Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

which starts the process. and many suffered cramping. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. a nonprofit. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. and the uterine lining breaks down. Two days later. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. treating breast and ovarian cancer. the cervix softens and opens. including the United States. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. China. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Under the trade name Mifeprex. private research organization. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. two weeks later. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. given later. which starts contractions. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. as well as certain other tumors. but a few take longer. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. In the United States. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. Misoprostol. Without progesterone. . and 3 percent aborted immediately. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. Typically.S. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. Instead. and as a therapy for endometriosis. These include inducing fullterm labor. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. Nearly half the women in the U. At the third visit.

and the procedure is not invasive. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. are that anesthesia is not required. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. Theoretically. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. is over much more quickly. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. and fatigue. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. by making abortion potentially available in any . However. in a small number of women. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. no medical instruments are used. weakness. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. They also point out that. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. where the drug has been in use since 1988. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. in France. headache. diarrhea. In contrast. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. However.

By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. eyes. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. drug introduced in 1953. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. All rights reserved. During this delay.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. . but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. and reproductive tract. and other countries. Britain. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. spine.physician’s office. More than 10. Thalidomide. palate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gastrointestinal tract. lip. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. respiratory tract. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. Eventually. heart. a German pharmaceutical company. kidneys. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use.

. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. and the sores make eating difficult. or chronic weight loss. although not fully understood. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. Under these restrictions. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. when produced in excessive amounts. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). A serious skin disorder. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. Among other issues. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug.

fatigue. For treatment after a heart attack. more commonly known as beta blockers. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. in prolonged action tablets. a n abnormally slow heart rate. lightheadedness. All rights reserved. It comes in 50-mg. the typical. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. slow heart rate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available by prescription only. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. and 200-mg tablets. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. For treatment of hypertension or angina. persons with congestive heart failure. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Metoprolol. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). 100-mg. pregnant or breast-feeding women. For prevention o f heart attacks. and decreased sexual desire.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. The regular tablet can be crushed. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. cold hands and feet. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it.

clonidine. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. without missing doses. hydralazine. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. dizziness. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. difficulty sleeping. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. These include bloating. calcium channel blockers. Brand Names:Lopressor. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. chlorpromazine. To minimize adverse side effects. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. digoxin. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. All rights reserved. aspirin. or severe impairment of kidney function.sedative effect. taken orally. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug is available by prescription only. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. tranquilizers. insulin. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Nabumetone. diltiazem. furosemide. oral hypoglycemic drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. reserpine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. taken once a day or in divided doses. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fluoxetine. aminophylline. albuterol. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. cimetidine. bleeding or blood cell disorders. nifedipine. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. liver disease. diarrhea. . amiodarone. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. and verapamil. epinephrine. constipation. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. The typical. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. oral antidiabetic drugs.

or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. drowsiness. other salicylates. and probenecid.dizziness. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. Astemizole is available only by prescription. loss of appetite. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. impairment of normal blood clotting. nervousness. Patients should not take more than a single. lightheadedness. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. and liver or kidney damage. asthma or difficulty breathing. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. Possible side effects include drowsiness. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. joint or muscle pain. including antibiotics. sweating. diuretics. Patients with asthma. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. headache. headache. itching or tingling. nausea. Astemizole. eyes. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. or cardiac arrest. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. or vomiting. aspirin. Less common are depression. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. nervousness. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). All rights reserved. fatigue. . indigestion. soreness of the mouth. or increased appetite. blurred vision. nausea. beta blockers. nosebleed. dry mouth or throat. liver disease. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. diarrhea. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. or sore throat. seizures. and skin. skin rash. heartburn. dizziness. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. irregular heartbeat.

vomiting. blurred vision. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac).5 mg) on the first day. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. . Possible side effects include diarrhea. headache. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. skin rash. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Digoxin is available in capsule. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. although one form of the liquid is injected. nausea. or breast development in males. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. as it may seriously affect heart function. It may be taken with food. fluvoxamine (Luvox). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. stomach pain. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. ranging from 0.125 to 0. loss of appetite. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. if necessary. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. Digoxin. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. setraline (Zoloft). Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. nefazodone (Serzone). but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. Dosages of this drug vary widely.5 mg per day. tablet. and paroxetine (Paxil). and liquid form. Children under age ten may take this drug. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. drug used to treat heart problems. All rights reserved. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. All are taken orally.

Brand Names:Lanoxin. insomnia. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. diuretics. disorientation. headache. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. often once a day at bedtime. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. the maximum daily dosage for adults. high fever. vomiting. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. It is taken orally in tablet form.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. bulimia. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Because of these many drug interactions. but it is known to appear in breast milk. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. steroids. liver ailments. drowsiness. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. fatigue. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. blurred vision. antacids. In addition. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. these may . these include seizures. anxiety. another type of antidepressant. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. heart or circulatory disorders. including dry mouth. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). an antidepressantdrug. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. All rights reserved. Amitriptyline. thyroid hormones. breast enlargement. diarrhea. seizures. heart attack. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. migraine headaches. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. impotence.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. or stroke. bronchodilators. Typically used to treat mental depression. dizziness.

