionally this drug may have serious. Stomach irritation is the most common. sodium bicarbonate. or upper part of the small intestine. For gastric ulcer. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. nausea. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. diarrhea. and sulfinpyrazone. nalidixic acid. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. vitamin-B deficiency. All rights reserved. the usual adult dosage . Omeprazole. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. diabetes. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. causing heartburn. magnesium trisilicate. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. or vomiting.

and phenytoin. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. . cyclosporine.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. kidney or liver damage. diazepam. headache. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. amoxicillin. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. ketoconazole. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. heartburn. muscle pain. constipation. All rights reserved. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. digoxin. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. gas. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or yeast infection of the esophagus. Less common side effects are chest pain. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. For excessive stomach acid conditions. nausea and vomiting. urinary tract infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. For adults over the age of 60. diarrhea. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. skin rash or itching. warfarin.

digoxin. preferably in the morning. skin rashes. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). nervousness. diarrhea. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. and tryptophan. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits.Paroxetine or Paxil. warfarin. and muscle weakness. Within ten days of regular use. a history of seizure disorders. decreased appetite. Brand Name: Paxil . insomnia. constipation. tremor. anxiety. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. nausea. dry mouth. and impaired sexual function. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. urinary disorders. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Patients with liver or kidney impairment.

This drug is available by prescription in tablet. although it is known to appear in breast milk. allergies. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). coli) bacteria. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. All rights reserved. or colitis. skin rash or redness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the entire course of medication should be taken. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. capsule. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. usually once or twice a day. all of which are taken orally. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. Brand Name: Duricef . The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. pneumonia. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. vomiting. and skin infections. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. vaginal inflammation. streptococcus infections. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. as it may lead to a secondary infection.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. urinary tract infections. Cefadroxil or Duricef. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. and liquid form. however. depending on the severity of infection. itching. Children may safely take this drug.

and respiratory tract. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. dizziness. headache. drowsiness. hives. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. confusion. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. taken in one or two doses. the entire course of medication should be taken. as well as skin infections. Cefprozil or Cefzil. . The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. However. genital itching. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. nervousness. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. insomnia. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Less common side effects include diarrhea.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is available in tablet and liquid form. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. vomiting. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including strep throat. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. which are both taken orally. skin rash (including diaper rash). abdominal pain. pneumonia. All rights reserved. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). ear. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

anticoagulants (especially warfarin). All rights reserved. It is available in tablet or liquid form. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. It may be taken with or without food. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. headache. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. abdominal pain. phenytoin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . with one liquid form made for injection. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. drugs that treat diabetes. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. although some children have used it safely. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. also known as glibenclamide. ulcer medications. diarrhea. or skin rash. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or hydrochlorothiazide. Possible side effects may include nausea. swelling. Additional symptoms such as hives.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. rifampin. vomiting. drop in blood pressure. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. Glyburide. which requires immediate medical attention.

All rights reserved. fatigue. and heartburn. hives. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. Patients with unstable diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. indigestion.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. as well as to watch for side effects. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. For this reason. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. dizziness. Other possible side effects include skin rash. . The usual dosage is from 1. headaches. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. peptic ulcer disease. Most effective on an empty stomach. drowsiness. The drug takes effect within two hours. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. abdominal cramps. hypothyroidism. Brand Names: DiaBeta. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. nausea and vomiting. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. itching. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. a condition of low blood sugar. After an initially positive response with the drug. nausea.25 to 20 mg daily. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Pregnant women.

Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. prescription drug known as a diuretic. Aprozide. Capozide. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. drug used to treat anxiety. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. The drug appears in breast milk. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. diabetes. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. salt. Lorazepam. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. . insomnia. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention.Hydrochlorothiazide. and nursing women should avoid using it. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. nausea. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. gout. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. and skin rashes. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Some men experience impaired sexual function. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. low blood pressure. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and epilepsy. Brand Names: Aldoril. After long-term use. All rights reserved. imbalances in water. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician.

agitation. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. antihistamines. However. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old.Available by prescription only. and as an injectable liquid. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. and rifampin. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. s kin problems. and memory impairment. For insomnia. narcotics. Brand Name:Ativan . vision problems. phenytoin. and unsteadiness. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. barbiturates. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. weakness. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. the dosage is 0. change in appetite. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. therapy begins with 0. levodopa. oral solution. carbamazepine. depression. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. nausea. isoniazid. sedatives. cimetidine.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. headache. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. antidepressants. dizziness. sleep disturbance.

stinging. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. reddening or dry skin. Streptococcus pyogenes. and other types of Streptococcus. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. For children from 5 to 15 years old. Mupirocin. For adults and children over the age of 12. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. pain. tenderness. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. fo r 5 days. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. This drug is available by prescription only. . or itching at the infection site. morning and evening. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. Less common side effects are rash. pregnant or breast-feeding women. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. nausea. All rights reserved. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils.

may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. polyethylene glycol. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. . Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.swelling. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). skin infections. All rights reserved. chlamydia. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. gonorrhea. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. One of the ingredients in this ointment. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. Ofloxacin. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. The typical. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. Brand Names:Bactroban. in an injectable liquid. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. however. and hives. bronchitis. and eyedrops. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection.

Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. hallucinations. seizures. itching. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. dizziness. drug-induced hepatitis. . redness. dizziness. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nervousness. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. or dryness in the eye. tremor.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. diarrhea. theophylline. tearing. speech problems. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. or norfloxacin. vomiting. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. warfarin. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. All rights reserved. Brand Names: Floxin. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. restle ssness. without missing doses. iron salts. ciprofloxacin. lightheadedness. epilepsy. and insomnia. pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and zinc salts. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). excessive confusion. calcium supplements. either one hour before or two hours after eating. or impaired vision. probenecid. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). sucralfate. It should be taken on a regular schedule. drowsiness. nausea. headache.

when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. skin rash. vomiting. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. and. nausea. and may include headache. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. Brand Name: Trental . It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. indigestion. and it prevents blood from forming clots. Side effects are rare. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. Because the drug appears in breast milk. a protein that increases blood thickness. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. Because nicotine narrows arteries. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. low blood pressure. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. tremor. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. dizziness. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline.Pentoxifylline.

. fluid retention. or phobias. usually three times a day. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. weight g ain. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Phenelzine. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. headache. drug used to treat depression. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. drowsiness or fatigue. or insomnia. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. twitching or tremors. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. In general. with or without food. dry mouth. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. Available by prescription only. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. dizziness. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. monoamine oxidase (MAO). heart disease. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. liver disease. It may detract from sexual performance in males.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. anxiety. or convulsions. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. or epilepsy. nightmares. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle weakness. All rights reserved.

and other antidepressants. even after symptoms disappear. It has many u ses. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. It is available in tablets. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. All rights reserved. if combined with certain foods or drugs. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. all of which are taken orally. and bananas. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nasal decongestants. bronchodilator inhalants. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. appetite suppressants. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. Amoxicillin. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. capsules. and skin infections. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. ear. amphetamines. . Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. and liquid form. such as gonorrhea. alcoholic beverages. including death. products that contain yeast. including the treatment of respiratory. sinus and hay-fever medications. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies.

also in one or two daily doses. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. . It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. taken in one or two doses. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. swollen lymph nodes. genital sores. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Patients with asthma. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. throat. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. or bruising. chest. diabetes. or vomiting. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. skin rash. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. anxiety or hyperactivity. and urinary tract. skin rash. Augmentin Cefixime. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. diarrhea. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. insomnia. which are both taken orally. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. hives. liver disease. dizziness. confusion. nausea. the entire course of medication should be taken. joint pain. itching. colitis. Wymox. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. Brand Names:Amoxil.

