Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

China. In the United States. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. Two days later. which starts contractions. and as a therapy for endometriosis. At the third visit. and many suffered cramping. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. given later. private research organization. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. as well as certain other tumors. treating breast and ovarian cancer. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. but a few take longer. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. and the uterine lining breaks down. Under the trade name Mifeprex.S. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. Instead. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Misoprostol. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. Without progesterone. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. which starts the process. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. and 3 percent aborted immediately. including the United States. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. Nearly half the women in the U. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. Typically. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. the cervix softens and opens. two weeks later. . These include inducing fullterm labor. a nonprofit. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone.

including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. are that anesthesia is not required. headache. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. by making abortion potentially available in any . Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. Theoretically. However. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. in France. in a small number of women. They also point out that. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. is over much more quickly. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. diarrhea. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. and fatigue. However. no medical instruments are used. where the drug has been in use since 1988. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. weakness. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. and the procedure is not invasive. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. In contrast. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs.

the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. and other countries. gastrointestinal tract. Britain. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. During this delay. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. . eyes. lip.physician’s office. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. spine. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. a German pharmaceutical company. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. respiratory tract. Thalidomide. drug introduced in 1953. palate. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. kidneys. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. Eventually. and reproductive tract. More than 10. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. heart.

The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. A serious skin disorder. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. Under these restrictions. Among other issues. . Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. when produced in excessive amounts. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. and the sores make eating difficult. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). although not fully understood. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. or chronic weight loss.

and 200-mg tablets. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. persons with congestive heart failure. and decreased sexual desire. more commonly known as beta blockers. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. a n abnormally slow heart rate. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. slow heart rate. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. It comes in 50-mg. lightheadedness. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. The regular tablet can be crushed. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. All rights reserved.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Metoprolol. For prevention o f heart attacks. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. This drug is available by prescription only. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . pregnant or breast-feeding women. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. For treatment after a heart attack. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. cold hands and feet. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. the typical. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. fatigue. 100-mg. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. For treatment of hypertension or angina. in prolonged action tablets. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year.

These include bloating. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. calcium channel blockers. reserpine. cimetidine. Brand Names:Lopressor. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. tranquilizers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. without missing doses. and verapamil. aminophylline. taken orally. This drug is available by prescription only. All rights reserved. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. insulin. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Nabumetone. oral hypoglycemic drugs. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. pregnant or breast-feeding women. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. epinephrine. nifedipine. diarrhea. To minimize adverse side effects. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. constipation. liver disease. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. . or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. chlorpromazine. digoxin. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. theophyllinevenlafaxine.sedative effect. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). taken once a day or in divided doses. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. diltiazem. hydralazine. or severe impairment of kidney function. difficulty sleeping. furosemide. clonidine. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. aspirin. oral antidiabetic drugs. dizziness. fluoxetine. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. amiodarone. albuterol. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. The typical.

and skin. Patients should not take more than a single. beta blockers. asthma or difficulty breathing. and probenecid. seizures. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. diuretics. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). other salicylates. dry mouth or throat. or increased appetite. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. nausea. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. diarrhea. Astemizole is available only by prescription. itching or tingling. Patients with asthma. nausea. nosebleed. or cardiac arrest. joint or muscle pain. .dizziness. Less common are depression. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. skin rash. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. liver disease. drowsiness. soreness of the mouth. headache. dizziness. nervousness. blurred vision. fatigue. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. nervousness. heartburn. headache. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. impairment of normal blood clotting. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. or vomiting. or sore throat. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. including antibiotics. and liver or kidney damage. lightheadedness. aspirin. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. loss of appetite. Possible side effects include drowsiness. All rights reserved. indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sweating. eyes. Astemizole. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. irregular heartbeat. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs.

loss of appetite. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Digoxin is available in capsule. setraline (Zoloft). as it may seriously affect heart function. nefazodone (Serzone). Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. Digoxin. headache. and paroxetine (Paxil). several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. skin rash. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. All rights reserved. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. ranging from 0.125 to 0. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. vomiting. tablet.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. Dosages of this drug vary widely. nausea. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. fluvoxamine (Luvox). Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers.5 mg per day. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. . Possible side effects include diarrhea. and liquid form. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. It may be taken with food. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. blurred vision. All are taken orally. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. if necessary. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Children under age ten may take this drug. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. or breast development in males. stomach pain. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. although one form of the liquid is injected.5 mg) on the first day. drug used to treat heart problems. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo).

Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. these may . diuretics. blurred vision. drowsiness. liver ailments. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. antacids. the maximum daily dosage for adults. seizures. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. often once a day at bedtime. steroids. vomiting. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. In addition. Because of these many drug interactions. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. These include but are not limited to antibiotics.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. these include seizures. disorientation. bulimia. another type of antidepressant. Typically used to treat mental depression. breast enlargement. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. dizziness. headache. Brand Names:Lanoxin. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. or stroke. migraine headaches. insomnia. constipation. impotence. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. It is taken orally in tablet form. thyroid hormones. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. heart or circulatory disorders. including dry mouth. Amitriptyline. heart attack. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. anxiety. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. an antidepressantdrug. high fever. All rights reserved. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. diarrhea. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. fatigue. bronchodilators.

or engage in other risk-related activities. twitching.include headache. irritability. or seizures.25 mg to 10 mg. or with . but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. coma. usually three times a day. seizure medications. drug used to treat anxiety. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. irritability. Alprazolam. or sleep disturbances. with or without food. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). loss of appetite. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). stuffy nose. operate dangerous machinery. irritable bowel syndrome. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. muscle cramps. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. fainting. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. muscular weakness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. as it may harm the baby. premenstrual syndrome. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. or even death. or depression. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. decreased sex drive. painkillers. barbiturates. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. It should not be combined with alcohol. nausea. diarrhea. chest pains. In addition. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. sleep medications. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. panic attacks. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. drowsiness. and certain phobias. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. thyroid hormones. Endep. diarrhea. antihistamines. tranquilizers. Brand Names:Elavil. and large doses of vitamin C. constipation. It has also been used to treat depression. nausea. oral contraceptives. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. Dosages may range from 0. muscle relaxants. headache. confusion. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness.

It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. facial swelling. digoxin. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. headache. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. with or without food. including carbamazepine. . cimetidine. Dry mouth is a common side effect. usually three times a day. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. as serious or fatal reactions may result. sweating.narrow-angle glaucoma. insomnia. diarrhea. operate dangerous machinery. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. All rights reserved. an irregular heartbeat. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. disulfiram. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. In addition. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. When combined with rest and physical therapy. indigestion. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. or tremors. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). abnormal heartbeat. and other tranquilizers. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. skin rash. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. various antihistamines. antidepressants. an eye disorder. high blood-pressure drugs. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form. antispasmodic drugs. Less common side effects include anxiety. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. blurred or double vision. All rights reserved. disorientation. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. but it does not interfere with muscle function. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. constipation.

Methylphenidate. unpasteurized beer. meat extracts. a chemical that raises blood pressure. and weight loss with long-term use. chocolate. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. It comes in 5 -mg. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The regular tablet can be crushed. nervous tension. dried and salted fish. taken before breakfast and lunch. 10-mg. presumably by activating the brain stem. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. raspberries. and 20-mg regular tablets. yeast extracts. loss of appetite. or Tourette’s syndrome. pepperoni. bologna. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. pickled herring. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. raisins. bean curd. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. persons with glaucoma. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. nausea. canned fish. liver. chianti. For sustained release tablets. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. salami. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. . sour cream. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. soy sauce. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. stomach pain. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. a dry mouth. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. sherry. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. For sustained release tablets. and vermouth. avocado. meat tenderizers. preferably on an empty stomach. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. headache. severe depression. anxiety. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses.

Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. allergies. (An injectable. drowsiness.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Less common side effects are diarrhea. with or without food. heart blockage. nausea. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. hair loss.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. and nortriptyline. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. depression. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. . It affects the autonomic nervous system. phenelzine. headache. imipramine. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. including high blood pressure. desipramine. coronary artery disease. and breathing difficulties. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash or itching. pargyline. Its safety for use in children is not known. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. or slow heartbeat. anxiety. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. phenobarbital. Brand Names:Ritalin. asthma. Potential side effects include dizziness. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. impotence. and tranylcypromine. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. or a slow heartbeat. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. fatigue. angina. and primidone. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. kidney disease. Atenolol. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. All rights reserved. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. and heart attack.

breathing problems. continuous seizures may result. Children six years and older may take this drug. itching. Both forms should be taken with meals. mouth ulcers. and sweating. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. thereby reducing pain. as severe. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or pain along a sensory nerve. It also relieves neuralgia. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. which requires immediate medical treatment. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. or kidney function. Carbamazepine or Tegretol.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. usually taken four times a day. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. hallucinations. or engage in other risk-related activities. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . constipation. or impairment of heart. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. abdominal pain. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. tongue. or liquid form. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. for migraine headaches. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. drowsiness. patients taking this drug should not drive. sensitivity to light. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. dizziness. For neuralgia. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. blurred vision. headache. and antacids that contain calcium. making seizures less frequent and less severe. This process may take three months or more. low blood pressure. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. fainting. operate dangerous machinery. hair loss. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. However. sore throat. They include muscle or joint pain. All rights reserved. in the jaw. insulin. impotence. and for depression or other emotional disorders. liver. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. or throat. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. anemia. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. Side effects that include fever. bruises. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. other blood pressure medications. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. usually taken twice a day. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination).

