Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. China. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. Instead. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. At the third visit. and many suffered cramping. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. Two days later. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. and as a therapy for endometriosis. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. private research organization. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. two weeks later. Under the trade name Mifeprex. . a nonprofit. Misoprostol. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies.S. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. and the uterine lining breaks down. treating breast and ovarian cancer. and 3 percent aborted immediately. which starts contractions. Typically. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. given later. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. In the United States. as well as certain other tumors. Without progesterone. which starts the process. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. the cervix softens and opens. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. including the United States. Nearly half the women in the U. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. but a few take longer.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. These include inducing fullterm labor.

headache. and the procedure is not invasive. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. diarrhea. are that anesthesia is not required. weakness. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. where the drug has been in use since 1988. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. Theoretically. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. They also point out that. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. However. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. by making abortion potentially available in any . Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. in France. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. In contrast. and fatigue. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. However. in a small number of women. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. no medical instruments are used. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. is over much more quickly.

reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. Britain. . Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. lip. More than 10. spine. a German pharmaceutical company. gastrointestinal tract. and reproductive tract. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. and other countries. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. respiratory tract. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use.physician’s office. kidneys. All rights reserved. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. heart. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. palate. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. Thalidomide. During this delay. drug introduced in 1953. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. eyes. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. Eventually.

thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. A serious skin disorder. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. when produced in excessive amounts. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. Under these restrictions. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. Among other issues. . The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. or chronic weight loss. and the sores make eating difficult. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. although not fully understood. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive.

All rights reserved. lightheadedness. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the typical. more commonly known as beta blockers. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. slow heart rate. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. in prolonged action tablets. For treatment of hypertension or angina. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. and decreased sexual desire. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. For treatment after a heart attack. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). 100-mg. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. pregnant or breast-feeding women. It comes in 50-mg. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. Metoprolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. This drug is available by prescription only. a n abnormally slow heart rate. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cold hands and feet. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. fatigue. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. For prevention o f heart attacks. persons with congestive heart failure. The regular tablet can be crushed. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . and 200-mg tablets. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses.

Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. theophyllinevenlafaxine. amiodarone. This drug is available by prescription only. albuterol. clonidine. taken orally. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. and verapamil. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. These include bloating. diarrhea. insulin. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. aminophylline. aspirin. liver disease. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. epinephrine. pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. difficulty sleeping. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. hydralazine. Nabumetone. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. chlorpromazine. Brand Names:Lopressor.sedative effect. digoxin. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. taken once a day or in divided doses. diltiazem. tranquilizers. dizziness. cimetidine. To minimize adverse side effects. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. fluoxetine. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. calcium channel blockers. nifedipine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. reserpine. bleeding or blood cell disorders. The typical. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). All rights reserved. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. constipation. without missing doses. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. or severe impairment of kidney function. oral antidiabetic drugs. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. . furosemide. oral hypoglycemic drugs.

other salicylates. diarrhea. nausea. lightheadedness. or vomiting. Patients with asthma. fatigue. and probenecid. drowsiness. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. heartburn. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. Less common are depression. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. dry mouth or throat. Astemizole is available only by prescription. joint or muscle pain.dizziness. beta blockers. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. liver disease. impairment of normal blood clotting. diuretics. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. nausea. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. nervousness. aspirin. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. irregular heartbeat. All rights reserved. blurred vision. headache. including antibiotics. nervousness. seizures. asthma or difficulty breathing. headache. itching or tingling. or increased appetite. skin rash. . or sore throat. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. soreness of the mouth. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. dizziness. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. and liver or kidney damage. sweating. indigestion. and skin. Astemizole. or cardiac arrest. nosebleed. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. Patients should not take more than a single. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. eyes. Possible side effects include drowsiness. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. loss of appetite.

several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. nefazodone (Serzone). or breast development in males. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. and liquid form. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. vomiting. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). blurred vision. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. stomach pain. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. It may be taken with food. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. drug used to treat heart problems. as it may seriously affect heart function. Digoxin.5 mg) on the first day. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. Children under age ten may take this drug. Dosages of this drug vary widely. loss of appetite. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. . Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. if necessary. headache. ranging from 0. tablet. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. and paroxetine (Paxil). Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. although one form of the liquid is injected. All rights reserved. setraline (Zoloft). It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.125 to 0.5 mg per day. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). fluvoxamine (Luvox). Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. Possible side effects include diarrhea. All are taken orally. Digoxin is available in capsule. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. nausea. skin rash. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat.

another type of antidepressant. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. Brand Names:Lanoxin. breast enlargement. including dry mouth. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. blurred vision. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. diuretics. migraine headaches. impotence. steroids. Typically used to treat mental depression. high fever.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. bulimia. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. Amitriptyline. heart or circulatory disorders. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. disorientation. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. drowsiness. diarrhea. It is taken orally in tablet form. All rights reserved. an antidepressantdrug. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. these may . the maximum daily dosage for adults. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). seizures. heart attack. headache. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. In addition. often once a day at bedtime. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. liver ailments. these include seizures. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. antacids. dizziness. bronchodilators. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. constipation. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. anxiety. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. thyroid hormones. insomnia. fatigue. or stroke. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. Because of these many drug interactions. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

fainting. or engage in other risk-related activities. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. irritability. or sleep disturbances. irritability. confusion. tranquilizers. Alprazolam. with or without food. usually three times a day. barbiturates. stuffy nose. drowsiness. constipation. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. muscle relaxants. panic attacks. Brand Names:Elavil. nausea. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. as it may harm the baby. antihistamines. headache. thyroid hormones. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). or seizures. In addition. It should not be combined with alcohol. diarrhea.include headache. premenstrual syndrome. nausea. coma. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. Dosages may range from 0. Endep. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. painkillers. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). loss of appetite. operate dangerous machinery. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. twitching.25 mg to 10 mg. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. and certain phobias. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. chest pains. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. irritable bowel syndrome. sleep medications. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. muscular weakness. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. seizure medications. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. decreased sex drive. or with . or depression. drug used to treat anxiety. and large doses of vitamin C. diarrhea. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. It has also been used to treat depression. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. oral contraceptives. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. All rights reserved. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. muscle cramps. or even death.

Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. When combined with rest and physical therapy. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually three times a day. insomnia. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Dry mouth is a common side effect. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. with or without food. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. antispasmodic drugs.narrow-angle glaucoma. blurred or double vision. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. diarrhea. indigestion. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. an eye disorder. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. and other tranquilizers. Available in tablet form. antidepressants. an irregular heartbeat. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. In addition. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. digoxin. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. but it does not interfere with muscle function. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. . or tremors. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. high blood-pressure drugs. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). All rights reserved. abnormal heartbeat. sweating. All rights reserved. including carbamazepine. as serious or fatal reactions may result. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Less common side effects include anxiety. facial swelling. cimetidine. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. various antihistamines. constipation. disulfiram. disorientation. operate dangerous machinery. headache.

yeast extracts. 10-mg. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. pregnant or breast-feeding women. nausea. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. meat tenderizers. and 20-mg regular tablets. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). raisins. soy sauce. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal.Methylphenidate. pepperoni. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. unpasteurized beer. sherry. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. liver. a dry mouth. sour cream. nervous tension. stomach pain. The regular tablet can be crushed. severe depression. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. pickled herring. taken before breakfast and lunch. For sustained release tablets. dried and salted fish. bean curd. and vermouth. avocado. chocolate. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. raspberries. bologna. or Tourette’s syndrome. . Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. For sustained release tablets. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. anxiety. salami. headache. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. a chemical that raises blood pressure. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. preferably on an empty stomach. loss of appetite. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. presumably by activating the brain stem. and weight loss with long-term use. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. meat extracts. chianti. It comes in 5 -mg. persons with glaucoma. canned fish. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it.

imipramine. kidney disease. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. skin rash or itching. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. pargyline. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. with or without food. fatigue. nausea. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and heart attack. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. coronary artery disease. Potential side effects include dizziness. Its safety for use in children is not known. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Atenolol. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. or a slow heartbeat. and tranylcypromine. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. headache.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. including high blood pressure. drowsiness. and primidone. impotence. Less common side effects are diarrhea. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. desipramine. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. phenelzine. Brand Names:Ritalin. hair loss. angina. (An injectable. It affects the autonomic nervous system. asthma. anxiety. . allergies. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. All rights reserved. and breathing difficulties. depression. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. or slow heartbeat. phenobarbital. and nortriptyline. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. heart blockage.

Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. Side effects that include fever. This process may take three months or more. or engage in other risk-related activities. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. bruises. and for depression or other emotional disorders. or impairment of heart. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. hair loss. However. or kidney function. fainting. All rights reserved. sore throat. tongue. impotence. dizziness. anemia. usually taken twice a day. other blood pressure medications. Both forms should be taken with meals. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. abdominal pain. drowsiness. itching. hallucinations. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. making seizures less frequent and less severe. operate dangerous machinery. as severe. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. . mouth ulcers. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. insulin. low blood pressure. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. which requires immediate medical treatment. continuous seizures may result. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. breathing problems. Children six years and older may take this drug. for migraine headaches. liver. For neuralgia. sensitivity to light. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. and antacids that contain calcium. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. or liquid form. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. usually taken four times a day.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. patients taking this drug should not drive. thereby reducing pain. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. They include muscle or joint pain. It also relieves neuralgia. or throat. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. constipation. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. and sweating. in the jaw. blurred vision. or pain along a sensory nerve.

hallucinations. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. theophylline. colitis (inflamed colon). colitis. capsule. and bones. Less common side effects include indigestion. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. doxycycline. and other antiseizure medications. However. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. joint pain. All rights reserved. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). vomiting. It may also interact adversely with lithium. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. haloperidol. The drug is effective within three to five days. dizziness. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Brand Names:Keflex. All rights reserved. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hives. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It is known to appear in breast milk. kidney disorders. abdominal pain. vaginitis. urinary tract. all of which are taken orally.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Brand Names:Tegretol. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. . skin rash. This drug is available by prescription in table t. fluid retention. as well as calcium channel blockers.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Patients with drug allergies. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). reproductive system. Cephalexin. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. the entire course of medication should be taken. skin. and liquid form. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. used to treat infections of the middle ear. Children should take the liquid form of this drug.

anticonvulsants. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. or barbiturates. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. cimetidine. including anemia. glaucoma. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. respiratory infections. insomnia. kidney or liver diseases. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. All rights reserved. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or epinephrine. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. In addition. use dangerous machinery. liquid. irregular heartbeat. intestinal blockage. so patients should not drive. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. breast cancer. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. or nervousness. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. . nasal congestion. constipation. change in urine color. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. tetanus. anxiety before surgery. and violent hyperactivity in children. light sensitivity. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. tremors. diuretics. blood-thinners. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). seizures. it does appear in breast milk.Chlorpromazine. rapid heartbeat. narcotics. or brain tumors. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. vomiting. antacids. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. and high fever. headache. or dizziness. suppressed cough reflex. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. fainting. and uncontrollable hiccups. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. hives. a neurotransmitter in the brain. impotence. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. captopril. emphysema. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. tablet. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. and suppository form. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine.

Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. constipation. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. or nightmares. blood pressure medicatio ns. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. Patients taking this drug should not drive.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. and muscle weakness. an enlarged prostate gland. and behavior. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. agranulocytosis causes fever. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). low blood pressure.Clozapine. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. All rights reserved. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. atropine. headache. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. digoxin. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). and warfarin. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. drowsiness. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. operate dangerous machinery. and antidepressants. as well as cimetidine. drug used to treat schizophrenia. impaired liver or kidney function. rapid heartbeat. or narrow-angle glaucoma. sore throat. fever. In addition to agranulocytosis. Starting dosages usually range from 12. In addition. and can lead to death in some cases. nausea. epinephrine. other possible side effects include seizures. weight gain. blurred vision. a history of seizures. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. . a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. tremors. or engage in other risk-related activities. an eye disorder. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. emotions.

With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. . sweating. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. or convulsions. while breast-feeding. depression. ranitidine. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. or epilepsy. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. insomnia. or poor muscle coordination. Depending on the patient’s condition. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. operate dangerous machinery. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Valrelease. barbiturates. all are taken orally. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. or coma. fatigue. constipation. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. narcotics. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. confusion. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. vomiting. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. producing a calming effect. tremors. A mild narcotic.Diazepam.Dizac Hydrocodone. headache. muscle spasms. and liquid form. These include other tranquilizers. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. capsule. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. and birth control pills. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. mild tranquilizer drug. Brand Names:Valium. and certain types of seizures. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. Classified as a benzodiazepine. lightheadedness. slurred speech. and rifampin. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. or low blood pressure. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. severe depression. skin rash. or in children under six months of age. digoxin. confusion. fluoxetine. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. anticonvulsant drugs. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. nausea. dizziness.

In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. All rights reserved. delirium. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC.Triaminic Expectorant DH. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. nausea.A common ingredient in cough medicines. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. dry mouth. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. vomiting. impaired breathing. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. skin rash. blurred or double vision. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. . impaired kidney or liver function. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. As a liquid cough remedy. depression. urinary retention. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. who have a history of chemical dependency. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. constipation.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence.

A cure may require many months of treatment. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. and liver problems. Pregnant and nursing women. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. patients with active liver disease. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. . diarrhea. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. All rights reserved. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems.Ketoconazole. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. nausea. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. skin irritation and rash. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. have a history of alcoholism. headache. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. headaches. cream. and nausea. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. or shampoo. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. have liver disease or reduced liver function. take any other drugs.

Mometasone Furoate. ointment. Available by prescription only. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. . and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. or dry skin. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. with bandages. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. tingling. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. stinging. or cortex. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. or lotion. of the adrenal glands. or over a long period. although its exact mechanism is unknown. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. If used over large surface areas. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. itching. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. in areas of broken skin. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. this drug may cause skin damage.

pregnant or breast-feeding women. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. It is also used to treat chronic. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. All rights reserved. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. . 25 mg. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. drug used to treat major mental depression. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. and 75 mg. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. 50 mg. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. However. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nortriptyline. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it.

and sleeping medications. All rights reserved. and skin. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. urinary tract. . nausea. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. seizures. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. a dry mouth. cimetidine. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. drowsiness. lightheadedness. narcotics. and weight gain or loss. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. decreased urination. irregular heart rhythm. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. Brand Names:Aventyl. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. barbiturates. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. fluconazole. birth control pills. constipation. nightmares. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. tranquilizers. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. fa tigue. insomnia. or glaucoma. Depending on the severity of infection. chest. memory problems. epilepsy. epinephrine. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. headache. throat. Available by prescription only. hallucin ations. antihistamines. blurred vision. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. peculiar tastes in the mouth. fluoxetine. confusion. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. carbamazepine. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin.

vomiting. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. urinary tract. cholera. Common side effects may include diarrhea. tuberculosis. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. infectious diarrhea. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. seizures. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. or rash. However.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. nausea. All rights reserved. and skin. vaginitis. Ciprofloxacin. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). joints. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. colitis. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. bones. and it does appear in breast milk. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. . The drug is effective within three to five days. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. itching. or skin problems such as redness. or yeast infection. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. the entire course of medication should be taken. headache. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.

can be fatal. while rare. Patients with severe liver disease. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. shortness of breath. . Possible side effects include abdominal pain. or unconsciousness. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. vomiting. which is used in the form of eyedrops. sensitivity to light. as allergic reactions to this drug.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Cipro. hives.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. or restlessness. Pregnant women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Depending on the severity of infection. as serious or fatal reactions can result. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. nausea. and in a liquid. headache. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. skin rash. or magnesium. tingling or itchin g. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. impaired kidney function. All rights reserved. breast-feeding women. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. which are taken orally w ith or without food. or engage in other risk-related activities. aluminum. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. operate dangerous machinery. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine.

Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue.Fluvastatin. erythromycin. Haloperidol. or seizures should use this drug with caution. or coughing. respiratory irritation or infection. ketoconazole. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gemfibrozil. usually a t bedtime. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. low blood pressure. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. . skin rash. dizziness. insomnia. constipation. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. Patients with liver or kidney problems. All rights reserved. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. or rifampin. Capsules are taken with or without food. diarrhea. muscle pain. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. digoxin. weight loss. fatigue. ranitidine. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. headache. nausea. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests.

a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. diminished sexual function. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. breast cancer. insomnia. constipation. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. and increased heart rate. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. skin rash. eyelids. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. Parkinson disease. use of the drug should be discontinued. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. eye damage. low blood pressure. and tongue. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. blurred vision. lips. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. . Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. urinary retention. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. Patients suffering from depression. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. depression. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. active liver disease. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. or muscle rigidity. The drug is present in breast milk. dry mouth. jaws. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. tremors. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. neck. Other side effects may include nausea.

Its safety for children has not been established. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. Lisinopril. kidney or liver disease. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. eyes. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. stroke. However. and tongue after the first dose. extremities. lips. heart or blood vessel disease. heart attack. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). or systemic lupus erythematosus. All rights reserved. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.

Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. especially in the third trimester. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. or baby f ormula. It is taken orally in 25-mg. anti-inflammatory drug. by breast-feeding women. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. 50-mg. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. All rights reserved. a nonsteroidal. Indomethacin. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. and the dose may be diluted in water. Brand Names: Prinivil. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. day and night. For prevention of recurrent in fections. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. This drug is available by prescription only. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. persons with . Nitrofurantoin. fruit juice. Enterobacter. milk. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys.blood potassium. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. Staphylococcus aureus. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes.

oral antacids. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.impaired kidney function. diarrhea. or any debilitating disease. nalidixic acid. and sulfinpyrazone. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. or vomiting. All rights reserved. loss of appetite. probenecid. nausea. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. Macrobid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or infants less than one month old. Occasionally this drug may have serious. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. Stomach irritation is the most common. For gastric ulcer. sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. the usual adult dosage . This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. or upper part of the small intestine. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. Omeprazole. causing heartburn. magnesium trisilicate. vitamin-B deficiency. anticholinergic medications. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. Brand Names:Furadantin. diabetes. electrolyte imbalances. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia.

For excessive stomach acid conditions. . but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. cyclosporine. and phenytoin. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. dizziness. diazepam. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. or yeast infection of the esophagus. digoxin. skin rash or itching. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. constipation. kidney or liver damage. All rights reserved. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. heartburn.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. Less common side effects are chest pain. urinary tract infection. amoxicillin. muscle pain. ketoconazole. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. gas. diarrhea. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. For adults over the age of 60. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. warfarin. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. nausea and vomiting.

Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. urinary disorders. Within ten days of regular use. nervousness. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. a history of seizure disorders. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. and muscle weakness. dry mouth. decreased appetite. tremor. Brand Name: Paxil . and impaired sexual function. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. nausea. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. diarrhea. digoxin.Paroxetine or Paxil. constipation. preferably in the morning. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. skin rashes. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. warfarin. and tryptophan. insomnia. anxiety. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine.

the entire course of medication should be taken. Cefadroxil or Duricef. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. All rights reserved. depending on the severity of infection. allergies. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. vomiting. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. usually once or twice a day.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. pneumonia. although it is known to appear in breast milk. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. urinary tract infections. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. itching. and liquid form. Brand Name: Duricef . Children may safely take this drug. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. and skin infections. skin rash or redness. all of which are taken orally. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. however. coli) bacteria. as it may lead to a secondary infection. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. vaginal inflammation. or colitis. capsule. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. streptococcus infections. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems.

genital itching. drowsiness. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Less common side effects include diarrhea. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. It is available in tablet and liquid form. nervousness. vomiting. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. the entire course of medication should be taken. insomnia. Cefprozil or Cefzil. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. dizziness. headache. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. abdominal pain. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. and respiratory tract. . as well as skin infections. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. ear. hives. taken in one or two doses. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). including strep throat.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash (including diaper rash). Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. which are both taken orally. pneumonia. All rights reserved. However. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. confusion. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

diarrhea. swelling. rifampin. vomiting. ulcer medications. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. headache. It may be taken with or without food. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). All rights reserved. Possible side effects may include nausea. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. which requires immediate medical attention. also known as glibenclamide. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. phenytoin. It is available in tablet or liquid form. or skin rash. with one liquid form made for injection. abdominal pain. drugs that treat diabetes. Glyburide.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. or hydrochlorothiazide. although some children have used it safely. drop in blood pressure. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Additional symptoms such as hives. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day.

dizziness. indigestion. and heartburn. drowsiness. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. itching. Patients with unstable diabetes. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. nausea and vomiting. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . headaches. The usual dosage is from 1. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. abdominal cramps. Brand Names: DiaBeta. a condition of low blood sugar. patients who prove allergic to glyburide.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. Most effective on an empty stomach. hypothyroidism.25 to 20 mg daily. The drug takes effect within two hours. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. Pregnant women. peptic ulcer disease. Other possible side effects include skin rash. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. as well as to watch for side effects. For this reason. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. All rights reserved. fatigue. hives. nausea. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. After an initially positive response with the drug. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug.

All rights reserved. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. and epilepsy. insomnia. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). . After long-term use. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. low blood pressure.Hydrochlorothiazide. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. salt. gout. prescription drug known as a diuretic. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Some men experience impaired sexual function. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. Aprozide. nausea. imbalances in water. Lorazepam. Brand Names: Aldoril. and skin rashes. drug used to treat anxiety. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. diabetes. The drug appears in breast milk. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. and nursing women should avoid using it. Capozide. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord).

weakness. and unsteadiness. agitation. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. depression. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. the dosage is 0. narcotics. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. oral solution. therapy begins with 0. carbamazepine. However. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. cimetidine. isoniazid. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. vision problems. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. sleep disturbance. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. barbiturates. levodopa. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. change in appetite. and as an injectable liquid. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. For insomnia. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. Brand Name:Ativan . s kin problems. antidepressants. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. sedatives. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. and memory impairment. antihistamines. dizziness. phenytoin. nausea.Available by prescription only. and rifampin. headache.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially.

For children from 5 to 15 years old. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. pain. For adults and children over the age of 12. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. reddening or dry skin. or itching at the infection site. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. tenderness. Less common side effects are rash. morning and evening. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. nausea. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. fo r 5 days. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. and other types of Streptococcus. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. Streptococcus pyogenes.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. All rights reserved. stinging. . The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. Mupirocin. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. This drug is available by prescription only.

however. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. . the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. skin infections. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. gonorrhea. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. One of the ingredients in this ointment. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. Ofloxacin. bronchitis. Brand Names:Bactroban.swelling. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. The typical. All rights reserved. in an injectable liquid. chlamydia. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. and hives. and eyedrops. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. polyethylene glycol.

The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. diarrhea. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. tremor. ciprofloxacin. drug-induced hepatitis. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). Brand Names: Floxin. dizziness. hallucinations. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. or norfloxacin. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). nervousness. iron salts.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. vomiting. probenecid. either one hour before or two hours after eating. or impaired vision. itching. dizziness. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. It should be taken on a regular schedule. lightheadedness. speech problems. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. tearing. restle ssness. headache. without missing doses. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. drowsiness. excessive confusion. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. and insomnia. All rights reserved. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. epilepsy. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. and zinc salts. theophylline. seizures. sucralfate. redness. . or dryness in the eye. warfarin. calcium supplements. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin.

The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. and. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. nausea. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. Because the drug appears in breast milk.Pentoxifylline. and may include headache. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). It is available in tablets and is taken orally. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. vomiting. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. dizziness. Brand Name: Trental . drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. indigestion. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. skin rash. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. Side effects are rare. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. a protein that increases blood thickness. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. Because nicotine narrows arteries. low blood pressure. tremor. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. and it prevents blood from forming clots. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease.

with or without food. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. drug used to treat depression. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. twitching or tremors. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. dizziness.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or phobias. or convulsions. muscle weakness. or epilepsy. headache. . weight g ain. In general. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. heart disease. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. monoamine oxidase (MAO). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. anxiety. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. All rights reserved. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. fluid retention. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. Phenelzine. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. It may detract from sexual performance in males. liver disease. usually three times a day. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. or insomnia. dry mouth. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. drowsiness or fatigue. nightmares. Available by prescription only.

It has many u ses. ear. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. sinus and hay-fever medications. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. even after symptoms disappear. including death. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. It is available in tablets. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. amphetamines. Amoxicillin. and other antidepressants. including the treatment of respiratory.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. all of which are taken orally. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. if combined with certain foods or drugs. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. appetite suppressants. and liquid form. capsules. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. products that contain yeast. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. such as gonorrhea. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. and skin infections. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. and bananas. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. nasal decongestants. alcoholic beverages. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. . bronchodilator inhalants. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor.

colitis. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. or bruising. joint pain. Patients with asthma. swollen lymph nodes. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. taken in one or two doses. nausea. throat. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. confusion. liver disease. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. hives. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. the entire course of medication should be taken. or vomiting. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. dizziness. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. diabetes. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. . chest. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). anxiety or hyperactivity. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. Brand Names:Amoxil. Wymox. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. which are both taken orally. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. itching. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. genital sores. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Augmentin Cefixime. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. also in one or two daily doses. skin rash. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. skin rash. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. and urinary tract. insomnia. diarrhea. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely.

Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Tablets are taken orally. shock. as it may lead to a secondary infection. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. mild diarrhea. gas. headache. usually once a day at bedtime. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). All rights reserved. although it is known to appear in breast milk. stomach cramps.However. hives. with or without food. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. prolonged use is not recommended. Common side effects may include indigestion. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. but does not cure. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. itching. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. or vomiting. Doxazosin Mesylate. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. nausea. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. skin rash. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. severe diarrhea. or seizures. fever. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). high .

coronary artery disease. The . the dosage is 1. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. operate dangerous machinery. lowering blood pressure. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body.5 mg per day. To treat fluid retention. eye pain. which may be increased to 2. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. ringing in the ears. especially when the dosage is increased. or engage in other risk-related activities. the dosage is 2.blood pressure.5 mg per day. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. skin rash. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. muscle cramps or weakness. and as a result. nausea. or depression. Other possible side effects include constipation. low white -blood-cell count. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. nosebleed. drug used to increase urine production. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. indigestion. subsequently relieving edema. mental depression. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol.25 mg per day. insomnia. should not drive.

drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. upper respiratory tract infection. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. diabetes. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . and drowsiness. visual problems. headaches. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. pneumonia. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. skin infection. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. . diarrhea. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. gout. skin rashes. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. nausea. To avoid nighttime urination. weakness. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. the drug should be taken with breakfast. urinary tract infection. itching.

Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. a history of colitis. Available by prescription only. sleepiness. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. . abdominal pain. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. Use with probenecid. nervousness. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. It should be used with caution. Less common side effects are colitis. Loratadine. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. nausea and vomiting. by persons with impaired kidney function. swelling mucous membranes. and itching eyes. and dizziness. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. at a reduced dosage. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. penicillin allergies. an antigout drug. All rights reserved. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. and skin rashes. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. loss of appetite. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. insomnia. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. headache. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption.

The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. or tricyclic antidepressants. muscle relaxants. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. .Loratadine may impair mental alertness. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. tranquilizers. or dizziness. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. pain medication. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. such as driving. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. drowsiness. a class of antidepressants. narcotics. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. An analgesic. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. barbiturates. also called methadon. can increase the side effects of loratadine. clarithromycin. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. and activities requiring mechanical skills. itraconazole. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. In the late 1940s. headache.

dizziness. jaundice. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. In typical methadone therapy. or vomiting. u nless approved by a doctor. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. which kills the bacteria. and urinary tract infections. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). bronchitis. Because methadone itself is addictive. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. skin infections. It is typically prescribed for five days. and anaphylaxis. drowsiness.Unlike heroin. Azithromycin. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. in digestion. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. Less common are chest pain. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. .” Taken in large doses. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. which interferes with breathing. or yeast infection. Available in capsule form. diarrhea. such as sexually transmitted diseases. hives. headache. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. some patients continue to be treated for many years. light sensitivity. a severe form of diarrhea. nausea. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). pneumonia. Certain ailments. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck.

lovastatin. drug used to control high blood pressure. Benazepril. even after symptoms are relieved. . and warfarin. and lithium. which influence salt and water retention. but must be taken regularly to be effective. All rights reserved. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. cyclosporine. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. triazolam. should use this drug with caution.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. especially those that help the body retain potassium. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. Patients with certain medical conditions. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. digoxin. This usually takes several weeks. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). hexobarbital. phenytoin. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine.