fever. although it is known to appear in breast milk. but does not cure. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). itching. gas. nausea. or seizures. or vomiting. severe diarrhea. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. with or without food. mild diarrhea. Doxazosin Mesylate. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. shock. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. hives. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. stomach cramps. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). headache. high . prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure.However. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. usually once a day at bedtime. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. Common side effects may include indigestion. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. prolonged use is not recommended. Tablets are taken orally.

coronary artery disease. or depression. Other possible side effects include constipation. To treat fluid retention.25 mg per day. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. muscle cramps or weakness. operate dangerous machinery.5 mg per day. or engage in other risk-related activities. nosebleed. drug used to increase urine production. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). low white -blood-cell count. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. the dosage is 2. eye pain. subsequently relieving edema. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. insomnia. should not drive. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. nausea. indigestion. especially when the dosage is increased. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. lowering blood pressure. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. skin rash.blood pressure. which may be increased to 2. The . ringing in the ears. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body.5 mg per day. mental depression. and as a result. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. the dosage is 1.

diabetes. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. skin rashes. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. headaches. weakness. upper respiratory tract infection. gout. diarrhea. urinary tract infection. skin infection. . Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. itching. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. visual problems. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. nausea. pneumonia. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. and drowsiness. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. the drug should be taken with breakfast. To avoid nighttime urination.

Less common side effects are colitis. by persons with impaired kidney function. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. swelling mucous membranes. headache. Loratadine. an antigout drug. at a reduced dosage. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. All rights reserved. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea and vomiting. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. Available by prescription only. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. penicillin allergies. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. and itching eyes. . Use with probenecid. a history of colitis. sleepiness. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. abdominal pain. It should be used with caution. nervousness. insomnia. and dizziness. loss of appetite. and skin rashes.

or dizziness. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. pain medication. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. In the late 1940s. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. tranquilizers. such as driving. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. itraconazole. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). muscle relaxants. drowsiness.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. a class of antidepressants. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. narcotics. headache. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. clarithromycin. barbiturates. An analgesic. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. and activities requiring mechanical skills. also called methadon. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. or tricyclic antidepressants. . Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. can increase the side effects of loratadine. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood.

light sensitivity. dizziness. It is typically prescribed for five days. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. Available in capsule form. and urinary tract infections. . or yeast infection. Certain ailments. hives. which interferes with breathing. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. diarrhea. headache. nausea. u nless approved by a doctor. Azithromycin. which kills the bacteria. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. Less common are chest pain. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. drowsiness. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. or vomiting.Unlike heroin. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. skin infections. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. and anaphylaxis. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). In typical methadone therapy. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. Because methadone itself is addictive. pneumonia. jaundice.” Taken in large doses. some patients continue to be treated for many years. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). a severe form of diarrhea. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. such as sexually transmitted diseases. in digestion. bronchitis.

It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. Benazepril. and lithium. should use this drug with caution. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. especially those that help the body retain potassium. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. but must be taken regularly to be effective. Patients with certain medical conditions. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). phenytoin. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. digoxin. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. triazolam. All rights reserved. . Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). cyclosporine. drug used to control high blood pressure. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. This usually takes several weeks. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. even after symptoms are relieved. and warfarin. hexobarbital. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole).Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. lovastatin. which influence salt and water retention.

or muscle cramps. fatigue. pneumonia. nausea. Children may take this drug. fluid retention. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. headache. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. constipation. urinary tract infections. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. the entire course of medication should be taken. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . sweating. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. joint pain. streptococcus infections. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. Possible side effects include coughing. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. skin rash. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). urinary infection. usually every eight hours. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. also every eight hours. which are both taken orally. dizziness.especially in the second and third trimesters. impotence. excessive thirst. or vomiting. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. and skin infections. . irregular heartbeat. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. itching. It also is known to appear in breast milk. coli) bacteria. Less common are chest pain. although it is known to appear in breast milk.

or blood disorders. which are taken orally. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. headache. Possible side effects include diarrhea. vaginal inflammation. diarrhea medications. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). Unless this drug causes stomach upset. skin rash. and liquid forms. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. hives. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. . Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. taken in one or two doses. traveler’s diarrhea. tablets. vomiting. although one form of liquid is made for injection. and syphilis. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). liver disorders. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. thereby halting their growth. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. vomiting. light sensitivity. certain diuretics. itching. nausea.Common side effects include diarrhea. joint pain. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. skin rash. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. and itching.

tuberculosis. Prednisone. Children may develop discolored teeth. barbiturates. difficulty swallowing. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Doryx. Vibramycin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. and carbamazepine. multiple sclerosis. especially with long-term use. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. penicillin. Vibra-Tabs. chest pain. sodium bicarbonate. phenytoin. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. birth control pills. . and severe allergic reactions.facial swelling. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. skin diseases. asthma. blood-thinners. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. certain cancers. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. Prednisone is available only by prescription. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). or bulging forehead (in infants). It is usually discontinued gradually.

muscle cramps. ketoconazole. rifampin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. Liquid Pred. high blood pressure. estrogen supplements. peptic ulcer disease. or fluid retention. phenytoin. carbamazepine. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. thick skin.Patients with widespread fungus infections. dizziness. skin rash. depression. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. headache. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and certain diuretics. Children may take this drug. diabetes. and purplish. high blood pressure. osteoporosis. mood swings. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. Possible side effects may include insomnia. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. acne. or a history of tuberculosis. gastrointestinal disorders . Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. Brand Names: Deltasone. active tuberculosis. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. diabetes medications. All rights reserved. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. Prednicen-M. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). brittle bones. amphotericin B. Buspirone. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. weight gain. . impaired thyroid function. muscle weakness. birth control pills. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect.

rapid heartbeat. Possible side effects include dizziness. capsule. bone or muscle pain. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. with or without food. headache. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. dry mouth. diarrhea. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. and fluoxetine. haloperidol.Tablets are taken orally. or engage in other risk-related activities. . upset stomach. trazodone. Also possible are blurred vision. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. and tablet form. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. or vomiting. or nervousness. sweating. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. usually found in combination with antihistamines. nausea. constipation. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. usually three times p er day. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. cough suppressants. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. depending on the patient’s condition. fatigue. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. skin rash. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. narcotics. or decongestants. warfarin. operate dangerous machinery. Unlike many tranquilizers.

There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. stomach pain. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. This drug is highly effective. vomiting. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Prior to 1992 the drug . preventing pregnancy 99. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy.7 percent of the time. Dimacol Caplets. Triaminic Expectorant. nausea. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. Brand Names: Cheracol D. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. and diarrhea. However. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. In the United States. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. Comtrex Cold Formula.

Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). and abdominal pain. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. . Taken every four hours. sometimes for a year or more. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. Blood transfusions are often necessary.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. Also. headaches. In many cases. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. mood changes. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). night and day. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However. Other possible side effects include weight gain. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use.

is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). An antibiotic like penicillin. a combination of urea and malonic acid. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. Barbiturate. a long-acting barbiturate. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. or death.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. such as secobarbital. All rights reserved. and sedation. boisterous or violent behavior. Phenobarbital. overdoses can cause profound shock. or anesthetic effect. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. depression. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. urinary tract. coma. muscle incoordination. Ampicillin. . Taken orally or intravenously. anticonvulsant. gastrointestinal tract. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. and respiratory tract. Depending on the dosage or formulation.

Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form.to ten-day course. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. brucei gambiense. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. usually a seven. also sleeping sickness. Possible side effects may include nausea. atenolol. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. another version of the protozoan. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. In cattle and other animals. brucei rhodesiense. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. diarrhea. T. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. Children may take ampicillin. Another liquid form is administered by injection. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. genus Trypanosoma. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. mouth irritation. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. skin rash. . and sometimes epidemic. or anemia. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. hives. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. whereas a more local version is caused by T. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. endemic. fever. In South America. The most common is caused by T. mefloquine. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. colitis (inflamed bowel). Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. and probenecid. vomiting. but an entire course of medication. cruzi. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. oral contraceptives. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. allopurinol. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. the disease is called nagana.

In the long term. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. with accompanying mood changes. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. and. It is also sometimes fatal. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. an enlargement of the spleen. Allopurinol. sleepiness. lack of appetite. which more frequently attacks children. . Chagas' disease. eventual coma. an accelerated heartbeat. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. In early stages.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. All rights reserved. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. death. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). and rash and fever. frequently.

which are similar to but not identical with sterols. and anxiety. C10H15NO. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. Endocrine System). Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. tremor. more specific drugs. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. . is a sterol. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). many important hormones. It is sometimes misused. and progesterone. asthma and allergies. Steroid hormones. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Testosterone). Side effects include rapid heartbeat. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). Ephedrine is an alkaloid. some natural drugs. aldosterone. and various eye diseases. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or fat-soluble chemicals. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. Hormone). All rights reserved. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. cortisone. bile acids. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids.Ephedrine. Steroids. it has been superseded by safer. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). dry mouth. with a great diversity of physiological activity. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). rheumatoid arthritis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. Cholesterol. or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland.

Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. Streptomyces griseus. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. and cholera. such as tuberculosis. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. amikacin.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. . they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. tobramycin. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. the aminoglycosides. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. leprosy. are susceptible to streptomycin. it is still used for this condition. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. See also Sports Medicine. These include gentamicin. and kanamycin. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance.

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics.Acetaminophen. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. the dose may be lowered. Fluoxetine. and premenstrual syndrome. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). Fluoxetine. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. available by prescription only. is taken orally in tablet form. After the medication begins to take effect. as aspirin tends to do for some users. All rights reserved. and for the reduction of fever. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. obsessive -compulsive disorder. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. prescribed for the treatment of depression. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. type of drug known as an antidepressant. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. . The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food.

with a specific gravity of 1. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. C3H6. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol.4° F). and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. and diarrhea. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. diabetes. nausea. colorless. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. or for those with kidney or liver disease. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture.26. sweet-tasting a lcohol. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. changes in appetite. weight loss. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. C3H6O. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. or a history of seizures. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. dizziness. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. insomnia. odorless. or propylene. headaches. sometimes fatal results. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. the formula of which is given above.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. . C3H8O3.S.

coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. that is. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. The phenols. including toothpastes. phenols. and other valuable products. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. they incite cancerous gro wths. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). toluene. anthracene.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. sulfur. from which they are released later by acidification. and water. xylene. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. Because cheaper products are now available. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. Its composition varies with the coal. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. mostly hydrocarbons. which are acidic. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. together with alcohols. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. Left after distillation are residues of . of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. Coal Tar. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. and oxygen. phenanthrene. Distillation produces benzene. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. and the equipment used. naphthalene. can be extracted by alkali solutions.

it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. in roofing mixtures. found in the bark of the willow tree. Aspirin. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. paints. and plastics. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. however. Salicylic acid is bitter. to counter fever and pain. among others. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. acetylsalicylic acid. mild to moderate pain. creosote oil. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. synthetic chemical compound. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. perfumes. however. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. and irritates the stomach. drugs. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. paint removers. Since then. preservatives. insecticides. including dyes. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. stains. and resins. explosives. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. cause iron deficiency. however. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine.pitch. food flavorings. artificial sweeteners. . because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. used in making roads. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. It is made from salicylic acid.

The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. In adults. or high blood pressure. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature.Ibuprofen. diarrhea. In prescription form. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. or rapid heartbeat. rapid breathing. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. or fever. Nuprin . Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. and may be taken with food. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. fever. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. which usually involves vomiting. Motrin. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. liver disease. drug used to reduce inflammation. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). inflammation. Brand Names: Advil. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. When taken in excessive amounts. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. and the sensation of pain.

they must be used carefully. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. called corticosteroids. the retention of salt and water in the body. the activity of the nervous system. or corticoids. in 1935. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. and fat. or cortex. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. hydrocortisone and related compounds. and the regulation of blood pressure. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. the maturation of white blood cells. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. and eye inflammations. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. . was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. protein. weight gain. Because of their widespread effects. muscle weakness. of the adrenal gland. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. collagen diseases. called cortisone. Medical). also cortisol. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. are employed for many medical purposes. high blood pressure. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use.Hydrocortisone. and diabetes.

In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. water balance. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. fluctuations in body temperature. and hormone balance. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. such as sleep-wake cycles. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. night. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. jet lag. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. for instance. . and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). or shift work. However.Melatonin. heart rate. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer.

however. but it is now made synthetically. For example. is also known as adrenaline. to prevent bleeding. In times of excitement or emotional stress. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. raises the blood pressure. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. large additional quantities are secreted. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. epinephrine stimulates the heart. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. Epinephrine. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. liberates sugar stored in the liver. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. arthritis. Alzheimer’s disease. epilepsy. . The pure compound. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Parkinson disease. constricts the small blood vessels. and hypertension. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although it is easily available over the counter. All rights reserved. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities.

enlarged prostate gland. severe heartburn. impotence. glaucoma. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). and liquid form. high blood pressure. digoxin. tingling. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. irregular heartbeat. drowsiness. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. An antispasmodic drug. severe colitis. or levoarterenol. with or without meals. insomnia. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. or short-term memory loss. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. or constipation. fainting. nasal congestion. or nervousness. dizziness. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. and is taken orally four times a day. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. They may include blurred vision. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). certain antidepressants (especially MAO . tablet. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. These include but are not limited to antacids. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. urinary tract blockage. This drug can also decrease sweating. headache. or myasthenia gravis. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. lightheadedness. Because of this. diarrhea. dry mouth. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. muscular weakness. called norepinephrine. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. In general. It is available in capsule. heart disease. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. corticoids. noradrenaline. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. nausea. hyperthyroidism. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. antihistamines.

Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. antipsychotic drugs. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. nausea. More serious effects include confusion. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. decreased sexual ability. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. increased heart rate. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. Nizatidine Nizatidine. fever. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and sweating. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. and bronchodilators. itching. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. All rights reserved. unusual bleeding or bruising. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. narcotic pain relievers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. diarrhea. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. headache. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. fatigue. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. excessive fatigue. and weakness. stomach upset. . This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. dizziness.

The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). 60-mg. doses may be taken with food. however. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. pentoxiylline. onions. The safety and effectiveness of . Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. and theophylline. This drug is available by p rescription only. protein-rich foods. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. garlic. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. or persons with low blood pressure. not crushed. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. reduced liver or kidney function. For treatment of angina. and 90-mg extended release tablets.Alcoholic beverages. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. Nifedipine Nifedipine. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. if stomach irritation is a problem. highdose aspirin. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. All rights reserved. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. citrus fruit. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug.

