Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. as well as certain other tumors. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. . a nonprofit. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. including the United States. which starts the process. the cervix softens and opens. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. Misoprostol. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. Under the trade name Mifeprex. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. given later. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. two weeks later. and many suffered cramping. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. Typically. and 3 percent aborted immediately. China. In the United States. and as a therapy for endometriosis. treating breast and ovarian cancer. At the third visit. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. These include inducing fullterm labor. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. Nearly half the women in the U. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. which starts contractions. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. private research organization. Without progesterone. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol.S. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. and the uterine lining breaks down. Instead. but a few take longer. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. Two days later. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion.

III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. and fatigue. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. are that anesthesia is not required. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. by making abortion potentially available in any . is over much more quickly. However. However. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. in France. and the procedure is not invasive. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. diarrhea. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. weakness. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. They also point out that. where the drug has been in use since 1988. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. no medical instruments are used. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. Theoretically. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. headache. In contrast. in a small number of women. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies.

eyes. More than 10. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. . A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. Eventually. a German pharmaceutical company. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. lip. During this delay. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Thalidomide. drug introduced in 1953. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. palate. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established.physician’s office. gastrointestinal tract. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. Britain. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. and reproductive tract. All rights reserved. and other countries. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. kidneys. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. spine. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. heart. respiratory tract. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns.

Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. although not fully understood. or chronic weight loss. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. . erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Among other issues. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. A serious skin disorder. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. Under these restrictions. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. and the sores make eating difficult. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. when produced in excessive amounts.

It comes in 50-mg. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. persons with congestive heart failure. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. All rights reserved. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). This drug is available by prescription only. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. For treatment after a heart attack. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. lightheadedness. a n abnormally slow heart rate. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Metoprolol. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. cold hands and feet. and 200-mg tablets. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. in prolonged action tablets. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. For prevention o f heart attacks. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. 100-mg. and decreased sexual desire. pregnant or breast-feeding women. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. more commonly known as beta blockers.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. For treatment of hypertension or angina. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. slow heart rate. The regular tablet can be crushed. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. the typical.

This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. difficulty sleeping. This drug is available by prescription only. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. oral antidiabetic drugs. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting.sedative effect. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. without missing doses. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. pregnant or breast-feeding women. and verapamil. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. albuterol. amiodarone. tranquilizers. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. taken orally. nifedipine. constipation. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. clonidine. liver disease. oral hypoglycemic drugs. hydralazine. calcium channel blockers. furosemide. insulin. These include bloating. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. aminophylline. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. To minimize adverse side effects. diltiazem. chlorpromazine. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. . Nabumetone. cimetidine. reserpine. All rights reserved. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). epinephrine. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. diarrhea. digoxin. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. dizziness. The typical. fluoxetine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. taken once a day or in divided doses. aspirin. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. Brand Names:Lopressor. or severe impairment of kidney function.

Astemizole. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. Patients should not take more than a single. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. nausea. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. loss of appetite. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. irregular heartbeat. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. impairment of normal blood clotting. or increased appetite. headache. other salicylates. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Less common are depression. dizziness. asthma or difficulty breathing. lightheadedness. or sore throat. Astemizole is available only by prescription. and liver or kidney damage. or vomiting. nervousness. or cardiac arrest. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. All rights reserved. dry mouth or throat. joint or muscle pain. and skin. eyes. beta blockers. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. aspirin. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). and drugs that affect heart rhythms. soreness of the mouth. blurred vision. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). sweating. Patients with asthma. heartburn. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. liver disease. nausea. Possible side effects include drowsiness. including antibiotics. . It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. seizures.dizziness. drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. diarrhea. headache. indigestion. fatigue. nosebleed. nervousness. skin rash. itching or tingling. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. diuretics. and probenecid.

but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. nefazodone (Serzone). Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. and paroxetine (Paxil). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. loss of appetite. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. All are taken orally. if necessary.5 mg per day. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. setraline (Zoloft). It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. . vomiting. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers.5 mg) on the first day. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. nausea. skin rash. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. fluvoxamine (Luvox). headache. drug used to treat heart problems. stomach pain. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). Children under age ten may take this drug. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. Digoxin. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. blurred vision. or breast development in males. All rights reserved. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. tablet.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. ranging from 0. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. as it may seriously affect heart function. Dosages of this drug vary widely.125 to 0. Possible side effects include diarrhea. and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It may be taken with food. although one form of the liquid is injected. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. Digoxin is available in capsule. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate.

diarrhea. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. breast enlargement. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. another type of antidepressant. All rights reserved. high fever. liver ailments. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. Amitriptyline. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. anxiety. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. these may . It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. heart or circulatory disorders. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. the maximum daily dosage for adults. bulimia. headache. In addition. these include seizures. Typically used to treat mental depression.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. diuretics. vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. steroids. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. bronchodilators. or stroke. insomnia. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. an antidepressantdrug. but it is known to appear in breast milk. including dry mouth. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. often once a day at bedtime. It is taken orally in tablet form. drowsiness. Brand Names:Lanoxin. heart attack. antacids. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. dizziness. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. constipation. thyroid hormones. seizures. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. blurred vision. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. fatigue. migraine headaches. Because of these many drug interactions. disorientation. impotence.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or depression. chest pains. drowsiness. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. Dosages may range from 0. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. tranquilizers. Alprazolam. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. confusion. stuffy nose. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. It should not be combined with alcohol. Endep. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. oral contraceptives. or even death. diarrhea. thyroid hormones. coma. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. irritability. usually three times a day. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. antihistamines. headache. barbiturates. It has also been used to treat depression. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. or seizures. fainting. or with . diarrhea. painkillers. muscle relaxants. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). premenstrual syndrome. and large doses of vitamin C. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. muscular weakness. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. In addition. seizure medications. nausea. with or without food. or sleep disturbances. as it may harm the baby.25 mg to 10 mg. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). drug used to treat anxiety. irritable bowel syndrome. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. constipation. Brand Names:Elavil. panic attacks. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. muscle cramps. twitching. decreased sex drive. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. and certain phobias. operate dangerous machinery. loss of appetite. sleep medications. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. nausea. or engage in other risk-related activities.include headache. irritability. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision.

or tremors. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. disulfiram. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. antispasmodic drugs. Less common side effects include anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. as serious or fatal reactions may result.narrow-angle glaucoma. operate dangerous machinery. Available in tablet form. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. skin rash. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. diarrhea. Dry mouth is a common side effect. . Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. abnormal heartbeat. When combined with rest and physical therapy. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. In addition. disorientation. All rights reserved. sweating. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. digoxin. constipation. blurred or double vision. usually three times a day. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. antidepressants. including carbamazepine. various antihistamines. cimetidine. an irregular heartbeat. facial swelling. high blood-pressure drugs. an eye disorder. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. headache. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. but it does not interfere with muscle function. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. with or without food. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). indigestion. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. and other tranquilizers. All rights reserved. insomnia.

chocolate. or Tourette’s syndrome. anxiety. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. bologna. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. For sustained release tablets. severe depression. soy sauce. For sustained release tablets. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. It comes in 5 -mg. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. meat extracts. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. and weight loss with long-term use. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. nervous tension. dried and salted fish. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. pregnant or breast-feeding women. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. The regular tablet can be crushed. pepperoni. preferably on an empty stomach. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. yeast extracts. liver. pickled herring. avocado. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. canned fish. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span.Methylphenidate. presumably by activating the brain stem. raspberries. raisins. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. taken before breakfast and lunch. . meat tenderizers. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. a chemical that raises blood pressure. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. sherry. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. headache. 10-mg. and 20-mg regular tablets. persons with glaucoma. and vermouth. sour cream. nausea. chianti. bean curd. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. loss of appetite. unpasteurized beer. a dry mouth. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. salami. stomach pain. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day.

Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). allergies. or a slow heartbeat.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. including high blood pressure. and nortriptyline. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. headache. All rights reserved. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. or slow heartbeat. fatigue. and primidone. angina. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. skin rash or itching. phenobarbital. and tranylcypromine. pargyline. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. imipramine. anxiety. hair loss. and breathing difficulties. desipramine. phenelzine. drowsiness. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. Less common side effects are diarrhea. (An injectable. Potential side effects include dizziness. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. Atenolol. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. nausea. impotence. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. with or without food. asthma. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. . It affects the autonomic nervous system. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. kidney disease. Its safety for use in children is not known. coronary artery disease. and heart attack. heart blockage. Brand Names:Ritalin. depression.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure.

blurred vision. For neuralgia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or impairment of heart. All rights reserved. fainting. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. anemia. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. hallucinations. Children six years and older may take this drug. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. continuous seizures may result. hair loss. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. or kidney function. sensitivity to light. and for depression or other emotional disorders. other blood pressure medications. which requires immediate medical treatment. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. as severe. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. dizziness.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. . in the jaw. constipation. for migraine headaches. or throat. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). abdominal pain. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. This process may take three months or more. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. patients taking this drug should not drive. bruises. breathing problems. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. It also relieves neuralgia. making seizures less frequent and less severe. low blood pressure. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. or liquid form. mouth ulcers. operate dangerous machinery. drowsiness. headache. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. or pain along a sensory nerve. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. They include muscle or joint pain. or engage in other risk-related activities. Side effects that include fever. usually taken twice a day. Both forms should be taken with meals. liver. itching. However. and antacids that contain calcium. sore throat. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. and sweating. insulin. tongue. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. thereby reducing pain. usually taken four times a day. impotence.