This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. Brand Names:Elavil. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. fainting. premenstrual syndrome. antihistamines. muscle cramps. diarrhea. It should not be combined with alcohol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. or even death. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. drug used to treat anxiety. muscular weakness.25 mg to 10 mg. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. and certain phobias. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age.include headache. or engage in other risk-related activities. stuffy nose. loss of appetite. or seizures. All rights reserved. constipation. headache. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. muscle relaxants. or with . An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. usually three times a day. Alprazolam. and large doses of vitamin C. irritable bowel syndrome. seizure medications. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. panic attacks. or sleep disturbances. irritability. barbiturates. nausea. drowsiness. twitching. Endep. nausea. operate dangerous machinery. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. oral contraceptives. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). with or without food. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. In addition. irritability. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. Dosages may range from 0. It has also been used to treat depression. painkillers. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. confusion. diarrhea. sleep medications. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. or depression. tranquilizers. chest pains. coma. as it may harm the baby. decreased sex drive. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. thyroid hormones. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision.

cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. Available in tablet form. antidepressants. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. headache. an irregular heartbeat. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. with or without food. as serious or fatal reactions may result. Less common side effects include anxiety. cimetidine. indigestion. abnormal heartbeat. blurred or double vision. When combined with rest and physical therapy. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. insomnia. disulfiram. and other tranquilizers. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). but it does not interfere with muscle function. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. operate dangerous machinery. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. skin rash. In addition. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. an eye disorder. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. antispasmodic drugs. digoxin. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. usually three times a day. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. . including carbamazepine. high blood-pressure drugs. facial swelling. various antihistamines. Dry mouth is a common side effect. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. or tremors. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. constipation. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. sweating. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor.narrow-angle glaucoma. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. disorientation. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day.

For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. raisins. a chemical that raises blood pressure. and 20-mg regular tablets. salami. For sustained release tablets. sour cream. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. sherry. liver. anxiety. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. and weight loss with long-term use. pickled herring. stomach pain.Methylphenidate. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. nervous tension. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. unpasteurized beer. severe depression. preferably on an empty stomach. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. and vermouth. dried and salted fish. bean curd. loss of appetite. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. canned fish. It comes in 5 -mg. presumably by activating the brain stem. For sustained release tablets. pepperoni. headache. chianti. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. avocado. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. persons with glaucoma. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). taken before breakfast and lunch. nausea. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. a dry mouth. The regular tablet can be crushed. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. soy sauce. or Tourette’s syndrome. meat tenderizers. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. 10-mg. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. bologna. . meat extracts. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. chocolate. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. raspberries. yeast extracts. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span.

It affects the autonomic nervous system. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. All rights reserved. headache. anxiety. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. and tranylcypromine. fatigue. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. coronary artery disease. (An injectable. drowsiness. phenelzine. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. . or slow heartbeat.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. skin rash or itching. impotence. or a slow heartbeat. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. Potential side effects include dizziness. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. allergies. and primidone. angina. desipramine. Less common side effects are diarrhea. Brand Names:Ritalin. pargyline. nausea. Its safety for use in children is not known. and nortriptyline. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. heart blockage. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. including high blood pressure. Atenolol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). hair loss. kidney disease. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. and breathing difficulties. imipramine. with or without food. phenobarbital. and heart attack. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. depression. asthma. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women.

usually taken four times a day. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. drowsiness. anemia. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. headache. Both forms should be taken with meals. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. Side effects that include fever. insulin. mouth ulcers. fainting. . Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. or pain along a sensory nerve. They include muscle or joint pain. All rights reserved. low blood pressure. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. constipation. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). abdominal pain. dizziness. and sweating. usually taken twice a day. or throat. It also relieves neuralgia. itching. liver. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. or engage in other risk-related activities. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. or kidney function. For neuralgia. which requires immediate medical treatment. hallucinations. thereby reducing pain. as severe. or impairment of heart. operate dangerous machinery. hair loss. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. and antacids that contain calcium. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. for migraine headaches.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. other blood pressure medications. tongue. patients taking this drug should not drive. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. blurred vision. or liquid form. in the jaw. making seizures less frequent and less severe. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. breathing problems. and for depression or other emotional disorders. However. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. This process may take three months or more. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. continuous seizures may result. sensitivity to light. sore throat. Children six years and older may take this drug. bruises. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. impotence. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts.

hives. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. However. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. colitis (inflamed colon). abdominal pain. hallucinations. capsule. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. kidney disorders. vomiting. haloperidol. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. and other antiseizure medications. It is known to appear in breast milk. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. vaginitis. all of which are taken orally. confusion. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. skin rash. theophylline. Brand Names:Tegretol. The drug is effective within three to five days. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. fluid retention. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. as well as calcium channel blockers. and bones. reproductive system. and liquid form. used to treat infections of the middle ear. dizziness. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. This drug is available by prescription in table t. It may also interact adversely with lithium. urinary tract. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. joint pain. Less common side effects include indigestion. skin. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. colitis. . Patients with drug allergies. Cephalexin.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the entire course of medication should be taken. doxycycline. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. Brand Names:Keflex. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours).

