Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

At the third visit. Misoprostol. Two days later. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. . and 3 percent aborted immediately. a nonprofit. private research organization. and many suffered cramping. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. Instead. as well as certain other tumors. including the United States. China. which starts the process. Under the trade name Mifeprex. two weeks later. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. Typically. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. which starts contractions. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. but a few take longer. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. Nearly half the women in the U. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. Most abortions are complete within two weeks.S. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. and as a therapy for endometriosis. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. In the United States. and the uterine lining breaks down. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. given later. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. treating breast and ovarian cancer. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. the cervix softens and opens. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. Without progesterone. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. These include inducing fullterm labor.

It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. by making abortion potentially available in any . medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. and fatigue. is over much more quickly. headache. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. where the drug has been in use since 1988. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. weakness. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. However. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. in France. are that anesthesia is not required.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. They also point out that. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. and the procedure is not invasive. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. in a small number of women. Theoretically. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. However. In contrast. diarrhea. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. no medical instruments are used.

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. palate. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. Thalidomide. eyes. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. gastrointestinal tract. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. kidneys. All rights reserved. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. Eventually. spine. More than 10. a German pharmaceutical company. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. . This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. During this delay. lip. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. heart. and other countries. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. respiratory tract. and reproductive tract. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. drug introduced in 1953. Britain.physician’s office.

when produced in excessive amounts. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. Among other issues. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. or chronic weight loss. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. Under these restrictions. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. although not fully understood. A serious skin disorder. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. and the sores make eating difficult. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. .Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen.

This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. It comes in 50-mg. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. This drug is available by prescription only. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. For treatment after a heart attack. All rights reserved. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. in prolonged action tablets. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. Metoprolol. and 200-mg tablets. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the typical. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. cold hands and feet. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. fatigue. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. persons with congestive heart failure. For treatment of hypertension or angina. and decreased sexual desire. 100-mg. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). The regular tablet can be crushed. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. more commonly known as beta blockers. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. a n abnormally slow heart rate. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. lightheadedness. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. For prevention o f heart attacks. pregnant or breast-feeding women. slow heart rate.

Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. or severe impairment of kidney function. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). taken orally. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. Nabumetone. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established.sedative effect. bleeding or blood cell disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. oral antidiabetic drugs. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. epinephrine. amiodarone. aspirin. liver disease. diarrhea. dizziness. All rights reserved. oral hypoglycemic drugs. without missing doses. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. . the lowest effective daily dose should be used. diltiazem. hydralazine. tranquilizers. and verapamil. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. chlorpromazine. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. To minimize adverse side effects. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. albuterol. cimetidine. digoxin. clonidine. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. reserpine. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. difficulty sleeping. calcium channel blockers. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. constipation. taken once a day or in divided doses. These include bloating. nifedipine. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The typical. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. furosemide. This drug is available by prescription only. Brand Names:Lopressor. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. insulin. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. theophyllinevenlafaxine. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. fluoxetine. aminophylline.

skin rash. nausea. sweating. impairment of normal blood clotting. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). other salicylates. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. nosebleed. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. itching or tingling. and probenecid. headache. including antibiotics. headache. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. nausea. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. indigestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. nervousness. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. asthma or difficulty breathing. or sore throat. heartburn. fatigue. diuretics. aspirin. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. dry mouth or throat. Astemizole is available only by prescription. diarrhea. Astemizole. nervousness. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. soreness of the mouth. loss of appetite. Patients with asthma. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Patients should not take more than a single. Possible side effects include drowsiness. irregular heartbeat. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. or cardiac arrest. beta blockers. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. or increased appetite. dizziness. All rights reserved. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). Less common are depression.dizziness. drowsiness. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. joint or muscle pain. and liver or kidney damage. and skin. liver disease. or vomiting. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. . eyes. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. seizures. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. lightheadedness. blurred vision.

The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. All are taken orally. and liquid form. Digoxin is available in capsule. and paroxetine (Paxil). drug used to treat heart problems. as it may seriously affect heart function. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. . loss of appetite. Digoxin. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. nefazodone (Serzone). stomach pain. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). All rights reserved.125 to 0.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use.5 mg per day. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Dosages of this drug vary widely. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. Children under age ten may take this drug. skin rash. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. or breast development in males. setraline (Zoloft). but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fluvoxamine (Luvox). nausea.5 mg) on the first day. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tablet. ranging from 0. It may be taken with food. vomiting. if necessary. although one form of the liquid is injected. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. headache.

disorientation. antacids. bulimia. vomiting. diuretics. often once a day at bedtime. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. Typically used to treat mental depression. but it is known to appear in breast milk. dizziness. including dry mouth. bronchodilators. anxiety. fatigue. heart or circulatory disorders. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. drowsiness. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. All rights reserved. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. blurred vision. seizures. Amitriptyline. Brand Names:Lanoxin. the maximum daily dosage for adults. high fever. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. diarrhea. or stroke. insomnia. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. liver ailments. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. migraine headaches. constipation. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. Because of these many drug interactions. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. an antidepressantdrug. impotence. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. heart attack. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. these may . patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In addition. another type of antidepressant. It is taken orally in tablet form. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. breast enlargement. steroids. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. thyroid hormones. these include seizures. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers).

depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. antihistamines. It should not be combined with alcohol. with or without food. irritability. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. seizure medications. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. usually three times a day. or seizures. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. irritability. nausea. loss of appetite.25 mg to 10 mg. tranquilizers. confusion. It has also been used to treat depression. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). This set of side effects may include blurred vision. Alprazolam. Endep. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. diarrhea. or even death.include headache. irritable bowel syndrome. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. as it may harm the baby. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. or with . muscle cramps. panic attacks. coma. muscular weakness. sleep medications. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. premenstrual syndrome. All rights reserved. drowsiness. nausea. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. or engage in other risk-related activities. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. twitching. In addition. barbiturates. Brand Names:Elavil. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. constipation. drug used to treat anxiety. Dosages may range from 0. headache. stuffy nose. painkillers. or sleep disturbances. or depression. decreased sex drive. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. and large doses of vitamin C. chest pains. and certain phobias. fainting. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. thyroid hormones. operate dangerous machinery. oral contraceptives. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. muscle relaxants. diarrhea.

oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). and other tranquilizers. disulfiram. skin rash. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day.narrow-angle glaucoma. digoxin. abnormal heartbeat. All rights reserved. diarrhea. sweating. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. or tremors. usually three times a day. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. When combined with rest and physical therapy. as serious or fatal reactions may result. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Dry mouth is a common side effect. All rights reserved. including carbamazepine. constipation. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. indigestion. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. . cimetidine. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. Available in tablet form. but it does not interfere with muscle function. blurred or double vision. an irregular heartbeat. insomnia. antidepressants. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. an eye disorder. disorientation. high blood-pressure drugs. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. headache. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. In addition. various antihistamines. operate dangerous machinery. with or without food. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. antispasmodic drugs. Less common side effects include anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. facial swelling. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor.

This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. and weight loss with long-term use. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. or Tourette’s syndrome. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired.Methylphenidate. pepperoni. bologna. sour cream. bean curd. nausea. a chemical that raises blood pressure. meat tenderizers. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. persons with glaucoma. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. headache. sherry. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. . The regular tablet can be crushed. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. raspberries. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. and 20-mg regular tablets. 10-mg. stomach pain. soy sauce. For sustained release tablets. raisins. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. unpasteurized beer. For sustained release tablets. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. a dry mouth. pregnant or breast-feeding women. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. chocolate. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. yeast extracts. presumably by activating the brain stem. anxiety. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. salami. nervous tension. severe depression. pickled herring. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. preferably on an empty stomach. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. and vermouth. taken before breakfast and lunch. avocado. meat extracts. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. dried and salted fish. loss of appetite. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. It comes in 5 -mg. canned fish. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. chianti. liver. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses.

heart blockage. pargyline. drowsiness. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. Potential side effects include dizziness. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. All rights reserved. fatigue. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. . including high blood pressure. It affects the autonomic nervous system. hair loss. angina. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). coronary artery disease. skin rash or itching. and tranylcypromine. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. asthma. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. phenelzine. desipramine. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. impotence. allergies. phenobarbital. anxiety. with or without food. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. headache. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. Brand Names:Ritalin. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. depression. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. Less common side effects are diarrhea. and primidone. and heart attack. Its safety for use in children is not known. (An injectable. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. imipramine. Atenolol. or a slow heartbeat. nausea. and nortriptyline. or slow heartbeat. kidney disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. and breathing difficulties. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions.

tongue. or pain along a sensory nerve. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. anemia. For neuralgia. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. which requires immediate medical treatment. thereby reducing pain. It also relieves neuralgia. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. as severe. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. headache. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. sore throat. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. hair loss. liver. breathing problems. operate dangerous machinery. or impairment of heart. for migraine headaches. sensitivity to light. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fainting. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. hallucinations. Children six years and older may take this drug. and for depression or other emotional disorders. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. blurred vision. low blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. bruises. itching. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. Both forms should be taken with meals. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). or kidney function. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. usually taken four times a day. and sweating. or throat. This process may take three months or more. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. However. constipation. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. making seizures less frequent and less severe. in the jaw. insulin. usually taken twice a day. abdominal pain. . dizziness. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. Side effects that include fever. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. continuous seizures may result. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. impotence. mouth ulcers. or liquid form. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. patients taking this drug should not drive. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. and antacids that contain calcium. They include muscle or joint pain. other blood pressure medications. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. or engage in other risk-related activities.