The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. digoxin. cigarette smoking.. low blood pressure. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. magnesium. For skin conditions. phenytoin. theophylline.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. and weakness. All rights reserved. eye. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. grapefruit juice. cimetidine. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. nausea. oral hypoglycemic drugs. For eye infections. flushing. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. diltiazem. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. headache. digitalis. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. Neomycin Neomycin. and ranitidine. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. and certain drugs including amiodarone. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. nifedipine may increase angina. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. cyclosporine. swelling of the feet and ankles. Brand Names:Adalat. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. lightheadedness. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. along with hydrocortisone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and ear infections. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. These combinations. and otic (ear) drops. insulin. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. Rarely.

Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. liver disease. irritation. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The typical. Brand Names:Corticosporin. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. kidney or ear damage may occur. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Nabumetone Nabumetone. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. smallpox. bleeding or blood cell disorders. This drug is available b y prescription only. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour.or the ear. taken once a day or in divided doses. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. or dryness. Rarely. and chicken pox infections. itching. or severe impairment of kidney function. To minimize adverse side effects. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. taken orally. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. All rights reserved. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. without missing doses.

Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. constipation. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). diarrhea. drowsiness. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. blood clots in the legs. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. heartburn. other salicylates. dizziness. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. This drug is available by prescription only. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. headache. or angina pectoris (chest pain). These include bloating. sweating. lightheadedness. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. nervousness. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. lungs. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. loss of appetite. impairment of normal blood clotting. difficulty sleeping. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. or vomiting. strokes. diuretics. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. aspirin. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. asthma or difficulty breathing. thickens the mucus of the cervix. or eyes. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period.nabumetone has been determined. dizziness. indigestion. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. soreness of the mouth. nausea. If tablets are missed. blurred vision. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. respectively. and probenecid. known or . and other anti-inflammatory drugs. beta blockers. and liver or kidney damage.

or high cholesterol. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. These include rifampin. weight gain. difficulty wearing contact lenses. and vaginal infections. blotchy spots on exposed skin. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. All rights reserved. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. or vagina. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . phenylbutazone. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. bleeding between menstrual periods. headache. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diabetes. or known or suspected pregnancy. cervix. In lowering blood cholesterol. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. Because of the risk of blood clots. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. vomiting. fluid retention. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. rash. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. loss of scalp hair. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. and certain antibiotics. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. liver tumors. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. unexplained vaginal bleeding. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Other side effects may include changes in appetite. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. or have high blood pressure. nervousness. depression. and brown. breast tenderness. smoke.

or sleepiness. fever. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). lovastatin. with dosage based on body weight. Available in tablet and liquid form. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. muscle or joint pain. diarrhea. nausea.weeks of treatment. also known as a diuretic. skin rash. vomiting. dizziness. Children may take this drug. indigestion. . or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). thyroid problems. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. blurred vision. impotence. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. ringing in the ears. irregular heartbeat. confusion. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. gout. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Patients with liver or kidney disease. congestive heart failure. It reduces water and salt in the body. h eadache. and liver disease. fainting. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. lightsensitivity. liver disorders. barbiturates. diabetes. gallbladder disease. hives. or various blood-thinning drugs. dizziness. but it does appear in breast milk. or other abdominal problems. diarrhea. or blurred vision. and lose weight as part of their treatment. Possible side effects may include constipation. nausea. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. lupus erythematosus. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. kidney disease. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. skin rash. itching. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. Patients with diabetes. exercise. excessive thirst. Possible side effects include constipation. headache. impotence. narcotics.

. dizziness. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. pentoxifylline. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. anxiety. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. seizures. Less common are diarrhea. impotence. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ketoconazole. both taken orally. hair loss. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. When histamine action is blocked. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. Overdosage can cause confusion. or sleepiness. joint or muscle pain. Relief of symptoms may take several days. or probenecid. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. skin rash or itching. and also in a liquid form that is injected. stomach acid decreases. or cardiac arrest. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. drowsiness. among other effects. rapid or slow heartbeat.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. pancrelipase. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. Famotidine Famotidine. It is available in tablet and liquid form.

digoxin. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). light sensitivity. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. aspirin. thereby reducing blood pressure. skin rash. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cimetidine. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. fluid retention. sleeplessness. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Available in tablet and capsule form. hair loss. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina.Diltiazem Diltiazem. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. diarrhea. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Also sometimes seen are constipation. or abnormally slow heartbeat. and ranitidine. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. Diclofenac Sodium . Brand Names:Cardizem. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. or vision changes. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. blood vessels and slowing the heart. headache. muscular weakness. or opening. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. carbamazepine. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. All rights reserved. dry mouth. ringing in the ears. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The drug works by dilating.

All rights reserved. ringing in the ears. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. skin rash. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. heart disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. Patients with kidney or liver problems. ulcers. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. hair loss. diuretics. heart medications containing digitalis. methotrexate. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. lithium. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. in somnia. or vomiting. constipation. blood-thinning medications. and carteolol. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. or loss of consciousness.Diclofenac Sodium. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. but it is known to appear in breast milk. headache. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. diarrhea. drowsiness. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. lung inflammation. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. cyclosporine. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. facial swelling. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. with food. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. blurred or double vision. if stomach upset occurs. light sensitivity. indigestion. or dizziness. the two branch es that connect the . Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and.

Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. including capsules (taken orally). nausea. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. skin rash. throat irritation. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). although the complete. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. difficulty swallowing. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. usually in 250. or powder. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. All rights reserved. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. It comes in several forms. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. . Brand Names:Intal. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. Possible side effects include coughing. nosebleed. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. although most are taken four to six times per day. or swollen glands. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. dizziness. sneezing. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. They may be taken w ith or without food. headache. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Available by prescription only. Nasalcrom.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. tablets are taken orally. and bronchitis. frequent urination. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. nasal congestion. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils).to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. joint pain.

theophylline. caffeine. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. or other risk-related activities. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. acetaminophen. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. sedative b arbiturate drug. operating dangerous machinery. usually one or two tablets every four hours. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. Dependency on this drug can occur. Severe diarrhea. indigestion. diarrhea. but may include nausea. . headache. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. astemizole. and phenytoin. requires immediate medical attention. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. Patients with porphyria. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. digoxin.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. especially with long-term use. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. should not take this drug. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. or an altered sense of taste.