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. tablet. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. and suppository form. tremors. insomnia. cimetidine. In addition. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. and high fever. kidney or liver diseases. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. captopril. or nervousness. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. or dizziness. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. or barbiturates. narcotics. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. or epinephrine. respiratory infections. and uncontrollable hiccups. rapid heartbeat. glaucoma. breast cancer. vomiting. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). it does appear in breast milk. diuretics. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. antacids. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. emphysema. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. use dangerous machinery. tetanus. constipation. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. nasal congestion. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. hives. change in urine color. light sensitivity. All rights reserved. . suppressed cough reflex. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). blood-thinners. intestinal blockage. a neurotransmitter in the brain. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. headache. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fainting. and violent hyperactivity in children. seizures. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. including anemia. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. impotence. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. anxiety before surgery. or brain tumors. so patients should not drive.Chlorpromazine. liquid. irregular heartbeat. anticonvulsants. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea.

a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. atropine. a history of seizures. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). . Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. and warfarin. impaired liver or kidney function. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. headache. weight gain. drowsiness. sore throat. and can lead to death in some cases. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. an eye disorder. agranulocytosis causes fever. or narrow-angle glaucoma. or engage in other risk-related activities. blood pressure medicatio ns. drug used to treat schizophrenia. dizziness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. low blood pressure. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. nausea. digoxin.Clozapine. an enlarged prostate gland. and antidepressants. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. or nightmares. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Starting dosages usually range from 12. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. as well as cimetidine. constipation. operate dangerous machinery. fever. Patients taking this drug should not drive. and muscle weakness. epinephrine. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. rapid heartbeat. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. emotions. tremors. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. In addition to agranulocytosis. All rights reserved.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. In addition. blurred vision. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. other possible side effects include seizures. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. and behavior.

With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection.Diazepam. skin rash. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. and rifampin. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. fluoxetine. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. confusion. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. constipation. or epilepsy. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. vomiting. Brand Names:Valium. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. dizziness. . muscle spasms. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. Valrelease. sweating. while breast-feeding. lightheadedness. and birth control pills. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. barbiturates. capsule. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. or in children under six months of age.Dizac Hydrocodone. insomnia. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. severe depression. Depending on the patient’s condition. tremors. or coma. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. and liquid form. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or low blood pressure. ranitidine. all are taken orally. mild tranquilizer drug. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. Classified as a benzodiazepine. headache. A mild narcotic. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. slurred speech. nausea. depression. narcotics. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. confusion. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. digoxin. producing a calming effect. and certain types of seizures. or convulsions. fatigue. anticonvulsant drugs. or poor muscle coordination. These include other tranquilizers. operate dangerous machinery. Other side effects include blurred or double vision.

skin rash. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. .A common ingredient in cough medicines.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. All rights reserved. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. constipation. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. impaired kidney or liver function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. urinary retention. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. vomiting.Triaminic Expectorant DH. dry mouth. impaired breathing. nausea. As a liquid cough remedy. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. who have a history of chemical dependency. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. delirium. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. blurred or double vision. depression. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness.

or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. headaches. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. and nausea. cream. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. skin irritation and rash. take any other drugs. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. . patients with active liver disease. Pregnant and nursing women. A cure may require many months of treatment. and liver problems. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. diarrhea. have a history of alcoholism. nausea. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. All rights reserved. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems.Ketoconazole. or shampoo. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. have liver disease or reduced liver function. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache.

itching. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. ointment. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. with bandages. . although its exact mechanism is unknown. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. tingling. in areas of broken skin.Mometasone Furoate. this drug may cause skin damage. or over a long period. or dry skin. or lotion. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. or cortex. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. of the adrenal glands. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. stinging. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. If used over large surface areas. Available by prescription only.

25 mg. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. 50 mg. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. drug used to treat major mental depression. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. and 75 mg. It is also used to treat chronic. Nortriptyline. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. However. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. . The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs.

decreased urination. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. irregular heart rhythm. constipation. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. nausea. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. All rights reserved. and weight gain or loss. fluoxetine. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. barbiturates. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. chest. peculiar tastes in the mouth. memory problems. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. and sleeping medications. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. seizures. carbamazepine. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. urinary tract. nightmares. fluconazole. Available by prescription only. drowsiness. blurred vision. a dry mouth. narcotics. and skin. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. throat. Depending on the severity of infection. insomnia. antihistamines. lightheadedness. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. Brand Names:Aventyl. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. epilepsy. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. cimetidine. or glaucoma. hallucin ations. epinephrine. birth control pills. fa tigue. . confusion. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. tranquilizers.

cholera. or skin problems such as redness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Ciprofloxacin. itching. seizures. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. tuberculosis. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. vomiting. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. colitis. However. nausea. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. bones. headache. . Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Common side effects may include diarrhea. The drug is effective within three to five days. joints. or yeast infection. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. or rash. and it does appear in breast milk. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. infectious diarrhea.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. All rights reserved. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). the entire course of medication should be taken. and skin. vaginitis. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. urinary tract. It is also used to treat serious ear infections.