constipation. headache. coli) bacteria. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Less common are chest pain. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. Possible side effects include coughing. also every eight hours. pneumonia. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. streptococcus infections. sweating. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. or vomiting. joint pain. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. irregular heartbeat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. fluid retention. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. dizziness. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . which are both taken orally. nausea. usually every eight hours. the entire course of medication should be taken. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. urinary infection. Children may take this drug. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. urinary tract infections. skin rash. itching. although it is known to appear in breast milk. fatigue.especially in the second and third trimesters. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. It also is known to appear in breast milk. excessive thirst. . This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. impotence. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. and skin infections. or muscle cramps.

joint pain. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. Possible side effects include diarrhea. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. traveler’s diarrhea. and liquid forms. . taken in one or two doses. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. skin rash. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. nausea. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. vomiting. skin rash. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. and syphilis. which are taken orally. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). hives. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. vomiting.Common side effects include diarrhea. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. and itching. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). certain diuretics. light sensitivity. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. tablets. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. vaginal inflammation. although one form of liquid is made for injection. itching. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. diarrhea medications. headache. or blood disorders. liver disorders. thereby halting their growth.

skin diseases. certain cancers.facial swelling. blood-thinners. and carbamazepine. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. birth control pills. Children may develop discolored teeth. barbiturates. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. or bulging forehead (in infants). Vibramycin. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). Prednisone is available only by prescription. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. All rights reserved. asthma. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. sodium bicarbonate. It is usually discontinued gradually. chest pain. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. tuberculosis. Vibra-Tabs. especially with long-term use. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. multiple sclerosis. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. Brand Names:Doryx. . and severe allergic reactions. penicillin. phenytoin. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Prednisone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. difficulty swallowing.

or fluid retention. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). Brand Names: Deltasone. estrogen supplements. muscle cramps. thick skin. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. headache. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. Prednicen-M. active tuberculosis. ketoconazole. high blood pressure. high blood pressure. weight gain.Patients with widespread fungus infections. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. and purplish. dizziness. skin rash. . Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. and certain diuretics. brittle bones. birth control pills. peptic ulcer disease. carbamazepine. gastrointestinal disorders . Children may take this drug. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. diabetes. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. rifampin. Liquid Pred. muscle weakness. depression. acne. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. impaired thyroid function. amphotericin B. or a history of tuberculosis. Buspirone. diabetes medications. phenytoin. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. osteoporosis. All rights reserved. Possible side effects may include insomnia. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. mood swings.

operate dangerous machinery. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. rapid heartbeat. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. and tablet form. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. or engage in other risk-related activities. Unlike many tranquilizers. Possible side effects include dizziness. or nervousness. and fluoxetine. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine.Tablets are taken orally. headache. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. skin rash. haloperidol. sweating. diarrhea. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. or vomiting. nausea. narcotics. Also possible are blurred vision. capsule. upset stomach. trazodone. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. fatigue. dry mouth. . Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. bone or muscle pain. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. with or without food. depending on the patient’s condition. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. warfarin. usually three times p er day. usually found in combination with antihistamines. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. cough suppressants. constipation. or decongestants.

Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. Dimacol Caplets. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. However.7 percent of the time. nausea. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. stomach pain. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. Triaminic Expectorant. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. Brand Names: Cheracol D. preventing pregnancy 99. Comtrex Cold Formula. In the United States. This drug is highly effective. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. and diarrhea. vomiting. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. Prior to 1992 the drug . Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera.

This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. night and day. Blood transfusions are often necessary.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. Other possible side effects include weight gain. However. and abdominal pain. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). Taken every four hours. Also. In many cases. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. sometimes for a year or more. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. mood changes. headaches. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. .

urinary tract. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). Other barbituric-acid derivatives. Ampicillin. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. boisterous or violent behavior. depression. and sedation. or death. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. Phenobarbital. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. Barbiturate. Depending on the dosage or formulation. . Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). An antibiotic like penicillin. coma. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and respiratory tract. gastrointestinal tract. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. Taken orally or intravenously. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). such as secobarbital. muscle incoordination. or anesthetic effect.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). a long-acting barbiturate. All rights reserved. a combination of urea and malonic acid. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. overdoses can cause profound shock. anticonvulsant.

fever. Possible side effects may include nausea. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. whereas a more local version is caused by T. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. brucei gambiense. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. but an entire course of medication. diarrhea. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. Another liquid form is administered by injection. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. or anemia. cruzi. and probenecid. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. mefloquine. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug.to ten-day course. In cattle and other animals. genus Trypanosoma. . chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. oral contraceptives. endemic. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. another version of the protozoan. Children may take ampicillin. and sometimes epidemic. hives. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. In South America. The most common is caused by T. atenolol. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. T. colitis (inflamed bowel). Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. mouth irritation. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. usually a seven. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. also sleeping sickness. allopurinol. brucei rhodesiense. skin rash. the disease is called nagana. vomiting.

Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. . an accelerated heartbeat. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. which more frequently attacks children. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. In early stages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). It is also sometimes fatal. frequently. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. with accompanying mood changes. Chagas' disease. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. an enlargement of the spleen. Allopurinol. sleepiness. and.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. lack of appetite. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. death. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). In the long term. eventual coma. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. All rights reserved. and rash and fever. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O.

drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). Endocrine System). and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Testosterone). Steroid hormones. it has been superseded by safer. is a sterol. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. dry mouth. rheumatoid arthritis. and various eye diseases. and anxiety. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. It is sometimes misused. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. and progesterone. Hormone). Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. . Ephedrine is an alkaloid.Ephedrine. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. with a great diversity of physiological activity. some natural drugs. aldosterone. more specific drugs. Steroids. cortisone. All rights reserved. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. C10H15NO. or fat-soluble chemicals. tremor. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. which are similar to but not identical with sterols. bile acids. asthma and allergies. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. many important hormones. Cholesterol.

. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. such as tuberculosis. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. See also Sports Medicine.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. it is still used for this condition. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. are susceptible to streptomycin. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. and cholera. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. tobramycin. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. These include gentamicin. amikacin. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. Streptomyces griseus. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. the aminoglycosides. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. leprosy. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. and kanamycin. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis.

Fluoxetine. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. as aspirin tends to do for some users. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. and for the reduction of fever. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. and premenstrual syndrome. obsessive -compulsive disorder. type of drug known as an antidepressant.Acetaminophen. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. All rights reserved. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. After the medication begins to take effect. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. prescribed for the treatment of depression. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. Fluoxetine. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. the dose may be lowered. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. . is taken orally in tablet form. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. available by prescription only. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain.

crude glycerol is purified by distillation. odorless. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. colorless. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. . nausea. insomnia. dizziness. changes in appetite. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. and diarrhea.4° F). Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. C3H6. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. or a history of seizures. headaches. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures.26. with a specific gravity of 1. C3H8O3. diabetes. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. sweet-tasting a lcohol. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. or for those with kidney or liver disease. the formula of which is given above. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. or propylene. weight loss. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol.S. sometimes fatal results. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. C3H6O. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.

Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. they incite cancerous gro wths. from which they are released later by acidification. xylene. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. Because cheaper products are now available. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. as a plasticizer in cellophane. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). together with alcohols. sulfur. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. The phenols. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). that is. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. and water. which are acidic. Left after distillation are residues of . and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. including toothpastes. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. can be extracted by alkali solutions. toluene. and oxygen. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. Coal Tar. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. mostly hydrocarbons. naphthalene. and the equipment used. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. phenanthrene. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. Its composition varies with the coal. phenols. Distillation produces benzene. and other valuable products. Some of the constituents are carcinogens.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). anthracene.

and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. however. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . and plastics. paint removers. perfumes. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. in roofing mixtures. found in the bark of the willow tree. among others. Salicylic acid is bitter. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. used in making roads. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. insecticides. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. artificial sweeteners. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. paints. Aspirin. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. drugs. Since then. including dyes. creosote oil. cause iron deficiency. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. however. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. food flavorings. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. mild to moderate pain. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. and resins. to counter fever and pain. explosives. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. It is made from salicylic acid. . synthetic chemical compound. preservatives.pitch. and irritates the stomach. stains. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. acetylsalicylic acid. however. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism.

diarrhea. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). inflammation. drug used to reduce inflammation. and the sensation of pain. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. rapid breathing. and may be taken with food. or rapid heartbeat. suppressing the formation of blood clots. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. In adults. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. or fever. or high blood pressure. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. Nuprin . For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. In prescription form. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. fever. liver disease. which usually involves vomiting. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Brand Names: Advil.Ibuprofen. When taken in excessive amounts. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. Motrin.

protein. also cortisol. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. hydrocortisone and related compounds. and diabetes. and the regulation of blood pressure. and eye inflammations. they must be used carefully. and fat. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. weight gain. Medical). or cortex. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. called cortisone. in 1935. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. are employed for many medical purposes. the activity of the nervous system. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. the retention of salt and water in the body. of the adrenal gland. Because of their widespread effects. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. the maturation of white blood cells.Hydrocortisone. or corticoids. called corticosteroids. high blood pressure. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. collagen diseases. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. muscle weakness. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. . They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. night. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. or shift work. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. water balance. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. such as sleep-wake cycles. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease.Melatonin. fluctuations in body temperature. . It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. jet lag. and hormone balance. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. for instance. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. heart rate. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. However.

it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. however. All rights reserved. Epinephrine. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. epilepsy. but it is now made synthetically. is also known as adrenaline. Alzheimer’s disease. liberates sugar stored in the liver. to prevent bleeding. In times of excitement or emotional stress. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. Although it is easily available over the counter. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. The pure compound. For example. large additional quantities are secreted. raises the blood pressure. arthritis. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. constricts the small blood vessels.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. . Parkinson disease. epinephrine stimulates the heart. and hypertension. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood.

drowsiness. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. urinary tract blockage. dizziness. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). antihistamines. or short-term memory loss. They may include blurred vision. muscular weakness. glaucoma. or nervousness. and liquid form. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. corticoids. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. nasal congestion. impotence. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. An antispasmodic drug. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. dry mouth. severe colitis. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. diarrhea. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. headache. Because of this. insomnia. tingling. nausea. irregular heartbeat. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. or myasthenia gravis. tablet. This drug can also decrease sweating. digoxin. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . These include but are not limited to antacids. heart disease. In general. with or without meals. lightheadedness. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. hyperthyroidism. and is taken orally four times a day. It is available in capsule. noradrenaline. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. fainting. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. high blood pressure. or levoarterenol. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. called norepinephrine. enlarged prostate gland. severe heartburn. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). or constipation.

Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. fatigue. increased heart rate. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. Nizatidine Nizatidine. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. and weakness. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. headache. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. fever. . This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. All rights reserved. decreased sexual ability. diarrhea. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. itching. and bronchodilators. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. narcotic pain relievers. stomach upset. excessive fatigue. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. and sweating. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. antipsychotic drugs. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. dizziness. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. More serious effects include confusion. nausea. unusual bleeding or bruising. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

if stomach irritation is a problem. protein-rich foods. pregnant or breast-feeding women. 60-mg.Alcoholic beverages. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. garlic. or persons with low blood pressure. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. reduced liver or kidney function. doses may be taken with food. however. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. and theophylline. citrus fruit. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. The safety and effectiveness of . It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. pentoxiylline. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. This drug is available by p rescription only. and 90-mg extended release tablets. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. onions. For treatment of angina. not crushed. Nifedipine Nifedipine. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. highdose aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels.

lightheadedness. insulin. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. flushing. digitalis. and certain drugs including amiodarone.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. cimetidine. and otic (ear) drops. and weakness. low blood pressure. All rights reserved. diltiazem. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. theophylline. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. For eye infections. These combinations. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. magnesium. and ranitidine. oral hypoglycemic drugs. along with hydrocortisone. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. phenytoin. Brand Names:Adalat. cigarette smoking. eye. Rarely. and ear infections. headache. Neomycin Neomycin. swelling of the feet and ankles. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . grapefruit juice. digoxin. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. For skin conditions. nausea.. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. cyclosporine. nifedipine may increase angina. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week.

Brand Names:Corticosporin. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. irritation. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. Rarely. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical. without missing doses. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. taken once a day or in divided doses. and chicken pox infections. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . itching. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. To minimize adverse side effects. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or dryness. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. taken orally. All rights reserved. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. Nabumetone Nabumetone. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. bleeding or blood cell disorders. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. kidney or ear damage may occur. liver disease.or the ear. This drug is available b y prescription only. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. or severe impairment of kidney function. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. smallpox.

lightheadedness. diuretics. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. and liver or kidney damage. thickens the mucus of the cervix. soreness of the mouth. blurred vision. aspirin. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. constipation. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. other salicylates. difficulty sleeping. nausea. asthma or difficulty breathing. This drug is available by prescription only. and probenecid. known or . This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. blood clots in the legs. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). lungs.nabumetone has been determined. nervousness. or eyes. or angina pectoris (chest pain). Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. If tablets are missed. impairment of normal blood clotting. headache. indigestion. respectively. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. beta blockers. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. or vomiting. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. strokes. loss of appetite. dizziness. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. drowsiness. dizziness. diarrhea. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. heartburn. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. These include bloating. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. sweating.

cervix. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. rash. In lowering blood cholesterol. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. smoke. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. or have high blood pressure. and brown. loss of scalp hair. dizziness. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . These include rifampin. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. nervousness. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. difficulty wearing contact lenses. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. phenylbutazone. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. breast tenderness. vomiting. or known or suspected pregnancy. fluid retention. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). unexplained vaginal bleeding. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bleeding between menstrual periods. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. or high cholesterol. depression. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. weight gain. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. All rights reserved. Because of the risk of blood clots. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. diabetes. and vaginal infections. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. blotchy spots on exposed skin. liver tumors. headache. and certain antibiotics. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. or vagina.

Patients with liver or kidney disease. Children may take this drug. or sleepiness. diarrhea. or blurred vision. barbiturates. lightsensitivity. gout. Available in tablet and liquid form. impotence. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. h eadache. gallbladder disease. fainting. hives. narcotics. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. Possible side effects may include constipation. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin.weeks of treatment. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Patients with diabetes. lupus erythematosus. also known as a diuretic. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. dizziness. irregular heartbeat. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. It reduces water and salt in the body. kidney disease. liver disorders. nausea. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. ringing in the ears. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). thyroid problems. . diarrhea. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. diabetes. congestive heart failure. excessive thirst. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. fever. and lose weight as part of their treatment. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. skin rash. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. or other abdominal problems. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. and liver disease. confusion. Possible side effects include constipation. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. skin rash. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). indigestion. blurred vision. headache. with dosage based on body weight. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. lovastatin. itching. nausea. or various blood-thinning drugs. but it does appear in breast milk. muscle or joint pain. exercise. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. vomiting. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. impotence. dizziness.

Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. hair loss. drowsiness. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. skin rash or itching. joint or muscle pain. rapid or slow heartbeat. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. All rights reserved. Overdosage can cause confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. or cardiac arrest. or probenecid. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. pentoxifylline. seizures. among other effects. and also in a liquid form that is injected. stomach acid decreases. It is available in tablet and liquid form. . impotence. anxiety. When histamine action is blocked. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. Famotidine Famotidine. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. dizziness. pancrelipase. both taken orally. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Less common are diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. or sleepiness. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms.

It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). All rights reserved. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. ringing in the ears. and ranitidine. blood vessels and slowing the heart. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. headache. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. hair loss. cimetidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Available in tablet and capsule form. The drug works by dilating. or abnormally slow heartbeat. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. digoxin. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Also sometimes seen are constipation. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. carbamazepine. diarrhea. skin rash. muscular weakness. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. sleeplessness. or opening. light sensitivity. thereby reducing blood pressure. Diclofenac Sodium . This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Brand Names:Cardizem. dry mouth. fluid retention. aspirin. nausea.Diltiazem Diltiazem. or vision changes. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness.

blood-thinning medications. or loss of consciousness. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. facial swelling. or dizziness. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. but it is known to appear in breast milk. skin rash. light sensitivity. and carteolol. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium.Diclofenac Sodium. indigestion. cyclosporine. diuretics. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. or vomiting. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. ringing in the ears. All rights reserved. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. lung inflammation. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. blurred or double vision. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. methotrexate. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. drowsiness. with food. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. the two branch es that connect the . Occasionally seen are fluid retention. headache. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. diarrhea. Classified as an antiasthmatic. hair loss. heart medications containing digitalis. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. ulcers. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. heart disease. in somnia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. if stomach upset occurs. lithium. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). constipation. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. nausea.

It comes in several forms. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. or wheezing. joint pain. although the complete. throat irritation. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. nausea. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. nosebleed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. headache. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. skin rash. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. although most are taken four to six times per day. tablets are taken orally. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. frequent urination. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Possible side effects include coughing. usually in 250. difficulty swallowing. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). Brand Names:Intal. They may be taken w ith or without food.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. including capsules (taken orally). and bronchitis. Available by prescription only. Nasalcrom. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. sneezing. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. All rights reserved.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. nasal congestion. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). dizziness. or swollen glands. or powder. .

Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. diarrhea. Patients with porphyria. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. usually one or two tablets every four hours. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. or an altered sense of taste. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. sedative b arbiturate drug. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. especially with long-term use. headache. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. theophylline. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. and phenytoin. operating dangerous machinery. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. astemizole. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. Dependency on this drug can occur. Severe diarrhea. or other risk-related activities. requires immediate medical attention. indigestion. acetaminophen. but may include nausea. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. should not take this drug. caffeine. digoxin. .prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection.

Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. Brand Names:Norvasc. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. Amlodipine Amlodipine. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. Brand Names:Fioricet. dizziness. warfarin. steroids. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. usually in 5. including dizziness. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. or coma. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug may be taken with or without food. fatigue. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. light-headedness. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. such as beta blockers. fainting. headache. and heart palpitations. flushing. Fiorinal. or vomiting. All rights reserved. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. liver disease. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. constipation. migraine. sleepiness. shock. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. low blood pressure. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. patients with low blood pressure. These include antidepressants. breathing difficulties. All rights reserved. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. . certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. and theophylline. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. However. antihistamines. anxiety. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. diarrhea. nausea. fluid retention or swelling. oral contraceptives.Potential side effects include drowsiness. twitching.or 10-mg doses. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. and vomiting. back or chest pain. itching. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. thereby reducing blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Phrenilin.

nausea. muscle cramps. and capsule form. sleeplessness. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. . sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. nosebleeds. Ventolin. People with high blood pressure.Albuterol Albuterol. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. rapid heartbeat. tablet. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. dizziness. tooth discoloration. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. restoring comfortable breathing. an overactive thyroid gland. usually within 15 minutes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Proventil. Some of the more common ones include agitation. and vomiting. syrup. ringing in the ears. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. can make symptoms worse. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. liver disease. headache. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. indigestion. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. cardiovascular problems. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is available in aerosol. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. diarrhea. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. an irregular heartbeat.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. in fact. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. increased blood pressure. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). All rights reserved. all of which are taken orally. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing.