and other antiseizure medications. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). as well as calcium channel blockers. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. The drug is effective within three to five days. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. and bones. colitis. joint pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. Less common side effects include indigestion.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. theophylline. kidney disorders. confusion. skin. fluid retention. reproductive system. skin rash. abdominal pain. dizziness. haloperidol. Children should take the liquid form of this drug.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. capsule. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. and liquid form. Cephalexin. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. urinary tract. However. hives. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. all of which are taken orally. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. the entire course of medication should be taken. Brand Names:Keflex. hallucinations. This drug is available by prescription in table t. Patients with drug allergies. Brand Names:Tegretol. . Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. It is known to appear in breast milk. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. doxycycline. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. It may also interact adversely with lithium. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. vaginitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). vomiting. colitis (inflamed colon). Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. used to treat infections of the middle ear.

insomnia. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. kidney or liver diseases. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. light sensitivity. headache. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first.Chlorpromazine. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. antacids. respiratory infections. diuretics. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. blood-thinners. so patients should not drive. vomiting. change in urine color. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. anticonvulsants. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. rapid heartbeat. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. use dangerous machinery. cimetidine. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. captopril. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. glaucoma. . narcotics. or epinephrine. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. suppressed cough reflex. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. and violent hyperactivity in children. impotence. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. or brain tumors. emphysema. and suppository form. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. and high fever. or nervousness. tablet. breast cancer. and uncontrollable hiccups. nasal congestion. hives. anxiety before surgery. In addition. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. liquid. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. it does appear in breast milk. fainting. intestinal blockage. a neurotransmitter in the brain. All rights reserved. or dizziness. tetanus. irregular heartbeat. tremors. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. including anemia. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. or barbiturates. seizures. constipation.

Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and behavior. other possible side effects include seizures. . rapid heartbeat. fever. sore throat. and warfarin. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). Patients taking this drug should not drive. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. and muscle weakness.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. All rights reserved. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. emotions. drug used to treat schizophrenia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. operate dangerous machinery. dizziness. or nightmares. In addition to agranulocytosis. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. headache. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. a history of seizures. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. constipation. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. impaired liver or kidney function. epinephrine. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). tremors. nausea. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. an eye disorder. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. an enlarged prostate gland. atropine. and antidepressants. drowsiness. or engage in other risk-related activities. as well as cimetidine. digoxin.Clozapine. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. Starting dosages usually range from 12. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. agranulocytosis causes fever. weight gain. blood pressure medicatio ns. low blood pressure. or narrow-angle glaucoma. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. In addition. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. blurred vision. and can lead to death in some cases.

and rifampin. sweating. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. digoxin. slurred speech. while breast-feeding. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. or in children under six months of age. nausea.Dizac Hydrocodone. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. vomiting. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. muscle spasms. or convulsions. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. dizziness. and liquid form. confusion. or coma. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. producing a calming effect. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. headache.Diazepam. constipation. and birth control pills. Depending on the patient’s condition. or low blood pressure. barbiturates. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. anticonvulsant drugs. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. A mild narcotic. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). ranitidine. or epilepsy. mild tranquilizer drug. and certain types of seizures. . lightheadedness. tremors. narcotics. Valrelease. depression. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. all are taken orally. fluoxetine. These include other tranquilizers. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. insomnia. capsule. or poor muscle coordination. Classified as a benzodiazepine. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. fatigue. Brand Names:Valium. operate dangerous machinery. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. skin rash. confusion. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. severe depression. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. It is not safe for use during pregnancy.

Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. urinary retention. As a liquid cough remedy. depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. dry mouth. impaired breathing. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. blurred or double vision. nausea. vomiting. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. delirium. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours.A common ingredient in cough medicines.Triaminic Expectorant DH. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. constipation. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. skin rash. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. who have a history of chemical dependency. All rights reserved. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. impaired kidney or liver function.

patients with active liver disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. skin irritation and rash. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. or shampoo. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . have liver disease or reduced liver function. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. and liver problems. take any other drugs. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. have a history of alcoholism. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. diarrhea. headaches. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. All rights reserved. and nausea.Ketoconazole. A cure may require many months of treatment. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. cream. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). Pregnant and nursing women. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. nausea. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems.

It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. although its exact mechanism is unknown. or lotion. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. or dry skin. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. in areas of broken skin. or cortex. or over a long period. . tingling. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. If used over large surface areas. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. this drug may cause skin damage.Mometasone Furoate. stinging. Available by prescription only. ointment. of the adrenal glands. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. itching. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. with bandages. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer.

The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. Nortriptyline. 25 mg. drug used to treat major mental depression. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. 50 mg. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. and 75 mg. All rights reserved. It is also used to treat chronic. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. However. . Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it.

confusion. irregular heart rhythm. epinephrine. constipation. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. or glaucoma. headache. hallucin ations. Depending on the severity of infection. nightmares. blurred vision. chest. insomnia. carbamazepine. epilepsy. nausea.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. throat. antihistamines. decreased urination. fa tigue. Available by prescription only. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. seizures. and sleeping medications. Brand Names:Aventyl. and weight gain or loss. peculiar tastes in the mouth. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. narcotics. fluoxetine. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. lightheadedness. fluconazole. All rights reserved. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. cimetidine. birth control pills. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. drowsiness. urinary tract. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. and skin. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. barbiturates. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. tranquilizers. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. memory problems. a dry mouth.

Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. but to prevent a recurrence of infection.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. joints. infectious diarrhea. The drug is effective within three to five days. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). and skin. . the entire course of medication should be taken. headache. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or rash. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. vomiting. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. colitis. vaginitis. itching. tuberculosis. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. nausea. or yeast infection. All rights reserved. or skin problems such as redness. However. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. seizures. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. Common side effects may include diarrhea. cholera. and it does appear in breast milk. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Ciprofloxacin. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bones.

as serious or fatal reactions can result. nausea. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. Pregnant women. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. skin rash. operate dangerous machinery. impaired kidney function. Patients with severe liver disease. while rare. which are taken orally w ith or without food. vomiting. . aluminum. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. can be fatal. as allergic reactions to this drug. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. shortness of breath. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. headache. hives. Depending on the severity of infection. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. Brand Names:Cipro. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. sensitivity to light. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or magnesium. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. tingling or itchin g. All rights reserved. which is used in the form of eyedrops. breast-feeding women. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. or restlessness. and in a liquid. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. or engage in other risk-related activities. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours .The drug is available by prescription in tablets. or unconsciousness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with liver or kidney problems. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. headache. Haloperidol. gemfibrozil. usually a t bedtime. dizziness. weight loss. ranitidine. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. fatigue. All rights reserved. or rifampin. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. insomnia. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. or seizures should use this drug with caution. respiratory irritation or infection. diarrhea. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. . muscle pain. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine.Fluvastatin. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. or coughing. Capsules are taken with or without food. nausea. skin rash. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. constipation. erythromycin. ketoconazole. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. digoxin. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. low blood pressure. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes.

Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. neck. urinary retention. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. use of the drug should be discontinued. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. depression. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. eyelids. or muscle rigidity. diminished sexual function. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. blurred vision. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. lips. skin rash. jaws. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Parkinson disease. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. constipation. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. and increased heart rate. breast cancer. insomnia. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. dry mouth.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. Patients suffering from depression. The drug is present in breast milk. Other side effects may include nausea. active liver disease. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. eye damage. tremors. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. low blood pressure. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. and tongue. . Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses.

All rights reserved. extremities. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. heart or blood vessel disease. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. or systemic lupus erythematosus. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . kidney or liver disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. lips. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). and tongue after the first dose. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. eyes. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. However. heart attack. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. stroke. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for children has not been established. Lisinopril. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril.

milk. Nitrofurantoin. or baby f ormula. persons with . it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. especially in the third trimester. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. 50-mg. Staphylococcus aureus. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. All rights reserved. fruit juice. Brand Names: Prinivil. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. Enterobacter. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided.blood potassium. by breast-feeding women. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. It is taken orally in 25-mg. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. Indomethacin. This drug is available by prescription only. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. day and night. a nonsteroidal. and the dose may be diluted in water. For prevention of recurrent in fections. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. anti-inflammatory drug. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours.

the usual adult dosage . drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. Stomach irritation is the most common. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. loss of appetite. sodium bicarbonate. or upper part of the small intestine. Brand Names:Furadantin. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. For gastric ulcer. anticholinergic medications. magnesium trisilicate. nausea. Macrobid. diarrhea. vitamin-B deficiency. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or any debilitating disease. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. causing heartburn. All rights reserved. or vomiting. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. electrolyte imbalances. Occasionally this drug may have serious.impaired kidney function. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. and sulfinpyrazone. oral antacids. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. Omeprazole. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. diabetes. nalidixic acid. probenecid. or infants less than one month old. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus.

gas. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. heartburn. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. Less common side effects are chest pain. warfarin. For adults over the age of 60. cyclosporine. dizziness. constipation. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. muscle pain. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. urinary tract infection.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. diazepam. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. For excessive stomach acid conditions. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. and phenytoin. amoxicillin. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. diarrhea. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ketoconazole. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. headache. pregnant or breast-feeding women. skin rash or itching. nausea and vomiting. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. kidney or liver damage. or yeast infection of the esophagus. . and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. digoxin.

skin rashes. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. insomnia. tremor. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. Within ten days of regular use. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. and tryptophan. and muscle weakness. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. and impaired sexual function. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. nervousness. anxiety. diarrhea. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. urinary disorders. warfarin. a history of seizure disorders. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. digoxin. nausea.Paroxetine or Paxil. decreased appetite. dry mouth. preferably in the morning. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. Brand Name: Paxil . constipation.

vaginal inflammation. All rights reserved. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. the entire course of medication should be taken. although it is known to appear in breast milk. depending on the severity of infection. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Brand Name: Duricef . and liquid form. usually once or twice a day. itching. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. Children may safely take this drug. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. streptococcus infections. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. allergies.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Cefadroxil or Duricef. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. and skin infections. skin rash or redness. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. urinary tract infections. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. or colitis. coli) bacteria. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). pneumonia. all of which are taken orally. capsule. as it may lead to a secondary infection. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. however. vomiting. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended.