It may also interact adversely with lithium. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Cephalexin. joint pain. abdominal pain. haloperidol. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. capsule. . colitis. used to treat infections of the middle ear. The drug is effective within three to five days. all of which are taken orally. vaginitis. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. hallucinations. skin. reproductive system. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Tegretol.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and other antiseizure medications. Brand Names:Keflex. confusion. It is known to appear in breast milk. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Less common side effects include indigestion. the entire course of medication should be taken. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. fluid retention. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). This drug is available by prescription in table t. theophylline. hives. dizziness. kidney disorders. colitis (inflamed colon). All rights reserved. urinary tract. Patients with drug allergies. as well as calcium channel blockers. doxycycline. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. vomiting. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. All rights reserved. and liquid form. and bones. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. skin rash. However.

Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. suppressed cough reflex. tablet. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. anticonvulsants. antacids. glaucoma. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. respiratory infections. including anemia. fainting. liquid. so patients should not drive. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. anxiety before surgery. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. and uncontrollable hiccups. narcotics. irregular heartbeat. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. use dangerous machinery. hives. insomnia. kidney or liver diseases. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cimetidine. constipation. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. light sensitivity. breast cancer. emphysema. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent.Chlorpromazine. In addition. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. captopril. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. or nervousness. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. rapid heartbeat. and suppository form. change in urine color. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. and violent hyperactivity in children. or epinephrine. or barbiturates. tetanus. vomiting. diuretics. nasal congestion. headache. All rights reserved. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. and high fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. or brain tumors. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. . or dizziness. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. seizures. impotence. a neurotransmitter in the brain. tremors. intestinal blockage. it does appear in breast milk. blood-thinners. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule.

and can lead to death in some cases. rapid heartbeat. or nightmares.Clozapine. In addition to agranulocytosis. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). as well as cimetidine. a history of seizures. or narrow-angle glaucoma. digoxin. or engage in other risk-related activities. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. agranulocytosis causes fever. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). headache. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. low blood pressure. atropine. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. sore throat. other possible side effects include seizures.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. drowsiness. fever. nausea. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. an eye disorder. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. Patients taking this drug should not drive. and behavior. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. dizziness. epinephrine. operate dangerous machinery. . weight gain. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. All rights reserved. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. an enlarged prostate gland. emotions. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. tremors. blurred vision. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. drug used to treat schizophrenia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and warfarin. In addition. Starting dosages usually range from 12. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. and muscle weakness. constipation. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. and antidepressants. blood pressure medicatio ns. impaired liver or kidney function.

prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. operate dangerous machinery. Valrelease. narcotics. producing a calming effect. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. dizziness. confusion. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. severe depression. and liquid form. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). ranitidine. capsule.Diazepam. and certain types of seizures. fluoxetine. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. tremors. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. and birth control pills. slurred speech. or coma. These include other tranquilizers. or in children under six months of age. and rifampin. Depending on the patient’s condition. constipation. anticonvulsant drugs. Classified as a benzodiazepine. headache. barbiturates. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. fatigue. vomiting. . Brand Names:Valium. or convulsions. depression. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. skin rash. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. or epilepsy. mild tranquilizer drug. digoxin. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. confusion. or poor muscle coordination. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. or low blood pressure. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. while breast-feeding. insomnia. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. sweating. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. lightheadedness. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. nausea.Dizac Hydrocodone. all are taken orally. muscle spasms. A mild narcotic.

Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. urinary retention. dry mouth. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. vomiting. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. who have a history of chemical dependency. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. nausea. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours.A common ingredient in cough medicines. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. impaired kidney or liver function. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. As a liquid cough remedy. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off.Triaminic Expectorant DH. depression. . skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. delirium. All rights reserved. blurred or double vision. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. constipation. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. impaired breathing. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea.

and nausea. diarrhea. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. and liver problems. Pregnant and nursing women. A cure may require many months of treatment. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. cream. have liver disease or reduced liver function. headaches. . The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. All rights reserved. take any other drugs. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. have a history of alcoholism. headache. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs.Ketoconazole. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. patients with active liver disease. skin irritation and rash. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. nausea. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or shampoo.

in areas of broken skin. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. stinging. itching. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. this drug may cause skin damage. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. although its exact mechanism is unknown. with bandages. or dry skin. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. of the adrenal glands. or over a long period. tingling.Mometasone Furoate. If used over large surface areas. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. Available by prescription only. or lotion. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. . or cortex. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. ointment.

severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. 25 mg. Nortriptyline. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. and 75 mg.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. . patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. All rights reserved. 50 mg. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. drug used to treat major mental depression. However. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is also used to treat chronic. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg.

constipation. or glaucoma. headache. memory problems. a dry mouth. tranquilizers. urinary tract. throat. Available by prescription only. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. chest. nightmares. insomnia. birth control pills. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. Depending on the severity of infection. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. Brand Names:Aventyl. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fluoxetine. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. peculiar tastes in the mouth. epinephrine. drowsiness. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. fa tigue. blurred vision. All rights reserved. carbamazepine. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. . hallucin ations. irregular heart rhythm. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. and weight gain or loss. seizures. and skin. decreased urination. confusion. epilepsy. nausea. barbiturates. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. and sleeping medications. cimetidine. antihistamines. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. narcotics.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. lightheadedness. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. fluconazole. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia.

thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. However. infectious diarrhea. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Ciprofloxacin. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Common side effects may include diarrhea. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. tuberculosis. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. colitis. or skin problems such as redness. . All rights reserved. vaginitis. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. headache. itching. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. The drug is effective within three to five days. seizures. cholera. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. or rash. and it does appear in breast milk. the entire course of medication should be taken. vomiting. or yeast infection. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. bones. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. joints. and skin. urinary tract. nausea. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach.

operate dangerous machinery. shortness of breath. or restlessness. or engage in other risk-related activities. headache. which is used in the form of eyedrops. as serious or fatal reactions can result. Pregnant women. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. or magnesium. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. tingling or itchin g. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. Brand Names:Cipro. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. breast-feeding women. Patients with severe liver disease.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. or unconsciousness. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. and in a liquid. nausea. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. Depending on the severity of infection. hives. as allergic reactions to this drug. . impaired kidney function. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. skin rash. while rare. sensitivity to light. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. vomiting. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. can be fatal. All rights reserved. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. aluminum. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. which are taken orally w ith or without food.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline.

The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. ranitidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually a t bedtime. constipation. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. erythromycin. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. or coughing. or rifampin. gemfibrozil. weight loss. Capsules are taken with or without food. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. headache. diarrhea. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. fatigue. skin rash. Haloperidol. All rights reserved. digoxin. . Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. dizziness. low blood pressure. ketoconazole. or seizures should use this drug with caution. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. insomnia. respiratory irritation or infection. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. muscle pain. Patients with liver or kidney problems.Fluvastatin.

Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. insomnia. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Parkinson disease. blurred vision. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. neck. constipation. skin rash. The drug is present in breast milk. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. use of the drug should be discontinued. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. Other side effects may include nausea. lips. dry mouth. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. and increased heart rate. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. . Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. breast cancer. and tongue. tremors. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. eyelids. active liver disease. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. or muscle rigidity. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. eye damage. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. depression. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. diminished sexual function. low blood pressure. urinary retention. Patients suffering from depression. jaws. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters.

extremities. eyes. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. kidney or liver disease. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. Its safety for children has not been established. and tongue after the first dose. stroke. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. Lisinopril. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. lips.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . However. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. or systemic lupus erythematosus. heart attack. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. heart or blood vessel disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day.

It is taken orally in 25-mg. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. persons with . Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a nonsteroidal. or baby f ormula. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime.blood potassium. This drug is available by prescription only. Nitrofurantoin. All rights reserved. 50-mg. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. and the dose may be diluted in water. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. Staphylococcus aureus. milk. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. Enterobacter. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. For prevention of recurrent in fections. fruit juice. anti-inflammatory drug. especially in the third trimester. Brand Names: Prinivil. Indomethacin. by breast-feeding women. day and night. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days.

anticholinergic medications. the usual adult dosage .impaired kidney function. causing heartburn. loss of appetite. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. For gastric ulcer. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. diarrhea. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. diabetes. Occasionally this drug may have serious. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. oral antacids. probenecid. or vomiting. nausea. Omeprazole. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. or upper part of the small intestine. nalidixic acid. Brand Names:Furadantin. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. electrolyte imbalances. Macrobid. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. and sulfinpyrazone. sodium bicarbonate. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. magnesium trisilicate. Stomach irritation is the most common. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. or any debilitating disease. or infants less than one month old. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. vitamin-B deficiency.

This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. . Less common side effects are chest pain. For adults over the age of 60. gas. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash or itching. diazepam. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. pregnant or breast-feeding women. dizziness. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. nausea and vomiting. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. muscle pain. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. warfarin. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. amoxicillin. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. For excessive stomach acid conditions. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. heartburn. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. constipation. or yeast infection of the esophagus. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. cyclosporine. diarrhea. and phenytoin.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. headache. urinary tract infection. digoxin. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. kidney or liver damage.

skin rashes. Brand Name: Paxil . Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine.Paroxetine or Paxil. a history of seizure disorders. nervousness. constipation. warfarin. Within ten days of regular use. tremor. diarrhea. dry mouth. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. nausea. digoxin. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. and tryptophan. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. preferably in the morning. and muscle weakness. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. insomnia. and impaired sexual function. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. decreased appetite. urinary disorders. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. anxiety. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits.