A few common side effects are associated with this drug. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. All rights reserved. Amlodipine is available only by prescription.or 10-mg doses. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. and theophylline. All rights reserved. light-headedness. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. antihistamines. low blood pressure. diarrhea. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. twitching. migraine. Fiorinal. patients with low blood pressure. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. fainting. dizziness. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. shock.Potential side effects include drowsiness. headache. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. or vomiting. thereby reducing blood pressure. warfarin. liver disease. itching. fatigue. including dizziness. usually in 5. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. and heart palpitations. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. However. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and vomiting. These include antidepressants. sleepiness. The drug may be taken with or without food. back or chest pain. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. Amlodipine Amlodipine. Brand Names:Fioricet. fluid retention or swelling. flushing. Phrenilin. steroids. Brand Names:Norvasc. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. constipation. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. such as beta blockers. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. breathing difficulties. or coma. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. . oral contraceptives.

headache. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs.Albuterol Albuterol. an irregular heartbeat. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. and capsule form. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. Brand Names:Proventil. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. nausea. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. tooth discoloration. tablet. liver disease. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. increased blood pressure. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. It is available in aerosol. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). Some of the more common ones include agitation. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. . The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. an overactive thyroid gland. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. all of which are taken orally. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. usually within 15 minutes. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. ringing in the ears. muscle cramps.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. can make symptoms worse. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. syrup. dizziness. People with high blood pressure. nosebleeds. and vomiting. rapid heartbeat. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. Ventolin. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. sleeplessness. restoring comfortable breathing. cardiovascular problems. in fact. diarrhea.

usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. muscle relaxants. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. antihistamines. effect. especially after long-term use at high dosages. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. muscle weakness. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. headache. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . or other narcotic pain relievers. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. vomiting. anticoagulants. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). or nursing women. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. operating dangerous machinery. skin rash. chickenpox. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. Pravastatin Pravastatin . or pain -killing. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. antidepressants. so patients should avoid driving. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. mood changes. Brand Names:Darvon. asthma. caffeine. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. pregnant women. Possible side effects include nausea. ulcers. kidney or liver problems. or acetaminophen to form combination medications.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. blood-clotting problems. sleep aids. as needed. or jaundice. All rights reserved. for pain relief. or engaging in other risk-related activities. weight loss. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. or influenza.

Available only by prescription. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). muscular disorders. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. Children may take this drug. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. should not take pravastatin. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. liver conditions. itchiness. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. gas. Pregnant or nursing women. diarrhea. Typically. warfarin. stomach pain. skin rash. and suppository form. heart disease. niacin. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. All rights reserved. including asthma and sleep apnea. Available by prescription in tablet. with dosages based on body weight. or children under the age of 18. or flulike symptoms. Patients with liver or kidney disease. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. peptic ulcers. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually within 20 minutes. cimetidine. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. usually at bedtime. headache. should not take promethazine. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. ketoconazole. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. It may be taken with or without food. erythromycin. high blood pressure. drug used mainly to treat allergies. syrup. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. constipation. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. colestipol.cholesterol. injectable liquid. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. and immunosuppressive drugs. cataracts. nausea. fight insomnia. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. Promethazine Promethazine. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. gemfibrozil. muscle cramps. cyclosporine. Promethazine works quickly. prostate . Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative.

the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. rheumatic fever. tranquilizers. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. Other possible side effects include dizziness. . the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. skin rash. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. or loss of consciousness. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. impaired kidney function. nausea. disorientation. Brand Names: Phenergan. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. However. Children may take most forms of this drug. gonorrhea. preventing their multiplication and growth. blood pressure changes. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). breathing difficulties. urinary tract infections. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. Dependingon the site of the infection. or engage in other risk-related activities. sedatives. and diphtheria. jaundice. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. ointment. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. whooping cough. Erythromycin Erythromycin. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. vomiting. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. tablets.enlargement. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. or abnormal heart rhythm. however. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. operate dangerous machin ery. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. gel. and various liquids. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). All rights reserved. with dosages determined by body weight. ear and skin infections. syphilis. blurred vision. or narrow-angle glaucoma. or light sensitivity. and antidepressant drugs.

multiple sclerosis. eczema.Erymax. It comes in a tablet. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. Brand Names: Erythrocin. All rights reserved. and most forms of arthritis.Theramycin Z.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. itching. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. and theophylline. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. lupus erythematous. and psoriasis. carbamazepine. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days.Erygel. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. This drug is available by prescription only. preferably right after a bowel movement. phenytoin. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. croup. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. or temporary hearing loss. dizziness. Also seen are skin rash. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). hives. redness. It reduces swelling. vomiting. blood-thinners. Emgel. yellowing of the eyes or skin. It is also used to treat anemia.Ilosone. nausea. ulcerative colitis. rapid heartbeat. For acute disorders. lovastatin. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). tendinitis. it is usually taken for four to . and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. digoxin.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and an enema. or diarrhea. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. an ointment. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). For tablets. loss of appetite. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. eye irritation.Benzamycin. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. an injectable liquid. bone cysts in children. and to treat asthma. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.

and naproxen. and increased susceptibility to infection. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. indomethacin. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). hypertension (high blood pressure). glaucoma. antacids. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. oral antidiabetic drugs. drugs containing estrogen. digoxin. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). All rights reserved. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. weight gain. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. ketoprofen. Brand Names:Duralone. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. Medrol. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. cyclosporine. ephedrine. Naproxen . and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. phenytoin. rabies. cataracts. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. For chronic disorders. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. aspirin. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. ketoconazole. retention of salt and water. possible diabetes. and certain vaccines. smallpox. reactivation of latent tuberculosis.ten days. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. increased blood sugar. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. barbiturates . retarded growth and development in children. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). insulin. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. peptic ulcer. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. peptic ulcer disease.

drowsiness. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. soreness of the mouth. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. osteoarthritis. or vomiting. and gout. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. 375 mg. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. If possible. and 500 mg. and for strains and sprains. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. and liver or kidney damage. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. These include bloating. For bursitis. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals.Naproxen. orthopedic surgery. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. menstrual cramps. dental treatment. For gout. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. pregnant or breast-feeding women. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. If stomach irritation occurs. or severe impairment of kidney function. without missing doses. headache. osteoarthritis. nervousness. liver disease. changes in menstruation. . nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. sweating. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. Pain relief should begin within one hour. indigestion. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. nausea. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. tendinitis. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. bursitis. difficulty sleeping. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. bleeding or blood cell disorders. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. tendinitis. loss of appetite. and as a liquid. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. heartburn. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. To minimize adverse side effects. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. it may be taken with food or antacids. diarrhea. and other pain. constipation. difficulty breathing. dizziness. lightheadedness. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use.

lithium. This drug is available by prescription only. For prevention of heart attacks. 100-mg. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. It comes in 50-mg. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. beta blockers such as acebutolol. Brand Names:Aleve. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. It may have a negative effect on . The regular tablet can be crushed. more commonly known as beta blockers. metoprolol. in prolonged action tablets. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. aspirin. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. For treatment of hypertension or angina. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. and timolol. persons with congestive heart failure. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. the typical. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. salicylates. methotrexate. pregnant or breast-feeding women. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. Metoprolol Metoprolol. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. atenolol. and 200-mg tablets. For treatment after a heart attack. an abnormally slow heart rate. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. and probenecid. All rights reserved. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year.

oral contraceptives (birth control pills). cimetidine. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. digoxin. aminophylline. All rights reserved. oral antidiabetic drugs. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. clonidine. hydralazine. furosemide. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. fluoxetine. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. calcium channel blockers. fatigue. reserpine. cold h ands and feet. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. aspirin. nifedipine. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. and decreased sexual desire.driving or other risk-related activities. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. slow heart rate. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. chlorpromazine. and tendinitis. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. and verapamil. which may trigger pain and inflammation. lightheadedness. . insulin. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. amiodarone. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. oral hypoglycemic drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. diltiazem. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. gout. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. osteoarthritis. theophyllinevenlafaxine. tranquilizers. albuterol. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Brand Names:Lopressor. epinephrine. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

valproic acid. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. diarrhea. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. skin rash. sleep disturbances. Etodolac Etodolac. relieving swelling and stiffness. or with a prescribed antacid.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. To avoid adverse side effects. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. ringing in the ears. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. or a severe impairment of kidney function. hives. Etodolac is available only by prescription. All rights reserved. constipation. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and bleeding. lithium. mouth sores. nausea. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. b eta blockers. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . and vomiting. aspirin. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. indigestion. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. should not take this drug. methotrexate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. ulceration. itching. with meals. indomethacin. depression. dizziness. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. enoxaparin. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. sulfinpyrazone. such as aspirin. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. and warfarin. headache. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. anticoagulants. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg.

Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. fever. ringing in the ears. . headache. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. blood-thinning medications. dizziness. fainting. Patients with kidney or liver problems. fever. with increased blood flow during menstruation. indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and digoxin. bursitis.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. and nausea.stomach upset. but it can be taken with food. diarrhea. All rights reserved. sweating. fluid retention. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. diuretics. drug used to reduce the inflammation. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. constipation. insomnia. and suppository form. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. tendinitis. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. tablet. anemia. and it may appear in breast milk. and menstrual cramps. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. skin rash. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. Possible side effects include drowsiness. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. nausea. depression. or muscle weakness. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. rapid heartbeat. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. milk. indigestion. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. skin rash. heart disease. peptic ulcer.

As a result. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. lithium.4 mg from a spray container. For prevention of angina. workload on the heart is reduced. steroids. All rights reserved. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. nifedipine. and patients with ulcers. aspirin. insulin. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. If necessary. verapamil. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). blood supply to the heart muscle improves. For long-term prevention of angina. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. impaired kidney function. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. Breast-feeding women. or one metered dose of 0. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. bleeding disorders.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. applied on or under the tongue. and chest pain is alleviated. one 1 .15 to 0. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. and diuretics. patients with allergies to the drug. phenytoin.

It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. Nitrocap TD. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness.5 -inch (7. rapid heart rate. colds. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. heparin. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. headache. Nitrocine Transdermal. or a 0. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. hyperthyroidism. Warfarin . and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. diltiazem. All rights reserved.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). recent head trauma. acetylcysteine. aspirin. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. rather. antihypertensive drugs. and heart palpitations. To maintain its effectiveness. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. and coughs. sudden drop in blood pressure .

fever. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. acetaminophen (Tylenol). Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. joint pain. or patients with high blood pressure. Classified as an anticoagulant. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. severe allergies. and bacon. difficulty breathing. and hypertension (high blood pressure). Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. For this reason. difficulty swallowing. and ibuprofen (Advil. cut. hair loss. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. diabetes. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or intestinal problems. or recent surgery should not use this drug. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. impaired liver or kidney function. a blood disorder. All rights reserved. some forms of irregular heartbeat. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. asparagus. a heart-related infection. After the first two to three days. Verapamil works by . nausea. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. beef liver. Verapamil Verapamil. Other side effects may include diarrhea. an aneurysm. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). Motrin). ulcerative colitis. headache. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. puncture.Warfarin. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or swelling. fish. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. chest pain. s kin inflammation. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. or gangrene. any infectious disease. discolored (purplish) toes. cauliflower. Patients with peptic ulcers.

Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. with meals and at bedtime with food. Available in tablet and capsule form. cimetidine. Brand Names:Calan. prostate gland enlargement. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. All rights reserved. congestive heart failure. Terazosin Terazosin . Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. an injectable solution is also available. impotence. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. sleepiness. light sensitivity. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. skin rash. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. cyclosporine. aspirin. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. or s low heartbeat. carbamazepine. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. abnormally low blood pressure. hair loss. and in me n. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lithium. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. constipation. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. headache. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. and various diuretics. and it does appear in breast milk. dry mouth. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. taken in three or four doses. rifampin. Isoptin. phenytoin. nausea. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . theophylline. fluid retention. phenobarbital. fatigue. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. or congestive heart failure. thereby lowering blood pressure. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. ringing in the ears. digoxin. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved.

difficulty breathing. painful urination. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. estrogens.problems of urine flow. or blurred vision. operating dangerous machinery. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. At these times. fluid retention. . and urinary tract infections. Dosages range from 2. Ramipril Ramipril.5 to 20 mg per day. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. All rights reserved. drug used to control high blood pressure. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. especially beta blockers. reduce blood volume. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. numbness. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). stuffy nose. dizziness. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. sweating. it should be taken regularly. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. taken in one or two doses. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. or engaging in other risk-related activities. and lower blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. to dilate arteries. or a history of stroke. nausea. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. coronary artery disease. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. even when symptoms are relieved. heart palpitations. patients should avoid driving. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. headache. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. Available by prescription in capsule form. which influence salt and water retention. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. muscle weakness. fainting. fatigue.

vomiting. coughing. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. or violent muscle contractions. To avoid stomach irritation. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. it can react adversely with such drugs. especially in the second and third trimesters. nausea. An allergic reaction to this drug. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or light sensitivity.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. capsule. systemic lupus erythematosus. It also may react with aspirin. including salt substitutes containing potassium. or low white blood cell levels. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. requires immediate medical attention. muscle pain. . Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. and potassium supplements. as it can harm the fetus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. it must be taken regularly to be effective. All rights reserved. scleroderma. Side effects may include headache. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. drug used to treat the seizures. high potassium levels. Taken orally. lithium. lightheadedness. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. except for one liquid form made for injection. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. fatigue. It is also known to appear in breast milk. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. impaired liver or kidney function. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. heart disease. and liquid form. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. cyclosporine. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. caused by epilepsy.

These include. abnormal hair growth. insomnia. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. twitching. blood thinners. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. methylphenidate. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days.Patients with impaired liver function. or slurred speech. impotence. mental confusion. and as eyedrops. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. phenobarbital. All rights reserved. certain tranquilizers. Other observed side effects include nausea. fever. The initial. dizziness. sodium valproate. joint pain. furosemide. estrogens. doxycycline. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. skin rash. acute pain. oral contraceptive s. headache. bedwetting. aspirin. diazepam. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. The injection is given within a muscle. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). and valproic acid. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. diabetes. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. involuntary eye movement. and antacids. theophylline. but are not limited to. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. steroids. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . Also included are the drugs felbamate. carbamazepine. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). four to six hours apart. Ketorolac Ketorolac. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. ulcer medications. or change in urine color.

ulceration. heparin. increased sweating. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. Glipizide Glipizide. and oxaprozin. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. headache. naproxen. dizziness. diarrhea. as well as with lithium. and perforation. heart disease. Less common side effects are eye irritation. plicamycin. cefamandole. constipation. asthma. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. allergic reactions. diabetes mellitus. edema. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. or high blood pressure. decrease in urine output. kidney or liver disease. burning or pain at the injection site. bruising at the site of injection. drowsiness. All rights reserved. moxalactam. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. vomiting. probenecid. nabumetone. Abdominal or stomach pain. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. edema. colitis. ketoprofen. cefotetan. superficial eye infections. lupus erythematosus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and gastrointestinal bleeding. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. . The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. Brand Names:Acular.more than five days. cefoperazone. renal failure. methotrexate. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. acetaminophen. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. indigestion.

stomach pain. disorientation. sulfa drugs. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. which control salt and water retention. with or without food. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. Potential side effects may include headache. drowsiness. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). . All rights reserved. nausea. but are not limited to. light sensitivity. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. dizziness. corticoids. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. shallow breathing. Enalapril Enalapril. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. in one or two doses. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. Patients with heart disorders. in dosages ranging from 2. skin rash. birth control pills. aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. antacids. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. or seizures. Tablets are taken orally. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).5 to 40 mg per day. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. sweating. estrogens. The starting dose is 5 mg. These include. but depending on the patient’s response. anemia. thyroid medications. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. impaired kidney or liver function. rapid heartbeat. tranquilizers. With long-term use (months to years).