Patients with severe liver disease. tingling or itchin g. and in a liquid. shortness of breath. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. sensitivity to light. nausea. while rare. or engage in other risk-related activities. operate dangerous machinery. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. which are taken orally w ith or without food. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. Brand Names:Cipro. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. hives. Depending on the severity of infection. or unconsciousness. can be fatal. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. or restlessness. or magnesium.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. breast-feeding women.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. as serious or fatal reactions can result. Pregnant women. skin rash. impaired kidney function. vomiting. headache. . All rights reserved. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. as allergic reactions to this drug. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. aluminum. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. which is used in the form of eyedrops.

insomnia. nausea. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Haloperidol. headache. . or seizures should use this drug with caution. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or coughing. usually a t bedtime. diarrhea. skin rash. fatigue. low blood pressure. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. respiratory irritation or infection. weight loss. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. muscle pain. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes.Fluvastatin. or rifampin. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dizziness. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. Capsules are taken with or without food. gemfibrozil. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. constipation. ranitidine. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. erythromycin. digoxin. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. Patients with liver or kidney problems. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. ketoconazole. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine.

including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. and tongue. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. Patients suffering from depression. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. active liver disease. lips. urinary retention. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. Parkinson disease. blurred vision. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. depression. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. diminished sexual function.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. skin rash. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. jaws. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. use of the drug should be discontinued. . so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. or muscle rigidity. neck. eyelids. tremors. dry mouth. constipation. Other side effects may include nausea. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. and increased heart rate. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. breast cancer. The drug is present in breast milk. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. insomnia. low blood pressure. eye damage.

heart or blood vessel disease. and tongue after the first dose. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. However. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. kidney or liver disease. or systemic lupus erythematosus. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. eyes. lips. Lisinopril. extremities. stroke. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. heart attack. Its safety for children has not been established.

Indomethacin. persons with . the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. day and night. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. Enterobacter. and the dose may be diluted in water. or baby f ormula. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful. This drug is available by prescription only. Brand Names: Prinivil. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. by breast-feeding women. Nitrofurantoin. For prevention of recurrent in fections. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. a nonsteroidal.blood potassium. 50-mg. Staphylococcus aureus. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. anti-inflammatory drug. It is taken orally in 25-mg. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. All rights reserved. milk. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. especially in the third trimester. fruit juice. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk.

For gastric ulcer. adverse effects on the lungs or liver.impaired kidney function. nausea. the usual adult dosage . magnesium trisilicate. vitamin-B deficiency. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. nalidixic acid. probenecid. and sulfinpyrazone. sodium bicarbonate. or any debilitating disease. diarrhea. loss of appetite. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. All rights reserved. or upper part of the small intestine. Macrobid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Omeprazole. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. or vomiting. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. anticholinergic medications. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. oral antacids. diabetes. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Furadantin. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. Stomach irritation is the most common. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. causing heartburn. Occasionally this drug may have serious. or infants less than one month old. electrolyte imbalances.

Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. cyclosporine. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. diazepam. Less common side effects are chest pain. and phenytoin. urinary tract infection. kidney or liver damage. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. heartburn. gas. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. pregnant or breast-feeding women. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. digoxin. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. muscle pain. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. For excessive stomach acid conditions. constipation. skin rash or itching. . diarrhea. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. For adults over the age of 60. or yeast infection of the esophagus. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. nausea and vomiting. warfarin. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. amoxicillin. headache. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. ketoconazole. All rights reserved. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established.

Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. and muscle weakness. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). tremor. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. Brand Name: Paxil . urinary disorders. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. constipation. a history of seizure disorders. preferably in the morning. decreased appetite. and impaired sexual function. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. and tryptophan. nervousness. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. diarrhea. digoxin. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. Within ten days of regular use. anxiety. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. nausea. skin rashes. insomnia. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. warfarin. dry mouth. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally.Paroxetine or Paxil. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug.

usually once or twice a day. itching. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. depending on the severity of infection. vomiting. urinary tract infections. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. vaginal inflammation. All rights reserved. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. and skin infections. or colitis. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. pneumonia. streptococcus infections. capsule. although it is known to appear in breast milk. as it may lead to a secondary infection. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. Brand Name: Duricef . skin rash or redness. all of which are taken orally. Cefadroxil or Duricef. the entire course of medication should be taken. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. allergies. Children may safely take this drug. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. and liquid form. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. coli) bacteria. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. however. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

and yellowing of the eyes and skin. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. pneumonia. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). which are both taken orally. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. skin rash (including diaper rash). Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. headache. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. However. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. abdominal pain. confusion. as it may lead to a secondary infection. as well as skin infections. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Cefprozil or Cefzil.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. and respiratory tract. It is available in tablet and liquid form. hives. insomnia. nervousness. drowsiness. the entire course of medication should be taken. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. All rights reserved. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. genital itching. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. . Less common side effects include diarrhea. ear. taken in one or two doses. vomiting. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including strep throat.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

with one liquid form made for injection. rifampin. Glyburide. Additional symptoms such as hives. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is available in tablet or liquid form. swelling.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. which requires immediate medical attention. also known as glibenclamide. or hydrochlorothiazide. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. headache. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. drop in blood pressure. drugs that treat diabetes. vomiting. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. It may be taken with or without food. abdominal pain. Possible side effects may include nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ulcer medications. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. or skin rash. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. All rights reserved. phenytoin. diarrhea. although some children have used it safely. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known.

some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. . indigestion. Patients with unstable diabetes. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. as well as to watch for side effects. nausea. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. drowsiness. fatigue. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. abdominal cramps. The usual dosage is from 1. headaches. and heartburn. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. a condition of low blood sugar. hives. The drug takes effect within two hours. Most effective on an empty stomach. peptic ulcer disease. Other possible side effects include skin rash. nausea and vomiting. dizziness.25 to 20 mg daily. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. After an initially positive response with the drug. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. hypothyroidism. All rights reserved. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. For this reason. Brand Names: DiaBeta. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. Pregnant women. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. itching.