colitis. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. All rights reserved. dizziness. All rights reserved. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. The drug is effective within three to five days. kidney disorders. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. confusion. the entire course of medication should be taken. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). vaginitis. However. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. vomiting. hallucinations. abdominal pain.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and bones. It may also interact adversely with lithium. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. reproductive system. urinary tract. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. fluid retention. haloperidol. It is known to appear in breast milk. Less common side effects include indigestion. Patients with drug allergies. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. skin. Brand Names:Tegretol. capsule. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. colitis (inflamed colon). or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. and liquid form. used to treat infections of the middle ear. as well as calcium channel blockers. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. all of which are taken orally. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. This drug is available by prescription in table t. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. and other antiseizure medications. hives. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. Brand Names:Keflex. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. doxycycline. Cephalexin. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. joint pain. theophylline. . Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

breast cancer. respiratory infections. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. or brain tumors. narcotics. anxiety before surgery. irregular heartbeat. or epinephrine. and violent hyperactivity in children. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. and suppository form. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. tremors. change in urine color. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. hives. kidney or liver diseases. or dizziness. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. liquid. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. tetanus. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. or barbiturates. impotence. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. or nervousness. suppressed cough reflex. and uncontrollable hiccups. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. captopril. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. rapid heartbeat. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. constipation. including anemia. glaucoma. insomnia. so patients should not drive. blood-thinners. All rights reserved. a neurotransmitter in the brain. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fainting. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. use dangerous machinery. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. it does appear in breast milk. cimetidine. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. In addition. diuretics. intestinal blockage. antacids. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. anticonvulsants. tablet. light sensitivity. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. .Chlorpromazine. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. vomiting. emphysema. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). nasal congestion. headache. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. seizures. and high fever. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder).

an enlarged prostate gland. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. an eye disorder. sore throat. constipation. or nightmares. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. and can lead to death in some cases. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. a history of seizures. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. drug used to treat schizophrenia.Clozapine. other possible side effects include seizures. emotions. digoxin. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. drowsiness. fever. tremors. blood pressure medicatio ns. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. In addition. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. weight gain. Patients taking this drug should not drive. or engage in other risk-related activities. or narrow-angle glaucoma. and behavior. epinephrine. In addition to agranulocytosis. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. agranulocytosis causes fever. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. dizziness. as well as cimetidine. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. and warfarin. rapid heartbeat. and antidepressants. . epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). impaired liver or kidney function. All rights reserved. operate dangerous machinery. low blood pressure. Starting dosages usually range from 12. and muscle weakness. blurred vision. atropine. headache.

skin rash. narcotics. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. insomnia. mild tranquilizer drug. barbiturates. ranitidine. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. digoxin. muscle spasms. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. confusion. fluoxetine.Dizac Hydrocodone. Depending on the patient’s condition. and birth control pills. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. sweating. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. A mild narcotic. capsule. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. severe depression. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. constipation. Brand Names:Valium. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. These include other tranquilizers. and certain types of seizures. lightheadedness. and liquid form.Diazepam. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. or epilepsy. . nausea. Classified as a benzodiazepine. Valrelease. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. slurred speech. while breast-feeding. producing a calming effect. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. or in children under six months of age. or coma. dizziness. fatigue. headache. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. or poor muscle coordination. or low blood pressure. anticonvulsant drugs. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. and rifampin. operate dangerous machinery. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. confusion. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. tremors. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. vomiting. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. or convulsions. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. all are taken orally. depression.

To avoid tolerance or drug dependence.Triaminic Expectorant DH. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. who have a history of chemical dependency. All rights reserved. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. skin rash. . the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours.A common ingredient in cough medicines. urinary retention. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. blurred or double vision. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. delirium. impaired breathing. dry mouth. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. As a liquid cough remedy. nausea. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. vomiting. constipation. impaired kidney or liver function. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. depression.

prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. take any other drugs. have a history of alcoholism. skin irritation and rash. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. . All rights reserved. and liver problems. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. headache. diarrhea. or shampoo. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. have liver disease or reduced liver function. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. nausea.Ketoconazole. patients with active liver disease. and nausea. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. headaches. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. Pregnant and nursing women. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). cream. A cure may require many months of treatment.

and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. in areas of broken skin. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. or lotion. with bandages. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. tingling. although its exact mechanism is unknown. or dry skin. or cortex. stinging. If used over large surface areas. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. itching. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. or over a long period. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning.Mometasone Furoate. this drug may cause skin damage. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. of the adrenal glands. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. Available by prescription only. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. ointment. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. . producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed.

Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. 25 mg. drug used to treat major mental depression. However. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. 50 mg. . Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. It is also used to treat chronic.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. Nortriptyline. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. and 75 mg. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results.

used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. peculiar tastes in the mouth. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. epilepsy. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. hallucin ations. blurred vision. narcotics. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. headache. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. fa tigue. lightheadedness. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. decreased urination. memory problems. urinary tract. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and skin. constipation. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. All rights reserved. Depending on the severity of infection. and weight gain or loss. . carbamazepine. and sleeping medications. irregular heart rhythm. nightmares. fluconazole. insomnia. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. barbiturates. confusion. epinephrine. seizures. nausea. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. chest. drowsiness. throat. tranquilizers. cimetidine. or glaucoma. a dry mouth. antihistamines. fluoxetine. Available by prescription only. Brand Names:Aventyl. birth control pills. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia.

However. seizures. joints. bones. urinary tract. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. All rights reserved. or rash. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. cholera. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. Ciprofloxacin. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. . This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. or skin problems such as redness. nausea. and it does appear in breast milk. tuberculosis. and skin. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or yeast infection. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. vomiting. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). the entire course of medication should be taken. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. colitis. itching. infectious diarrhea. vaginitis. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. The drug is effective within three to five days. Common side effects may include diarrhea. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.

aluminum. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. sensitivity to light.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired kidney function. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. Depending on the severity of infection. breast-feeding women. as allergic reactions to this drug. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. shortness of breath. Pregnant women. headache. while rare. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. or unconsciousness. hives. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. or engage in other risk-related activities. as serious or fatal reactions can result. and in a liquid. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. vomiting. skin rash. which are taken orally w ith or without food. nausea. tingling or itchin g. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. Brand Names:Cipro. which is used in the form of eyedrops. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. All rights reserved. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. or magnesium. . or restlessness. operate dangerous machinery. Patients with severe liver disease. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours .The drug is available by prescription in tablets. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. can be fatal.

or coughing. dizziness. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. usually a t bedtime. insomnia. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. low blood pressure. gemfibrozil. nausea.Fluvastatin. Patients with liver or kidney problems. muscle pain. . Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. weight loss. All rights reserved. constipation. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. erythromycin. Haloperidol. diarrhea. fatigue. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. skin rash. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. or rifampin. or seizures should use this drug with caution. headache. ketoconazole. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. digoxin. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. ranitidine. respiratory irritation or infection. Capsules are taken with or without food. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes.

skin rash. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. Parkinson disease. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. eye damage. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. jaws. Other side effects may include nausea. dry mouth. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. tremors. insomnia. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. breast cancer. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. low blood pressure. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. blurred vision. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. neck. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. . and increased heart rate. lips.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. Patients suffering from depression. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. depression. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. The drug is present in breast milk. constipation. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. urinary retention. or muscle rigidity. diminished sexual function. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. active liver disease. use of the drug should be discontinued. and tongue. eyelids.

Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. stroke. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. Lisinopril. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. extremities. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. kidney or liver disease. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . heart or blood vessel disease. or systemic lupus erythematosus. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. However. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood).Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. eyes. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. Its safety for children has not been established. and tongue after the first dose. lips. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. heart attack. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face.

Enterobacter. For prevention of recurrent in fections. persons with . especially in the third trimester. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. fruit juice. Staphylococcus aureus. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. day and night. 50-mg. Indomethacin. milk.blood potassium. and the dose may be diluted in water. All rights reserved. Brand Names: Prinivil. or baby f ormula. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nitrofurantoin. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. This drug is available by prescription only. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. It is taken orally in 25-mg. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. anti-inflammatory drug. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. a nonsteroidal. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. by breast-feeding women.

Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. nalidixic acid. oral antacids. causing heartburn. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. or infants less than one month old. probenecid. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. Macrobid. Omeprazole. loss of appetite. or upper part of the small intestine. vitamin-B deficiency. and sulfinpyrazone. nausea. magnesium trisilicate. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. Stomach irritation is the most common. Brand Names:Furadantin. electrolyte imbalances. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Occasionally this drug may have serious. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. For gastric ulcer. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. anticholinergic medications. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. All rights reserved. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. diabetes. diarrhea.impaired kidney function. or vomiting. or any debilitating disease. sodium bicarbonate. the usual adult dosage .

Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. kidney or liver damage. amoxicillin. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash or itching. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. ketoconazole. All rights reserved. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. . but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. or yeast infection of the esophagus.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. muscle pain. warfarin. heartburn. For excessive stomach acid conditions. diazepam. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. diarrhea. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. For adults over the age of 60. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. nausea and vomiting. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. gas. urinary tract infection. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. cyclosporine. and phenytoin. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. dizziness. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. Less common side effects are chest pain. headache. digoxin.

and impaired sexual function. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. digoxin. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. preferably in the morning. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. and tryptophan. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Within ten days of regular use. skin rashes. and muscle weakness. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. constipation. warfarin. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. decreased appetite. diarrhea. a history of seizure disorders. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. anxiety. nausea. dry mouth. insomnia. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug.Paroxetine or Paxil. urinary disorders. tremor. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. Brand Name: Paxil . Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. nervousness.