The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). as well as skin infections. pneumonia. which are both taken orally. taken in one or two doses. abdominal pain. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. . and yellowing of the eyes and skin. insomnia. dizziness.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. and respiratory tract. as it may lead to a secondary infection. genital itching. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. All rights reserved. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. headache. Cefprozil or Cefzil. However. including strep throat. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Less common side effects include diarrhea. the entire course of medication should be taken. confusion. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. nervousness. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. vomiting. It is available in tablet and liquid form. ear. skin rash (including diaper rash). drowsiness. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. hives.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

which requires immediate medical attention. Additional symptoms such as hives. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. headache. abdominal pain. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. diarrhea. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). although some children have used it safely. or hydrochlorothiazide. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. rifampin. drugs that treat diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. also known as glibenclamide. Glyburide. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. with one liquid form made for injection. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. It may be taken with or without food. All rights reserved. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. vomiting.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. Possible side effects may include nausea. It is available in tablet or liquid form. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. swelling. drop in blood pressure. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. phenytoin. ulcer medications. or skin rash.

those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. nausea and vomiting. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug takes effect within two hours. After an initially positive response with the drug. indigestion. peptic ulcer disease. and heartburn. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. hypothyroidism. itching. a condition of low blood sugar. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. Most effective on an empty stomach. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia.25 to 20 mg daily. headaches. as well as to watch for side effects. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with unstable diabetes. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Brand Names: DiaBeta. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. Pregnant women. The usual dosage is from 1. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. dizziness. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. drowsiness. nausea. Other possible side effects include skin rash. For this reason. hives. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. All rights reserved. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. fatigue.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. abdominal cramps. .

It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. Capozide. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. and epilepsy. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). and nursing women should avoid using it. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. imbalances in water. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). gout. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. The drug appears in breast milk. After long-term use. prescription drug known as a diuretic. All rights reserved. low blood pressure. salt. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. diabetes. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Lorazepam. Aprozide. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. drug used to treat anxiety. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and skin rashes.Hydrochlorothiazide. . Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. Some men experience impaired sexual function. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. nausea. insomnia. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Brand Names: Aldoril.

Available by prescription only. and rifampin. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. levodopa. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. For insomnia. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. and as an injectable liquid. antidepressants. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. isoniazid. oral solution. sedatives. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. depression. vision problems. barbiturates. therapy begins with 0. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. cimetidine. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. headache. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. carbamazepine. dizziness. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. and memory impairment. nausea. weakness. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. s kin problems. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. the dosage is 0. Brand Name:Ativan . However. sleep disturbance. and unsteadiness.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. agitation. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. antihistamines. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. change in appetite. narcotics. phenytoin.

fo r 5 days. Less common side effects are rash. morning and evening. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. pregnant or breast-feeding women. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. For adults and children over the age of 12. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. nausea. All rights reserved. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or itching at the infection site. reddening or dry skin. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. and other types of Streptococcus. Streptococcus pyogenes. . stinging. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. tenderness. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. For children from 5 to 15 years old. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. Mupirocin. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. This drug is available by prescription only. pain.

One of the ingredients in this ointment. All rights reserved. however. Brand Names:Bactroban. and hives. skin infections. bronchitis. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. The typical. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). chlamydia. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. gonorrhea. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. . Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. Ofloxacin.swelling. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. polyethylene glycol. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. and eyedrops. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. in an injectable liquid.

calcium supplements. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. dizziness. theophylline. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. hallucinations. or norfloxacin. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. It should be taken on a regular schedule. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. either one hour before or two hours after eating. ciprofloxacin. All rights reserved. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. drug-induced hepatitis. headache. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. excessive confusion. dizziness. or dryness in the eye. seizures. redness. lightheadedness. iron salts. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). tremor. vomiting. restle ssness. nausea. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). . or impaired vision. and zinc salts. diarrhea. itching. epilepsy. without missing doses. warfarin. and insomnia. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. sucralfate. tearing. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. probenecid. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names: Floxin. speech problems. nervousness. drowsiness.

tremor. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. and may include headache. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. indigestion. skin rash. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. dizziness. Brand Name: Trental . nausea. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester.Pentoxifylline. and. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. Because nicotine narrows arteries. and it prevents blood from forming clots. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. low blood pressure. a protein that increases blood thickness. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. Side effects are rare. Because the drug appears in breast milk. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. vomiting.

nightmares. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. drug used to treat depression. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dry mouth. Phenelzine. usually three times a day. In general. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. weight g ain. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. liver disease. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. muscle weakness. All rights reserved. dizziness. or epilepsy. or phobias. or insomnia. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. Available by prescription only. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. . Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. heart disease. drowsiness or fatigue. with or without food. twitching or tremors. headache. anxiety. or convulsions. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. monoamine oxidase (MAO). fluid retention. It may detract from sexual performance in males.

although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. and other antidepressants. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. including the treatment of respiratory. . as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. capsules. It has many u ses.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. and bananas. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. even after symptoms disappear. all of which are taken orally. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. if combined with certain foods or drugs. amphetamines. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. sinus and hay-fever medications. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. and liquid form. ear. and skin infections. alcoholic beverages. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. Amoxicillin. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. All rights reserved. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. bronchodilator inhalants. nasal decongestants. products that contain yeast. It is available in tablets. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. such as gonorrhea. including death. appetite suppressants.

in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. also in one or two daily doses. confusion. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). It is also used to treat gonorrhea. which are both taken orally. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. anxiety or hyperactivity. dizziness. skin rash. chest. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. genital sores. Brand Names:Amoxil. hives. or bruising. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. Wymox. diarrhea.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. swollen lymph nodes. and urinary tract. Augmentin Cefixime. or vomiting. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. skin rash. throat. liver disease. Patients with asthma. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. diabetes. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. itching. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. insomnia. colitis. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. taken in one or two doses. nausea. the entire course of medication should be taken. . Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. joint pain. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach.

or seizures. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. mild diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually once a day at bedtime. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. prolonged use is not recommended. itching. severe diarrhea. Common side effects may include indigestion. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. skin rash. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. but does not cure. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. All rights reserved. gas. although it is known to appear in breast milk. Tablets are taken orally. with or without food. headache.However. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. or vomiting. fever. stomach cramps. shock. hives. Doxazosin Mesylate. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. high . Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. as it may lead to a secondary infection.

Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. or depression.blood pressure. insomnia. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. lowering blood pressure. indigestion.25 mg per day. especially when the dosage is increased.5 mg per day. nausea. drug used to increase urine production. low white -blood-cell count. eye pain. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. muscle cramps or weakness. The . subsequently relieving edema. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness.5 mg per day. Other possible side effects include constipation. should not drive. the dosage is 2. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. mental depression. ringing in the ears. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. nosebleed. and as a result. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. coronary artery disease. To treat fluid retention. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. which may be increased to 2. skin rash. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). which may be increased to 5 mg per day. the dosage is 1. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. operate dangerous machinery. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. or engage in other risk-related activities.

Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. urinary tract infection. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. diabetes. visual problems.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. weakness. skin rashes. diarrhea. . upper respiratory tract infection. pneumonia. gout. nausea. skin infection. itching. and drowsiness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. To avoid nighttime urination. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . the drug should be taken with breakfast. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. headaches.

The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. Loratadine. and itching eyes. swelling mucous membranes. All rights reserved. at a reduced dosage. penicillin allergies. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. It should be used with caution. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. insomnia. nervousness. Less common side effects are colitis. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. an antigout drug. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Available by prescription only. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. and skin rashes. . loss of appetite. sleepiness. nausea and vomiting. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. Use with probenecid. headache. a history of colitis. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. and dizziness. abdominal pain. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. by persons with impaired kidney function.

or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. or tricyclic antidepressants.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. a class of antidepressants. pain medication. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). drowsiness. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. tranquilizers. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. An analgesic. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. itraconazole. headache. clarithromycin. muscle relaxants. such as driving. . barbiturates. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. narcotics. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. can increase the side effects of loratadine. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. also called methadon. or dizziness. and activities requiring mechanical skills. In the late 1940s. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction.

azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. some patients continue to be treated for many years. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). in digestion. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. or yeast infection. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. such as sexually transmitted diseases. skin infections. dizziness. u nless approved by a doctor. In typical methadone therapy. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). drowsiness. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. which kills the bacteria. and urinary tract infections. It is typically prescribed for five days. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. pneumonia. hives. a severe form of diarrhea. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. Available in capsule form. .” Taken in large doses. nausea. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. diarrhea. Certain ailments. light sensitivity. Because methadone itself is addictive. and anaphylaxis. jaundice. bronchitis. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. Azithromycin. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. headache. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain.Unlike heroin. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. which interferes with breathing. or vomiting. Less common are chest pain. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter.

even after symptoms are relieved. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. This usually takes several weeks. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. and lithium. should use this drug with caution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). . Patients with certain medical conditions. All rights reserved. digoxin. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. and warfarin. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. lovastatin. phenytoin. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. but must be taken regularly to be effective. cyclosporine. especially those that help the body retain potassium.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. which influence salt and water retention. triazolam. drug used to control high blood pressure. Benazepril. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. hexobarbital.

urinary infection. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . although it is known to appear in breast milk. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. the entire course of medication should be taken.especially in the second and third trimesters. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. . Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). nausea. Less common are chest pain. irregular heartbeat. urinary tract infections. or vomiting. pneumonia. Possible side effects include coughing. It also is known to appear in breast milk. and skin infections. which are both taken orally. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Children may take this drug. headache. itching. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. usually every eight hours. also every eight hours. impotence. constipation. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. excessive thirst. streptococcus infections. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. joint pain. coli) bacteria. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. fatigue. sweating. or muscle cramps. skin rash. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. dizziness. fluid retention.

headache. and itching. nausea. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. liver disorders. vomiting. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. diarrhea medications. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. taken in one or two doses. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. light sensitivity. vomiting. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. skin rash. which are taken orally. joint pain. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. although one form of liquid is made for injection. and syphilis. vaginal inflammation. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. itching. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. thereby halting their growth. tablets. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. skin rash. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug.Common side effects include diarrhea. traveler’s diarrhea. . hives. or blood disorders. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). and liquid forms. certain diuretics. Unless this drug causes stomach upset.