All rights reserved. and nursing women should avoid using it. prescription drug known as a diuretic. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. salt. After long-term use. drug used to treat anxiety. . insomnia. Lorazepam. imbalances in water. and skin rashes. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. and epilepsy.Hydrochlorothiazide. nausea. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. diabetes. gout. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Capozide. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. low blood pressure. Aprozide. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Some men experience impaired sexual function. Brand Names: Aldoril. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). The drug appears in breast milk. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. antidepressants. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. sleep disturbance. and unsteadiness. therapy begins with 0. sedatives. s kin problems. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. narcotics. depression. the dosage is 0.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. phenytoin. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. headache.Available by prescription only. antihistamines. However. weakness. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. dizziness. oral solution. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. levodopa. change in appetite. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. and as an injectable liquid. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. vision problems. and memory impairment. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. nausea. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. For insomnia. isoniazid. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. agitation. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. cimetidine. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. Brand Name:Ativan .5 to 1 mg at bedtime. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. and rifampin. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. carbamazepine. barbiturates. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period.

For adults and children over the age of 12. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. Mupirocin. and other types of Streptococcus. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. morning and evening.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. tenderness. Streptococcus pyogenes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. pain. reddening or dry skin. stinging. nausea. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. This drug is available by prescription only. or itching at the infection site. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. Less common side effects are rash. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. . For children from 5 to 15 years old. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. fo r 5 days.

gonorrhea. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation).swelling. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. The typical. Ofloxacin. chlamydia. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. Brand Names:Bactroban. and eyedrops. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). skin infections. in an injectable liquid. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. however. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bronchitis. and hives. . polyethylene glycol. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. All rights reserved. One of the ingredients in this ointment. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound.

Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. vomiting. hallucinations. dizziness. drowsiness. Brand Names: Floxin. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. ciprofloxacin. It should be taken on a regular schedule. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. seizures. and insomnia. speech problems. excessive confusion. All rights reserved. redness. theophylline. without missing doses. itching. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. probenecid. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. lightheadedness. tremor. nervousness. or norfloxacin. headache. sucralfate. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. either one hour before or two hours after eating. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. dizziness.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. or impaired vision. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. drug-induced hepatitis. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. and zinc salts. restle ssness. diarrhea. warfarin. or dryness in the eye. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). iron salts. calcium supplements. tearing. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. . epilepsy. nausea.

vomiting. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. dizziness.Pentoxifylline. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. Because the drug appears in breast milk. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. Side effects are rare. and it prevents blood from forming clots. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. low blood pressure. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. a protein that increases blood thickness. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. and. indigestion. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. Because nicotine narrows arteries. skin rash. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Brand Name: Trental . tremor. nausea. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. and may include headache.

It may detract from sexual performance in males. All rights reserved. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. monoamine oxidase (MAO).Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. usually three times a day. dizziness. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. drug used to treat depression. twitching or tremors. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. In general. or insomnia. dry mouth. weight g ain. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. liver disease. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. muscle weakness. nightmares. or convulsions. or phobias. . and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. or epilepsy. anxiety. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. Available by prescription only. with or without food. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. heart disease. headache. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. Phenelzine. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. drowsiness or fatigue. fluid retention.

ear. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. . and liquid form. bronchodilator inhalants. all of which are taken orally. All rights reserved. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. and bananas. even after symptoms disappear.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. including the treatment of respiratory. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. Amoxicillin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. such as gonorrhea. appetite suppressants. and other antidepressants. It is available in tablets. capsules. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. if combined with certain foods or drugs. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. products that contain yeast. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. nasal decongestants. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. and skin infections. sinus and hay-fever medications. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. amphetamines. alcoholic beverages. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. including death. It has many u ses.

itching. dizziness. throat. liver disease. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. insomnia. Brand Names:Amoxil.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. Augmentin Cefixime. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. diabetes. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. genital sores. skin rash. colitis. joint pain. Patients with asthma. swollen lymph nodes. taken in one or two doses. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). anxiety or hyperactivity. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. and urinary tract. hives. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Wymox. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. . This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. diarrhea. nausea. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. which are both taken orally. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. or bruising. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. skin rash. chest. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. also in one or two daily doses. or vomiting. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. the entire course of medication should be taken. confusion. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset.

However. with or without food. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. All rights reserved. high . mild diarrhea. hives. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. headache. as it may lead to a secondary infection. but does not cure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). or vomiting. itching. usually once a day at bedtime. fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). although it is known to appear in breast milk. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Common side effects may include indigestion. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. or seizures. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. severe diarrhea. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Doxazosin Mesylate. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. prolonged use is not recommended. gas. nausea. stomach cramps. shock. skin rash. Tablets are taken orally.

drug used to increase urine production. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. eye pain. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function.blood pressure. lowering blood pressure. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. or engage in other risk-related activities. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. indigestion. especially when the dosage is increased. muscle cramps or weakness. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. mental depression. To treat fluid retention. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. low white -blood-cell count.5 mg per day. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. should not drive. insomnia. coronary artery disease. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. ringing in the ears. and as a result. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. the dosage is 2. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. or depression. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). nausea. which may be increased to 2.25 mg per day. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. nosebleed. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. Other possible side effects include constipation. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. The . subsequently relieving edema. the dosage is 1. operate dangerous machinery.5 mg per day. skin rash.

Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. diarrhea. gout. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. headaches. To avoid nighttime urination.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. visual problems. skin rashes. weakness. urinary tract infection. skin infection. the drug should be taken with breakfast. nausea. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. pneumonia. diabetes. upper respiratory tract infection. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. . itching. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. and drowsiness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance.

People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. Loratadine. and dizziness. nausea and vomiting. loss of appetite. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. Use with probenecid. Less common side effects are colitis. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. insomnia. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. Available by prescription only. headache. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. by persons with impaired kidney function. sleepiness. swelling mucous membranes. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. . It should be used with caution. an antigout drug. a history of colitis. and itching eyes. at a reduced dosage. and skin rashes. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. penicillin allergies. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. abdominal pain. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. nervousness. All rights reserved.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. such as driving. drowsiness. In the late 1940s. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. or tricyclic antidepressants. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. pain medication. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. itraconazole. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. also called methadon. muscle relaxants. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. An analgesic. a class of antidepressants. barbiturates. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. or dizziness. narcotics. headache. and activities requiring mechanical skills. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. . clarithromycin. can increase the side effects of loratadine. tranquilizers. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine.

may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. such as sexually transmitted diseases. jaundice. skin infections. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. . Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal).” Taken in large doses. in digestion. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. Less common are chest pain.Unlike heroin. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. nausea. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. and anaphylaxis. some patients continue to be treated for many years. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. hives. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. and urinary tract infections. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. In typical methadone therapy. which interferes with breathing. light sensitivity. It is typically prescribed for five days. Available in capsule form. or yeast infection. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. bronchitis. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. Certain ailments. drowsiness. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. pneumonia. a severe form of diarrhea. Because methadone itself is addictive. u nless approved by a doctor. diarrhea. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. which kills the bacteria. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). dizziness. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. Azithromycin. or vomiting. headache. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported.

such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. All rights reserved. which influence salt and water retention. digoxin. should use this drug with caution. and lithium. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to control high blood pressure. Benazepril. cyclosporine. and warfarin.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). Patients with certain medical conditions. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. hexobarbital. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). . It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. but must be taken regularly to be effective. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. This usually takes several weeks. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. triazolam. especially those that help the body retain potassium. phenytoin. lovastatin. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. even after symptoms are relieved.

Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. coli) bacteria. urinary infection. usually every eight hours. streptococcus infections. itching. or vomiting. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. excessive thirst. although it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. pneumonia. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. impotence. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. fluid retention. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. urinary tract infections. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. dizziness. nausea. also every eight hours. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. sweating. . but to avoid a recurrence of infection. constipation. fatigue. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Less common are chest pain. or muscle cramps. Children may take this drug. joint pain. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. skin rash. and skin infections. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . It also is known to appear in breast milk.especially in the second and third trimesters. which are both taken orally. irregular heartbeat. Possible side effects include coughing. the entire course of medication should be taken. headache.

tablets. and itching. nausea. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. diarrhea medications. certain diuretics. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. or blood disorders. liver disorders. although one form of liquid is made for injection. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. and syphilis. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. headache. light sensitivity. traveler’s diarrhea. vaginal inflammation. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. hives. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). thereby halting their growth. itching. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug.Common side effects include diarrhea. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. vomiting. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. taken in one or two doses. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. Possible side effects include diarrhea. vomiting. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. skin rash. joint pain. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. skin rash. and liquid forms. . which are taken orally.

Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. All rights reserved. usually with food to avoid stomach upset. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. Prednisone is available only by prescription. birth control pills. sodium bicarbonate. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Vibramycin. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. tuberculosis. multiple sclerosis. Brand Names:Doryx. Vibra-Tabs. phenytoin. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. certain cancers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. especially with long-term use. and carbamazepine. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. blood-thinners. asthma. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. difficulty swallowing. . skin diseases. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. barbiturates. Prednisone.facial swelling. Children may develop discolored teeth. or bulging forehead (in infants). penicillin. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). It is usually discontinued gradually. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. and severe allergic reactions. chest pain.

Brand Names: Deltasone. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. birth control pills. high blood pressure. Possible side effects may include insomnia. Buspirone. mood swings. rifampin. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. depression. phenytoin. gastrointestinal disorders . estrogen supplements. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. weight gain. and purplish. skin rash. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. amphotericin B. thick skin. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. All rights reserved. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). or a history of tuberculosis. high blood pressure. ketoconazole. acne.Patients with widespread fungus infections. or fluid retention. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle cramps. diabetes medications. diabetes. brittle bones. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. headache. muscle weakness. osteoporosis. peptic ulcer disease. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. active tuberculosis. carbamazepine. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. Liquid Pred. dizziness. and certain diuretics. impaired thyroid function. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Prednicen-M. . Children may take this drug.

or decongestants. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. rapid heartbeat. cough suppressants. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. operate dangerous machinery. fatigue. or vomiting. with or without food. Unlike many tranquilizers. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. warfarin. or engage in other risk-related activities. depending on the patient’s condition. nausea. usually found in combination with antihistamines. and fluoxetine. upset stomach. capsule. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. and tablet form. usually three times p er day. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. narcotics. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. bone or muscle pain. headache. Possible side effects include dizziness. skin rash. . Also possible are blurred vision. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup.Tablets are taken orally. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. sweating. or nervousness. diarrhea. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. constipation. haloperidol. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. trazodone. dry mouth.

Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. vomiting. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. and diarrhea. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. nausea. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. preventing pregnancy 99. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. Brand Names: Cheracol D. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. Triaminic Expectorant. stomach pain. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. Prior to 1992 the drug . and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. Comtrex Cold Formula. Dimacol Caplets. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. This drug is highly effective. In the United States. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina).7 percent of the time. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. However. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems.

Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). Also. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. Taken every four hours. Blood transfusions are often necessary. . side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. However. sometimes for a year or more. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. and abdominal pain. Other possible side effects include weight gain. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. headaches. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. night and day. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. In many cases. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. mood changes.

A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). such as secobarbital. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. Phenobarbital. and respiratory tract. a combination of urea and malonic acid. coma. urinary tract. or death. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. anticonvulsant. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. Ampicillin. muscle incoordination. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. . depression. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. or anesthetic effect. a long-acting barbiturate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. gastrointestinal tract. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). Depending on the dosage or formulation. An antibiotic like penicillin. Taken orally or intravenously. overdoses can cause profound shock. Barbiturate. and sedation. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. boisterous or violent behavior.

Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. . genus Trypanosoma. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. skin rash. In South America. cruzi. T. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. The most common is caused by T. whereas a more local version is caused by T. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. another version of the protozoan. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. endemic. allopurinol. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. vomiting. and probenecid. brucei rhodesiense. or anemia.to ten-day course. mefloquine. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. Possible side effects may include nausea. diarrhea.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. mouth irritation. hives. usually a seven. In cattle and other animals. oral contraceptives. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. the disease is called nagana. also sleeping sickness. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. atenolol. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. fever. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. but an entire course of medication. colitis (inflamed bowel). Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. and sometimes epidemic. Another liquid form is administered by injection. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. brucei gambiense. Children may take ampicillin.

and rash and fever. In early stages. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). it has no effects on acute gout attacks. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. Chagas' disease. which more frequently attacks children. It is also sometimes fatal. an accelerated heartbeat. All rights reserved. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. Allopurinol. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. In the long term. death. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. sleepiness. and. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. lack of appetite. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. eventual coma. frequently. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. an enlargement of the spleen. with accompanying mood changes. .

Ephedrine. bile acids. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. It is sometimes misused. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Steroids. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or fat-soluble chemicals. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. is a sterol. Cholesterol. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. more specific drugs. rheumatoid arthritis. Steroid hormones. many important hormones. and various eye diseases. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. aldosterone. Testosterone). Hormone). Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. cortisone. . which are similar to but not identical with sterols. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. dry mouth. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. All rights reserved. Endocrine System). and progesterone. tremor. and anxiety. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. it has been superseded by safer. with a great diversity of physiological activity. C10H15NO. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). some natural drugs. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. asthma and allergies. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids.

Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. it is still used for this condition. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. and cholera. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. amikacin. leprosy. the aminoglycosides. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. are susceptible to streptomycin. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. such as tuberculosis. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. Streptomyces griseus. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. See also Sports Medicine. and kanamycin. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. tobramycin. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. . These include gentamicin. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria.

Acetaminophen. type of drug known as an antidepressant. available by prescription only. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. After the medication begins to take effect. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. prescribed for the treatment of depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. as aspirin tends to do for some users. and for the reduction of fever. Fluoxetine. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). Fluoxetine. is taken orally in tablet form. All rights reserved. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. the dose may be lowered. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. and premenstrual syndrome. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. . obsessive -compulsive disorder.

Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. C3H6O. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. weight loss. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. or for those with kidney or liver disease. the formula of which is given above. diabetes. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. sweet-tasting a lcohol. dizziness. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound.4° F). changes in appetite. nausea. . Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. with a specific gravity of 1.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors.S. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. colorless. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. headaches. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine.26. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. C3H8O3. sometimes fatal results. and diarrhea. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. odorless. C3H6. or a history of seizures. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. insomnia. or propylene. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol.

Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). Because cheaper products are now available. as a plasticizer in cellophane. sulfur. they incite cancerous gro wths. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. anthracene. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. that is. Distillation produces benzene. including toothpastes. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. Its composition varies with the coal. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. phenanthrene. toluene. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. which are acidic. Coal Tar. together with alcohols. The phenols. Left after distillation are residues of . xylene. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. and the equipment used. and water. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. from which they are released later by acidification. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. naphthalene. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. can be extracted by alkali solutions. mostly hydrocarbons. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. and oxygen. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. and other valuable products. phenols. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F).

stains. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. cause iron deficiency. in roofing mixtures. Aspirin. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. . it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . drugs. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. however. insecticides. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. and plastics. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. however. acetylsalicylic acid. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. and irritates the stomach. synthetic chemical compound. artificial sweeteners. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. explosives. among others. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. Since then. to counter fever and pain. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. It is made from salicylic acid. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. and resins. including dyes. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. Salicylic acid is bitter. paint removers. mild to moderate pain. found in the bark of the willow tree.pitch. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. however. used in making roads. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. creosote oil. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. preservatives. paints. food flavorings. perfumes.