This drug is available by prescription in tablet. however. streptococcus infections. and skin infections. although it is known to appear in breast milk. capsule. usually once or twice a day. the entire course of medication should be taken. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. Brand Name: Duricef . as it may lead to a secondary infection. skin rash or redness. vaginal inflammation. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. vomiting. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). depending on the severity of infection. Cefadroxil or Duricef. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. and liquid form. Children may safely take this drug. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. allergies. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. or colitis. all of which are taken orally. pneumonia. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. itching. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. urinary tract infections. coli) bacteria. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days.

ear. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. pneumonia. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. insomnia. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. vomiting. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. which are both taken orally. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. as it may lead to a secondary infection. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). It is available in tablet and liquid form. hives. dizziness. taken in one or two doses. . as well as skin infections. drowsiness. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. skin rash (including diaper rash).Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. abdominal pain. All rights reserved. and respiratory tract. headache. However. the entire course of medication should be taken. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. nervousness. Cefprozil or Cefzil. including strep throat. confusion. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Less common side effects include diarrhea. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. genital itching. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

also known as glibenclamide. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. swelling.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. or skin rash. or hydrochlorothiazide. headache. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. drop in blood pressure. although some children have used it safely. Additional symptoms such as hives. ulcer medications. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. It may be taken with or without food. which requires immediate medical attention. with one liquid form made for injection. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). diarrhea. Possible side effects may include nausea. vomiting. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. phenytoin. It is available in tablet or liquid form. abdominal pain. drugs that treat diabetes. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. All rights reserved. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. rifampin. Glyburide.

or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Patients with unstable diabetes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Pregnant women. The drug takes effect within two hours. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. hives. Brand Names: DiaBeta. a condition of low blood sugar. hypothyroidism. dizziness. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. After an initially positive response with the drug. drowsiness. headaches. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. itching. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. The usual dosage is from 1. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.25 to 20 mg daily. fatigue. All rights reserved. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. peptic ulcer disease.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. Most effective on an empty stomach. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. and heartburn. nausea and vomiting. Other possible side effects include skin rash. For this reason. nausea. as well as to watch for side effects. indigestion. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. abdominal cramps. .

The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. Some men experience impaired sexual function. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. and epilepsy. All rights reserved. Lorazepam. After long-term use. imbalances in water. insomnia. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord).Hydrochlorothiazide. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. prescription drug known as a diuretic. drug used to treat anxiety. nausea. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. and skin rashes. . salt. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. low blood pressure. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. The drug appears in breast milk. gout. Capozide. diabetes. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Aprozide. and nursing women should avoid using it. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names: Aldoril.

it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. and as an injectable liquid. narcotics. depression. and memory impairment. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. sleep disturbance. weakness. headache. For insomnia. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. and rifampin. sedatives. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. antidepressants. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. cimetidine. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. However. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses.Available by prescription only. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. phenytoin. oral solution. dizziness. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. vision problems. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. s kin problems. therapy begins with 0. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. carbamazepine. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. change in appetite. isoniazid. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. nausea. barbiturates. and unsteadiness. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. antihistamines. agitation. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. the dosage is 0. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. levodopa. Brand Name:Ativan .

Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. Less common side effects are rash. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. This drug is available by prescription only. pain. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. pregnant or breast-feeding women.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Streptococcus pyogenes. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. stinging. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. For children from 5 to 15 years old. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. For adults and children over the age of 12. fo r 5 days. morning and evening. reddening or dry skin. tenderness. Mupirocin. or itching at the infection site. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. and other types of Streptococcus. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. .

This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). bronchitis.swelling. The typical. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. Brand Names:Bactroban. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. All rights reserved. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. One of the ingredients in this ointment. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. however. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. in an injectable liquid. chlamydia. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. Ofloxacin. gonorrhea. and eyedrops. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. and hives. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. polyethylene glycol. skin infections.

It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. lightheadedness. calcium supplements. or norfloxacin. diarrhea. probenecid. headache. tearing. or impaired vision. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. . nausea. All rights reserved. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. theophylline. vomiting. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. speech problems. ciprofloxacin. tremor. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. drowsiness. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). nervousness. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). excessive confusion. iron salts. epilepsy. seizures. hallucinations. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. and zinc salts. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Brand Names: Floxin. sucralfate. either one hour before or two hours after eating. It should be taken on a regular schedule. without missing doses. dizziness. redness. warfarin. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. restle ssness. drug-induced hepatitis. and insomnia. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. itching. or dryness in the eye.

Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. Because nicotine narrows arteries. dizziness. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. nausea. and. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it.Pentoxifylline. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. Side effects are rare. indigestion. Brand Name: Trental . pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. skin rash. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. and may include headache. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. vomiting. a protein that increases blood thickness. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. Because the drug appears in breast milk. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. low blood pressure. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. and it prevents blood from forming clots. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. tremor.

fluid retention.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. with or without food. dry mouth. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. anxiety. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. monoamine oxidase (MAO). twitching or tremors. heart disease. All rights reserved. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. weight g ain. drowsiness or fatigue. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. Phenelzine. Available by prescription only. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. or phobias. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. nightmares. . muscle weakness. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. usually three times a day. or convulsions. It may detract from sexual performance in males. drug used to treat depression. or epilepsy. dizziness. headache. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. or insomnia. liver disease. In general.

including death. and skin infections. and bananas. bronchodilator inhalants. It has many u ses. appetite suppressants. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. capsules. even after symptoms disappear. if combined with certain foods or drugs.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. ear. . Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. and liquid form. such as gonorrhea. nasal decongestants. All rights reserved. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. all of which are taken orally. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. sinus and hay-fever medications. amphetamines. alcoholic beverages. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. It is available in tablets. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. products that contain yeast. Amoxicillin. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. including the treatment of respiratory. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. and other antidepressants.

. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. taken in one or two doses. Patients with asthma. the entire course of medication should be taken. chest. liver disease. diabetes. confusion. swollen lymph nodes. or bruising. and urinary tract. joint pain. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. diarrhea. skin rash. itching. Brand Names:Amoxil. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. colitis. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. Augmentin Cefixime. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. insomnia. nausea. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. skin rash. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. hives. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. throat.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. which are both taken orally. Wymox. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. anxiety or hyperactivity. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. dizziness. also in one or two daily doses. or vomiting. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. genital sores.

itching. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. prolonged use is not recommended. fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). Doxazosin Mesylate.However. shock. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. Common side effects may include indigestion. stomach cramps. or seizures. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Tablets are taken orally. but does not cure. severe diarrhea. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. hives. nausea. gas. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. All rights reserved. with or without food. mild diarrhea. or vomiting. skin rash. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. high . Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. although it is known to appear in breast milk. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. usually once a day at bedtime.

the dosage is 2. drug used to increase urine production. nosebleed. or depression. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. Other possible side effects include constipation. or engage in other risk-related activities. subsequently relieving edema. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. ringing in the ears.25 mg per day. muscle cramps or weakness. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug.5 mg per day. The . To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). and as a result. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. lowering blood pressure. insomnia. should not drive. which may be increased to 2. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. indigestion. the dosage is 1. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. skin rash. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. especially when the dosage is increased. To treat fluid retention. nausea. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. mental depression. low white -blood-cell count.5 mg per day. eye pain. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body.blood pressure. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. coronary artery disease. operate dangerous machinery. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol.

A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. diabetes. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. gout. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. upper respiratory tract infection. nausea. weakness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. headaches. diarrhea. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. urinary tract infection. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. To avoid nighttime urination. and drowsiness. pneumonia. visual problems. the drug should be taken with breakfast. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. . skin infection. itching. skin rashes. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body.

and dizziness. . insomnia. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. abdominal pain. It should be used with caution. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. nervousness. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. All rights reserved. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. at a reduced dosage. Loratadine.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. Use with probenecid. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. and skin rashes. swelling mucous membranes. Available by prescription only. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. nausea and vomiting. Less common side effects are colitis. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. headache. by persons with impaired kidney function. loss of appetite. sleepiness. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. an antigout drug. and itching eyes. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. a history of colitis. penicillin allergies.

. a class of antidepressants. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. tranquilizers. An analgesic. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). drowsiness. clarithromycin. can increase the side effects of loratadine. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. also called methadon. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. pain medication. itraconazole. or tricyclic antidepressants. such as driving. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. muscle relaxants. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. headache. narcotics. barbiturates. or dizziness. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. and activities requiring mechanical skills. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. In the late 1940s.

hives. drowsiness. skin infections. which interferes with breathing. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). which kills the bacteria. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. and urinary tract infections. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. pneumonia. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. and anaphylaxis. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. Certain ailments. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. light sensitivity. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. headache. Available in capsule form. or vomiting. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. .” Taken in large doses. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. diarrhea. dizziness. Less common are chest pain. In typical methadone therapy. in digestion.Unlike heroin. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. nausea. It is typically prescribed for five days. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. such as sexually transmitted diseases. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. Azithromycin. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. u nless approved by a doctor. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. jaundice. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Because methadone itself is addictive. some patients continue to be treated for many years. a severe form of diarrhea. or yeast infection. bronchitis. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal).

should use this drug with caution. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). digoxin. especially those that help the body retain potassium. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. but must be taken regularly to be effective. even after symptoms are relieved. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole).Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. lovastatin. cyclosporine. Patients with certain medical conditions. . All rights reserved. and warfarin. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. and lithium. This usually takes several weeks. phenytoin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. drug used to control high blood pressure. Benazepril. which influence salt and water retention. hexobarbital. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. triazolam. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure.