Cefadroxil or Duricef. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. usually once or twice a day. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. capsule. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. itching. the entire course of medication should be taken. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. pneumonia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Brand Name: Duricef . Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. coli) bacteria. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. and skin infections. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. as it may lead to a secondary infection. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. vaginal inflammation. or colitis. all of which are taken orally. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. depending on the severity of infection. however. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. although it is known to appear in breast milk. urinary tract infections. skin rash or redness. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. and liquid form. allergies. streptococcus infections. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. Children may safely take this drug. vomiting. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. All rights reserved.

ear. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. drowsiness. vomiting. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. genital itching. Cefprozil or Cefzil. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. hives. including strep throat. All rights reserved. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. confusion. skin rash (including diaper rash). and respiratory tract. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). but to avoid a recurrence of infection. taken in one or two doses. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. nervousness. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. insomnia. headache. pneumonia. It is available in tablet and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. . The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Less common side effects include diarrhea. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. as well as skin infections. which are both taken orally. the entire course of medication should be taken. However. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. abdominal pain.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

ulcer medications. rifampin. also known as glibenclamide. phenytoin. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. All rights reserved. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). although some children have used it safely. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. or skin rash. diarrhea. It may be taken with or without food. vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. drop in blood pressure. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. abdominal pain. with one liquid form made for injection. or hydrochlorothiazide. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. headache. It is available in tablet or liquid form. drugs that treat diabetes. which requires immediate medical attention. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Glyburide. Possible side effects may include nausea. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. swelling. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Additional symptoms such as hives.

The drug takes effect within two hours. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. Other possible side effects include skin rash. drowsiness. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. hypothyroidism. a condition of low blood sugar. The usual dosage is from 1. headaches. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. Pregnant women. nausea and vomiting. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. peptic ulcer disease.25 to 20 mg daily. Most effective on an empty stomach. and heartburn. dizziness. All rights reserved. itching. nausea. Patients with unstable diabetes. indigestion. After an initially positive response with the drug. as well as to watch for side effects. . patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. hives.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. For this reason. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. abdominal cramps. Brand Names: DiaBeta. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. fatigue.

. and nursing women should avoid using it. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and skin rashes.Hydrochlorothiazide. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Patients with kidney or liver disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. The drug appears in breast milk. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Lorazepam. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. salt. and epilepsy. prescription drug known as a diuretic. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. drug used to treat anxiety. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. nausea. All rights reserved. diabetes. insomnia. After long-term use. imbalances in water. Aprozide. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). low blood pressure. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Brand Names: Aldoril. gout. Some men experience impaired sexual function. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. Capozide. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers.

Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. oral solution. sedatives. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks.Available by prescription only. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. isoniazid. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. depression. therapy begins with 0. However. cimetidine. agitation. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. sleep disturbance. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. the dosage is 0. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. weakness. Brand Name:Ativan .5 to 1 mg at bedtime. change in appetite. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. vision problems. levodopa. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. and as an injectable liquid.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. dizziness. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. s kin problems. and memory impairment. narcotics. barbiturates. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. carbamazepine. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. antihistamines. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. nausea. phenytoin. and rifampin. For insomnia. headache. and unsteadiness. antidepressants. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses.

half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. Streptococcus pyogenes.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. tenderness. . Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. morning and evening. and other types of Streptococcus. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. For children from 5 to 15 years old. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. Mupirocin. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. reddening or dry skin. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. fo r 5 days. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. This drug is available by prescription only. All rights reserved. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. or itching at the infection site. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. Less common side effects are rash. nausea. stinging. For adults and children over the age of 12. pain.

. skin infections. Brand Names:Bactroban. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. One of the ingredients in this ointment. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. and eyedrops. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. bronchitis. and hives. Ofloxacin. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. however. chlamydia.swelling. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). polyethylene glycol. The typical. gonorrhea. in an injectable liquid.

Brand Names: Floxin. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. tearing. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. or norfloxacin. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. probenecid. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. It should be taken on a regular schedule. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. hallucinations. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. seizures. either one hour before or two hours after eating. lightheadedness. warfarin. ciprofloxacin. sucralfate. without missing doses. dizziness. theophylline. nausea. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or impaired vision. headache. and zinc salts. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. speech problems. itching. vomiting. All rights reserved. dizziness. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). drug-induced hepatitis. and insomnia. calcium supplements. restle ssness. nervousness. excessive confusion. epilepsy. . and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. redness. or dryness in the eye.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. tremor. iron salts. diarrhea. drowsiness.

nausea. Because nicotine narrows arteries. low blood pressure. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. indigestion. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. Because the drug appears in breast milk. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. Side effects are rare. and it prevents blood from forming clots. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. tremor. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. skin rash. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco.Pentoxifylline. and may include headache. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. dizziness. Brand Name: Trental . The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. and. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. a protein that increases blood thickness. vomiting.

Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. All rights reserved. nightmares. anxiety. drowsiness or fatigue. fluid retention. headache. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. drug used to treat depression. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. weight g ain. with or without food. or phobias. dizziness. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. dry mouth. Phenelzine. or insomnia. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. liver disease. monoamine oxidase (MAO). Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. In general. usually three times a day. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. . heart disease. or convulsions. muscle weakness. It may detract from sexual performance in males. or epilepsy. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. Available by prescription only. twitching or tremors. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

including the treatment of respiratory. and liquid form. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. such as gonorrhea. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. It is available in tablets. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. It has many u ses. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. alcoholic beverages. bronchodilator inhalants. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. All rights reserved.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. appetite suppressants. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. all of which are taken orally. Amoxicillin. ear. capsules. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. and other antidepressants. nasal decongestants. if combined with certain foods or drugs. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. sinus and hay-fever medications. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. even after symptoms disappear. . Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. amphetamines. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. including death. and skin infections. and bananas. products that contain yeast. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea.

confusion. . but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. hives. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. Patients with asthma. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. or vomiting. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. or bruising. Wymox. which are both taken orally. anxiety or hyperactivity. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. joint pain. Augmentin Cefixime. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. also in one or two daily doses. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). diabetes. liver disease. skin rash. insomnia. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. genital sores. throat. taken in one or two doses. itching. nausea. swollen lymph nodes. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. Brand Names:Amoxil. diarrhea. skin rash. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. colitis. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. and urinary tract. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. the entire course of medication should be taken. chest. dizziness.

Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. skin rash. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. severe diarrhea. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. headache. high . stomach cramps. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness.However. or seizures. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). with or without food. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. hives. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). as it may lead to a secondary infection. shock. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. but does not cure. Tablets are taken orally. Doxazosin Mesylate. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. or vomiting. although it is known to appear in breast milk. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. All rights reserved. fever. nausea. prolonged use is not recommended. mild diarrhea. Common side effects may include indigestion. itching. usually once a day at bedtime. gas.

skin rash. and as a result. muscle cramps or weakness. coronary artery disease. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). the dosage is 1. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. nausea. or depression. eye pain. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. nosebleed. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. To treat fluid retention. Other possible side effects include constipation.5 mg per day. insomnia.blood pressure. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues.25 mg per day. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. mental depression. subsequently relieving edema. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. drug used to increase urine production. indigestion. should not drive. low white -blood-cell count. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or engage in other risk-related activities. the dosage is 2. which may be increased to 2. lowering blood pressure. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body.5 mg per day. The . operate dangerous machinery. ringing in the ears. especially when the dosage is increased.

Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. pneumonia. nausea. itching. upper respiratory tract infection. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. .drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. skin rashes. urinary tract infection. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. skin infection. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. weakness. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. headaches. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. diarrhea. To avoid nighttime urination. diabetes. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. and drowsiness. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. the drug should be taken with breakfast. visual problems. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . gout. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug.

insomnia. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. headache. at a reduced dosage. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. nausea and vomiting. swelling mucous membranes. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. Available by prescription only. loss of appetite. and itching eyes. Loratadine. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. It should be used with caution.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. abdominal pain. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. a history of colitis. Use with probenecid. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. penicillin allergies. and skin rashes. and dizziness. Less common side effects are colitis. All rights reserved. nervousness. . The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. sleepiness. by persons with impaired kidney function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. an antigout drug.

and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. tranquilizers. narcotics. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. can increase the side effects of loratadine. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. or dizziness. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. headache. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. also called methadon. In the late 1940s. drowsiness. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. barbiturates. a class of antidepressants. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. such as driving. clarithromycin. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). pain medication. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. itraconazole. . The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. or tricyclic antidepressants. and activities requiring mechanical skills. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. muscle relaxants. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. An analgesic.

pneumonia. Because methadone itself is addictive. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. u nless approved by a doctor. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. Certain ailments. or yeast infection. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. dizziness. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. It is typically prescribed for five days. and anaphylaxis. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. which interferes with breathing. jaundice. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. drowsiness. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. a severe form of diarrhea.” Taken in large doses. . Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. and urinary tract infections. Less common are chest pain. which kills the bacteria. in digestion. or vomiting. Available in capsule form. diarrhea. some patients continue to be treated for many years.Unlike heroin. Azithromycin. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. nausea. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. In typical methadone therapy. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). skin infections. such as sexually transmitted diseases. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). hives. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. bronchitis. headache. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. light sensitivity. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain.