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. dizziness. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. hair loss. acne. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. All rights reserved. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. dry mouth or eyes. When histamine action is blocked. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. hives. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. skin rash or itching. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. loss of appetite. It also may cause chest pain. It is also known to appear in breast milk. impotence. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. both taken orally. excessive sweating. blurred vision. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. breast enlargement (in males). especially in the second and third trimesters. it may react adversely with such drugs. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Brand Names:Vasotec. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). usually taken immediately . rapid heartbeat.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. sensitivity to light. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). It has not been proven safe for use in children. depression. excessive hair growth in women. herpes infections (including shingles). Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. Cimetidine Cimetidine. muscle cramps or weakness. or abnormally low blood pressure. and in a liquid form that is injected. It is used to treat reflux disease. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. abdominal pain. headache. and an overactive parathyroid gland. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. nausea. secretion of stomach acid decreases. Depending on the condition being treated.

With prolonged use (one month or more). hair loss. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. Divalproex Divalproex. also known as valproic acid. some patients experience anxiety. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. which is increased as needed (to a . skin rash or inflammation. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. Available in tablet form. theophylline. and aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. joint or muscle pain. anemia. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. including medications for diabetes. confusion. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. metronidazole. narcotic pain relievers. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. nicotine. paroxetine. Less common side effects are diarrhea. metoclopramide. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. dizziness. Relief of symptoms may take several days. depression. cigarette smoking. such as those associated with epilepsy. and warfarin. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sucralfate. or hallucinations. pentoxifylline. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). digoxin.2 lb). impotence. and excessive caffeine. cyclosporine. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16.after a meal. phenytoin. and sleepiness. quinine. drug used to treat seizures. heart palpitations. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. rapid or slow heartbeat. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches.

Captopril Captopril. This drug slows blood clotting. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. fever. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. as continuous seizures may result. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. should not drive. It also may interact with erythromycin. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. as a result . and kidney disease in diabetic patients. vomiting. Patients are often started on a . surgery. skin rash. loss of appetite. yellowing skin or eyes. fluid retention. operate dangerous machinery. tranquilizers. and other seizure medications. facial swelling. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. Possible side effects include indigestion. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. and vomiting. which influence salt and water rete ntion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Some patients experience drowsiness and. This drug can cause liver damage. or dental procedures. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. antihistamines. tremors. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. nausea. constipation. All rights reserved. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. and loss of seizure control. and birth control pills. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. muscle weakness. isoniazid. double vision. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. sleep aids.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. especially when used in children under the age of two. or engage in other risk-related activities. itching. which is divided into several smaller doses. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. or weight gain. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. heart attacks. behavior changes. drowsiness. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . blood thinners.

Brand Names:Capoten. or heart failure. It also may react adversely with aspirin. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. nausea. nitroglycerin. which also requires immediate medical care. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). constipation. sleepiness. or swelling of the arms. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects include itching. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. Less common side effects include blurred vision. light sensitivity. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. sweating. loss of taste. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. as it can harm the fetus. even after symptoms are relieved. vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. legs. lightheadedness. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. A reaction that includes chest pain. . Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). fainting. mouth. lithium. skin rash. it can react adversely with these drugs. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. diarrhea. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. especially in the second and third trimesters.small dosage. fatigue. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. wheezing stroke. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which usually takes several weeks. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. anti-inflammatory medications. which is increased as needed. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. and extremely low blood pressure. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. confusion. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. peptic ulcer. Lovastatin Lovastatin . All rights reserved. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). depression. muscle pain or weakness.

weight loss. 20-mg. This drug should be taken with food.Available by prescription only. gemfibrozil. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. diarrhea. nausea. heartburn. headache. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. skin rash. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. niacin. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. and 40-mg tablets. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. muscle aches or cramps. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. which are taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. preferably with evening meals. cyclosporine. gas. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. and unusual tiredness or weakness. usually at bedtime. Tablets are taken with or without food. severe stomach pain. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. fever. Less common side effects are blurred vision. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. dizziness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . or pregnant or breast-feeding women. and warfarin. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. Simvastatin Simvastatin. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). and stomach pain. All rights reserved. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

digoxin. impaired vision. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. or lowered blood pressure. in tablets and an injectable liquid. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. cimetidine. and diabetes. nicotinic acid. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. stomach pain. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. clofibrate. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. diarrhea. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. and for infants with cretinism. The drug is effective within 48 hours. by pregnant or nursing women. muscular disorders. cataracts. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or hepatitis. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease.weeks of treatment. ketoconazole. constipation. and spironolactone. erythromycin. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. or thyrotoxicosis. gemfibrozil. This drug is available by prescription only. skin rash. All rights reserved. or by young people under the age of 20. gas. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. including high blood pressure. muscle weakness. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Patients with impaired liver function. Levothyroxine may be used during . Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). nausea. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. cyclosporine. warfarin.

It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. heart palpitations. Astemizole is available only by prescription. Levoxine. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). but never admitted any wrongdoing. and skin. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. tiredness. All rights reserved. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients should not take more than a single. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. flushed skin. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. Astemizole Astemizole. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. agitation. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. or chest pain. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. sweating. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. diarrhea. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. Brand Names: Levothroid. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . which causes thyroid overactivity. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. eyes. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. weight loss or gain.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

pneumonia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. with or without food. and cholestyramine. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. with dosages based on body weight. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. procainamide. or increased blood potassium. and traveler’s diarrhea. phenytoin. Patients with anemia. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. or pain associated with cancer. bronchitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. rifampin. diarrhea. abdominal cramps. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. especially of the urinary tract and eye. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. . Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. back or joint pain. sore mouth. Tramadol Tramadol. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. headache. cyclosporine. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. loss of appetite. Available by prescription only. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. impaired liver or kidney function. dapsone. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. Brand Names:Bactrim. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. nausea. All rights reserved.

Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. sedatives. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. cream and ointment forms applied topically.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. All rights reserved. or engage in other riskrelated activities. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. including an oral inhalant. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. quinidine. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. vomiting. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. tablets. two to three times a day. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. and a liquid form that is injected. . Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. constipation. or dry mouth. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. For this reason. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. In addition. sweating. people taking this drug should not drive. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other possible side effects include nausea. operate dangerous machinery. Its safety for children under the age of 16. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. diarrhea.

fluid retention. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Taken orally. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. memory loss. digoxin. peptic ulcer. or a history of tuberculosis. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). warfarin. Tretinoin Tretinoin. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. . sneezing. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). mottled skin. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. nasal irritation or congestion. glaucoma (an eye disorder). Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. nosebleed. and primidone. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. hoarseness. wheezing. Brand Names:Azmacort. All rights reserved. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). phenytoin. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. weight loss. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. diabetes drugs (including insulin). skin rash. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. but helps alleviate symptoms. carbamazepine. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties.