excessive thirst. although it is known to appear in breast milk. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. and skin infections. Less common are chest pain. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. fluid retention. streptococcus infections. which are both taken orally. also every eight hours. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. . It also is known to appear in breast milk. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or muscle cramps. irregular heartbeat. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Children may take this drug. itching. joint pain. dizziness. urinary infection. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. urinary tract infections. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. impotence. pneumonia. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. or vomiting. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. headache. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. nausea. skin rash. usually every eight hours. fatigue. coli) bacteria.especially in the second and third trimesters. Possible side effects include coughing. sweating. constipation. the entire course of medication should be taken.

light sensitivity. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. diarrhea medications. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. vomiting. and syphilis. and itching. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. Possible side effects include diarrhea. certain diuretics. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. itching. traveler’s diarrhea. hives. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. vaginal inflammation.Common side effects include diarrhea. although one form of liquid is made for injection. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. vomiting. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). trachoma (a chronic eye infection). thereby halting their growth. nausea. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. tablets. which are taken orally. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. and liquid forms. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. . Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. taken in one or two doses. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. liver disorders. or blood disorders. skin rash. joint pain. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. headache. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. skin rash.

multiple sclerosis. tuberculosis. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. phenytoin. asthma. penicillin. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. difficulty swallowing. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. barbiturates. or bulging forehead (in infants). sodium bicarbonate. Prednisone is available only by prescription. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. blood-thinners. Prednisone. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. and carbamazepine.facial swelling. birth control pills. Vibramycin. All rights reserved. especially with long-term use. skin diseases. Brand Names:Doryx. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. certain cancers. chest pain. . Children may develop discolored teeth. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. and severe allergic reactions. It is usually discontinued gradually. Vibra-Tabs.

It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. diabetes medications. ketoconazole. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. high blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. or a history of tuberculosis. . Prednicen-M. thick skin. brittle bones. and purplish. Children may take this drug.Patients with widespread fungus infections. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Buspirone. high blood pressure. impaired thyroid function. amphotericin B. or fluid retention. depression. estrogen supplements. peptic ulcer disease. headache. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. birth control pills. Liquid Pred. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. All rights reserved. carbamazepine. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. diabetes. weight gain. muscle weakness. gastrointestinal disorders . acne. dizziness. rifampin. phenytoin. osteoporosis. mood swings. Brand Names: Deltasone. muscle cramps. and certain diuretics. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). skin rash. Possible side effects may include insomnia. active tuberculosis. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug.

usually found in combination with antihistamines. warfarin. or vomiting. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. and tablet form. haloperidol. Possible side effects include dizziness. trazodone. or nervousness. upset stomach. or decongestants. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. sweating. and fluoxetine. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. skin rash. usually three times p er day. dry mouth. nausea. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. constipation. with or without food. rapid heartbeat. depending on the patient’s condition. narcotics. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. fatigue. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. cough suppressants. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. operate dangerous machinery. Also possible are blurred vision. or engage in other risk-related activities. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. bone or muscle pain. Unlike many tranquilizers.Tablets are taken orally. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. headache. diarrhea. capsule. . These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine.

Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. This drug is highly effective. nausea. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. Dimacol Caplets. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Triaminic Expectorant. Comtrex Cold Formula. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. preventing pregnancy 99. and diarrhea. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Contac Cough and Chest Cold. In the United States. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours.7 percent of the time. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. Brand Names: Cheracol D. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. Prior to 1992 the drug . and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. vomiting. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. stomach pain. However.

It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. night and day. sometimes for a year or more. . and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. Other possible side effects include weight gain. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). Beginning six weeks after giving birth. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. headaches. and abdominal pain. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. In many cases. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. Also. Blood transfusions are often necessary. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. mood changes. Taken every four hours. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use.

or anesthetic effect. coma. Ampicillin. overdoses can cause profound shock. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. anticonvulsant. boisterous or violent behavior. depression. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. muscle incoordination. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. a long-acting barbiturate. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. such as secobarbital. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. Phenobarbital. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. and respiratory tract. urinary tract. and sedation. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. An antibiotic like penicillin. or death.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Taken orally or intravenously. gastrointestinal tract. Barbiturate. Depending on the dosage or formulation. a combination of urea and malonic acid. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). .

but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. Children may take ampicillin. also sleeping sickness. Another liquid form is administered by injection. diarrhea. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. brucei rhodesiense. skin rash. another version of the protozoan.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. The most common is caused by T. and probenecid. genus Trypanosoma. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day.to ten-day course. mefloquine. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. allopurinol. brucei gambiense. endemic. fever. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. usually a seven. In cattle and other animals. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. atenolol. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. In South America. whereas a more local version is caused by T. Possible side effects may include nausea. hives. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. vomiting. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. oral contraceptives. and sometimes epidemic. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. or anemia. T. cruzi. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. mouth irritation. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. but an entire course of medication. . the disease is called nagana. colitis (inflamed bowel). is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis.

In early stages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Allopurinol. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). an accelerated heartbeat. It is also sometimes fatal. an enlargement of the spleen. frequently. . sleepiness. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. All rights reserved. with accompanying mood changes. which more frequently attacks children. and rash and fever. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. and. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). eventual coma. Chagas' disease. lack of appetite.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. In the long term. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. death. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness.

and various eye diseases. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. C10H15NO. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. rheumatoid arthritis. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). Cholesterol. more specific drugs. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). some natural drugs. cortisone. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). is a sterol. It is sometimes misused. aldosterone. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Steroids. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. dry mouth. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. Steroid hormones. or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. . Endocrine System). include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. which are similar to but not identical with sterols. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. tremor. Testosterone). asthma and allergies. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols).Ephedrine. many important hormones. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. All rights reserved. and anxiety. Hormone). and progesterone. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. with a great diversity of physiological activity. or fat-soluble chemicals. it has been superseded by safer. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. bile acids.

Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. amikacin. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. such as tuberculosis. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. the aminoglycosides. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. and kanamycin. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. See also Sports Medicine. are susceptible to streptomycin. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. leprosy. tobramycin. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. it is still used for this condition. and cholera. These include gentamicin. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. Streptomyces griseus. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. .

A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. such as headaches and structural muscle aches.Acetaminophen. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. is taken orally in tablet form. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. the dose may be lowered. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. All rights reserved. and for the reduction of fever. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. obsessive -compulsive disorder. After the medication begins to take effect. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. as aspirin tends to do for some users. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. Fluoxetine. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. available by prescription only. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. . An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. and premenstrual syndrome. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. Fluoxetine. prescribed for the treatment of depression. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. type of drug known as an antidepressant.

Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. with a specific gravity of 1.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. . Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. and diarrhea. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. nausea. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. or propylene. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety.26. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. the formula of which is given above. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. insomnia. C3H6. sometimes fatal results. or for those with kidney or liver disease. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. C3H6O. colorless.S. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. changes in appetite. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. odorless. headaches.4° F). dizziness. sweet-tasting a lcohol. C3H8O3. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. weight loss. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. diabetes. or a history of seizures.

Left after distillation are residues of . from which they are released later by acidification. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. Its composition varies with the coal. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. toluene. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Coal Tar.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. phenols. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. Because cheaper products are now available. xylene. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. sulfur. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. and other valuable products. can be extracted by alkali solutions. which are acidic. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. mostly hydrocarbons. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. Distillation produces benzene. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. and water. and oxygen. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). phenanthrene. The phenols. and the equipment used. anthracene. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. together with alcohols. including toothpastes. naphthalene. that is. they incite cancerous gro wths.

Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . . The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. insecticides. including dyes. mild to moderate pain. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. among others. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. cause iron deficiency. in roofing mixtures. and irritates the stomach. Salicylic acid is bitter. however. Aspirin. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. perfumes. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. food flavorings. stains. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. explosives. found in the bark of the willow tree. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. synthetic chemical compound. however. however. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. to counter fever and pain. artificial sweeteners. preservatives. paints. It is made from salicylic acid. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. Since then. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. used in making roads. paint removers. creosote oil.pitch. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. drugs. and plastics. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. acetylsalicylic acid. and resins.

For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. liver disease. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. fever. and may be taken with food. Nuprin . or fever. Motrin. When taken in excessive amounts. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery.Ibuprofen. or high blood pressure. drug used to reduce inflammation. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. suppressing the formation of blood clots. and the sensation of pain. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. rapid breathing. Brand Names: Advil. inflammation. In adults. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. which usually involves vomiting. diarrhea. In prescription form. or rapid heartbeat.

rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. collagen diseases. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. the activity of the nervous system. the maturation of white blood cells. weight gain. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. the retention of salt and water in the body. or corticoids. muscle weakness. called corticosteroids.Hydrocortisone. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. or cortex. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. called cortisone. of the adrenal gland. are employed for many medical purposes. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. Medical). Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. and fat. Because of their widespread effects. high blood pressure. and the regulation of blood pressure. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. hydrocortisone and related compounds. . Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. and diabetes. and eye inflammations. also cortisol. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. in 1935. they must be used carefully. protein. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response.

melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. heart rate. and hormone balance. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. for instance. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. night. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment.Melatonin. fluctuations in body temperature. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. . or shift work. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. jet lag. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. water balance. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. such as sleep-wake cycles. However. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process.