The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. and warfarin.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. All rights reserved. should use this drug with caution. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. even after symptoms are relieved. This usually takes several weeks. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. lovastatin. digoxin. Patients with certain medical conditions. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. hexobarbital. and lithium. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. drug used to control high blood pressure. phenytoin. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). especially those that help the body retain potassium. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. cyclosporine. triazolam. but must be taken regularly to be effective. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Benazepril. which influence salt and water retention.

urinary tract infections. sweating. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). also every eight hours. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. headache. Children may take this drug. usually every eight hours. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. coli) bacteria. irregular heartbeat. joint pain. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. Possible side effects include coughing. itching. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. or vomiting. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. Less common are chest pain. constipation. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. . bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E.especially in the second and third trimesters. urinary infection. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. fluid retention. the entire course of medication should be taken. fatigue. which are both taken orally. excessive thirst. dizziness. and skin infections. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . although it is known to appear in breast milk. pneumonia. or muscle cramps. It also is known to appear in breast milk. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. streptococcus infections. impotence. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. skin rash. nausea. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug.

joint pain. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. although one form of liquid is made for injection. which are taken orally. or blood disorders. vomiting. and itching. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. liver disorders. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. skin rash. nausea. thereby halting their growth. and liquid forms. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. hives. . tablets. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. traveler’s diarrhea. vomiting. certain diuretics. light sensitivity. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. diarrhea medications. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. skin rash. itching. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight.Common side effects include diarrhea. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. vaginal inflammation. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. taken in one or two doses. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). headache. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. Possible side effects include diarrhea. and syphilis.

especially with long-term use. penicillin. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Prednisone. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. and severe allergic reactions. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. or bulging forehead (in infants). All rights reserved. phenytoin. Brand Names:Doryx. tuberculosis. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. difficulty swallowing. It is usually discontinued gradually. barbiturates. birth control pills. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. skin diseases.facial swelling. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. multiple sclerosis. chest pain. Prednisone is available only by prescription. sodium bicarbonate. certain cancers. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. and carbamazepine. asthma. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). Vibra-Tabs. Vibramycin. Children may develop discolored teeth. blood-thinners. .

peptic ulcer disease. rifampin. brittle bones. birth control pills. phenytoin. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. Buspirone. depression. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. muscle cramps. diabetes. and certain diuretics. mood swings. or a history of tuberculosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or fluid retention. amphotericin B. Liquid Pred. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. thick skin. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. high blood pressure. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. skin rash. ketoconazole. osteoporosis. Brand Names: Deltasone. muscle weakness. . Prednicen-M. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects may include insomnia. impaired thyroid function. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). headache.Patients with widespread fungus infections. high blood pressure. estrogen supplements. Children may take this drug. and purplish. diabetes medications. acne. weight gain. carbamazepine. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. active tuberculosis. All rights reserved. dizziness. gastrointestinal disorders .

and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. diarrhea. warfarin. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. narcotics. cough suppressants. Also possible are blurred vision. trazodone. rapid heartbeat. or decongestants. depending on the patient’s condition. haloperidol. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. with or without food.Tablets are taken orally. headache. or nervousness. bone or muscle pain. fatigue. usually found in combination with antihistamines. or engage in other risk-related activities. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. and fluoxetine. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. capsule. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. sweating. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. usually three times p er day. dry mouth. . operate dangerous machinery. nausea. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. Unlike many tranquilizers. constipation. skin rash. upset stomach. Possible side effects include dizziness. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. or vomiting. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. and tablet form.

It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. nausea. In the United States. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. Triaminic Expectorant. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. stomach pain. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. Comtrex Cold Formula. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992.7 percent of the time. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. Prior to 1992 the drug . Dimacol Caplets. This drug is highly effective. and diarrhea. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. vomiting.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. Brand Names: Cheracol D. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. preventing pregnancy 99. However.

It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Blood transfusions are often necessary. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. . sometimes for a year or more. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. headaches. Taken every four hours. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. mood changes. Also. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). In many cases. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. Other possible side effects include weight gain. and abdominal pain. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. However. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. night and day.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. overdoses can cause profound shock. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. boisterous or violent behavior. urinary tract. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Phenobarbital. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). or death. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. coma. depression. Depending on the dosage or formulation. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. and sedation. Taken orally or intravenously. Barbiturate.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). or anesthetic effect. gastrointestinal tract. such as secobarbital. a combination of urea and malonic acid. Ampicillin. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). Other barbituric-acid derivatives. . anticonvulsant. An antibiotic like penicillin. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. muscle incoordination. and respiratory tract. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. All rights reserved. a long-acting barbiturate. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing).

but an entire course of medication. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. In South America. brucei gambiense. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. mouth irritation. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. whereas a more local version is caused by T. Possible side effects may include nausea. In cattle and other animals. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. oral contraceptives. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. genus Trypanosoma. or anemia. fever. T. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. skin rash. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. usually a seven. Another liquid form is administered by injection. another version of the protozoan. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. brucei rhodesiense. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. endemic. colitis (inflamed bowel). diarrhea. and probenecid. vomiting. atenolol. The most common is caused by T. the disease is called nagana.to ten-day course. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. Children may take ampicillin. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. cruzi. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. . allopurinol. and sometimes epidemic. also sleeping sickness. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. mefloquine. hives.

with accompanying mood changes. frequently. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. Allopurinol. It is also sometimes fatal. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). sleepiness. eventual coma. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. All rights reserved. an accelerated heartbeat. and. . and rash and fever. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. lack of appetite. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. which more frequently attacks children. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Chagas' disease. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. In the long term. an enlargement of the spleen. death. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. In early stages.

All rights reserved. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis.Ephedrine. Hormone). which are similar to but not identical with sterols. dry mouth. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. rheumatoid arthritis. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. more specific drugs. bile acids. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. and progesterone. asthma and allergies. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. tremor. Steroid hormones. it has been superseded by safer. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. or fat-soluble chemicals. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. and anxiety. Testosterone). Steroids. aldosterone. Endocrine System). Ephedrine is an alkaloid. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). some natural drugs. It is sometimes misused. cortisone. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Cholesterol. and various eye diseases. C10H15NO. with a great diversity of physiological activity. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. many important hormones. . is a sterol. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance.

Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. These include gentamicin. See also Sports Medicine. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. it is still used for this condition. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. and cholera. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. Streptomyces griseus. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. such as tuberculosis. tobramycin. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. are susceptible to streptomycin. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. the aminoglycosides. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. and kanamycin. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. . leprosy. amikacin.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. After the medication begins to take effect. obsessive -compulsive disorder. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. the dose may be lowered. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. available by prescription only. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). such as headaches and structural muscle aches. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. Fluoxetine. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. Fluoxetine.Acetaminophen. and premenstrual syndrome. . so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. as aspirin tends to do for some users. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. prescribed for the treatment of depression. All rights reserved. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. and for the reduction of fever. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. is taken orally in tablet form. type of drug known as an antidepressant. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage.

weight loss. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. the formula of which is given above. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. sometimes fatal results. and diarrhea. . headaches. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. sweet-tasting a lcohol. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. colorless. diabetes. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. or a history of seizures. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. dizziness. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. C3H6O. insomnia. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. nausea. C3H6. changes in appetite. or propylene.4° F). about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. odorless. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. C3H8O3. or for those with kidney or liver disease. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions.26. with a specific gravity of 1. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety.S. crude glycerol is purified by distillation.

The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. including toothpastes. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. and the equipment used. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. that is. and water. naphthalene. phenanthrene. from which they are released later by acidification. Distillation produces benzene. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. anthracene. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. Because cheaper products are now available. Its composition varies with the coal. and oxygen. toluene. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. which are acidic. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. they incite cancerous gro wths. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. can be extracted by alkali solutions. and other valuable products. together with alcohols. sulfur. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. The phenols. phenols. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Left after distillation are residues of . and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Coal Tar. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. mostly hydrocarbons. xylene.

Aspirin. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. . however. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. paint removers. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. including dyes. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. in roofing mixtures. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. however. drugs. artificial sweeteners. and plastics. found in the bark of the willow tree. preservatives. mild to moderate pain. creosote oil. and resins. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. to counter fever and pain. among others. acetylsalicylic acid. stains. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . It is made from salicylic acid. perfumes. however. Since then. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. insecticides. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. cause iron deficiency. synthetic chemical compound.pitch. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. Salicylic acid is bitter. and irritates the stomach. food flavorings. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. used in making roads. paints. explosives. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin.

Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. liver disease. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. diarrhea. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water.Ibuprofen. or high blood pressure. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. Brand Names: Advil. In adults. and may be taken with food. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. In prescription form. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. inflammation. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. When taken in excessive amounts. fever. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. Motrin. or fever. Nuprin . The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. drug used to reduce inflammation. or rapid heartbeat. which usually involves vomiting. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. rapid breathing. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. and the sensation of pain. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses.

was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. collagen diseases. or corticoids. muscle weakness. called corticosteroids. weight gain. they must be used carefully. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. also cortisol. the maturation of white blood cells. Because of their widespread effects. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. and the regulation of blood pressure. . Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. and eye inflammations. the retention of salt and water in the body. of the adrenal gland. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. high blood pressure. and diabetes. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. called cortisone. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. protein. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. or cortex.Hydrocortisone. the activity of the nervous system. hydrocortisone and related compounds. Medical). are employed for many medical purposes. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. in 1935. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. and fat.

More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. or shift work. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. jet lag. night.Melatonin. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. and hormone balance. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. such as sleep-wake cycles. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. water balance. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. However. for instance. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. fluctuations in body temperature. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. heart rate. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. .

arthritis. Parkinson disease. large additional quantities are secreted. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. The pure compound. constricts the small blood vessels. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. Epinephrine. and hypertension. to prevent bleeding. Alzheimer’s disease. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). liberates sugar stored in the liver. epinephrine stimulates the heart. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). however. but it is now made synthetically. For example. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. Although it is easily available over the counter. . is also known as adrenaline. raises the blood pressure. In times of excitement or emotional stress. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. epilepsy. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. All rights reserved.