anticoagulants. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. constipation. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. or influenza. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. as needed. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. operating dangerous machinery. Brand Names:Darvon. antihistamines. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. effect. so patients should avoid driving. especially after long-term use at high dosages. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. weight loss. ulcers. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. sleep aids. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. vomiting. or pain -killing. kidney or liver problems. muscle relaxants. caffeine. skin rash. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. headache. chickenpox. or jaundice. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). mood changes. antidepressants. or other narcotic pain relievers.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. Pravastatin Pravastatin . This drug should not be used by ch ildren. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. pregnant women. for pain relief. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . Possible side effects include nausea. or engaging in other risk-related activities. or nursing women. blood-clotting problems. asthma. muscle weakness.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and suppository form. Patients with liver or kidney disease. gemfibrozil. headache. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. stomach pain. drug used mainly to treat allergies. cyclosporine. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. warfarin. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. muscle cramps. Children may take this drug. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. injectable liquid. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. or flulike symptoms. ketoconazole. Pregnant or nursing women. Available only by prescription. It may be taken with or without food. All rights reserved. and immunosuppressive drugs. gas. erythromycin. usually within 20 minutes. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. including asthma and sleep apnea. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. high blood pressure. Typically. diarrhea. constipation. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. or children under the age of 18. peptic ulcers. liver conditions. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. niacin. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. with dosages based on body weight. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. nausea. itchiness. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. heart disease. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. should not take promethazine. syrup. prostate . fight insomnia. Promethazine Promethazine.cholesterol. Promethazine works quickly. Available by prescription in tablet. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. muscular disorders. skin rash. cimetidine. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. should not take pravastatin. colestipol. cataracts. usually at bedtime.

or loss of consciousness. Brand Names: Phenergan. urinary tract infections. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. and antidepressant drugs. Erythromycin Erythromycin. and diphtheria. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. vomiting. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. gel. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. skin rash. impaired kidney function. tranquilizers.enlargement. syphilis. All rights reserved. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. disorientation. blood pressure changes. or narrow-angle glaucoma. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. ointment. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. . ear and skin infections. or light sensitivity. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). rheumatic fever. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. sedatives. operate dangerous machin ery. jaundice. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. tablets. Dependingon the site of the infection. or engage in other risk-related activities. nausea. blurred vision. Other possible side effects include dizziness. with dosages determined by body weight. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. However. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. however. gonorrhea. breathing difficulties. Children may take most forms of this drug. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. or abnormal heart rhythm. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). preventing their multiplication and growth. whooping cough. and various liquids.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). Brand Names: Erythrocin.Erygel. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. It is also used to treat anemia. dizziness. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.Theramycin Z. blood-thinners.Erymax. For tablets. For acute disorders. an ointment. and most forms of arthritis. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. ulcerative colitis. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). nausea.Ilosone. Also seen are skin rash. hives. tendinitis. This drug is available by prescription only. yellowing of the eyes or skin. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. It comes in a tablet. redness. and theophylline. lupus erythematous. vomiting. carbamazepine. it is usually taken for four to . It reduces swelling. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. itching. croup. eczema. and psoriasis. or diarrhea. bone cysts in children. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. All rights reserved. and an enema. or temporary hearing loss.Benzamycin. preferably right after a bowel movement. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. lovastatin. Emgel. rapid heartbeat. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. eye irritation. multiple sclerosis. and to treat asthma.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. an injectable liquid. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. phenytoin. digoxin. loss of appetite. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight.

drugs containing estrogen. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. aspirin. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). rabies. All rights reserved. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. ketoprofen. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. and increased susceptibility to infection. ketoconazole. ephedrine. retarded growth and development in children. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. Medrol. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. hypertension (high blood pressure). oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. smallpox. peptic ulcer disease. oral antidiabetic drugs. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. indomethacin. possible diabetes. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). phenytoin. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. digoxin. Brand Names:Duralone. and naproxen. weight gain. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. insulin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. cataracts. Naproxen . antacids. retention of salt and water. For chronic disorders. carbamazepine.ten days. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. barbiturates . Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. cyclosporine. increased blood sugar. and certain vaccines. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). glaucoma. peptic ulcer.

the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. liver disease. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. orthopedic surgery. osteoarthritis. loss of appetite. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. tendinitis. heartburn. pregnant or breast-feeding women. and other pain. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug.Naproxen. headache. and for strains and sprains. If stomach irritation occurs. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. or severe impairment of kidney function. and liver or kidney damage. or vomiting. soreness of the mouth. it may be taken with food or antacids. and as a liquid. difficulty sleeping. difficulty breathing. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. bleeding or blood cell disorders. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. without missing doses. For gout. indigestion. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). nervousness. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. dental treatment. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. and 500 mg. 375 mg. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. menstrual cramps. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. bursitis. and gout. . For children with rheumatoid arthritis. osteoarthritis. dizziness. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. lightheadedness. drowsiness. If possible. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. Pain relief should begin within one hour. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. changes in menstruation. sweating. These include bloating. To minimize adverse side effects. diarrhea. nausea. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. constipation. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. For bursitis. tendinitis. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis.

pregnant or breast-feeding women. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. and probenecid. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It comes in 50-mg. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. All rights reserved. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). This drug is available by prescription only. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. lithium. and timolol. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. more commonly known as beta blockers. It may have a negative effect on . For treatment after a heart attack. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. salicylates. aspirin. metoprolol. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. in prolonged action tablets. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. Metoprolol Metoprolol. the typical. beta blockers such as acebutolol.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). For prevention of heart attacks. Brand Names:Aleve. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. 100-mg. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. The regular tablet can be crushed. atenolol. an abnormally slow heart rate. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. and 200-mg tablets. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. For treatment of hypertension or angina. methotrexate. persons with congestive heart failure.

insulin. oral antidiabetic drugs. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. and tendinitis. lightheadedness. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and verapamil. cimetidine. . Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. nifedipine. and decreased sexual desire. which may trigger pain and inflammation. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). calcium channel blockers. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. tranquilizers. All rights reserved. digoxin. hydralazine. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. Brand Names:Lopressor. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. slow heart rate. theophyllinevenlafaxine. amiodarone. aminophylline. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. osteoarthritis. cold h ands and feet. epinephrine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. albuterol. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. fluoxetine. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . furosemide. clonidine. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. chlorpromazine.driving or other risk-related activities. fatigue. oral hypoglycemic drugs. aspirin. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. diltiazem. gout. reserpine. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons.

and warfarin. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. indomethacin. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. To avoid adverse side effects. and bleeding. anticoagulants. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. headache. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. or with a prescribed antacid. relieving swelling and stiffness. ulceration.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. diarrhea. or a severe impairment of kidney function. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. enoxaparin. and vomiting. mouth sores. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. dizziness. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . methotrexate. ringing in the ears. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. skin rash. indigestion. itching. valproic acid. b eta blockers. Etodolac is available only by prescription. should not take this drug. aspirin. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. nausea. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. sulfinpyrazone. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. depression. lithium. sleep disturbances. with meals. All rights reserved. such as aspirin. Etodolac Etodolac. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. hives. constipation.

Children under age 12 should not use this drug. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. ringing in the ears. but it can be taken with food. . constipation. indigestion. dizziness.stomach upset. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. diuretics. tablet. and menstrual cramps. blood-thinning medications. rapid heartbeat. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects include drowsiness. anemia. or muscle weakness. tendinitis. fainting. heart disease. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. and suppository form. and digoxin. All rights reserved. insomnia. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. fever. peptic ulcer. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. drug used to reduce the inflammation. skin rash. depression. sweating.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. diarrhea. with increased blood flow during menstruation. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. indigestion. fever. bursitis. milk. and it may appear in breast milk. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. skin rash. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. and nausea. headache. nausea. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. fluid retention.

Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. or one metered dose of 0. verapamil. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. phenytoin. aspirin. If necessary. and chest pain is alleviated.4 mg from a spray container. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. impaired kidney function. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. and patients with ulcers. All rights reserved. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack.15 to 0. As a result. applied on or under the tongue. steroids. patients with allergies to the drug. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. For long-term prevention of angina. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. bleeding disorders. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain).Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. For prevention of angina. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. one 1 . workload on the heart is reduced.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nifedipine. insulin. lithium. and diuretics. Breast-feeding women.

Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. Nitrocap TD. hyperthyroidism. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. Nitrocine Transdermal.5 -inch (7. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. sudden drop in blood pressure . and coughs. or a 0. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. acetylcysteine. Warfarin . It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. colds. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. recent head trauma. aspirin. heparin. To maintain its effectiveness. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. diltiazem. and heart palpitations. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. rather. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. rapid heart rate. All rights reserved. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. antihypertensive drugs. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. headache. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women.

chest pain. After the first two to three days. headache. Patients with peptic ulcers. asparagus. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. joint pain. diabetes. discolored (purplish) toes. or patients with high blood pressure. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. fish. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. fever. or recent surgery should not use this drug. an aneurysm. puncture. or gangrene. beef liver. Verapamil works by . This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. nausea. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. Verapamil Verapamil. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved.Warfarin. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. difficulty breathing. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. or swelling. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a blood disorder. acetaminophen (Tylenol). s kin inflammation. Motrin). ulcerative colitis. difficulty swallowing. For this reason. a heart-related infection. and hypertension (high blood pressure). and bacon. cauliflower. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. cut. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. impaired liver or kidney function. severe allergies. hair loss. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. or intestinal problems. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. and ibuprofen (Advil. any infectious disease. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. Other side effects may include diarrhea. some forms of irregular heartbeat. Classified as an anticoagulant.

Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. and it does appear in breast milk. dry mouth. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Terazosin Terazosin . rifampin. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). skin rash. or congestive heart failure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with meals and at bedtime with food. or s low heartbeat. carbamazepine. congestive heart failure. phenobarbital. digoxin. ringing in the ears. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. impotence. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sleepiness. aspirin. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. cyclosporine.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. Available in tablet and capsule form. light sensitivity. Brand Names:Calan. and various diuretics. an injectable solution is also available. fluid retention. Isoptin. nausea. prostate gland enlargement. cimetidine. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. thereby lowering blood pressure. lithium. phenytoin. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. theophylline. taken in three or four doses. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. All rights reserved. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. fatigue. headache. hair loss. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. abnormally low blood pressure. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. and in me n. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. constipation.

which may include a frequent urge to urinate. which influence salt and water retention. fatigue. to dilate arteries. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Dosages range from 2.problems of urine flow. fluid retention. dizziness. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. especially beta blockers. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. estrogens. stuffy nose. heart palpitations. muscle weakness. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sweating. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. taken in one or two doses. and lower blood pressure. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. or engaging in other risk-related activities. nausea. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). or a history of stroke. reduce blood volume. All rights reserved. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. patients should avoid driving. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. headache. even when symptoms are relieved. or blurred vision. it should be taken regularly. painful urination. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. fainting.5 to 20 mg per day. At these times. difficulty breathing. Ramipril Ramipril. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. numbness. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. drug used to control high blood pressure. . and urinary tract infections. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. coronary artery disease. Available by prescription in capsule form. operating dangerous machinery.

The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. It is also known to appear in breast milk. . It also may react with aspirin.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. lightheadedness. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Side effects may include headache. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. lithium. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. or violent muscle contractions. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. high potassium levels. except for one liquid form made for injection. as it can harm the fetus. especially in the second and third trimesters. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. it must be taken regularly to be effective. To avoid stomach irritation. or low white blood cell levels. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. fatigue. heart disease. An allergic reaction to this drug. scleroderma. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. impaired liver or kidney function. it can react adversely with such drugs. and liquid form. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. coughing. All rights reserved. including salt substitutes containing potassium. and potassium supplements. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. drug used to treat the seizures. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. requires immediate medical attention. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. cyclosporine. capsule. Taken orally. or light sensitivity. muscle pain. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. caused by epilepsy. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. systemic lupus erythematosus.

Possible side effects include decreased coordination. and as eyedrops. twitching. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. The injection is given within a muscle. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). Other observed side effects include nausea. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. headache. diabetes. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. Ketorolac Ketorolac. diazepam. blood thinners. or slurred speech. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. bedwetting. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . or heart disease should use this drug with caution. Also included are the drugs felbamate. All rights reserved. acute pain. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. estrogens. dizziness. furosemide. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. or change in urine color.Patients with impaired liver function. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. mental confusion. joint pain. ulcer medications. phenobarbital. and valproic acid. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. skin rash. sodium valproate. abnormal hair growth. theophylline. four to six hours apart. and antacids. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. steroids. but are not limited to. aspirin. methylphenidate. insomnia. certain tranquilizers. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. The initial. doxycycline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. oral contraceptive s. impotence. fever. carbamazepine. These include. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). involuntary eye movement.

or high blood pressure. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. Glipizide Glipizide. indigestion. . prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. All rights reserved. moxalactam. headache. ulceration. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. drowsiness. heparin. Abdominal or stomach pain. probenecid. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. Brand Names:Acular. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. cefotetan. bruising at the site of injection. heart disease. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. superficial eye infections. allergic reactions. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. and gastrointestinal bleeding.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. naproxen. methotrexate. ketoprofen. lupus erythematosus. cefoperazone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. acetaminophen. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. increased sweating. diarrhea. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. asthma. diabetes mellitus. renal failure. cefamandole. dizziness. vomiting. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea.more than five days. plicamycin. decrease in urine output. edema. kidney or liver disease. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. and perforation. constipation. colitis. Less common side effects are eye irritation. edema. nabumetone. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. burning or pain at the injection site. as well as with lithium. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. and oxaprozin.

The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. Tablets are taken orally. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. sweating. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. skin rash. but are not limited to. antacids.5 to 40 mg per day. Enalapril Enalapril. thyroid medications. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. anemia. With long-term use (months to years). nausea. drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. disorientation. Patients with heart disorders. but depending on the patient’s response. in one or two doses. Potential side effects may include headache. or seizures. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. dizziness. which control salt and water retention. The starting dose is 5 mg. with or without food. impaired kidney or liver function. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). shallow breathing. corticoids. tranquilizers. . an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. stomach pain. aspirin. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. light sensitivity. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. estrogens. rapid heartbeat. sulfa drugs. in dosages ranging from 2. All rights reserved. birth control pills. These include. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body.

excessive hair growth in women. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). depression. rapid heartbeat. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. dizziness. and an overactive parathyroid gland. muscle cramps or weakness. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. breast enlargement (in males). Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. hives. It is also known to appear in breast milk. secretion of stomach acid decreases. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. abdominal pain. skin rash or itching. acne. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. It is used to treat reflux disease. It has not been proven safe for use in children. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. When histamine action is blocked. both taken orally. headache.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. It also may cause chest pain. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. nausea. impotence. herpes infections (including shingles). or abnormally low blood pressure. Brand Names:Vasotec. it may react adversely with such drugs. Cimetidine Cimetidine. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). and in a liquid form that is injected. loss of appetite. blurred vision. usually taken immediately . a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. especially in the second and third trimesters. excessive sweating. All rights reserved. Depending on the condition being treated. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. sensitivity to light. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. dry mouth or eyes. hair loss.

Less common side effects are diarrhea. some patients experience anxiety. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat seizures. rapid or slow heartbeat. hair loss. digoxin. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). cyclosporine. sucralfate. quinine. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. phenytoin. and warfarin. paroxetine. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. cigarette smoking. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. pentoxifylline. and aspirin. metoclopramide.2 lb). These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. anemia. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). theophylline.after a meal. which is increased as needed (to a . skin rash or inflammation. depression. With prolonged use (one month or more). dizziness. also known as valproic acid. All rights reserved. metronidazole. including medications for diabetes. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. Divalproex Divalproex. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. impotence. nicotine. Available in tablet form. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. or hallucinations. narcotic pain relievers. and sleepiness. and excessive caffeine. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. heart palpitations. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. confusion. such as those associated with epilepsy. joint or muscle pain.

It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. constipation. should not drive. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. and loss of seizure control. and birth control pills. which is divided into several smaller doses. Some patients experience drowsiness and. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. yellowing skin or eyes. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. surgery. This drug slows blood clotting. fever. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. which influence salt and water rete ntion. and other seizure medications. blood thinners. itching. Possible side effects include indigestion. and vomiting. isoniazid. facial swelling. especially when used in children under the age of two. Captopril Captopril. or engage in other risk-related activities. muscle weakness. It also may interact with erythromycin. double vision. as continuous seizures may result. sleep aids. or dental procedures. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. fluid retention. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. tremors. vomiting. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. heart attacks. Patients are often started on a . antihistamines. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. This drug can cause liver damage. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or weight gain.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. behavior changes. skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. as a result . tranquilizers. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. All rights reserved.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. operate dangerous machinery. drowsiness. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. loss of appetite. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin .

Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. mouth. sweating. . wheezing stroke. confusion. Lovastatin Lovastatin . Captopril has not been proven safe for children. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. which is increased as needed. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. fatigue. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). or heart failure. or swelling of the arms. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). which also requires immediate medical care. or hardening of the heart’s arteries.small dosage. especially in the second and third trimesters. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. and extremely low blood pressure. peptic ulcer. anti-inflammatory medications. it can react adversely with these drugs. sleepiness. depression. diarrhea. It also may react adversely with aspirin. vomiting. lightheadedness. All rights reserved. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. even after symptoms are relieved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. light sensitivity. Brand Names:Capoten. loss of taste. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. legs. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Less common side effects include blurred vision. as it can harm the fetus. which usually takes several weeks. lithium. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. skin rash. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. nausea. A reaction that includes chest pain. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. fainting. Possible side effects include itching. nitroglycerin. constipation. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). muscle pain or weakness.

severe stomach pain. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Simvastatin Simvastatin. niacin. gas. and unusual tiredness or weakness. Less common side effects are blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle aches or cramps. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. headache. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). All rights reserved. cyclosporine. nausea. skin rash. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. heartburn. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. usually at bedtime. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. This drug should be taken with food. fever. weight loss. diarrhea. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. preferably with evening meals. and 40-mg tablets. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. gemfibrozil. 20-mg. and warfarin. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which are taken orally. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. Tablets are taken with or without food. dizziness. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol.Available by prescription only. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. and stomach pain. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established.

muscular disorders. or lowered blood pressure. This drug is available by prescription only.weeks of treatment. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. or hepatitis. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. impaired vision. All rights reserved. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. erythromycin. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). in tablets and an injectable liquid. The drug is effective within 48 hours. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. cimetidine. or thyrotoxicosis. and for infants with cretinism. stomach pain. including high blood pressure. cataracts. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. nausea. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. muscle weakness. constipation. nicotinic acid. and spironolactone. and diabetes. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. gemfibrozil. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. Patients with impaired liver function. digoxin. warfarin. Levothyroxine may be used during . although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. or by young people under the age of 20. cyclosporine. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. gas. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. skin rash. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. clofibrate. by pregnant or nursing women. ketoconazole. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. diarrhea. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain.