Parkinson disease. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. raises the blood pressure. Alzheimer’s disease. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. however. constricts the small blood vessels. arthritis. epilepsy. The pure compound. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. For example. is also known as adrenaline. Although it is easily available over the counter. liberates sugar stored in the liver. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. In times of excitement or emotional stress. epinephrine stimulates the heart. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). and hypertension. but it is now made synthetically. Epinephrine. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. large additional quantities are secreted. All rights reserved. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. to prevent bleeding. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health.

dizziness. nasal congestion. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. irregular heartbeat. These include but are not limited to antacids. impotence. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. tablet. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. tingling. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. noradrenaline. urinary tract blockage. diarrhea. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. or levoarterenol. It is available in capsule. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. insomnia. or short-term memory loss. antihistamines. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. nausea. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. called norepinephrine. and is taken orally four times a day. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. or nervousness. heart disease. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. dry mouth. An antispasmodic drug. lightheadedness. or constipation. headache. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. digoxin. severe heartburn. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. or myasthenia gravis. This drug can also decrease sweating. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. corticoids. hyperthyroidism. drowsiness. enlarged prostate gland. severe colitis. muscular weakness. high blood pressure. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . glaucoma. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. In general. Because of this. They may include blurred vision. fainting. and liquid form. with or without meals. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm).The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen.

headache. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. diarrhea. and bronchodilators. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. decreased sexual ability. narcotic pain relievers. and weakness. . and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). All rights reserved. itching. fatigue. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. Nizatidine Nizatidine. dizziness. More serious effects include confusion. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. fever. and sweating. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. antipsychotic drugs. unusual bleeding or bruising. excessive fatigue. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. increased heart rate. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. stomach upset. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. nausea.

protein-rich foods. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. and theophylline. reduced liver or kidney function. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. The safety and effectiveness of . dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. and 90-mg extended release tablets. if stomach irritation is a problem. citrus fruit. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. onions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. however. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. This drug is available by p rescription only. 60-mg. For treatment of angina. not crushed. pentoxiylline. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels.Alcoholic beverages. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. or persons with low blood pressure. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. garlic. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. Nifedipine Nifedipine. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. All rights reserved. doses may be taken with food. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. highdose aspirin. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. lightheadedness. flushing.. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. insulin. For eye infections. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. swelling of the feet and ankles. Brand Names:Adalat. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. nifedipine may increase angina. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. low blood pressure. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . For skin conditions. phenytoin. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. and ear infections. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. cyclosporine. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. and weakness. All rights reserved. diltiazem. These combinations. cimetidine. Rarely. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. headache. digitalis. eye. magnesium. and otic (ear) drops. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. grapefruit juice. and ranitidine. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. theophylline. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. along with hydrocortisone. nausea. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Neomycin Neomycin. digoxin. cigarette smoking. and certain drugs including amiodarone.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages.

It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. bleeding or blood cell disorders. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. or dryness. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of .or the ear. The typical. itching. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Brand Names:Corticosporin. or severe impairment of kidney function. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. This drug is available b y prescription only. taken once a day or in divided doses. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. Rarely. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. To minimize adverse side effects. smallpox. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. liver disease. without missing doses. kidney or ear damage may occur. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. pregnant or breast-feeding women. taken orally. irritation. and chicken pox infections. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nabumetone Nabumetone. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. All rights reserved.

or angina pectoris (chest pain). Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. headache. strokes. thickens the mucus of the cervix. This drug is available by prescription only. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. difficulty sleeping. or eyes. beta blockers. diarrhea. impairment of normal blood clotting. or vomiting. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. known or . blurred vision. aspirin. These include bloating. asthma or difficulty breathing. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. lungs. dizziness. soreness of the mouth. loss of appetite.nabumetone has been determined. diuretics. dizziness. and liver or kidney damage. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. indigestion. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. drowsiness. If tablets are missed. lightheadedness. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. blood clots in the legs. respectively. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. nervousness. other salicylates. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. and probenecid. constipation. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. nausea. sweating. heartburn.

breast tenderness. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. fluid retention. and vaginal infections. cervix. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. dizziness. or high cholesterol. All rights reserved. These include rifampin. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. diabetes. liver tumors. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. rash. bleeding between menstrual periods. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. unexplained vaginal bleeding. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. blotchy spots on exposed skin. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. or have high blood pressure. nervousness. or known or suspected pregnancy. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. Because of the risk of blood clots. vomiting. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. weight gain.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. phenylbutazone. and certain antibiotics. or vagina. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. smoke. and brown. depression. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. loss of scalp hair. difficulty wearing contact lenses. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. headache. In lowering blood cholesterol.

Patients with liver or kidney disease. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. congestive heart failure. kidney disease. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. h eadache. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. thyroid problems. with dosage based on body weight. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. Possible side effects include constipation. lightsensitivity. blurred vision. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). or sleepiness. headache. hives. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor.weeks of treatment. It reduces water and salt in the body. ringing in the ears. or various blood-thinning drugs. irregular heartbeat. confusion. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. but it does appear in breast milk. or blurred vision. gallbladder disease. and lose weight as part of their treatment. dizziness. Possible side effects may include constipation. itching. muscle or joint pain. narcotics. also known as a diuretic. liver disorders. indigestion. Children may take this drug. impotence. or other abdominal problems. Available in tablet and liquid form. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. exercise. impotence. fainting. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. vomiting. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. lovastatin. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. excessive thirst. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. skin rash. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. diabetes. barbiturates. skin rash. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). lupus erythematosus. dizziness. fever. Patients with diabetes. gout. and liver disease. diarrhea. nausea. nausea. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. . Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. diarrhea.

Overdosage can cause confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. rapid or slow heartbeat. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. impotence. Relief of symptoms may take several days. pentoxifylline. anxiety. or sleepiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. both taken orally. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Famotidine Famotidine. pancrelipase. hair loss. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. It is available in tablet and liquid form. or probenecid. . Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash or itching. or cardiac arrest. joint or muscle pain.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. When histamine action is blocked. among other effects. stomach acid decreases. drowsiness. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. All rights reserved. ketoconazole. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. and also in a liquid form that is injected. Less common are diarrhea. seizures. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime.

An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Also sometimes seen are constipation. All rights reserved. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. hair loss. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. muscular weakness. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem.Diltiazem Diltiazem. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. light sensitivity. dry mouth. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. headache. or vision changes. aspirin. digoxin. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. and ranitidine. or abnormally slow heartbeat. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. carbamazepine. ringing in the ears. fluid retention. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Cardizem. blood vessels and slowing the heart. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet and capsule form. thereby reducing blood pressure. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Diclofenac Sodium . skin rash. cimetidine. sleeplessness. diarrhea. nausea. The drug works by dilating. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. or opening. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day.

lithium. or loss of consciousness. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. in somnia. nausea. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. Classified as an antiasthmatic. indigestion. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. Patients with kidney or liver problems. light sensitivity. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with food. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). constipation. or vomiting. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. skin rash. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. All rights reserved. drowsiness. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. ringing in the ears. heart disease. or dizziness.Diclofenac Sodium. hair loss. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. diarrhea. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. if stomach upset occurs. ulcers. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. headache. facial swelling. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. lung inflammation. and carteolol. blood-thinning medications. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. diuretics. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. heart medications containing digitalis. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cyclosporine. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. blurred or double vision. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. the two branch es that connect the . methotrexate. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day.

or swollen glands. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. throat irritation. Brand Names:Intal. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. frequent urination. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. including capsules (taken orally). difficulty swallowing. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). headache. tablets are taken orally. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. nosebleed. Available by prescription only. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. nasal congestion. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. and bronchitis. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Possible side effects include coughing. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. although the complete. usually in 250. joint pain. although most are taken four to six times per day. All rights reserved. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). sneezing. . They may be taken w ith or without food. Nasalcrom. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. or powder. dizziness. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. skin rash. or wheezing. It comes in several forms. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs.

acetaminophen. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. requires immediate medical attention. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. should not take this drug. especially with long-term use. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. operating dangerous machinery. Dependency on this drug can occur. or other risk-related activities. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. and phenytoin. . Severe diarrhea. diarrhea. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. indigestion. headache. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. theophylline. usually one or two tablets every four hours. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. or an altered sense of taste.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. digoxin. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. caffeine. Patients with porphyria. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. but may include nausea. astemizole. sedative b arbiturate drug. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders.

usually in 5. Phrenilin. diarrhea. thereby reducing blood pressure. warfarin. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. anxiety. or coma. patients with low blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. These include antidepressants. or vomiting. .Potential side effects include drowsiness. However. The drug may be taken with or without food. and heart palpitations. Amlodipine Amlodipine. migraine. light-headedness. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. nausea. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. and theophylline. twitching.or 10-mg doses. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. liver disease. fatigue. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. including dizziness. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. back or chest pain. and vomiting. All rights reserved. oral contraceptives. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sleepiness. dizziness. Brand Names:Fioricet. Fiorinal. fluid retention or swelling. such as beta blockers. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. low blood pressure. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. headache. fainting. shock. breathing difficulties. steroids. antihistamines. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. itching. flushing. constipation. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. Brand Names:Norvasc.