It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. heart disease. lightheadedness. nausea. muscular weakness. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. or myasthenia gravis. impotence. digoxin. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. severe colitis. or constipation. drowsiness. tingling. corticoids. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . irregular heartbeat. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. or levoarterenol. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). They may include blurred vision. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. insomnia. This drug can also decrease sweating. It is available in capsule. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. An antispasmodic drug. or nervousness. In general. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. glaucoma. and is taken orally four times a day. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. severe heartburn. diarrhea. dizziness. called norepinephrine. high blood pressure. and liquid form. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. noradrenaline. enlarged prostate gland. antihistamines. Because of this. urinary tract blockage. dry mouth. nasal congestion. hyperthyroidism. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. or short-term memory loss. tablet. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. fainting. headache. with or without meals.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. These include but are not limited to antacids.

Nizatidine Nizatidine. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. and bronchodilators. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. diarrhea. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. headache. fever. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. decreased sexual ability. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. narcotic pain relievers. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. increased heart rate. excessive fatigue. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. nausea. More serious effects include confusion. fatigue. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. and weakness. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. dizziness. itching. antipsychotic drugs. unusual bleeding or bruising. . stomach upset. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. and sweating. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. All rights reserved. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation.

calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. pentoxiylline. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. reduced liver or kidney function. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. not crushed. For treatment of angina. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. however. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. if stomach irritation is a problem. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. and 90-mg extended release tablets. 60-mg. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. citrus fruit.Alcoholic beverages. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. highdose aspirin. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or persons with low blood pressure. onions. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. This drug is available by p rescription only. Nifedipine Nifedipine. garlic. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. doses may be taken with food. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. All rights reserved. protein-rich foods. The safety and effectiveness of . and theophylline. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

low blood pressure. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. nausea. nifedipine may increase angina. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. cimetidine. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. along with hydrocortisone. and weakness. These combinations. and otic (ear) drops. cyclosporine. and certain drugs including amiodarone. diltiazem. digoxin.. lightheadedness. grapefruit juice. magnesium. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . Neomycin Neomycin. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. For eye infections. cigarette smoking. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. swelling of the feet and ankles. and ranitidine. For skin conditions. phenytoin. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. flushing. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. oral hypoglycemic drugs. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. headache. theophylline. eye. digitalis. All rights reserved. Rarely. and ear infections. insulin. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. Brand Names:Adalat.

This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. smallpox. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. irritation. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. or severe impairment of kidney function. Nabumetone Nabumetone. taken orally. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. kidney or ear damage may occur. liver disease. pregnant or breast-feeding women. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. bleeding or blood cell disorders. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. All rights reserved. The typical. without missing doses. itching. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. This drug is available b y prescription only. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug.or the ear. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. and chicken pox infections. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. To minimize adverse side effects. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. taken once a day or in divided doses. or dryness. Rarely. Brand Names:Corticosporin. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation.

asthma or difficulty breathing. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. and liver or kidney damage. headache. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. nausea. lungs. These include bloating. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. sweating. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. blood clots in the legs. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. drowsiness. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. constipation. impairment of normal blood clotting. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. difficulty sleeping. blurred vision. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. and probenecid. or angina pectoris (chest pain). indigestion. This drug is available by prescription only. thickens the mucus of the cervix. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. respectively. dizziness. beta blockers. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. or vomiting. aspirin. known or . lightheadedness. dizziness. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. nervousness. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. heartburn. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). diarrhea. diuretics.nabumetone has been determined. other salicylates. If tablets are missed. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. or eyes. soreness of the mouth. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. strokes. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. loss of appetite. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days.

Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. blotchy spots on exposed skin. weight gain. smoke. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. unexplained vaginal bleeding. and vaginal infections. or known or suspected pregnancy. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. dizziness. depression. or vagina. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. headache. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. breast tenderness. diabetes. Because of the risk of blood clots. These include rifampin. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. difficulty wearing contact lenses. fluid retention. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bleeding between menstrual periods. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. loss of scalp hair. and certain antibiotics. rash. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. cervix. or have high blood pressure. nervousness. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. and brown. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. All rights reserved. liver tumors. phenylbutazone. vomiting. or high cholesterol. In lowering blood cholesterol. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal.

although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. nausea. gout. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. and lose weight as part of their treatment. . exercise. diarrhea. blurred vision. or other abdominal problems. liver disorders. kidney disease. or sleepiness. diabetes. confusion. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. excessive thirst. Possible side effects include constipation. fever. Patients with diabetes. fainting. Patients with liver or kidney disease. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. or various blood-thinning drugs. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. vomiting. indigestion. h eadache. skin rash. diarrhea. skin rash. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. hives. barbiturates. dizziness. Available in tablet and liquid form. irregular heartbeat. or blurred vision. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. thyroid problems. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. dizziness. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. narcotics. lightsensitivity. itching. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. nausea. gallbladder disease. headache. lupus erythematosus. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide.weeks of treatment. ringing in the ears. muscle or joint pain. impotence. Possible side effects may include constipation. with dosage based on body weight. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. lovastatin. but it does appear in breast milk. also known as a diuretic. congestive heart failure. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. and liver disease. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. impotence. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. It reduces water and salt in the body. Children may take this drug.

Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. anxiety. Overdosage can cause confusion. hair loss. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. and also in a liquid form that is injected. skin rash or itching. pentoxifylline. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. among other effects. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. When histamine action is blocked. ketoconazole. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. It is available in tablet and liquid form. seizures. rapid or slow heartbeat. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. dizziness. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. or cardiac arrest. All rights reserved. impotence. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. Less common are diarrhea. stomach acid decreases. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. . Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. joint or muscle pain. pancrelipase. both taken orally. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or sleepiness. or probenecid. Famotidine Famotidine.

An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. Also sometimes seen are constipation. nausea. or vision changes. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. thereby reducing blood pressure. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. diarrhea. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day.Diltiazem Diltiazem. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. Brand Names:Cardizem. or opening. dry mouth. sleeplessness. All rights reserved. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. muscular weakness. carbamazepine. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. cimetidine. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Diclofenac Sodium . skin rash. hair loss. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. light sensitivity. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. ringing in the ears. The drug works by dilating. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. blood vessels and slowing the heart. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. headache. aspirin. or abnormally slow heartbeat. fluid retention. digoxin. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Available in tablet and capsule form. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. and ranitidine.

Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or dizziness. heart medications containing digitalis. indigestion. methotrexate. blood-thinning medications. skin rash. Classified as an antiasthmatic. headache. lithium. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. nausea. cyclosporine. in somnia. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. or vomiting. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. facial swelling. ulcers. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. hair loss. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). and carteolol. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. diuretics. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. diarrhea. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. with food. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. or loss of consciousness. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. the two branch es that connect the .Diclofenac Sodium. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. drowsiness. blurred or double vision. if stomach upset occurs. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. but it is known to appear in breast milk. constipation. heart disease. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. All rights reserved. ringing in the ears. light sensitivity. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. lung inflammation.

throat irritation. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). including capsules (taken orally). joint pain. Possible side effects include coughing. nasal congestion. difficulty swallowing. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. headache. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sneezing. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. or wheezing. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. tablets are taken orally. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. It comes in several forms. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). All rights reserved. skin rash. They may be taken w ith or without food. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. or powder. although most are taken four to six times per day. Brand Names:Intal. Available by prescription only. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. although the complete. or swollen glands. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and bronchitis.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Nasalcrom. dizziness. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. nosebleed. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. usually in 250. frequent urination. nausea. .

indigestion. caffeine. digoxin. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. theophylline. but may include nausea. acetaminophen. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. or other risk-related activities.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. astemizole. requires immediate medical attention. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. . diarrhea. or an altered sense of taste. Patients with porphyria. Dependency on this drug can occur. and phenytoin. usually one or two tablets every four hours. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. operating dangerous machinery. Severe diarrhea. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. especially with long-term use.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. sedative b arbiturate drug. headache. should not take this drug. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders.

or vomiting. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. migraine. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. However. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. liver disease. All rights reserved. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. All rights reserved. warfarin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. itching. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. diarrhea. thereby reducing blood pressure. twitching. patients with low blood pressure. The drug may be taken with or without food. Brand Names:Fioricet. back or chest pain. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. Phrenilin. low blood pressure. Amlodipine Amlodipine. Brand Names:Norvasc. headache. usually in 5. or coma. shock. steroids. and vomiting. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. light-headedness. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. such as beta blockers. flushing. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. and heart palpitations. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. sleepiness. fluid retention or swelling. fatigue. Amlodipine is available only by prescription.or 10-mg doses. including dizziness. . Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. anxiety. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers.Potential side effects include drowsiness. constipation. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. These include antidepressants. antihistamines. nausea. fainting. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and theophylline. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. Fiorinal. oral contraceptives. breathing difficulties.

A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. It is available in aerosol. dizziness. ringing in the ears. and capsule form. . The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. nosebleeds. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. an overactive thyroid gland. diarrhea. tablet. Some of the more common ones include agitation. tooth discoloration. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. rapid heartbeat. can make symptoms worse. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. all of which are taken orally.Albuterol Albuterol. in fact. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. increased blood pressure. headache. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. usually within 15 minutes. an irregular heartbeat. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). People with high blood pressure.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. Brand Names:Proventil. syrup. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. Ventolin. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. All rights reserved. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. restoring comfortable breathing. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. muscle cramps. and vomiting. nausea. indigestion. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. liver disease. cardiovascular problems. sleeplessness. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and.

Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). especially after long-term use at high dosages. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or jaundice. asthma. or pain -killing. muscle weakness. All rights reserved. for pain relief. as needed. caffeine. ulcers. muscle relaxants. antihistamines. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. antidepressants. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. operating dangerous machinery. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. blood-clotting problems. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. effect. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. anticoagulants. Possible side effects include nausea. sleep aids. vomiting. mood changes. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. headache. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. constipation. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. or influenza. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. Brand Names:Darvon. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. pregnant women. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. chickenpox. or other narcotic pain relievers. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. kidney or liver problems. skin rash. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. or engaging in other risk-related activities. so patients should avoid driving. weight loss. or nursing women.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Pravastatin Pravastatin .

Typically. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. Children may take this drug. fight insomnia. Patients with liver or kidney disease. headache. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. gemfibrozil. diarrhea. muscular disorders. cataracts. syrup. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cimetidine. with dosages based on body weight. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. itchiness. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. and suppository form. liver conditions. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. injectable liquid. ketoconazole. or children under the age of 18. Pregnant or nursing women. gas. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. usually at bedtime. should not take promethazine. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. niacin. should not take pravastatin. Promethazine Promethazine. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. usually within 20 minutes. and immunosuppressive drugs. constipation. stomach pain. Available by prescription in tablet. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. muscle cramps.cholesterol. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). colestipol. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. Promethazine works quickly. peptic ulcers. heart disease. or flulike symptoms. cyclosporine. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. nausea. warfarin. skin rash. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. including asthma and sleep apnea. It may be taken with or without food. high blood pressure. Available only by prescription. erythromycin. drug used mainly to treat allergies. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. prostate .

nausea. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers.enlargement. urinary tract infections. or loss of consciousness. whooping cough. jaundice. blurred vision. gonorrhea. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. skin rash. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. Children may take most forms of this drug. Brand Names: Phenergan. or engage in other risk-related activities. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. Erythromycin Erythromycin. vomiting. All rights reserved. with dosages determined by body weight. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. breathing difficulties. or narrow-angle glaucoma. sedatives. blood pressure changes. however. operate dangerous machin ery. or light sensitivity. gel. impaired kidney function. and antidepressant drugs. preventing their multiplication and growth. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. However. Dependingon the site of the infection. rheumatic fever. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. tablets. and various liquids. ointment. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. or abnormal heart rhythm. ear and skin infections. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. syphilis. and diphtheria. Other possible side effects include dizziness. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tranquilizers. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. disorientation. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies.

lovastatin. All rights reserved. an ointment.Erymax.Erygel. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). and to treat asthma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Ilosone. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. eczema. itching. dizziness. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). rapid heartbeat. For tablets. yellowing of the eyes or skin. preferably right after a bowel movement. or temporary hearing loss. it is usually taken for four to . bone cysts in children. It reduces swelling. lupus erythematous. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. blood-thinners. It comes in a tablet. vomiting. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. carbamazepine. nausea. Brand Names: Erythrocin. and most forms of arthritis. tendinitis. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. hives. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin).Benzamycin. and psoriasis. This drug is available by prescription only. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. phenytoin. and an enema. multiple sclerosis. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. or diarrhea. digoxin. redness. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. For acute disorders. croup. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).Theramycin Z. Emgel.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. an injectable liquid. loss of appetite. and theophylline. Also seen are skin rash. ulcerative colitis. eye irritation. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. It is also used to treat anemia.

Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. antacids. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. ketoprofen. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. phenytoin. digoxin. peptic ulcer. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. oral antidiabetic drugs. drugs containing estrogen. increased blood sugar. barbiturates . this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. rabies. carbamazepine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. insulin. Medrol. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. cataracts. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Naproxen . For chronic disorders. Brand Names:Duralone. and increased susceptibility to infection. retention of salt and water. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. weight gain. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). retarded growth and development in children. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. hypertension (high blood pressure). Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B.ten days. All rights reserved. and certain vaccines. glaucoma. indomethacin. and naproxen. aspirin. ketoconazole. possible diabetes. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. peptic ulcer disease. smallpox. cyclosporine. ephedrine.

It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. dental treatment. orthopedic surgery. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. loss of appetite. osteoarthritis. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. These include bloating. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. indigestion. difficulty breathing. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. and other pain. sweating. diarrhea. and for strains and sprains. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. osteoarthritis. or severe impairment of kidney function. pregnant or breast-feeding women. For bursitis. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. Pain relief should begin within one hour. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. For gout. lightheadedness. To minimize adverse side effects. and as a liquid. . in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. and 500 mg. If possible. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. heartburn. tendinitis. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. soreness of the mouth. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. constipation. nervousness. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. menstrual cramps. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. nausea. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. without missing doses. or vomiting. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. drowsiness. 375 mg. bleeding or blood cell disorders. headache. and gout. difficulty sleeping. it may be taken with food or antacids. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. If stomach irritation occurs. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. changes in menstruation.Naproxen. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. liver disease. dizziness. bursitis. tendinitis. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and liver or kidney damage.

and timolol. For prevention of heart attacks. For treatment after a heart attack. 100-mg.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. methotrexate. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. It may have a negative effect on . pregnant or breast-feeding women. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. and probenecid. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). and 200-mg tablets. This drug is available by prescription only. aspirin. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. metoprolol. For treatment of hypertension or angina. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. more commonly known as beta blockers. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. persons with congestive heart failure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. in prolonged action tablets. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. It comes in 50-mg. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. salicylates. The regular tablet can be crushed. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Aleve. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). beta blockers such as acebutolol. atenolol. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. Metoprolol Metoprolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. an abnormally slow heart rate. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. the typical. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. lithium.

barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. . fluoxetine. cimetidine. and tendinitis. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. hydralazine. nifedipine. furosemide. gout. which may trigger pain and inflammation. insulin. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. osteoarthritis. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. reserpine. oral antidiabetic drugs. lightheadedness.driving or other risk-related activities. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. aspirin. diltiazem. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. and verapamil. fatigue. chlorpromazine. digoxin. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. amiodarone. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. and decreased sexual desire. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Brand Names:Lopressor. aminophylline. theophyllinevenlafaxine. slow heart rate. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . clonidine. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). tranquilizers. epinephrine. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. calcium channel blockers. All rights reserved. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. cold h ands and feet. albuterol. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol.

the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. b eta blockers. Etodolac is available only by prescription. or with a prescribed antacid. aspirin. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. and vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. skin rash. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. constipation. methotrexate. Etodolac Etodolac. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. with meals. valproic acid. diarrhea. such as aspirin. should not take this drug. hives. mouth sores. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. ringing in the ears. lithium. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. itching. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. nausea. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. relieving swelling and stiffness. enoxaparin. anticoagulants. indigestion. ulceration. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. headache. All rights reserved. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. dizziness. depression. and warfarin. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. and bleeding. indomethacin. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . or a severe impairment of kidney function. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. sulfinpyrazone. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. To avoid adverse side effects. sleep disturbances.

indigestion. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. tendinitis. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. constipation. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. fluid retention. or yellowing of the skin or eyes.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. anemia. insomnia. and nausea. dizziness. heart disease. ringing in the ears. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. diuretics. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sweating. rapid heartbeat. fever. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. peptic ulcer. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. tablet. milk. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash. bursitis.stomach upset. drug used to reduce the inflammation. and it may appear in breast milk. with increased blood flow during menstruation. indigestion. fever. Patients with kidney or liver problems. skin rash. fainting. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. blood-thinning medications. All rights reserved. depression. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. or muscle weakness. and menstrual cramps. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. and suppository form. nausea. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. Possible side effects include drowsiness. . Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. diarrhea. but it can be taken with food. and digoxin. headache.

nifedipine. Breast-feeding women. lithium. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. verapamil. and patients with ulcers. and chest pain is alleviated. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. steroids.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve.15 to 0. impaired kidney function. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). If necessary. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. patients with allergies to the drug. and diuretics. or one metered dose of 0.4 mg from a spray container. As a result. workload on the heart is reduced. phenytoin. For long-term prevention of angina. aspirin. insulin. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. For prevention of angina. one 1 . bleeding disorders. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. applied on or under the tongue. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. All rights reserved. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis.

or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. Nitrocine Transdermal. acetylcysteine. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. sudden drop in blood pressure . Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. heparin. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours.5 -inch (7. Warfarin . All rights reserved. recent head trauma. antihypertensive drugs. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. diltiazem. Nitrocap TD. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. aspirin. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. colds. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and coughs. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. or a 0. and heart palpitations. hyperthyroidism. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. To maintain its effectiveness. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. rather. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. rapid heart rate. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. headache. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours.

or recent surgery should not use this drug. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding).Warfarin. difficulty swallowing. Classified as an anticoagulant. impaired liver or kidney function. Verapamil works by . and ibuprofen (Advil. After the first two to three days. discolored (purplish) toes. an aneurysm. All rights reserved. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. cut. difficulty breathing. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. Verapamil Verapamil. severe allergies. hair loss. Patients with peptic ulcers. fish. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. s kin inflammation. any infectious disease. diabetes. or intestinal problems. nausea. joint pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and hypertension (high blood pressure). or gangrene. cauliflower. Motrin). a blood disorder. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. acetaminophen (Tylenol). It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. ulcerative colitis. Other side effects may include diarrhea. For this reason. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. asparagus. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. beef liver. or swelling. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. chest pain. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. puncture. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. some forms of irregular heartbeat. and bacon. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. or patients with high blood pressure. fever. a heart-related infection. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment.