It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. All rights reserved. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. darkening or lightening of skin color. The tablet form is taken orally. . Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. astringents. preferably an hour before meals. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. cream. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. It should not come in contact with the eyes. or resorcinol.Tretinoin is available in a gel. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. and s kin products containing alcohol. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. salicylic acid. citrus scents. especially those containing sulfur. or spices. and solution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. although maximum improvement may take several months. mouth. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Retin-A. It is applied to the skin. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. as well as with medicated soaps. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. This drug is available in liquid form. usually once a day at bedtime. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. Renoval. Hands should be washed immediately after application. temporary worsening of acne. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball.

and pulmonary (lung) disease. lung disease. theophylline. insulin and other diabetes drugs. impaired liver or kidney function. As a bronchodilator. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. chlorpromazine. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. an overactive thyroid gland. low blood pressure. which may be increased if needed. . the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. Blocadren. Theophylline Theophylline. especially in patients with heart disorders. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). tingling or numbness. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). or heart failure. chronic bronchitis. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. dizziness. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. chest pain. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. low blood sugar. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. prescription drug used to treat asthma. improving circulation. hair loss. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. Possible side effects may include headache. cimetidine. diarrhea. muscle weakness. nausea. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. shortness of breath. Brand Names: Timoptic. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. hay fever or other allergies. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. or impotence. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. and liquid form. All rights reserved. tablet. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. Theophylline is available in capsule. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. as well as epinephrine. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. All are taken orally.Patients with asthma. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day.

including urinary tract infections. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. It also may interact with cimetidine. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. clarithromycin. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. propanolol. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. and in a reconstituted powder solution. Tetracycline Tetracycline. erythromycin. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. irregular heartbeat. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Brand Names:Slo-bid. seizure disorders. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water.Patients with peptic ulcers. or skin rash. applied topically. high blood pressure. increased urination. thereby halting their growth. All rights reserved. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. headache. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. convulsions. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. doxycycline. taken in one to four doses. phenytoin. gum disease. should be checked by a doctor. taken orally. and birth control pills. or coma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and gonorrhea. . low blood pressure. another possible side effect. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. acne. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. insomnia. Changes in heart rate. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. ciprofloxacin. impaired liver or kidney function.

diabetes mellitus. Possible side effects include headache. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. blood thinners. increased intraocular pressure. vomiting. difficulty swallowing. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. cold or flu. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. nausea. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. fatigue. nausea. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. sore throat. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. oral contraceptives. eyes. and throat. ischemic heart disease. confusion. chest pain. headache. or in infants. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. hyperthyroidism. and sucralfate. Topicycline. isotretinoin. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. light sensitivity. Possible side effects include diarrhea. indigestion. Brand Names:Achromycin V. renal impairment. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. irregular heartbeat. As an antihistamine. itching. blurred vision. and menstrual pain. Unlike many other antihistamines. skin rash. or prostatic hypertrophy. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. Brand Name:Allegra . Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. facial swelling. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. insomnia. cholestyramine. penicillin. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. a bulging soft spot on the head. or seizures. lithium.

Temazepam Temazepam. fever. preventing its reproduction and growth. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. body pain. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. which can interact with terconazole. All rights reserved. drug used to treat insomnia. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. producing a calming effect. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. a yeastlike fungus. As a result. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. All rights reserved. headache. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. . Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. or chills. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. tremors. or engaging in risk-related activities. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. All rights reserved. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. or coma. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. depression. tremors. barbiturates. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). Also observed in some patients are sweating. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. and oral contraceptives. In addition. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. increased dreaming. headache. . Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. difficulty in breathing. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). diarrhea. Other possible side effects include fatigue. confusion. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. nervousness. When treatment is stopped. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. If needed. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. or nausea. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. blurred vision. or by young people under the age of 18. tranquilizers. including antidepressants. or vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually in a 15-mg dose. operating dangerous machinery. restlessness. especially when starting treatment. seizures. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. antihistamines. or hallucinations. convulsions.Available only by prescription. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. narcotics.

The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. has not been determined. dizziness. certain antibiotics. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. digestive tract. and blood-thinners. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. tightness in the chest or throat. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. antispasmodic drugs. sore throat. change in blood pressure. phenytoin. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. This drug heals existing ulcers. preferably with water. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. and theophylline. sucralfate is taken orally. diarrhea. irregular heartbeat. Brand Name:Carafate . Raynaud’s syndrome. Irregular heartbeat. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. uncontrolled high blood pressure. esophagus. or va gina. Possible side effects may include constipation. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. nausea. tingling. Sucralfate Sucralfate. stiff neck. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. Its safety for children. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. quinidine. difficulty breathing. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. tetracycline. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. Possible side effects may include dizziness. ranitidine.Patients with heart disease. ketoconazole. All rights reserved. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. or skin rash. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. digoxin. drug used to treat ulcers. or fainting are sometimes observed. as well as cimetidine. drowsiness. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. especially angina. or a dry mouth. or allergies. muscle weakness.

by pregnant or nursing women. warfarin. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. weight loss. impaired vision. cataracts. nausea. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. ketoconazole. or hepatitis. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin .Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. muscular disorders. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). Tablets are taken with or without food. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). less often. gemfibrozil. obsessive -compulsive disorders. digoxin. or lowered blood pressure. erythromycin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gas. diarrhea. nicotinic acid. cimetidine. clofibrate. drug used to treat depression and. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. All rights reserved. muscle weakness. Simvastatin Simvastatin. usually at bedtime. Patients with impaired liver function. Sertraline Sertraline. cyclosporine. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. and spironolactone. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. constipation. skin rash. stomach pain. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. All rights reserved. or by young people under the age of 20.

Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. Parkinson disease. sleepiness. diarrhea. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. various diabetes medications including insulin. or behaviora l changes. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. difficulty breathing or swallowing. if needed. digitoxin. breast enlargement (in both females and males). or two inhalations. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. agitation. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. lithium. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. tremors. insomnia. drug used for the treatment of asthma. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. twice daily. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Available only by prescription. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. . fatigue. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. cimetidine. tolbutamide. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. or problems with male sexual performance. The typical dose is 42 mg. vomiting. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. Salmeterol Salmeterol. seizures. weight loss. All rights reserved. which a doctor may slowly increase. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including headache. a dry mouth. sensitivity to bright light. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Available only by prescription. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. constipation. The starting dose is 50 mg. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. irregular heartbeat. warfarin. sweating. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour.

. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. or muscle cramps. liver disease. fatigue. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. joint or muscle pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Ranitidine Ranitidine. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. or overactive thyroid gland. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. or skin rashes. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. It is also available as an injectable liquid. all taken orally. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. headaches. Less common side effects are diarrhea. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. diabetes.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. dizziness. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. heart attack. or taking antacids. capsule. rapid or slow heartbeat. causing chronic heartburn. dizziness. and drowsiness. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. hair loss. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. anemia. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. skin rash. and liquid form. All rights reserved. nervousness. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. as well as theophylline and caffeine. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. smoking cigarettes.

as well as with diazepam. theophylline. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. reduces blood volume. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. requires immediate medical attention. Quinapril Quinapril. chest or abdominal pain. coughing. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. ketoconazole. The drug relaxes arterial walls. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. . Possible side effects include dizziness. or low white blood cell counts. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. it must be taken regularly to be effective. it can react adversely with these drugs. All rights reserved. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. or vomiting. heart disease. and potassium supplements. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sucralfate. procainamide. enoxacin. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. especially in the second and third trimesters. muscle pain. nausea. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. high potassium levels. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. thereby reducing blood pressure. fatigue. as it can harm the fetus. systemic lupus erythematous. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. scleroderma. An allergic reaction to this drug. and triamterene. glipizide. Available by prescription. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. tetracycline. cyclosporine. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. midazolam.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. itraconazole. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. including salt substitutes containing potassium. It also may react with lithium. lightheadedness. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. which influence salt and water retention.

. All rights reserved.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

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