Albuterol is a bronchodilator. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. in fact. rapid heartbeat. Brand Names:Proventil. and capsule form. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). liver disease. tooth discoloration. cardiovascular problems. diarrhea. . People with high blood pressure. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. nosebleeds. indigestion. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. increased blood pressure. tablet. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. an overactive thyroid gland. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. all of which are taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Ventolin. restoring comfortable breathing. muscle cramps. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. sleeplessness. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. can make symptoms worse. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and vomiting.Albuterol Albuterol. syrup. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. Some of the more common ones include agitation. All rights reserved. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. usually within 15 minutes. nausea. It is available in aerosol. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. headache. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. dizziness. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. an irregular heartbeat. ringing in the ears. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle weakness. kidney or liver problems. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. or jaundice. muscle relaxants. sleep aids. Possible side effects include nausea.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. Brand Names:Darvon. or influenza. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. chickenpox. as needed. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. or nursing women. so patients should avoid driving. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . skin rash. mood changes. headache. pregnant women. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. caffeine. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. effect.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. blood-clotting problems. All rights reserved. for pain relief. operating dangerous machinery. especially after long-term use at high dosages. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. or other narcotic pain relievers. asthma. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. antihistamines. or engaging in other risk-related activities. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Pravastatin Pravastatin . constipation. vomiting. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. anticoagulants. ulcers. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. or pain -killing. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. antidepressants. weight loss.

drug used mainly to treat allergies. should not take pravastatin. Promethazine Promethazine. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. peptic ulcers. prostate . high blood pressure. headache. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. itchiness. All rights reserved. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. colestipol. ketoconazole. erythromycin. syrup. usually within 20 minutes. niacin. including asthma and sleep apnea. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food.cholesterol. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. Promethazine works quickly. Children may take this drug. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. or flulike symptoms. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. cyclosporine. or children under the age of 18. constipation. stomach pain. diarrhea. liver conditions. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. skin rash. gas. Typically. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). heart disease. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. Patients with liver or kidney disease. and suppository form. with dosages based on body weight. Available only by prescription. cimetidine. and immunosuppressive drugs. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. injectable liquid. It may be taken with or without food. Available by prescription in tablet. muscular disorders. usually at bedtime. warfarin. muscle cramps. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. Pregnant or nursing women. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. nausea. gemfibrozil. fight insomnia. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cataracts. should not take promethazine.

Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. jaundice. skin rash. ear and skin infections. ointment. preventing their multiplication and growth. however. gonorrhea. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. sedatives. gel. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. disorientation. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. or loss of consciousness. or abnormal heart rhythm. or narrow-angle glaucoma. or engage in other risk-related activities. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. Children may take most forms of this drug. impaired kidney function. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. or light sensitivity. Brand Names: Phenergan. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. However. blurred vision. with dosages determined by body weight. whooping cough. operate dangerous machin ery. tablets. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). blood pressure changes. and antidepressant drugs.enlargement. All rights reserved. nausea. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. Erythromycin Erythromycin. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. rheumatic fever. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tranquilizers. . vomiting. Dependingon the site of the infection. urinary tract infections. syphilis. breathing difficulties. and diphtheria. Other possible side effects include dizziness. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. and various liquids. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug.

Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone.Erymax. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. lovastatin. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. hives. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. rapid heartbeat. an ointment. loss of appetite.Erygel. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). eczema. It reduces swelling. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. blood-thinners.Benzamycin. For acute disorders. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).Theramycin Z. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. vomiting. bone cysts in children. For tablets. yellowing of the eyes or skin. It is also used to treat anemia. digoxin. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. it is usually taken for four to . It comes in a tablet. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. and psoriasis. multiple sclerosis. Also seen are skin rash. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. ulcerative colitis. phenytoin. This drug is available by prescription only. and to treat asthma. preferably right after a bowel movement. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and an enema. redness. Emgel. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. tendinitis. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. or temporary hearing loss. croup. lupus erythematous. eye irritation. and theophylline. and most forms of arthritis. Brand Names: Erythrocin.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. itching. an injectable liquid. All rights reserved. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Ilosone. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. or diarrhea. carbamazepine.

this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). peptic ulcer disease. insulin. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. phenytoin. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. digoxin. and naproxen. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. ephedrine. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Naproxen . oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. aspirin. retention of salt and water. smallpox. cyclosporine. Medrol. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. weight gain. peptic ulcer. possible diabetes.ten days. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. glaucoma. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. Brand Names:Duralone. drugs containing estrogen. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). indomethacin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. antacids. ketoconazole. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. All rights reserved. and certain vaccines. hypertension (high blood pressure). retarded growth and development in children. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. cataracts. increased blood sugar. and increased susceptibility to infection. barbiturates . rabies. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. For chronic disorders. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. ketoprofen. carbamazepine. oral antidiabetic drugs. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally.

it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. liver disease. osteoarthritis. soreness of the mouth. it may be taken with food or antacids. For bursitis. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. lightheadedness. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. constipation. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis.Naproxen. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. or vomiting. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. 375 mg. tendinitis. nausea. or severe impairment of kidney function. heartburn. without missing doses. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. Pain relief should begin within one hour. and gout. menstrual cramps. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). osteoarthritis. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. dental treatment. . the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. changes in menstruation. bleeding or blood cell disorders. tendinitis. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. loss of appetite. If possible. and 500 mg. and as a liquid. indigestion. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. nervousness. To minimize adverse side effects. drowsiness. headache. diarrhea. dizziness. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. If stomach irritation occurs. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. These include bloating. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. difficulty breathing. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. orthopedic surgery. and other pain. sweating. and liver or kidney damage. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. difficulty sleeping. and for strains and sprains. bursitis. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. For gout.

and timolol. in prolonged action tablets. Metoprolol Metoprolol. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. beta blockers such as acebutolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. aspirin. the typical. atenolol. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. For treatment after a heart attack. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. persons with congestive heart failure. and probenecid. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It may have a negative effect on . salicylates. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain).Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. pregnant or breast-feeding women. lithium. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. The regular tablet can be crushed. more commonly known as beta blockers. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. This drug is available by prescription only. Brand Names:Aleve. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. 100-mg. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. methotrexate. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. an abnormally slow heart rate. For treatment of hypertension or angina. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. For prevention of heart attacks. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. All rights reserved. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. and 200-mg tablets. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. It comes in 50-mg. metoprolol.

oral hypoglycemic drugs. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. aspirin. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. hydralazine. digoxin. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. which may trigger pain and inflammation. nifedipine. calcium channel blockers. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. gout. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. insulin. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. diltiazem. amiodarone. and decreased sexual desire. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. chlorpromazine. oral antidiabetic drugs.driving or other risk-related activities. aminophylline. and verapamil. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. fluoxetine. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . furosemide. slow heart rate. albuterol. clonidine. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. osteoarthritis. cimetidine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. tranquilizers. fatigue. lightheadedness. cold h ands and feet. epinephrine. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. All rights reserved. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. reserpine. Brand Names:Lopressor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and tendinitis. . Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and vomiting. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. diarrhea. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. nausea. anticoagulants. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. such as aspirin. indigestion. itching. and warfarin. aspirin. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. valproic acid. skin rash. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. and bleeding. enoxaparin. ringing in the ears. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. Etodolac is available only by prescription. hives. with meals. constipation. To avoid adverse side effects. or a severe impairment of kidney function. relieving swelling and stiffness. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. All rights reserved.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. ulceration. should not take this drug. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. lithium. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. or with a prescribed antacid. b eta blockers. mouth sores. methotrexate. dizziness. sulfinpyrazone. Etodolac Etodolac. indomethacin. sleep disturbances. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. headache. depression.

ringing in the ears. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. fever. or muscle weakness. drug used to reduce the inflammation. rapid heartbeat. skin rash. heart disease.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. and it may appear in breast milk. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. peptic ulcer. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. insomnia. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. bursitis. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. and nausea. fainting. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. and digoxin. indigestion. and menstrual cramps. skin rash. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. anemia. fluid retention. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. and suppository form. All rights reserved. with increased blood flow during menstruation. but it can be taken with food. dizziness. diuretics. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects include drowsiness. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. fever. constipation. sweating. tablet. depression. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. blood-thinning medications. tendinitis. milk. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. indigestion.stomach upset. nausea. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. headache. diarrhea.

15 to 0. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. lithium. nifedipine. and chest pain is alleviated. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. As a result. patients with allergies to the drug. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. bleeding disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.4 mg from a spray container. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. For prevention of angina. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. For long-term prevention of angina. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. verapamil. or one metered dose of 0. Breast-feeding women. steroids. workload on the heart is reduced. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. If necessary. aspirin.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. applied on or under the tongue. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. and patients with ulcers. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. insulin.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. and diuretics. phenytoin. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). impaired kidney function.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. All rights reserved. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. one 1 .

and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. sudden drop in blood pressure . or a 0. All rights reserved. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. Nitrocap TD. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. To maintain its effectiveness. Warfarin .5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. acetylcysteine. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. hyperthyroidism. antihypertensive drugs. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. diltiazem. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. rather. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack.5 -inch (7. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). rapid heart rate. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. headache. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. and heart palpitations. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. recent head trauma. aspirin. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. heparin. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. and coughs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. Nitrocine Transdermal. colds.

warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. Verapamil Verapamil. headache. hair loss. or intestinal problems. diabetes. puncture. and hypertension (high blood pressure). difficulty swallowing. fever. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or gangrene. or patients with high blood pressure. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. nausea. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. joint pain. Verapamil works by .Warfarin. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. and bacon. Classified as an anticoagulant. or swelling. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. chest pain. a blood disorder. discolored (purplish) toes. s kin inflammation. Motrin). Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). Patients with peptic ulcers. All rights reserved. After the first two to three days. asparagus. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. acetaminophen (Tylenol). Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired liver or kidney function. severe allergies. ulcerative colitis. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. beef liver. or recent surgery should not use this drug. Other side effects may include diarrhea. some forms of irregular heartbeat. an aneurysm. cut. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. a heart-related infection. difficulty breathing. any infectious disease. For this reason. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. and ibuprofen (Advil. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. cauliflower. fish.

congestive heart failure. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. light sensitivity. thereby lowering blood pressure. hair loss. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. and various diuretics. constipation. or s low heartbeat. carbamazepine. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Calan. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. and in me n. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. dry mouth. Isoptin. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. skin rash. ringing in the ears. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. rifampin. Terazosin Terazosin . Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Available in tablet and capsule form. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. cyclosporine. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. cimetidine. or congestive heart failure. aspirin. abnormally low blood pressure. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. prostate gland enlargement. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. lithium. fluid retention. an injectable solution is also available. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. digoxin. fatigue. headache. sleepiness. theophylline. with meals and at bedtime with food. taken in three or four doses. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . nausea. phenobarbital. impotence. and it does appear in breast milk. phenytoin.

Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. sweating. Available by prescription in capsule form. fluid retention.problems of urine flow. . ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. estrogens. or a history of stroke. heart palpitations. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. muscle weakness. reduce blood volume. and lower blood pressure. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. numbness. or blurred vision. Ramipril Ramipril. drug used to control high blood pressure. stuffy nose. Dosages range from 2. even when symptoms are relieved. especially beta blockers. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. All rights reserved. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. taken in one or two doses. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. painful urination. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). which influence salt and water retention. fainting. difficulty breathing. coronary artery disease. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. dizziness. patients should avoid driving. At these times. to dilate arteries. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. or engaging in other risk-related activities. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure.5 to 20 mg per day. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. operating dangerous machinery. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. nausea. it should be taken regularly. and urinary tract infections. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed.

oral phenytoin should be taken with food. lithium. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. heart disease. nausea. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. It also may react with aspirin. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. and potassium supplements. high potassium levels. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. requires immediate medical attention. drug used to treat the seizures. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. it must be taken regularly to be effective. capsule. including salt substitutes containing potassium. . fatigue. coughing. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. impaired liver or kidney function. or light sensitivity. or violent muscle contractions. and liquid form. Side effects may include headache. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. All rights reserved. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. An allergic reaction to this drug. caused by epilepsy. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. except for one liquid form made for injection. vomiting. lightheadedness. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. To avoid stomach irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. scleroderma. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. or low white blood cell levels. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. Taken orally. it can react adversely with such drugs. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. It is also known to appear in breast milk. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. systemic lupus erythematosus. cyclosporine. muscle pain. as it can harm the fetus. especially in the second and third trimesters.

The initial. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. twitching. aspirin. and antacids. methylphenidate. mental confusion. bedwetting. insomnia. fever. abnormal hair growth. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. These include. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. or change in urine color. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. oral contraceptive s. diazepam. involuntary eye movement. ulcer medications. All rights reserved. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. furosemide. four to six hours apart. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. diabetes. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. Ketorolac Ketorolac. Also included are the drugs felbamate. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. blood thinners. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. and as eyedrops. headache. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sodium valproate. The injection is given within a muscle. steroids. impotence. joint pain. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. or slurred speech. dizziness. skin rash.Patients with impaired liver function. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. doxycycline. phenobarbital. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. Other observed side effects include nausea. acute pain. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . or heart disease should use this drug with caution. estrogens. certain tranquilizers. and valproic acid. but are not limited to. theophylline. carbamazepine. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid.

Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. moxalactam. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. kidney or liver disease. heparin. and perforation. plicamycin. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. naproxen.more than five days. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. ketoprofen. drowsiness. as well as with lithium. lupus erythematosus. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. Abdominal or stomach pain. asthma. cefotetan. dizziness. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. and gastrointestinal bleeding. increased sweating. heart disease. headache. allergic reactions. constipation. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. edema. vomiting. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. nabumetone. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. . colitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cefamandole. Brand Names:Acular. edema. burning or pain at the injection site. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. renal failure. bruising at the site of injection. indigestion. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. or high blood pressure. diabetes mellitus. probenecid. decrease in urine output. methotrexate. acetaminophen. ulceration. and oxaprozin. Less common side effects are eye irritation. diarrhea. All rights reserved. superficial eye infections. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. cefoperazone.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Glipizide Glipizide.

but are not limited to. shallow breathing. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. thyroid medications. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). in one or two doses.5 to 40 mg per day. nausea. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. but depending on the patient’s response. estrogens. Tablets are taken orally. Patients with heart disorders. Potential side effects may include headache. sulfa drugs. birth control pills. aspirin. corticoids. . and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. rapid heartbeat. in dosages ranging from 2. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. anemia. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. disorientation. antacids. impaired kidney or liver function. light sensitivity. skin rash. or seizures. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. dizziness. Enalapril Enalapril. tranquilizers. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The starting dose is 5 mg. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. With long-term use (months to years). These include. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. which control salt and water retention. All rights reserved.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. with or without food. sweating. drowsiness. stomach pain. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs).

It is used to treat reflux disease. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. breast enlargement (in males). sensitivity to light. excessive hair growth in women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and in a liquid form that is injected. excessive sweating. nausea. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). dry mouth or eyes. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). dizziness. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. Brand Names:Vasotec. rapid heartbeat. All rights reserved. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. It is also known to appear in breast milk. depression. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. abdominal pain. acne. usually taken immediately . it may react adversely with such drugs. When histamine action is blocked. secretion of stomach acid decreases. and an overactive parathyroid gland. Cimetidine Cimetidine. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. especially in the second and third trimesters. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. or abnormally low blood pressure. hair loss. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. impotence. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Depending on the condition being treated. It has not been proven safe for use in children. muscle cramps or weakness. both taken orally. hives. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. blurred vision. headache. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. herpes infections (including shingles). a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. It also may cause chest pain. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. loss of appetite. skin rash or itching.

Relief of symptoms may take several days. and excessive caffeine. anemia. All rights reserved. theophylline. cyclosporine. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. cigarette smoking. or hallucinations. pentoxifylline. confusion. joint or muscle pain. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. skin rash or inflammation. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission.2 lb). which is increased as needed (to a . nicotine. With prolonged use (one month or more). Divalproex Divalproex. heart palpitations. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. some patients experience anxiety. metronidazole. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. such as those associated with epilepsy. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). hair loss. rapid or slow heartbeat. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. including medications for diabetes. quinine. metoclopramide. depression. sucralfate. impotence.after a meal. dizziness. Less common side effects are diarrhea. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. and aspirin. narcotic pain relievers. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. phenytoin. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). paroxetine. and sleepiness. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. Available in tablet form. drug used to treat seizures. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. also known as valproic acid. and warfarin. digoxin.

yellowing skin or eyes. tranquilizers. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. antihistamines. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. drowsiness. All rights reserved. and vomiting. and other seizure medications. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . surgery. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. nausea. blood thinners. This drug slows blood clotting. muscle weakness. or dental procedures. operate dangerous machinery.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. or weight gain. as a result . It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Captopril Captopril. fever. tremors. itching. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. should not drive. heart attacks. and birth control pills. facial swelling. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. especially when used in children under the age of two. loss of appetite. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. isoniazid. constipation. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. Some patients experience drowsiness and. Patients are often started on a . It also may interact with erythromycin. This drug can cause liver damage. as continuous seizures may result.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. or engage in other risk-related activities. sleep aids. and loss of seizure control. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. Possible side effects include indigestion. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. fluid retention. skin rash. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. vomiting. which is divided into several smaller doses. which influence salt and water rete ntion. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. behavior changes. double vision. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

which is increased as needed. which usually takes several weeks. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. peptic ulcer. anti-inflammatory medications. sweating. muscle pain or weakness. light sensitivity. sleepiness. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. skin rash. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). vomiting. or swelling of the arms. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. A reaction that includes chest pain. mouth. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. It also may react adversely with aspirin.small dosage. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. diarrhea. Lovastatin Lovastatin . confusion. nitroglycerin. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). wheezing stroke. lightheadedness. even after symptoms are relieved. depression. as it can harm the fetus. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. constipation. loss of taste. especially in the second and third trimesters. All rights reserved. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. which also requires immediate medical care. fatigue. or heart failure. lithium. Brand Names:Capoten. nausea. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. and extremely low blood pressure. Possible side effects include itching. legs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fainting. . it can react adversely with these drugs. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. Less common side effects include blurred vision. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin).

after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. dizziness. preferably with evening meals. muscle aches or cramps. heartburn. Tablets are taken with or without food. niacin. gas. skin rash. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. and warfarin. cyclosporine. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. fever. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. severe stomach pain. and stomach pain. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. Simvastatin Simvastatin. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. headache.Available by prescription only. usually at bedtime. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . or pregnant or breast-feeding women. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. 20-mg. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and unusual tiredness or weakness. gemfibrozil. This drug should be taken with food. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. which are taken orally. diarrhea. weight loss. nausea. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. All rights reserved. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Less common side effects are blurred vision. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. and 40-mg tablets. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL).

or hepatitis. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. cataracts. cyclosporine. impaired vision. stomach pain. or lowered blood pressure. All rights reserved. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. gemfibrozil. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). cimetidine. or thyrotoxicosis. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. in tablets and an injectable liquid. muscular disorders. diarrhea. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. and for infants with cretinism. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. This drug is available by prescription only. by pregnant or nursing women. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. Patients with impaired liver function. clofibrate. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. erythromycin. nausea. nicotinic acid. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. or by young people under the age of 20. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. and spironolactone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. warfarin. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. including high blood pressure. Levothyroxine may be used during .weeks of treatment. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. and diabetes. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. skin rash. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. ketoconazole. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. muscle weakness. digoxin. gas. The drug is effective within 48 hours. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. constipation.