An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Available in tablet and capsule form. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). lithium. carbamazepine. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. or s low heartbeat. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . phenobarbital. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. constipation. abnormally low blood pressure. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. hair loss. digoxin. congestive heart failure. or congestive heart failure. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. rifampin. light sensitivity. Terazosin Terazosin . cyclosporine. thereby lowering blood pressure. fatigue. fluid retention. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. Brand Names:Calan. and various diuretics. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. sleepiness. taken in three or four doses. an injectable solution is also available. theophylline. ringing in the ears. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. with meals and at bedtime with food. nausea. prostate gland enlargement. headache. phenytoin. Isoptin. dry mouth. All rights reserved. and it does appear in breast milk. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. cimetidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. impotence. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. aspirin. and in me n. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. skin rash.

Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. patients should avoid driving. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. . Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. which influence salt and water retention. to dilate arteries. it should be taken regularly. dizziness. stuffy nose. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. taken in one or two doses. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. difficulty breathing. At these times. drug used to control high blood pressure. Available by prescription in capsule form. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. coronary artery disease. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. especially beta blockers. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. estrogens. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. numbness.problems of urine flow. All rights reserved. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. reduce blood volume. Dosages range from 2. heart palpitations. painful urination. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. even when symptoms are relieved. or engaging in other risk-related activities. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. or a history of stroke. muscle weakness. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. or blurred vision. operating dangerous machinery. sweating. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). nausea. fatigue. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. Ramipril Ramipril. fainting.5 to 20 mg per day. fluid retention. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. and urinary tract infections. and lower blood pressure.

and potassium supplements. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. caused by epilepsy. it can react adversely with such drugs. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. especially in the second and third trimesters. All rights reserved. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. as it can harm the fetus. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. Side effects may include headache. and liquid form. Taken orally. including salt substitutes containing potassium. cyclosporine. high potassium levels. coughing. lithium. drug used to treat the seizures. It is also known to appear in breast milk. . It also may react with aspirin.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. requires immediate medical attention. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. systemic lupus erythematosus. To avoid stomach irritation. or violent muscle contractions. it must be taken regularly to be effective. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. capsule. impaired liver or kidney function. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. heart disease. or light sensitivity. fatigue. or low white blood cell levels. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. nausea. lightheadedness. An allergic reaction to this drug. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. muscle pain. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. except for one liquid form made for injection. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. vomiting. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. scleroderma. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes.

Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. and antacids. involuntary eye movement. abnormal hair growth. but are not limited to. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. phenobarbital. mental confusion. Ketorolac Ketorolac. headache. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). insomnia. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . aspirin. or slurred speech. doxycycline. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia).Patients with impaired liver function. joint pain. Also included are the drugs felbamate. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. oral contraceptive s. diazepam. bedwetting. and as eyedrops. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. All rights reserved. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. sodium valproate. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or change in urine color. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. The injection is given within a muscle. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. skin rash. twitching. The initial. certain tranquilizers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. carbamazepine. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. estrogens. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. theophylline. and valproic acid. dizziness. ulcer medications. acute pain. fever. impotence. diabetes. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. Other observed side effects include nausea. steroids. four to six hours apart. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. furosemide. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. These include. blood thinners. methylphenidate.

. superficial eye infections. and perforation. ketoprofen. increased sweating. All rights reserved. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. colitis. plicamycin. diarrhea. headache. cefoperazone. or high blood pressure. burning or pain at the injection site. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. indigestion.more than five days. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. edema. heparin. Less common side effects are eye irritation. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. ulceration. and oxaprozin. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. dizziness. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. Brand Names:Acular.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. asthma. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. edema. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. diabetes mellitus. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. heart disease. moxalactam. allergic reactions. naproxen. and gastrointestinal bleeding. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. acetaminophen. Abdominal or stomach pain. renal failure. methotrexate. as well as with lithium. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. lupus erythematosus. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. cefotetan. vomiting. nabumetone. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. drowsiness. Glipizide Glipizide. bruising at the site of injection. kidney or liver disease. cefamandole. decrease in urine output. constipation. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. probenecid.

. aspirin. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. skin rash. sweating. but are not limited to. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). The starting dose is 5 mg. impaired kidney or liver function. which control salt and water retention. corticoids. in dosages ranging from 2. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). or seizures. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. anemia. Tablets are taken orally. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. shallow breathing. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. disorientation. All rights reserved. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Potential side effects may include headache. antacids. With long-term use (months to years). Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. estrogens. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure.5 to 40 mg per day. with or without food. birth control pills. nausea. rapid heartbeat. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. tranquilizers. sulfa drugs. These include. stomach pain. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. Enalapril Enalapril.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. drowsiness. light sensitivity. Patients with heart disorders. dizziness. in one or two doses. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. but depending on the patient’s response. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. thyroid medications. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors.

breast enlargement (in males). headache. herpes infections (including shingles). All rights reserved. sensitivity to light. excessive sweating. abdominal pain. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). It has not been proven safe for use in children. It is also known to appear in breast milk. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. especially in the second and third trimesters. It also may cause chest pain. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. or abnormally low blood pressure. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. It is used to treat reflux disease. impotence. excessive hair growth in women. it may react adversely with such drugs. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. hair loss. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. skin rash or itching. blurred vision. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. loss of appetite. secretion of stomach acid decreases. Brand Names:Vasotec. acne. dizziness. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. and in a liquid form that is injected. When histamine action is blocked. and an overactive parathyroid gland. usually taken immediately . This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. rapid heartbeat. nausea. Depending on the condition being treated.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. both taken orally. muscle cramps or weakness. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. hives. Cimetidine Cimetidine. dry mouth or eyes. depression. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives.

Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Available in tablet form. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. metoclopramide. skin rash or inflammation.2 lb). nicotine. sucralfate. and excessive caffeine. Relief of symptoms may take several days. rapid or slow heartbeat. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. confusion. or hallucinations. anemia. drug used to treat seizures. pentoxifylline. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. dizziness. such as those associated with epilepsy. narcotic pain relievers. also known as valproic acid. All rights reserved. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. phenytoin. and sleepiness. quinine. With prolonged use (one month or more). Less common side effects are diarrhea. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. and warfarin. theophylline.after a meal. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. joint or muscle pain. including medications for diabetes. depression. Divalproex Divalproex. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). impotence. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. and aspirin. cigarette smoking. which is increased as needed (to a . Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. metronidazole. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. heart palpitations. digoxin. some patients experience anxiety. hair loss. cyclosporine. paroxetine. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures.

and vomiting. isoniazid. Patients are often started on a . Possible side effects include indigestion. tranquilizers. and other seizure medications. double vision. loss of appetite. muscle weakness. heart attacks. yellowing skin or eyes. as continuous seizures may result. constipation. This drug slows blood clotting. sleep aids. blood thinners. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. Some patients experience drowsiness and. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. fever. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. or engage in other risk-related activities. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. and loss of seizure control. vomiting. or dental procedures.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. tremors.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. drowsiness. itching. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. especially when used in children under the age of two. which is divided into several smaller doses. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. as a result . nausea. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. All rights reserved. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Captopril Captopril. surgery. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. should not drive. or weight gain. which influence salt and water rete ntion. behavior changes. This drug can cause liver damage. facial swelling. antihistamines. and birth control pills. fluid retention. operate dangerous machinery. It also may interact with erythromycin. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. drug typically used to control high blood pressure.

mouth. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. Less common side effects include blurred vision.small dosage. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). lithium. or heart failure. lightheadedness. It also may react adversely with aspirin. as it can harm the fetus. loss of taste. diarrhea. which also requires immediate medical care. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). All rights reserved. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. skin rash. sweating. wheezing stroke. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. anti-inflammatory medications. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Possible side effects include itching. depression. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. muscle pain or weakness. confusion. legs. or swelling of the arms. fatigue. . and extremely low blood pressure. even after symptoms are relieved. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. which is increased as needed. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. peptic ulcer. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. light sensitivity. nausea. vomiting. it can react adversely with these drugs. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. especially in the second and third trimesters. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. constipation. fainting. sleepiness. nitroglycerin. A reaction that includes chest pain. Brand Names:Capoten. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which usually takes several weeks. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. Lovastatin Lovastatin .

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. nausea. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. Tablets are taken with or without food. and stomach pain. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. and unusual tiredness or weakness. preferably with evening meals. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. which are taken orally. 20-mg. and 40-mg tablets. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. gemfibrozil. gas. muscle aches or cramps. niacin. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. fever. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. Less common side effects are blurred vision. weight loss. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. skin rash. heartburn. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). This drug should be taken with food. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. Simvastatin Simvastatin.Available by prescription only. All rights reserved. headache. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. diarrhea. cyclosporine. and warfarin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. usually at bedtime. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. severe stomach pain. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. dizziness. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg.

a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. and diabetes. All rights reserved. or lowered blood pressure. erythromycin. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. constipation. or thyrotoxicosis. cataracts. Patients with impaired liver function. or by young people under the age of 20. ketoconazole. gas. by pregnant or nursing women. gemfibrozil. including high blood pressure. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. digoxin. Levothyroxine may be used during . cimetidine. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. skin rash. muscle weakness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. This drug is available by prescription only. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. stomach pain. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. and spironolactone. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. or hepatitis.weeks of treatment. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. in tablets and an injectable liquid. clofibrate. warfarin. The drug is effective within 48 hours. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. impaired vision. cyclosporine. and for infants with cretinism. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. diarrhea. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). nausea. muscular disorders. nicotinic acid.

prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . flushed skin.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. and skin. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. heart palpitations. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. Patients should not take more than a single. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Levoxine. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. or chest pain. which causes thyroid overactivity. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). sweating. Astemizole is available only by prescription. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. All rights reserved. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. eyes. Astemizole Astemizole. agitation. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. weight loss or gain. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names: Levothroid. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. diarrhea. tiredness.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

cyclosporine. phenytoin. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. nausea. All rights reserved. procainamide. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. impaired liver or kidney function. Available by prescription only. pneumonia. diarrhea. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. and traveler’s diarrhea. rifampin. abdominal cramps. bronchitis. dapsone. or increased blood potassium. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. loss of appetite. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. especially of the urinary tract and eye. . this drug is taken orally in tablet form. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. with dosages based on body weight. Brand Names:Bactrim. and cholestyramine. or pain associated with cancer. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. sore mouth.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. Tramadol Tramadol. Patients with anemia. with or without food. vomiting. headache. back or joint pain. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission.

or engage in other riskrelated activities. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. or dry mouth. people taking this drug should not drive. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. quinidine. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other possible side effects include nausea. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. . Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. constipation. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. including an oral inhalant. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. two to three times a day. operate dangerous machinery. vomiting. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. tablets. and a liquid form that is injected. sweating. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cream and ointment forms applied topically. sedatives. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. In addition. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. Its safety for children under the age of 16. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. For this reason. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. diarrhea. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day.

it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. Tretinoin Tretinoin. diabetes drugs (including insulin). memory loss. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. . It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. nosebleed. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. weight loss. phenytoin. nasal irritation or congestion. wheezing. peptic ulcer.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. glaucoma (an eye disorder). carbamazepine. Brand Names:Azmacort. fluid retention. mottled skin. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. headache. Taken orally. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. but helps alleviate symptoms. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. All rights reserved. sneezing. hoarseness. and primidone. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or a history of tuberculosis. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. skin rash. warfarin. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. digoxin. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat.

prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. astringents. It should not come in contact with the eyes. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. although maximum improvement may take several months. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. This drug is available in liquid form. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. . It is applied to the skin. All rights reserved. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. as well as with medicated soaps. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. darkening or lightening of skin color. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. usually once a day at bedtime. especially those containing sulfur. cream. The tablet form is taken orally. or spices. Hands should be washed immediately after application. preferably an hour before meals. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. and s kin products containing alcohol. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and solution. salicylic acid.Tretinoin is available in a gel. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. temporary worsening of acne. mouth. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. or resorcinol. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. Renoval. Brand Names:Retin-A. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. citrus scents. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended.

. diarrhea. tingling or numbness. chest pain. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. or impotence. nausea. low blood pressure. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. as well as epinephrine. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. theophylline. shortness of breath. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. As a bronchodilator. chronic bronchitis. or heart failure. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation.Patients with asthma. an overactive thyroid gland. tablet. which may be increased if needed. Brand Names: Timoptic. All rights reserved. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. dizziness. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. cimetidine. All are taken orally. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). Blocadren. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. prescription drug used to treat asthma. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). hay fever or other allergies. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). especially in patients with heart disorders. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. muscle weakness. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. vomiting. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. lung disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. improving circulation. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. and pulmonary (lung) disease. low blood sugar. hair loss. impaired liver or kidney function. Theophylline is available in capsule. Possible side effects may include headache. Theophylline Theophylline. chlorpromazine. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. insulin and other diabetes drugs. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. and liquid form.

headache. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. taken in one to four doses. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. taken orally. . especially when starting treatment with theophylline. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Changes in heart rate. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. impaired liver or kidney function. clarithromycin. gum disease. Tetracycline Tetracycline. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. convulsions. irregular heartbeat. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. seizure disorders. should be checked by a doctor. Brand Names:Slo-bid. applied topically. propanolol. It also may interact with cimetidine. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. erythromycin. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. acne. low blood pressure. high blood pressure. All rights reserved. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. increased urination. thereby halting their growth. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. or coma. and birth control pills. and in a reconstituted powder solution. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. insomnia. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. or skin rash. phenytoin. including urinary tract infections. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins.Patients with peptic ulcers. another possible side effect. ciprofloxacin. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. doxycycline. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. and gonorrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot.

chest pain. blood thinners. Brand Name:Allegra . Possible side effects include diarrhea. renal impairment. itching. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. confusion. and menstrual pain. vomiting. or seizures. and throat. As an antihistamine. All rights reserved. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. skin rash. Possible side effects include headache.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. Brand Names:Achromycin V. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. sore throat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cholestyramine. penicillin. fatigue. blurred vision. indigestion. and sucralfate. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. headache. nausea. nausea. irregular heartbeat. Topicycline. isotretinoin. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. increased intraocular pressure. hyperthyroidism. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. cold or flu. lithium. eyes. diabetes mellitus. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. a bulging soft spot on the head. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. ischemic heart disease. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. or prostatic hypertrophy. or in infants. Unlike many other antihistamines. oral contraceptives. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. insomnia. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. difficulty swallowing. facial swelling. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. light sensitivity.

Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. . or chills. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. body pain. headache. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . a yeastlike fungus. which can interact with terconazole. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. fever. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. producing a calming effect. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. Temazepam Temazepam. drug used to treat insomnia. As a result. All rights reserved. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. preventing its reproduction and growth.

including antidepressants. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. antihistamines. When treatment is stopped. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. headache. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. barbiturates. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. difficulty in breathing. . In addition. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. restlessness. confusion. depression. narcotics. convulsions. tranquilizers. Other possible side effects include fatigue. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. especially when starting treatment. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. If needed. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. or vomiting. or by young people under the age of 18. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches.Available only by prescription. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. usually in a 15-mg dose. nervousness. seizures. tremors. or coma. increased dreaming. blurred vision. or nausea. diarrhea. or engaging in risk-related activities. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. and oral contraceptives. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. operating dangerous machinery. tremors. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. All rights reserved. Also observed in some patients are sweating. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. or hallucinations. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights.

All rights reserved. uncontrolled high blood pressure. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. irregular heartbeat. tingling. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. ranitidine. Raynaud’s syndrome. change in blood pressure. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. muscle weakness. esophagus. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. dizziness. digestive tract. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. especially angina. Its safety for children. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. ketoconazole. This drug heals existing ulcers. quinidine. Possible side effects may include constipation. preferably with water.Patients with heart disease. tetracycline. or skin rash. certain antibiotics. Sucralfate Sucralfate. tightness in the chest or throat. antispasmodic drugs. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. drug used to treat ulcers. nausea. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Possible side effects may include dizziness. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. or allergies. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. phenytoin. difficulty breathing. Irregular heartbeat. sore throat. or a dry mouth. as well as cimetidine. has not been determined. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and theophylline. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. stiff neck. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. digoxin. sucralfate is taken orally. drowsiness. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. or va gina. and blood-thinners. Brand Name:Carafate . or fainting are sometimes observed. diarrhea.

Possible side effects of this drug include headache. less often. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. usually at bedtime. or lowered blood pressure. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cimetidine. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. gemfibrozil. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. weight loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. ketoconazole. impaired vision. digoxin. drug used to treat depression and. erythromycin. diarrhea. Tablets are taken with or without food. clofibrate. or hepatitis. obsessive -compulsive disorders. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. or by young people under the age of 20. cataracts. gas. Simvastatin Simvastatin. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Sertraline Sertraline. by pregnant or nursing women. warfarin. nausea. and spironolactone. All rights reserved. nicotinic acid. stomach pain. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. muscular disorders. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . cyclosporine. muscle weakness. Patients with impaired liver function.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. constipation. All rights reserved. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. skin rash.

or problems with male sexual performance. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. various diabetes medications including insulin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. digitoxin. agitation. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. seizures. drug used for the treatment of asthma. which a doctor may slowly increase. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. constipation. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. breast enlargement (in both females and males). a dry mouth. or behaviora l changes. irregular heartbeat. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. weight loss. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. difficulty breathing or swallowing. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. or two inhalations. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. Parkinson disease. including headache. tremors. twice daily. if needed. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. sensitivity to bright light. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. tolbutamide. . Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. sweating. Available only by prescription. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. Salmeterol Salmeterol. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. insomnia.Available only by prescription. The starting dose is 50 mg. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. The typical dose is 42 mg. fatigue. All rights reserved. lithium. warfarin. diarrhea. sleepiness. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. cimetidine.

an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. causing chronic heartburn. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. and drowsiness. skin rash. . Less common side effects are diarrhea. fatigue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. smoking cigarettes. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. or skin rashes. or taking antacids. diabetes. and liquid form. anemia. All rights reserved. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. capsule. all taken orally. nervousness. It is also available as an injectable liquid. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. joint or muscle pain. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. as well as theophylline and caffeine. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. headaches. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. rapid or slow heartbeat. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. hair loss. or muscle cramps. dizziness. or overactive thyroid gland. heart attack. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. dizziness.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. Ranitidine Ranitidine. liver disease. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat.

heart disease. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. coughing. . itraconazole. requires immediate medical attention. as well as with diazepam. chest or abdominal pain. fatigue. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. reduces blood volume. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. it must be taken regularly to be effective. high potassium levels. lightheadedness. An allergic reaction to this drug. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. and triamterene. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Quinapril Quinapril. It also may react with lithium. Available by prescription. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. thereby reducing blood pressure. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. and potassium supplements. or low white blood cell counts. including salt substitutes containing potassium. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. glipizide. All rights reserved. or vomiting. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. tetracycline. as it can harm the fetus. midazolam. The drug relaxes arterial walls. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. muscle pain. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. sucralfate. Possible side effects include dizziness. enoxacin. which influence salt and water retention. systemic lupus erythematous. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. especially in the second and third trimesters. scleroderma. it can react adversely with these drugs.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. procainamide. ketoconazole. theophylline. nausea. cyclosporine. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril.

Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. .

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