Vibramycin. skin diseases. . multiple sclerosis. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. phenytoin. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. and carbamazepine. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.facial swelling. Vibra-Tabs. especially with long-term use. birth control pills. asthma. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. All rights reserved. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. difficulty swallowing. Prednisone. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. It is usually discontinued gradually. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. sodium bicarbonate. certain cancers. and severe allergic reactions. penicillin. barbiturates. blood-thinners. chest pain. tuberculosis. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Prednisone is available only by prescription. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or bulging forehead (in infants). Children may develop discolored teeth. Brand Names:Doryx. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon).

Children may take this drug. depression. mood swings. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. peptic ulcer disease. ketoconazole. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. All rights reserved. active tuberculosis. dizziness. headache. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. brittle bones. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. acne. thick skin. estrogen supplements. Liquid Pred. weight gain. birth control pills. or a history of tuberculosis. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. . and purplish. rifampin. impaired thyroid function.Patients with widespread fungus infections. muscle weakness. high blood pressure. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diabetes. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. Prednicen-M. high blood pressure. and certain diuretics. amphotericin B. gastrointestinal disorders . carbamazepine. phenytoin. skin rash. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). osteoporosis. Buspirone. or fluid retention. diabetes medications. Brand Names: Deltasone. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects may include insomnia. muscle cramps. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma.

Also possible are blurred vision. . dry mouth. diarrhea. rapid heartbeat. usually three times p er day. and tablet form. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. sweating. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. fatigue. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it.Tablets are taken orally. Possible side effects include dizziness. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. usually found in combination with antihistamines. or nervousness. and fluoxetine. Unlike many tranquilizers. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. headache. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. or engage in other risk-related activities. cough suppressants. warfarin. depending on the patient’s condition. haloperidol. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. capsule. narcotics. with or without food. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. or vomiting. nausea. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. bone or muscle pain. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. constipation. upset stomach. or decongestants. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. trazodone. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. skin rash. operate dangerous machinery.

Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Brand Names: Cheracol D. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy.7 percent of the time. This drug is highly effective. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. However. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. and diarrhea. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. vomiting. Triaminic Expectorant. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. In the United States. Prior to 1992 the drug . Comtrex Cold Formula. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. stomach pain. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. preventing pregnancy 99. nausea. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Dimacol Caplets.

The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. mood changes. In many cases. However. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). night and day. Taken every four hours. . About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). and abdominal pain. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. Also. Other possible side effects include weight gain. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. sometimes for a year or more. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. headaches. Blood transfusions are often necessary. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia.

Phenobarbital. Taken orally or intravenously. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. and sedation. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. depression. coma. urinary tract. a combination of urea and malonic acid. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. anticonvulsant. Barbiturate. gastrointestinal tract. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. and respiratory tract. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. An antibiotic like penicillin. All rights reserved. Depending on the dosage or formulation. a long-acting barbiturate. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. such as secobarbital. Ampicillin.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). boisterous or violent behavior. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. or anesthetic effect. overdoses can cause profound shock. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). or death. muscle incoordination.

allopurinol. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined.to ten-day course. In South America. skin rash. endemic. T. Children may take ampicillin. Possible side effects may include nausea. usually a seven. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. fever. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. mouth irritation. oral contraceptives. whereas a more local version is caused by T. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. another version of the protozoan. diarrhea. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. vomiting. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. mefloquine. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. the disease is called nagana. brucei rhodesiense. The most common is caused by T. and probenecid. brucei gambiense. cruzi. Another liquid form is administered by injection. genus Trypanosoma. atenolol. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. and sometimes epidemic. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. colitis (inflamed bowel). chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. In cattle and other animals. hives. . or anemia. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. also sleeping sickness. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. but an entire course of medication.

. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. death. eventual coma. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. an enlargement of the spleen. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. with accompanying mood changes. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. lack of appetite. It is also sometimes fatal. Chagas' disease. Allopurinol. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. sleepiness. All rights reserved. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. frequently. and rash and fever. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. In early stages. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. which more frequently attacks children. an accelerated heartbeat. In the long term. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. and.

Ephedrine is an alkaloid. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). many important hormones. rheumatoid arthritis. aldosterone. and progesterone. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. and various eye diseases. Endocrine System). it has been superseded by safer. Steroid hormones. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). and anxiety. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. Testosterone). Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. some natural drugs. tremor. more specific drugs. All rights reserved. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). which are similar to but not identical with sterols. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. . or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. with a great diversity of physiological activity. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). It is sometimes misused. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Hormone). cortisone. bile acids. is a sterol. asthma and allergies.Ephedrine. Steroids. dry mouth. C10H15NO. Cholesterol. or fat-soluble chemicals.

are susceptible to streptomycin. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. These include gentamicin. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. . Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. such as tuberculosis. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. and kanamycin. the aminoglycosides. leprosy. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. amikacin. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. it is still used for this condition. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. tobramycin. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. See also Sports Medicine. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. Streptomyces griseus. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. and cholera.

acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. and for the reduction of fever. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. available by prescription only. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. is taken orally in tablet form. All rights reserved. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). as aspirin tends to do for some users. Fluoxetine. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. After the medication begins to take effect. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Fluoxetine. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. .Acetaminophen. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. type of drug known as an antidepressant. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. prescribed for the treatment of depression. and premenstrual syndrome. obsessive -compulsive disorder. the dose may be lowered.

the formula of which is given above. changes in appetite. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. or propylene. dizziness. with a specific gravity of 1.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. insomnia. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety.4° F). C3H8O3. . C3H6O. odorless. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. colorless. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. or for those with kidney or liver disease. headaches.26. or a history of seizures. diabetes. nausea. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. C3H6. sweet-tasting a lcohol. weight loss. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. and diarrhea. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. Of the annual glycerol production in the U.S. sometimes fatal results. It forms a solution with water in any proportion.

Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. from which they are released later by acidification. Its composition varies with the coal. phenols. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. phenanthrene. The phenols. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. anthracene.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. they incite cancerous gro wths. can be extracted by alkali solutions. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. Coal Tar. which are acidic. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. that is. mostly hydrocarbons. Because cheaper products are now available. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. toluene. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. xylene. including toothpastes. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. and water. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. and other valuable products. and the equipment used. naphthalene. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. and oxygen. Distillation produces benzene. together with alcohols. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. sulfur. Left after distillation are residues of .

Since then. and plastics. cause iron deficiency. Salicylic acid is bitter. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. drugs. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. paints. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. however. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . however. synthetic chemical compound. acetylsalicylic acid. creosote oil. stains. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. to counter fever and pain.pitch. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. among others. . paint removers. found in the bark of the willow tree. explosives. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. including dyes. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. used in making roads. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. It is made from salicylic acid. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. and irritates the stomach. food flavorings. preservatives. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. insecticides. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. however. in roofing mixtures. Aspirin. and resins. perfumes. artificial sweeteners. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. mild to moderate pain.

inflammation. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. diarrhea. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Motrin. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. Nuprin . pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. or high blood pressure. In prescription form. In adults. or fever. and may be taken with food. which usually involves vomiting. liver disease. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. fever. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. When taken in excessive amounts. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant.Ibuprofen. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. Brand Names: Advil. rapid breathing. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. or rapid heartbeat. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. drug used to reduce inflammation. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. and the sensation of pain. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary.

They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. the activity of the nervous system. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. called cortisone. and the regulation of blood pressure. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations.Hydrocortisone. protein. are employed for many medical purposes. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. the retention of salt and water in the body. in 1935. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. weight gain. Because of their widespread effects. muscle weakness. and fat. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. Medical). or cortex. collagen diseases. and eye inflammations. . Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. the maturation of white blood cells. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. or corticoids. hydrocortisone and related compounds. they must be used carefully. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. and diabetes. also cortisol. of the adrenal gland. high blood pressure. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. called corticosteroids. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs.

Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. heart rate.Melatonin. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. for instance. . leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. or shift work. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. water balance. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. and hormone balance. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. such as sleep-wake cycles. fluctuations in body temperature. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. night. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. jet lag. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. However. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks).

and hypertension. raises the blood pressure. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. All rights reserved. is also known as adrenaline. For example. but it is now made synthetically. In times of excitement or emotional stress. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Alzheimer’s disease. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. . constricts the small blood vessels. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. epilepsy. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. Although it is easily available over the counter. epinephrine stimulates the heart. The pure compound. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. arthritis. however. Epinephrine. Parkinson disease. large additional quantities are secreted. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. to prevent bleeding. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. liberates sugar stored in the liver.

Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). called norepinephrine. drowsiness. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. digoxin. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . lightheadedness. corticoids. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. or levoarterenol. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. enlarged prostate gland. or short-term memory loss. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. dry mouth. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. These include but are not limited to antacids. and is taken orally four times a day. or myasthenia gravis. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. Because of this. fainting. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. urinary tract blockage. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. In general. with or without meals. insomnia. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. headache. heart disease. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). or nervousness. severe colitis. diarrhea. It is available in capsule. They may include blurred vision. An antispasmodic drug. hyperthyroidism. and liquid form. antihistamines. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. glaucoma. This drug can also decrease sweating. tablet. or constipation. muscular weakness. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. severe heartburn. tingling. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. irregular heartbeat. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. noradrenaline. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. nasal congestion. dizziness. high blood pressure. nausea. impotence. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended.

they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. and bronchodilators. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. and weakness. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. unusual bleeding or bruising. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. Nizatidine Nizatidine. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. fever. nausea. excessive fatigue. decreased sexual ability. More serious effects include confusion. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. stomach upset. itching. increased heart rate. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). and sweating. All rights reserved. dizziness. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. narcotic pain relievers. diarrhea. . Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. headache. fatigue. antipsychotic drugs. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks.

These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. and 90-mg extended release tablets. pregnant or breast-feeding women. not crushed. highdose aspirin. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. protein-rich foods. or a significant narrowing of the aorta.Alcoholic beverages. doses may be taken with food. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. This drug is available by p rescription only. if stomach irritation is a problem. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. citrus fruit. garlic. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). pentoxiylline. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Nifedipine Nifedipine. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. 60-mg. and theophylline. reduced liver or kidney function. or persons with low blood pressure. however. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. The safety and effectiveness of . onions. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. For treatment of angina. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. All rights reserved. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels.

The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . theophylline. swelling of the feet and ankles. These combinations. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. low blood pressure. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. nausea. digoxin. grapefruit juice. and certain drugs including amiodarone.. and weakness. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. All rights reserved. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. digitalis. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. Brand Names:Adalat. cyclosporine. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. magnesium. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. diltiazem. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. phenytoin. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. headache. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and ear infections. oral hypoglycemic drugs. insulin. eye. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. and ranitidine. For skin conditions. For eye infections. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nifedipine may increase angina. flushing. along with hydrocortisone. Neomycin Neomycin. cigarette smoking. Rarely. lightheadedness. and otic (ear) drops. cimetidine.

initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. The typical. bleeding or blood cell disorders. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. To minimize adverse side effects. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. This drug is available b y prescription only. liver disease. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . and chicken pox infections. All rights reserved. smallpox. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. Rarely. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets.or the ear. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. irritation. without missing doses. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. Brand Names:Corticosporin. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nabumetone Nabumetone. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. taken once a day or in divided doses. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. or dryness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or severe impairment of kidney function. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. taken orally. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. itching. kidney or ear damage may occur. pregnant or breast-feeding women. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs.

combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. diuretics. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. This drug is available by prescription only. or angina pectoris (chest pain). or vomiting. blood clots in the legs. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. dizziness. soreness of the mouth. lightheadedness. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. known or . indigestion. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. difficulty sleeping. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. sweating. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. respectively. aspirin. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. beta blockers. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). blurred vision. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. dizziness. lungs. and probenecid. impairment of normal blood clotting. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. thickens the mucus of the cervix. other salicylates. heartburn. These include bloating. headache. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. diarrhea. or eyes. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. nervousness. constipation. and liver or kidney damage.nabumetone has been determined. loss of appetite. asthma or difficulty breathing. drowsiness. nausea. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. If tablets are missed. strokes.

Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. or high cholesterol. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. dizziness. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. or vagina. headache. weight gain. unexplained vaginal bleeding. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. or known or suspected pregnancy. All rights reserved. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. vomiting. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. and certain antibiotics. breast tenderness. diabetes. smoke. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. In lowering blood cholesterol. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. fluid retention. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. and brown. depression. blotchy spots on exposed skin. These include rifampin. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. loss of scalp hair. bleeding between menstrual periods. liver tumors. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. or have high blood pressure. rash. phenylbutazone. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). nervousness. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. Because of the risk of blood clots. difficulty wearing contact lenses. and vaginal infections. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cervix.

also known as a diuretic. vomiting. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. ringing in the ears. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. fever. Children may take this drug. nausea. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. impotence. or other abdominal problems. impotence. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. skin rash. or blurred vision. . indigestion. or various blood-thinning drugs. or sleepiness. and liver disease. dizziness. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects include constipation. exercise. liver disorders. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. narcotics. irregular heartbeat. Possible side effects may include constipation. and lose weight as part of their treatment. gout.weeks of treatment. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. skin rash. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. h eadache. lightsensitivity. lovastatin. hives. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. blurred vision. barbiturates. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. lupus erythematosus. dizziness. headache. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. with dosage based on body weight. diarrhea. itching. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). but it does appear in breast milk. thyroid problems. nausea. Patients with diabetes. Patients with liver or kidney disease. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. gallbladder disease. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. confusion. Available in tablet and liquid form. diarrhea. excessive thirst. congestive heart failure. kidney disease. diabetes. It reduces water and salt in the body. fainting. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. muscle or joint pain.

It is available in tablet and liquid form. All rights reserved. or sleepiness. or cardiac arrest. and also in a liquid form that is injected. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. or probenecid. Relief of symptoms may take several days. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. drowsiness. impotence. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. When histamine action is blocked. anxiety. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ketoconazole. pentoxifylline. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. dizziness. seizures. joint or muscle pain. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. pancrelipase. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. stomach acid decreases. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Less common are diarrhea. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. All rights reserved. hair loss. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Overdosage can cause confusion. skin rash or itching. Famotidine Famotidine. rapid or slow heartbeat. . among other effects. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. both taken orally.

this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. and ranitidine. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. cimetidine. Diclofenac Sodium . skin rash. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. Brand Names:Cardizem. hair loss. or vision changes. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. Also sometimes seen are constipation. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. muscular weakness. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. or abnormally slow heartbeat. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. fluid retention. nausea. ringing in the ears. dry mouth. sleeplessness. Available in tablet and capsule form. headache. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved.Diltiazem Diltiazem. light sensitivity. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. blood vessels and slowing the heart. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. The drug works by dilating. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. All rights reserved. carbamazepine. diarrhea. thereby reducing blood pressure. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. or opening. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. aspirin. digoxin. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms.

nausea. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. with food. or loss of consciousness. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. and carteolol. ringing in the ears. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. or dizziness. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. Patients with kidney or liver problems. if stomach upset occurs. diuretics. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. blood-thinning medications.Diclofenac Sodium. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. lung inflammation. heart medications containing digitalis. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). methotrexate. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. lithium. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. hair loss. facial swelling. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. constipation. Classified as an antiasthmatic. light sensitivity. or vomiting. cyclosporine. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. in somnia. heart disease. skin rash. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. All rights reserved. blurred or double vision. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. diarrhea. ulcers. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. the two branch es that connect the . drowsiness. indigestion. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment.

dizziness. nosebleed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. tablets are taken orally. headache.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It comes in several forms. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Possible side effects include coughing. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. and bronchitis. usually in 250. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. although most are taken four to six times per day. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. sneezing. They may be taken w ith or without food. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Brand Names:Intal. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. or swollen glands. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. frequent urination. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. nasal congestion. including capsules (taken orally). thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. All rights reserved. or wheezing. although the complete. . Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. difficulty swallowing. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Nasalcrom. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Available by prescription only. or powder. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. joint pain. nausea. throat irritation.

It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. astemizole. acetaminophen. or an altered sense of taste. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. should not take this drug. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. operating dangerous machinery. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. theophylline. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. especially with long-term use. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. headache. caffeine. but may include nausea. or other risk-related activities. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. indigestion. Severe diarrhea. and phenytoin. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients with porphyria. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. digoxin. requires immediate medical attention. diarrhea. Dependency on this drug can occur. . Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. sedative b arbiturate drug. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. usually one or two tablets every four hours.

or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. breathing difficulties. headache. Brand Names:Norvasc. antihistamines. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Amlodipine Amlodipine. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. Phrenilin. low blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. flushing. anxiety. and theophylline. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. Brand Names:Fioricet. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. warfarin. or coma. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. light-headedness. All rights reserved. twitching. steroids. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. migraine. fainting. diarrhea. oral contraceptives.Potential side effects include drowsiness. and heart palpitations. All rights reserved. back or chest pain. nausea.or 10-mg doses. liver disease. shock. patients with low blood pressure. . Fiorinal. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. fluid retention or swelling. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. or vomiting. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. constipation. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. However. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. dizziness. sleepiness. such as beta blockers. itching. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. These include antidepressants. and vomiting. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. thereby reducing blood pressure. including dizziness. The drug may be taken with or without food. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. fatigue. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. usually in 5. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

dizziness. all of which are taken orally. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. headache. tablet. an irregular heartbeat. usually within 15 minutes. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. cardiovascular problems. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. an overactive thyroid gland. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. Ventolin. tooth discoloration. diarrhea. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. ringing in the ears. All rights reserved. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs).) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. liver disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. in fact. It is available in aerosol. Some of the more common ones include agitation. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. People with high blood pressure. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. and capsule form. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. restoring comfortable breathing. and vomiting. nosebleeds. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. . (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. sleeplessness. rapid heartbeat. Brand Names:Proventil. can make symptoms worse. indigestion. syrup. increased blood pressure. muscle cramps. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma.Albuterol Albuterol. nausea.

usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. so patients should avoid driving. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. headache. for pain relief. skin rash. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. chickenpox. as needed. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. operating dangerous machinery. asthma. muscle weakness. pregnant women. Brand Names:Darvon.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. or jaundice. ulcers. or influenza. effect. mood changes. or pain -killing. blood-clotting problems. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. antidepressants. anticoagulants. antihistamines. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. caffeine. constipation. or other narcotic pain relievers. especially after long-term use at high dosages. Pravastatin Pravastatin . Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . Pain relief begins within one to two hours. or engaging in other risk-related activities.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. weight loss. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. kidney or liver problems. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). vomiting. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. All rights reserved. Possible side effects include nausea. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. sleep aids. or nursing women. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. muscle relaxants.

usually within 20 minutes. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. Promethazine Promethazine. or children under the age of 18. heart disease. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). and suppository form. gemfibrozil. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. warfarin. should not take pravastatin. Pregnant or nursing women. cyclosporine. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. and immunosuppressive drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle cramps. cataracts. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. usually at bedtime. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. Children may take this drug. peptic ulcers. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. Available only by prescription. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. stomach pain. high blood pressure. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. Available by prescription in tablet. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. muscular disorders. should not take promethazine. with dosages based on body weight. gas. cimetidine. headache. diarrhea. erythromycin. All rights reserved. drug used mainly to treat allergies. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. niacin. or flulike symptoms. itchiness. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. including asthma and sleep apnea. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. prostate . It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. skin rash. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. fight insomnia. Typically. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. colestipol. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. injectable liquid. nausea. syrup. liver conditions. ketoconazole. Promethazine works quickly. Patients with liver or kidney disease. constipation. It may be taken with or without food. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine.cholesterol. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet.

preventing their multiplication and growth. and diphtheria. Brand Names: Phenergan. gonorrhea. jaundice. and antidepressant drugs. blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages.enlargement. nausea. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. tranquilizers. ear and skin infections. ointment. tablets. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. disorientation. breathing difficulties. or light sensitivity. with dosages determined by body weight. or abnormal heart rhythm. or narrow-angle glaucoma. vomiting. gel. Other possible side effects include dizziness. blood pressure changes. operate dangerous machin ery. urinary tract infections. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). syphilis. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. or loss of consciousness. whooping cough. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. however. impaired kidney function. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. sedatives. or engage in other risk-related activities. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. However. Children may take most forms of this drug. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. . Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. rheumatic fever. and various liquids. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Erythromycin Erythromycin. skin rash. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. All rights reserved. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. Dependingon the site of the infection. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.

Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. eczema. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. phenytoin. It comes in a tablet. and to treat asthma. itching.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). For acute disorders. carbamazepine. and theophylline. lupus erythematous. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. tendinitis. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. multiple sclerosis. vomiting. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. blood-thinners. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. Also seen are skin rash.Theramycin Z. loss of appetite. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. digoxin. and psoriasis. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. croup. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole. an injectable liquid. and an enema. an ointment. preferably right after a bowel movement. redness. Emgel. Brand Names: Erythrocin. lovastatin.Ilosone. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. or temporary hearing loss. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). it is usually taken for four to . Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. It is also used to treat anemia.Benzamycin. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). nausea.Erymax.Erygel. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. hives. yellowing of the eyes or skin. ulcerative colitis. dizziness. For tablets. eye irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bone cysts in children. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. or diarrhea. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. and most forms of arthritis. It reduces swelling. rapid heartbeat. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only.

hypertension (high blood pressure). or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. cyclosporine. indomethacin.ten days. cataracts. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. glaucoma. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. peptic ulcer disease. peptic ulcer. All rights reserved. Naproxen . ketoprofen. antacids. Brand Names:Duralone. possible diabetes. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. carbamazepine. and certain vaccines. oral antidiabetic drugs. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. retarded growth and development in children. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. ephedrine. Medrol. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. and increased susceptibility to infection. For chronic disorders. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. smallpox. retention of salt and water. digoxin. barbiturates . and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. phenytoin. rabies. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. aspirin. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). insulin. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. ketoconazole. weight gain. increased blood sugar. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. and naproxen. drugs containing estrogen.

For bursitis. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. . nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. loss of appetite. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. menstrual cramps. difficulty breathing. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. and gout. tendinitis. nausea. dental treatment. changes in menstruation. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. soreness of the mouth. osteoarthritis. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. osteoarthritis. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. headache. and liver or kidney damage. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. If possible. difficulty sleeping. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. and 500 mg. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. sweating. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. without missing doses. If stomach irritation occurs. and for strains and sprains. and as a liquid. heartburn. indigestion. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. bursitis. lightheadedness. diarrhea. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. 375 mg. or vomiting. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and other pain. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. pregnant or breast-feeding women. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. nervousness. Pain relief should begin within one hour. For gout. orthopedic surgery. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. These include bloating. dizziness. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. tendinitis. drowsiness. or severe impairment of kidney function. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). it may be taken with food or antacids. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. constipation.Naproxen. bleeding or blood cell disorders. liver disease. To minimize adverse side effects.

It may have a negative effect on . the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. more commonly known as beta blockers. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. This drug is available by prescription only. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. and probenecid. methotrexate. Brand Names:Aleve. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. beta blockers such as acebutolol. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. in prolonged action tablets. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. pregnant or breast-feeding women. aspirin. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. metoprolol. an abnormally slow heart rate. atenolol. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. For treatment after a heart attack. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. The regular tablet can be crushed. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. the typical. persons with congestive heart failure. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. Metoprolol Metoprolol. and timolol. For treatment of hypertension or angina. It comes in 50-mg.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. All rights reserved. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). salicylates. 100-mg. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and 200-mg tablets. For prevention of heart attacks. lithium. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established.

cold h ands and feet. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Brand Names:Lopressor. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. and decreased sexual desire. fatigue. chlorpromazine. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. oral antidiabetic drugs. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tranquilizers. . and tendinitis. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. fluoxetine. furosemide. which may trigger pain and inflammation. cimetidine. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. gout. digoxin. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. albuterol.driving or other risk-related activities. nifedipine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. aspirin. diltiazem. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. epinephrine. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. clonidine. and verapamil. hydralazine. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. amiodarone. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. insulin. calcium channel blockers. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. slow heart rate. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. aminophylline. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. osteoarthritis. reserpine. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. lightheadedness. All rights reserved.

constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. indomethacin. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. b eta blockers. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . anticoagulants. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. hives. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. such as aspirin. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. should not take this drug. Etodolac Etodolac. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. Etodolac is available only by prescription. indigestion. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. diarrhea. or a severe impairment of kidney function. nausea.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. enoxaparin. and warfarin. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. ulceration. and vomiting. sleep disturbances. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. dizziness. ringing in the ears. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. or with a prescribed antacid. All rights reserved. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. depression. To avoid adverse side effects. sulfinpyrazone. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. lithium. aspirin. mouth sores. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. skin rash. methotrexate. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. headache. itching. relieving swelling and stiffness. with meals. and bleeding. valproic acid.

or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. rapid heartbeat. depression. nausea. dizziness. drug used to reduce the inflammation. skin rash. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. indigestion. anemia. heart disease. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. skin rash. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Possible side effects include drowsiness. milk. and menstrual cramps. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. headache. constipation. tablet. All rights reserved. ringing in the ears. peptic ulcer. . but it can be taken with food. blood-thinning medications. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. fever. and digoxin. insomnia.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. diuretics. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. tendinitis. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. fainting. with increased blood flow during menstruation. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin.stomach upset. fever. indigestion. fluid retention. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. and suppository form. and nausea. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. and it may appear in breast milk. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. bursitis. or muscle weakness. sweating.

5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. aspirin. one 1 . It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. Breast-feeding women.15 to 0. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. patients with allergies to the drug. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). verapamil. and chest pain is alleviated. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). As a result. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. nifedipine. and patients with ulcers. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. insulin. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. workload on the heart is reduced. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. applied on or under the tongue. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes.4 mg from a spray container. or one metered dose of 0. steroids. phenytoin. lithium. impaired kidney function. and diuretics.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. bleeding disorders. All rights reserved. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. If necessary. For prevention of angina. For long-term prevention of angina.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only.

and coughs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or a 0. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. heparin. All rights reserved.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. aspirin. rather. Nitrocap TD. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. headache. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. recent head trauma. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. rapid heart rate. Warfarin . one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. antihypertensive drugs. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. diltiazem. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). sudden drop in blood pressure . and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia.5 -inch (7. colds. Nitrocine Transdermal. hyperthyroidism. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. acetylcysteine. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. To maintain its effectiveness. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. and heart palpitations. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness.

some forms of irregular heartbeat. ulcerative colitis. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. headache. and hypertension (high blood pressure). Verapamil works by . which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Motrin). Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. difficulty breathing. diabetes. hair loss. severe allergies. and bacon. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. For this reason. Patients with peptic ulcers. cauliflower. All rights reserved. asparagus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or gangrene. or patients with high blood pressure. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. a blood disorder. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. Verapamil Verapamil. or recent surgery should not use this drug. impaired liver or kidney function. a heart-related infection. s kin inflammation. or swelling. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. fish. Other side effects may include diarrhea. Classified as an anticoagulant. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. fever. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. beef liver. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. cut. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. an aneurysm. joint pain. difficulty swallowing. puncture. and ibuprofen (Advil. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding).Warfarin. or intestinal problems. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. discolored (purplish) toes. any infectious disease. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. After the first two to three days. acetaminophen (Tylenol). nausea. chest pain.

Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. sleepiness. ringing in the ears. phenytoin. headache. aspirin. constipation. phenobarbital. congestive heart failure. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. Available in tablet and capsule form. and various diuretics. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. thereby lowering blood pressure. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. lithium. taken in three or four doses. Terazosin Terazosin . Isoptin. or s low heartbeat. All rights reserved. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. and in me n. dry mouth. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. rifampin. and it does appear in breast milk. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. light sensitivity. abnormally low blood pressure. hair loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . or congestive heart failure. impotence. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. with meals and at bedtime with food. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. fluid retention. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. theophylline. an injectable solution is also available. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. Brand Names:Calan.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. nausea. digoxin. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. skin rash. carbamazepine. cyclosporine. fatigue. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. prostate gland enlargement. cimetidine.

but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. dizziness. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. muscle weakness. stuffy nose. Ramipril Ramipril. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. which influence salt and water retention. Dosages range from 2. or engaging in other risk-related activities. fluid retention.5 to 20 mg per day. and lower blood pressure. to dilate arteries. painful urination. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. taken in one or two doses. reduce blood volume. estrogens.problems of urine flow. and urinary tract infections. it should be taken regularly. or a history of stroke. even when symptoms are relieved. drug used to control high blood pressure. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. fainting. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. especially beta blockers. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. difficulty breathing. heart palpitations. patients should avoid driving. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. sweating. numbness. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or blurred vision. All rights reserved. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. headache. Available by prescription in capsule form. At these times. . The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. nausea. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. coronary artery disease. operating dangerous machinery.

Side effects may include headache. coughing. it can react adversely with such drugs. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. . Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. cyclosporine. All rights reserved. or light sensitivity. and potassium supplements. It is also known to appear in breast milk. lithium. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. lightheadedness. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. caused by epilepsy. as it can harm the fetus. vomiting. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. or low white blood cell levels. scleroderma. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. An allergic reaction to this drug. requires immediate medical attention. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. or violent muscle contractions. capsule. impaired liver or kidney function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. and liquid form. especially in the second and third trimesters. muscle pain. Taken orally. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. systemic lupus erythematosus. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. it must be taken regularly to be effective. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. except for one liquid form made for injection. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. heart disease. high potassium levels. To avoid stomach irritation. drug used to treat the seizures. It also may react with aspirin. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. nausea. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. fatigue.

Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. impotence. oral contraceptive s. joint pain. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. certain tranquilizers. sodium valproate. and antacids. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. steroids. theophylline. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . blood thinners.Patients with impaired liver function. dizziness. doxycycline. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. twitching. insomnia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. fever. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. acute pain. four to six hours apart. or slurred speech. and as eyedrops. The injection is given within a muscle. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. The initial. aspirin. methylphenidate. bedwetting. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. estrogens. ulcer medications. headache. Other observed side effects include nausea. carbamazepine. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. diabetes. or change in urine color. Ketorolac Ketorolac. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). phenobarbital. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. skin rash. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. mental confusion. furosemide. diazepam. These include. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. involuntary eye movement. and valproic acid. abnormal hair growth. Also included are the drugs felbamate. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. All rights reserved. but are not limited to.

renal failure. superficial eye infections. decrease in urine output. probenecid. vomiting.more than five days. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. naproxen. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. acetaminophen. or high blood pressure. diarrhea. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. kidney or liver disease. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. allergic reactions. cefotetan. dizziness. . ulceration. plicamycin. increased sweating. as well as with lithium. and oxaprozin. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. edema. lupus erythematosus. Less common side effects are eye irritation. asthma. and perforation. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. drowsiness. cefamandole. methotrexate. heart disease.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. nabumetone. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. Glipizide Glipizide. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. colitis. diabetes mellitus. Brand Names:Acular. Abdominal or stomach pain. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. ketoprofen. burning or pain at the injection site. edema. indigestion. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. and gastrointestinal bleeding. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. moxalactam. bruising at the site of injection. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. All rights reserved. heparin. cefoperazone. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. headache. constipation.

sweating. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). stomach pain. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. or seizures. birth control pills. tranquilizers. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Tablets are taken orally. estrogens. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. nausea. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). shallow breathing. drowsiness. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. skin rash. The starting dose is 5 mg. impaired kidney or liver function. but depending on the patient’s response. aspirin. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. light sensitivity. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. disorientation. with or without food. These include. corticoids. thyroid medications. Enalapril Enalapril. in one or two doses. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. sulfa drugs. but are not limited to. All rights reserved. rapid heartbeat. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. which control salt and water retention. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. Potential side effects may include headache. . anemia. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. dizziness.5 to 40 mg per day. Patients with heart disorders. With long-term use (months to years).Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. antacids. in dosages ranging from 2.

Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). abdominal pain. It also may cause chest pain. When histamine action is blocked. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. loss of appetite. and in a liquid form that is injected. rapid heartbeat. excessive sweating. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. excessive hair growth in women. acne. It has not been proven safe for use in children. nausea. hives. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. impotence. muscle cramps or weakness. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. hair loss. blurred vision. secretion of stomach acid decreases.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. All rights reserved. usually taken immediately . allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. Brand Names:Vasotec. It is also known to appear in breast milk. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Depending on the condition being treated. It is used to treat reflux disease. dry mouth or eyes. sensitivity to light. dizziness. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. herpes infections (including shingles). headache. depression. skin rash or itching. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. and an overactive parathyroid gland. or abnormally low blood pressure. Cimetidine Cimetidine. especially in the second and third trimesters. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. it may react adversely with such drugs. both taken orally. breast enlargement (in males). including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects.

and excessive caffeine. drug used to treat seizures. confusion. nicotine. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. which is increased as needed (to a . and warfarin. theophylline. rapid or slow heartbeat. anemia. Divalproex Divalproex. digoxin. hair loss. Relief of symptoms may take several days. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. impotence. also known as valproic acid.2 lb). All rights reserved. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. joint or muscle pain. or hallucinations. phenytoin. dizziness. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. pentoxifylline. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. Less common side effects are diarrhea. and aspirin. narcotic pain relievers. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). heart palpitations. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. cyclosporine. Available in tablet form. some patients experience anxiety. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. such as those associated with epilepsy. and sleepiness. paroxetine. skin rash or inflammation. metoclopramide. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. sucralfate. including medications for diabetes. cigarette smoking. With prolonged use (one month or more). It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. quinine. metronidazole.after a meal. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. depression.

Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sleep aids. drowsiness. and other seizure medications. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. fluid retention. tranquilizers. Some patients experience drowsiness and. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. or engage in other risk-related activities. operate dangerous machinery. Captopril Captopril. should not drive. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. surgery. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. or weight gain. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. or dental procedures. which influence salt and water rete ntion. blood thinners. nausea. All rights reserved. This drug slows blood clotting. antihistamines. which is divided into several smaller doses. double vision. muscle weakness. as continuous seizures may result. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. loss of appetite.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. skin rash. facial swelling. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. as a result . isoniazid. and loss of seizure control. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. heart attacks. especially when used in children under the age of two. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. tremors. fever. It also may interact with erythromycin. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. yellowing skin or eyes. Possible side effects include indigestion. This drug can cause liver damage. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. and birth control pills. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. vomiting. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. and vomiting. constipation. itching. Patients are often started on a . behavior changes. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms.

small dosage. muscle pain or weakness. Possible side effects include itching. It also may react adversely with aspirin. skin rash. which usually takes several weeks. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. Less common side effects include blurred vision. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. diarrhea. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. legs. or swelling of the arms. wheezing stroke. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. or heart failure. Lovastatin Lovastatin . which is increased as needed. constipation. depression. as it can harm the fetus. All rights reserved. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. mouth. even after symptoms are relieved. peptic ulcer. nausea. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. especially in the second and third trimesters. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. sleepiness. confusion. fainting. which also requires immediate medical care. loss of taste. nitroglycerin. it can react adversely with these drugs. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. sweating. anti-inflammatory medications. lightheadedness. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Brand Names:Capoten. and extremely low blood pressure. fatigue. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. A reaction that includes chest pain. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. . Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. vomiting. lithium. light sensitivity. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. or hardening of the heart’s arteries.

muscle aches or cramps. diarrhea. which are taken orally.Available by prescription only. This drug should be taken with food. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. heartburn. Simvastatin Simvastatin. dizziness. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. fever. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. and unusual tiredness or weakness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. and warfarin. preferably with evening meals. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. and stomach pain. Less common side effects are blurred vision. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. niacin. 20-mg. cyclosporine. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). All rights reserved. severe stomach pain. gas. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. headache. gemfibrozil. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. Tablets are taken with or without food. usually at bedtime. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. and 40-mg tablets. weight loss. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. skin rash. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin.

The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. This drug is available by prescription only. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. stomach pain. and diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscular disorders. All rights reserved. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. digoxin. or lowered blood pressure. in tablets and an injectable liquid. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. ketoconazole. or thyrotoxicosis. skin rash. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. cyclosporine. including high blood pressure. muscle weakness. Patients with impaired liver function. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. nausea. by pregnant or nursing women. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. gas. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. warfarin. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. or by young people under the age of 20. and for infants with cretinism. The drug is effective within 48 hours. or hepatitis.weeks of treatment. Levothyroxine may be used during . Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). cataracts. impaired vision. cimetidine. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. nicotinic acid. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. erythromycin. clofibrate. diarrhea. and spironolactone. constipation. gemfibrozil. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone.

prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. eyes. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. tiredness. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. flushed skin. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. Brand Names: Levothroid. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. which causes thyroid overactivity. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. heart palpitations. diarrhea. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. sweating. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. Astemizole is available only by prescription. agitation. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Patients should not take more than a single. Astemizole Astemizole. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. weight loss or gain. All rights reserved. or chest pain. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. and skin. Levoxine.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. All rights reserved. especially of the urinary tract and eye. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. bronchitis. nausea. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. with or without food. pneumonia. with dosages based on body weight. Brand Names:Bactrim. loss of appetite. abdominal cramps. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. procainamide. Available by prescription only. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. back or joint pain. . or increased blood potassium. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. vomiting. diarrhea. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. or pain associated with cancer.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. cyclosporine. and cholestyramine. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. impaired liver or kidney function. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and traveler’s diarrhea. rifampin. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. Tramadol Tramadol. phenytoin. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. Patients with anemia. sore mouth. dapsone. headache.

Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. sweating. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including an oral inhalant. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or dry mouth. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. tablets. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. Its safety for children under the age of 16. cream and ointment forms applied topically. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. For this reason. diarrhea. In addition. operate dangerous machinery. or engage in other riskrelated activities. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Other possible side effects include nausea. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. people taking this drug should not drive. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. All rights reserved. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. sedatives. quinidine. constipation. . two to three times a day. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. and a liquid form that is injected.

Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. diabetes drugs (including insulin). wheezing. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. but helps alleviate symptoms. nosebleed. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. or a history of tuberculosis. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. digoxin. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. carbamazepine. weight loss. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. and primidone. fluid retention. phenytoin. . mottled skin. sneezing. headache. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. hoarseness.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Brand Names:Azmacort. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). nasal irritation or congestion. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. Tretinoin Tretinoin. peptic ulcer. skin rash. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. warfarin. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. glaucoma (an eye disorder). memory loss. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. Taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin.

or mucous me mbranes of the nose. preferably an hour before meals. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. Renoval. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. and solution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. usually once a day at bedtime. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. mouth. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. astringents. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. . salicylic acid. cream. or resorcinol. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. darkening or lightening of skin color. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry.Tretinoin is available in a gel. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. especially those containing sulfur. although maximum improvement may take several months. Brand Names:Retin-A. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. It is applied to the skin. as well as with medicated soaps. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. It should not come in contact with the eyes. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. This drug is available in liquid form. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. All rights reserved. The tablet form is taken orally. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. Hands should be washed immediately after application. citrus scents. temporary worsening of acne. and s kin products containing alcohol. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. or spices.

Patients with asthma. theophylline. low blood pressure. or heart failure. insulin and other diabetes drugs. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. and liquid form. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. which may be increased if needed. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. vomiting. and pulmonary (lung) disease. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. nausea. or impotence. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. All rights reserved. Blocadren. shortness of breath. tablet. Theophylline Theophylline. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. prescription drug used to treat asthma. tingling or numbness. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. impaired liver or kidney function. cimetidine. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. As a bronchodilator. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. All are taken orally. improving circulation. especially in patients with heart disorders. chest pain. low blood sugar. dizziness. chlorpromazine. lung disease. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Possible side effects may include headache. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. muscle weakness. Brand Names: Timoptic. hair loss. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). . Theophylline is available in capsule. as well as epinephrine. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. an overactive thyroid gland. diarrhea. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. chronic bronchitis. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. hay fever or other allergies.

thereby halting their growth. impaired liver or kidney function. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. doxycycline. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. propanolol. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. applied topically. and in a reconstituted powder solution. Changes in heart rate. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. high blood pressure. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. Tetracycline Tetracycline. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). including urinary tract infections. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. low blood pressure. clarithromycin. seizure disorders. another possible side effect. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. All rights reserved. ciprofloxacin. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. increased urination. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. insomnia.Patients with peptic ulcers. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. It also may interact with cimetidine. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. should be checked by a doctor. taken in one to four doses. Brand Names:Slo-bid. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. phenytoin. . and gonorrhea. or skin rash. convulsions. taken orally. gum disease. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. erythromycin. or coma. acne. headache. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. and birth control pills. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. irregular heartbeat. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection.

nausea. difficulty swallowing. increased intraocular pressure. cold or flu. or in infants. indigestion. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. blurred vision. renal impairment. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. Brand Names:Achromycin V. diabetes mellitus. Unlike many other antihistamines. and sucralfate. hyperthyroidism. vomiting. Topicycline. nausea. oral contraceptives. headache. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. cholestyramine. lithium. irregular heartbeat. penicillin. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. chest pain. itching. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. blood thinners. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. isotretinoin. fatigue. Brand Name:Allegra . eyes. All rights reserved. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. ischemic heart disease. and menstrual pain. or seizures. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. As an antihistamine. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. facial swelling. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. confusion. a bulging soft spot on the head. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. insomnia. Possible side effects include headache. light sensitivity. or prostatic hypertrophy. and throat. sore throat. skin rash. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug.

The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Temazepam Temazepam.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. body pain. producing a calming effect. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. . Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. a yeastlike fungus. preventing its reproduction and growth. or chills. All rights reserved. drug used to treat insomnia. headache. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . fever. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. All rights reserved. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. which can interact with terconazole. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. As a result. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

tremors. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. or vomiting. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. barbiturates. and oral contraceptives. When treatment is stopped. blurred vision. seizures. tremors. convulsions. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. depression. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. diarrhea. Also observed in some patients are sweating. All rights reserved. especially when starting treatment. difficulty in breathing. increased dreaming. restlessness. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. or coma. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. If needed. . A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. usually in a 15-mg dose. tranquilizers. or nausea. or hallucinations. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. Other possible side effects include fatigue. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. antihistamines. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. confusion.Available only by prescription. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. narcotics. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. nervousness. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. including antidepressants. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. In addition. headache. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). or by young people under the age of 18. or engaging in risk-related activities. operating dangerous machinery.

It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. drug used to treat ulcers. Sucralfate Sucralfate. ranitidine. muscle weakness. or a dry mouth. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. certain antibiotics. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. tightness in the chest or throat. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. difficulty breathing. quinidine. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. tetracycline. digestive tract. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. antispasmodic drugs. Possible side effects may include dizziness. stiff neck. dizziness. irregular heartbeat. Its safety for children. or allergies. Brand Name:Carafate . or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. Raynaud’s syndrome. especially angina. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. preferably with water. Possible side effects may include constipation. This drug heals existing ulcers. sucralfate is taken orally. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. uncontrolled high blood pressure. digoxin. Irregular heartbeat. or va gina. diarrhea. All rights reserved. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. phenytoin.Patients with heart disease. tingling. and theophylline. ketoconazole. as well as cimetidine. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. nausea. and blood-thinners. sore throat. or skin rash. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. or fainting are sometimes observed. has not been determined. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. change in blood pressure. drowsiness. esophagus.

ketoconazole. usually at bedtime. by pregnant or nursing women. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. constipation. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or hepatitis. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. drug used to treat depression and. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cyclosporine. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. Simvastatin Simvastatin. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. All rights reserved. erythromycin. or by young people under the age of 20. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. nausea. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. digoxin. clofibrate. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. All rights reserved. Patients with impaired liver function. cataracts. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. stomach pain. diarrhea. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. nicotinic acid. less often. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. gemfibrozil. Tablets are taken with or without food. gas. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. cimetidine. Sertraline Sertraline. or lowered blood pressure. muscular disorders. impaired vision. obsessive -compulsive disorders. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . and spironolactone. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. weight loss. warfarin. muscle weakness.

constipation. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. drug used for the treatment of asthma. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. seizures. including headache. The starting dose is 50 mg. Parkinson disease. various diabetes medications including insulin. vomiting. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. insomnia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. warfarin. irregular heartbeat. Salmeterol Salmeterol. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. difficulty breathing or swallowing. agitation. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. weight loss. sweating. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. or problems with male sexual performance. a dry mouth. The typical dose is 42 mg. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. Available only by prescription. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. sensitivity to bright light. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. tremors. sleepiness. or behaviora l changes. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which a doctor may slowly increase. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline.Available only by prescription. fatigue. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. diarrhea. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. or two inhalations. twice daily. . digitoxin. tolbutamide. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. cimetidine. breast enlargement (in both females and males). lithium. if needed.

anemia. fatigue. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. joint or muscle pain. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. hair loss. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. and drowsiness. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. liver disease. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. diabetes. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. dizziness. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. dizziness. It is also available as an injectable liquid. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. . as well as theophylline and caffeine. nervousness. all taken orally. and liquid form. causing chronic heartburn. smoking cigarettes. or taking antacids. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. heart attack. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. All rights reserved. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. Less common side effects are diarrhea. rapid or slow heartbeat. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. or skin rashes. or muscle cramps. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. Ranitidine Ranitidine. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headaches. capsule. skin rash. or overactive thyroid gland. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

and potassium supplements. itraconazole. and triamterene. which influence salt and water retention. An allergic reaction to this drug. as well as with diazepam. Available by prescription. theophylline. especially in the second and third trimesters. heart disease. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. it can react adversely with these drugs. ketoconazole. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. muscle pain. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. It also may react with lithium. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. glipizide. Quinapril Quinapril. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or low white blood cell counts. . All rights reserved. tetracycline. Possible side effects include dizziness. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. cyclosporine. as it can harm the fetus. reduces blood volume. it must be taken regularly to be effective. sucralfate. including salt substitutes containing potassium. chest or abdominal pain. or vomiting. The drug relaxes arterial walls. lightheadedness. scleroderma. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. fatigue. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. midazolam. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. coughing. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. procainamide. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. requires immediate medical attention. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. thereby reducing blood pressure. systemic lupus erythematous. high potassium levels. enoxacin.

. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

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