heart palpitations. diarrhea. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. Astemizole Astemizole. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. which causes thyroid overactivity. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. flushed skin. tiredness. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. agitation.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. but never admitted any wrongdoing. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . sweating. Patients should not take more than a single. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Levoxine. All rights reserved. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. weight loss or gain. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. and skin. or chest pain. Brand Names: Levothroid. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. eyes. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. Astemizole is available only by prescription.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Brand Names:Bactrim. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. vomiting. rifampin. and traveler’s diarrhea. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. Tramadol Tramadol. bronchitis. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. diarrhea. impaired liver or kidney function. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. with or without food. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. procainamide. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. pneumonia. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. Available by prescription only. sore mouth. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. . abdominal cramps. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with anemia. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. or increased blood potassium. loss of appetite. headache. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. and cholestyramine. back or joint pain. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. nausea. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. dapsone. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. phenytoin. with dosages based on body weight.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. cyclosporine. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. especially of the urinary tract and eye. or pain associated with cancer. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. All rights reserved.

tablets. For this reason. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. and a liquid form that is injected. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. quinidine. sedatives. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. Other possible side effects include nausea. people taking this drug should not drive. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. diarrhea. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. including an oral inhalant. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. two to three times a day. or engage in other riskrelated activities. sweating. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or dry mouth. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. In addition. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. Its safety for children under the age of 16. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. vomiting. All rights reserved. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. cream and ointment forms applied topically. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. . operate dangerous machinery.

mottled skin. digoxin. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. Taken orally. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. and primidone. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. diabetes drugs (including insulin). but helps alleviate symptoms. peptic ulcer. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). wheezing. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Azmacort. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. Tretinoin Tretinoin. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. . carbamazepine. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. or a history of tuberculosis. sneezing. nosebleed. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. hoarseness. fluid retention. memory loss. weight loss. warfarin. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). headache. skin rash. glaucoma (an eye disorder). All rights reserved. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. nasal irritation or congestion.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. phenytoin.

although maximum improvement may take one to two months. Brand Names:Retin-A. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. usually once a day at bedtime. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. preferably an hour before meals. and s kin products containing alcohol. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications.Tretinoin is available in a gel. salicylic acid. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. citrus scents. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. Hands should be washed immediately after application. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. This drug is available in liquid form. . or mucous me mbranes of the nose. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. It is applied to the skin. especially those containing sulfur. or resorcinol. as well as with medicated soaps. mouth. darkening or lightening of skin color. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. and solution. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. temporary worsening of acne. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. cream. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. although maximum improvement may take several months. or spices. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. It should not come in contact with the eyes. astringents. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. Renoval. The tablet form is taken orally. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls.

dizziness. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. impaired liver or kidney function. as well as epinephrine. muscle weakness. chronic bronchitis. shortness of breath. Brand Names: Timoptic. an overactive thyroid gland. or heart failure. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. hay fever or other allergies. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. and liquid form. and pulmonary (lung) disease. All rights reserved. low blood pressure. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. Possible side effects may include headache. prescription drug used to treat asthma. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. especially in patients with heart disorders. As a bronchodilator. diarrhea. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. tablet. Theophylline Theophylline. theophylline. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). cimetidine. All are taken orally. improving circulation. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. which may be increased if needed. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. low blood sugar. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. or impotence. hair loss. tingling or numbness. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. nausea.Patients with asthma. Theophylline is available in capsule. insulin and other diabetes drugs. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. vomiting. chlorpromazine. Blocadren. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. . lung disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. chest pain. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day.

headache. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. acne. It also may interact with cimetidine. and gonorrhea. increased urination. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. clarithromycin. and birth control pills. including urinary tract infections. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. impaired liver or kidney function. another possible side effect. propanolol. high blood pressure. applied topically. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. gum disease. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. irregular heartbeat. Tetracycline Tetracycline. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. Brand Names:Slo-bid. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. erythromycin. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. and in a reconstituted powder solution. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. low blood pressure. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. ciprofloxacin. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). especially when starting treatment with theophylline. seizure disorders. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. doxycycline. or coma. Changes in heart rate. All rights reserved. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. insomnia.Patients with peptic ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or skin rash. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. . thereby halting their growth. taken orally. convulsions. should be checked by a doctor. taken in one to four doses. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. phenytoin.

blood thinners. Possible side effects include headache. difficulty swallowing. isotretinoin. Unlike many other antihistamines. and menstrual pain. ischemic heart disease. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. or in infants. Topicycline. cold or flu. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. lithium. nausea. As an antihistamine. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. nausea. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. Brand Names:Achromycin V. penicillin. chest pain. renal impairment. headache. facial swelling. diabetes mellitus. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. Possible side effects include diarrhea. All rights reserved. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. and throat. increased intraocular pressure.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. eyes. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Brand Name:Allegra . itching. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. or prostatic hypertrophy. skin rash. vomiting. fatigue. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or seizures. hyperthyroidism. sore throat. light sensitivity. indigestion. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. cholestyramine. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. confusion. irregular heartbeat. a bulging soft spot on the head. oral contraceptives. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and sucralfate. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. blurred vision. insomnia.

As a result. Temazepam Temazepam. producing a calming effect. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. All rights reserved. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. a yeastlike fungus. fever. headache. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which can interact with terconazole. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. body pain. or chills. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. All rights reserved. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. drug used to treat insomnia. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. preventing its reproduction and growth. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. .

increased dreaming. nervousness. or nausea. difficulty in breathing. diarrhea. or engaging in risk-related activities. operating dangerous machinery. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. convulsions. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). tremors. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. and oral contraceptives. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. If needed. narcotics.Available only by prescription. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. including antidepressants. antihistamines. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. usually in a 15-mg dose. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. tremors. blurred vision. tranquilizers. or by young people under the age of 18. or vomiting. . Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. restlessness. especially when starting treatment. or coma. All rights reserved. Also observed in some patients are sweating. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. headache. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. barbiturates. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. When treatment is stopped. seizures. or hallucinations. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. Other possible side effects include fatigue. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. In addition. confusion. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime.

change in blood pressure. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or allergies. ranitidine. tightness in the chest or throat. has not been determined. as well as cimetidine. sucralfate is taken orally.Patients with heart disease. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. ketoconazole. difficulty breathing. Its safety for children. dizziness. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Irregular heartbeat. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. preferably with water. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. tingling. Possible side effects may include constipation. digoxin. Brand Name:Carafate . and theophylline. muscle weakness. esophagus. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. Possible side effects may include dizziness. quinidine. diarrhea. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. phenytoin. This drug heals existing ulcers. antispasmodic drugs. tetracycline. irregular heartbeat. sore throat. stiff neck. or fainting are sometimes observed. Sucralfate Sucralfate. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. or skin rash. digestive tract. nausea. uncontrolled high blood pressure. or a dry mouth. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. drug used to treat ulcers. especially angina. All rights reserved. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. or va gina. certain antibiotics. Raynaud’s syndrome. drowsiness. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. and blood-thinners.

Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. and spironolactone. gas. drug used to treat depression and. less often. Tablets are taken with or without food. ketoconazole. muscle weakness. gemfibrozil. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. muscular disorders. cataracts. by pregnant or nursing women.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. skin rash. Simvastatin Simvastatin. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . weight loss. cyclosporine. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. digoxin. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. cimetidine. Sertraline Sertraline. diarrhea. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. clofibrate. erythromycin. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. impaired vision. or by young people under the age of 20. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. usually at bedtime. nausea. nicotinic acid. or hepatitis. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. All rights reserved. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). Patients with impaired liver function. stomach pain. warfarin. or lowered blood pressure. obsessive -compulsive disorders. constipation.

seizures. weight loss. irregular heartbeat. a dry mouth. constipation.Available only by prescription. sweating. insomnia. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. . Available only by prescription. tremors. The typical dose is 42 mg. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. vomiting. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. various diabetes medications including insulin. diarrhea. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. drug used for the treatment of asthma. fatigue. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. All rights reserved. including headache. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. lithium. or problems with male sexual performance. tolbutamide. digitoxin. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. warfarin. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. agitation. difficulty breathing or swallowing. cimetidine. Salmeterol Salmeterol. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. twice daily. if needed. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. sensitivity to bright light. which a doctor may slowly increase. sleepiness. or behaviora l changes. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. or two inhalations. Parkinson disease. The starting dose is 50 mg. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. breast enlargement (in both females and males).

Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. . or taking antacids. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. rapid or slow heartbeat. as well as theophylline and caffeine. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. all taken orally. skin rash. headaches. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. and drowsiness. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. smoking cigarettes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. All rights reserved. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. diabetes. Less common side effects are diarrhea. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. and liquid form. or muscle cramps. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. It is also available as an injectable liquid. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. capsule. nervousness. liver disease. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. anemia. or skin rashes. heart attack. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. causing chronic heartburn. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. fatigue.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. or overactive thyroid gland. dizziness. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. hair loss. dizziness. joint or muscle pain. Ranitidine Ranitidine. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach.

heart disease. Quinapril Quinapril. lightheadedness. procainamide. It also may react with lithium.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. muscle pain. tetracycline. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. . or low white blood cell counts. glipizide. An allergic reaction to this drug. cyclosporine. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. scleroderma. coughing. and potassium supplements. high potassium levels. including salt substitutes containing potassium. which influence salt and water retention. The drug relaxes arterial walls. or vomiting. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Available by prescription. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. theophylline. All rights reserved. it can react adversely with these drugs. Possible side effects include dizziness. requires immediate medical attention. itraconazole. as it can harm the fetus. reduces blood volume. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. ketoconazole. fatigue. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. midazolam. it must be taken regularly to be effective. as well as with diazepam. and triamterene. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. enoxacin. nausea. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. chest or abdominal pain. especially in the second and third trimesters. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. thereby reducing blood pressure. systemic lupus erythematous. sucralfate.

. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

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