Patients should not take more than a single. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. and skin. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. weight loss or gain.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. heart palpitations. agitation. diarrhea. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. Levoxine. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. which causes thyroid overactivity. All rights reserved. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . flushed skin. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. eyes. Brand Names: Levothroid. Astemizole Astemizole. or chest pain. but never admitted any wrongdoing. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. sweating. tiredness. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Astemizole is available only by prescription. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. a brand-name version of levothyroxine.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. bronchitis. sore mouth. especially of the urinary tract and eye. Brand Names:Bactrim. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. and cholestyramine. abdominal cramps. back or joint pain. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. or increased blood potassium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with or without food. . Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. Tramadol Tramadol. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. with dosages based on body weight. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. cyclosporine.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. Available by prescription only. impaired liver or kidney function. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. or pain associated with cancer. nausea. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. headache. diarrhea. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. procainamide. phenytoin. dapsone. and traveler’s diarrhea. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. All rights reserved. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. pneumonia. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. rifampin. loss of appetite. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. Patients with anemia.

including an oral inhalant. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. people taking this drug should not drive. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. tablets. For this reason. sedatives. vomiting. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. Its safety for children under the age of 16. cream and ointment forms applied topically. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and a liquid form that is injected. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. All rights reserved. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. operate dangerous machinery. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. quinidine. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. constipation. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. or engage in other riskrelated activities. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. diarrhea. In addition. sweating. or dry mouth.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. two to three times a day. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Other possible side effects include nausea. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations.

a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. hoarseness. Brand Names:Azmacort. All rights reserved. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. but helps alleviate symptoms. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. headache. weight loss. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. diabetes drugs (including insulin). peptic ulcer. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). Tretinoin Tretinoin. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. sneezing. warfarin. carbamazepine. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. glaucoma (an eye disorder). memory loss.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. Taken orally. nasal irritation or congestion. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. fluid retention. wheezing. phenytoin. mottled skin. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. . Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). or a history of tuberculosis. skin rash. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. and primidone. digoxin. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. nosebleed.

Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. or resorcinol. Brand Names:Retin-A. especially those containing sulfur. citrus scents. astringents. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. and s kin products containing alcohol. It is applied to the skin. This drug is available in liquid form. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. Hands should be washed immediately after application. cream. preferably an hour before meals. mouth. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. and solution. . temporary worsening of acne. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. darkening or lightening of skin color. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. as well as with medicated soaps. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. The tablet form is taken orally. salicylic acid. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. or spices. Renoval. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. although maximum improvement may take several months. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. It should not come in contact with the eyes.Tretinoin is available in a gel. usually once a day at bedtime. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity.

Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. insulin and other diabetes drugs. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. chronic bronchitis. dizziness. diarrhea. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. hair loss. prescription drug used to treat asthma. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. impaired liver or kidney function. especially in patients with heart disorders. or impotence. nausea. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. an overactive thyroid gland. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). and nonprescription nasal decongestants. and pulmonary (lung) disease. Brand Names: Timoptic.Patients with asthma. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. shortness of breath. Possible side effects may include headache. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Theophylline is available in capsule. hay fever or other allergies. low blood sugar. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). muscle weakness. improving circulation. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. tingling or numbness. lung disease. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. . chlorpromazine. Blocadren. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. tablet. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. low blood pressure. cimetidine. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. Theophylline Theophylline. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. As a bronchodilator. theophylline. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. All rights reserved. All are taken orally. vomiting. chest pain. or heart failure. as well as epinephrine. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. which may be increased if needed. and liquid form.

or heart disease should use this drug with caution. or skin rash. another possible side effect. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gum disease. phenytoin. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. acne. thereby halting their growth. Brand Names:Slo-bid. high blood pressure. convulsions. applied topically. Changes in heart rate. taken orally. It also may interact with cimetidine. or coma. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. Tetracycline Tetracycline. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. taken in one to four doses. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. erythromycin. headache. doxycycline. propanolol. ciprofloxacin. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. All rights reserved. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. should be checked by a doctor. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. seizure disorders. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. low blood pressure. . Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. and in a reconstituted powder solution. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). clarithromycin. and gonorrhea. including urinary tract infections. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection.Patients with peptic ulcers. increased urination. and birth control pills. impaired liver or kidney function. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. irregular heartbeat. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. insomnia.

nausea. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. Topicycline. or prostatic hypertrophy. Possible side effects include diarrhea. sore throat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. difficulty swallowing. hyperthyroidism. As an antihistamine. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. itching. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. blood thinners. irregular heartbeat. Unlike many other antihistamines. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. fatigue. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cold or flu. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. and menstrual pain. and throat. Brand Name:Allegra . a bulging soft spot on the head. indigestion. and sucralfate. eyes. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. blurred vision. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Brand Names:Achromycin V. cholestyramine. penicillin. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. oral contraceptives. light sensitivity. facial swelling. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. diabetes mellitus. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. isotretinoin. chest pain. headache. ischemic heart disease. skin rash. increased intraocular pressure. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. renal impairment. insomnia. All rights reserved. vomiting. nausea. or in infants. Possible side effects include headache. confusion. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. lithium. or seizures.

Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. or chills. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . drug used to treat insomnia. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. preventing its reproduction and growth. a yeastlike fungus. headache. fever. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. Temazepam Temazepam. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. body pain. . although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. All rights reserved. producing a calming effect. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. As a result. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. All rights reserved. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which can interact with terconazole. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. or vomiting. narcotics. or coma. In addition. antihistamines. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. diarrhea. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). or by young people under the age of 18. seizures. blurred vision. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. usually in a 15-mg dose. or nausea. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. restlessness. and oral contraceptives. or engaging in risk-related activities. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. or hallucinations. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. nervousness. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other possible side effects include fatigue. operating dangerous machinery. If needed. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. . depression. Also observed in some patients are sweating. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving.Available only by prescription. including antidepressants. confusion. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. convulsions. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. tremors. tremors. tranquilizers. When treatment is stopped. difficulty in breathing. increased dreaming. All rights reserved. headache. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. especially when starting treatment. barbiturates. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours.

ketoconazole. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. or skin rash. Sucralfate Sucralfate. digestive tract. antispasmodic drugs. Irregular heartbeat. irregular heartbeat. and blood-thinners. stiff neck. or allergies. muscle weakness. or a dry mouth. ranitidine. or fainting are sometimes observed. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. Raynaud’s syndrome. digoxin. change in blood pressure. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal.Patients with heart disease. preferably with water. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. Brand Name:Carafate . difficulty breathing. and theophylline. phenytoin. tightness in the chest or throat. Possible side effects may include dizziness. sore throat. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. Possible side effects may include constipation. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. uncontrolled high blood pressure. dizziness. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. quinidine. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. nausea. tingling. or va gina. certain antibiotics. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. This drug heals existing ulcers. All rights reserved. Its safety for children. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. as well as cimetidine. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. drowsiness. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. has not been determined. especially angina. sucralfate is taken orally. diarrhea. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. esophagus. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. tetracycline. drug used to treat ulcers.

cataracts. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . Patients with impaired liver function. gemfibrozil. stomach pain. less often. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. drug used to treat depression and. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or lowered blood pressure. obsessive -compulsive disorders. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. constipation. clofibrate. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Tablets are taken with or without food. erythromycin. gas. Sertraline Sertraline. by pregnant or nursing women. muscular disorders. or by young people under the age of 20. All rights reserved. warfarin. or hepatitis. usually at bedtime. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. skin rash. muscle weakness. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. cyclosporine. digoxin. diarrhea.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). cimetidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. Simvastatin Simvastatin. impaired vision. nicotinic acid. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). weight loss. All rights reserved. and spironolactone. ketoconazole. Possible side effects of this drug include headache.

to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. warfarin. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. weight loss. The typical dose is 42 mg. or two inhalations. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. agitation. or problems with male sexual performance. digitoxin. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. difficulty breathing or swallowing. fatigue. or behaviora l changes. The starting dose is 50 mg. irregular heartbeat. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. twice daily. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. All rights reserved. . salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. vomiting. lithium. diarrhea. Parkinson disease. if needed. Salmeterol Salmeterol. sweating. a dry mouth. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. sleepiness. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. tolbutamide.Available only by prescription. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. various diabetes medications including insulin. including headache. which a doctor may slowly increase. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. drug used for the treatment of asthma. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. breast enlargement (in both females and males). Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. tremors. insomnia. seizures. constipation. cimetidine. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. Available only by prescription. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. sensitivity to bright light.

Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. dizziness. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. skin rash. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. or skin rashes. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. and drowsiness. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Less common side effects are diarrhea. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. All rights reserved. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. liver disease. joint or muscle pain. dizziness. hair loss. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. capsule. or muscle cramps. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. or taking antacids. causing chronic heartburn.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. fatigue. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. and liquid form. It is also available as an injectable liquid. nervousness. as well as theophylline and caffeine. . a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Ranitidine Ranitidine. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. diabetes. anemia. heart attack. headaches. or overactive thyroid gland. all taken orally. rapid or slow heartbeat. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. smoking cigarettes. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages.

heart disease. cyclosporine.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. coughing. Quinapril Quinapril. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. . enoxacin. ketoconazole. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. it must be taken regularly to be effective. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. muscle pain. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. requires immediate medical attention. or low white blood cell counts. An allergic reaction to this drug. as well as with diazepam. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. it can react adversely with these drugs. systemic lupus erythematous. high potassium levels. glipizide. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. Available by prescription. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. lightheadedness. or vomiting. thereby reducing blood pressure. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. procainamide. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. especially in the second and third trimesters. midazolam. Possible side effects include dizziness. reduces blood volume. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. as it can harm the fetus. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including salt substitutes containing potassium. It also may react with lithium. itraconazole. sucralfate. tetracycline. chest or abdominal pain. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. nausea. theophylline. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. fatigue. The drug relaxes arterial walls. and potassium supplements. which influence salt and water retention. scleroderma. and triamterene.

Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. .

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