Brand Names: Advil. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. In prescription form. diarrhea. liver disease. When taken in excessive amounts. Nuprin . For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. and may be taken with food. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. suppressing the formation of blood clots. In adults. drug used to reduce inflammation. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. or rapid heartbeat. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. or fever. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. which usually involves vomiting. fever. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Motrin. inflammation. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary.Ibuprofen. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. and the sensation of pain. or high blood pressure. rapid breathing.

collagen diseases. called cortisone. Because of their widespread effects. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. and fat. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. of the adrenal gland. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. hydrocortisone and related compounds. protein. and diabetes. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. called corticosteroids. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. or cortex. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. they must be used carefully. are employed for many medical purposes. muscle weakness. . the maturation of white blood cells. weight gain. in 1935. and the regulation of blood pressure. Medical). was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. the retention of salt and water in the body. the activity of the nervous system. high blood pressure. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. also cortisol.Hydrocortisone. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. or corticoids. and eye inflammations. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations.

More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. water balance. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. heart rate. night. .Melatonin. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. for instance. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. jet lag. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. or shift work. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. such as sleep-wake cycles. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. However. and hormone balance. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. fluctuations in body temperature. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer.

and hypertension. constricts the small blood vessels. but it is now made synthetically. . It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. to prevent bleeding. however. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Parkinson disease. All rights reserved. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. arthritis. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. Although it is easily available over the counter. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. epinephrine stimulates the heart. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. In times of excitement or emotional stress. large additional quantities are secreted. The pure compound. liberates sugar stored in the liver. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. epilepsy. Epinephrine. Alzheimer’s disease. raises the blood pressure. For example. is also known as adrenaline. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others.

or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. severe heartburn. urinary tract blockage. irregular heartbeat. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. diarrhea. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. Because of this. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. tablet. drowsiness. In general. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. and is taken orally four times a day. with or without meals. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. These include but are not limited to antacids. insomnia.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). and liquid form. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. nasal congestion. hyperthyroidism. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. muscular weakness. called norepinephrine. heart disease. high blood pressure. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. glaucoma. dry mouth. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. impotence. antihistamines. enlarged prostate gland. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. digoxin. corticoids. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. fainting. dizziness. This drug can also decrease sweating. or myasthenia gravis. noradrenaline. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). or levoarterenol. They may include blurred vision. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. An antispasmodic drug. It is available in capsule. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. headache. tingling. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. severe colitis. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. or nervousness. lightheadedness. or short-term memory loss. or constipation. nausea. certain antidepressants (especially MAO .

nausea. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. Nizatidine Nizatidine. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. fever. and bronchodilators. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. dizziness. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. itching. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. narcotic pain relievers. increased heart rate. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. and weakness. More serious effects include confusion. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. diarrhea. . It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. antipsychotic drugs. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). excessive fatigue. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. decreased sexual ability. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. fatigue. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. stomach upset. All rights reserved. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. unusual bleeding or bruising. and sweating. headache.

The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. highdose aspirin. For treatment of angina. This drug is available by p rescription only. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. or persons with low blood pressure. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. pentoxiylline. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin.Alcoholic beverages. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. and theophylline. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. garlic. pregnant or breast-feeding women. 60-mg. reduced liver or kidney function. doses may be taken with food. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. citrus fruit. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. however. if stomach irritation is a problem. protein-rich foods. The safety and effectiveness of . and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. All rights reserved. Nifedipine Nifedipine. onions. not crushed. and 90-mg extended release tablets. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60.. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. Brand Names:Adalat. swelling of the feet and ankles. Neomycin Neomycin. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. nifedipine may increase angina. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. magnesium. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. headache. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. digitalis. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . For eye infections. These combinations. nausea. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. and ranitidine. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. and weakness. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. phenytoin. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. eye. low blood pressure. For skin conditions. digoxin. oral hypoglycemic drugs. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. along with hydrocortisone. diltiazem. and certain drugs including amiodarone. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. cimetidine. insulin. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. theophylline. Rarely. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. flushing. grapefruit juice. cyclosporine. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. and otic (ear) drops. cigarette smoking. lightheadedness. and ear infections.

Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. taken orally. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. Brand Names:Corticosporin. To minimize adverse side effects. Nabumetone Nabumetone. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. kidney or ear damage may occur. liver disease. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. This drug is available b y prescription only.or the ear. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. smallpox. and chicken pox infections. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. taken once a day or in divided doses. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. All rights reserved. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. or severe impairment of kidney function. bleeding or blood cell disorders. or dryness. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. itching. The typical. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. without missing doses. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. irritation. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Rarely.

making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. These include bloating. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. This drug is available by prescription only. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. heartburn. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. known or . drowsiness. dizziness. impairment of normal blood clotting. constipation. strokes. beta blockers. lightheadedness. nausea. asthma or difficulty breathing. If tablets are missed. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. or eyes. dizziness. respectively. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. sweating. loss of appetite. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. nervousness. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. indigestion. difficulty sleeping. lungs. or vomiting. blood clots in the legs. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. thickens the mucus of the cervix.nabumetone has been determined. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. soreness of the mouth. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. and liver or kidney damage. blurred vision. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. diuretics. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. headache. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. and probenecid. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. or angina pectoris (chest pain). aspirin. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. diarrhea. other salicylates.

prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. fluid retention. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. loss of scalp hair. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or known or suspected pregnancy. liver tumors. All rights reserved. vomiting. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. cervix. breast tenderness. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. weight gain. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. depression. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. blotchy spots on exposed skin. smoke. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. difficulty wearing contact lenses. bleeding between menstrual periods. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . nervousness. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. rash. and certain antibiotics. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. phenylbutazone. headache. dizziness. unexplained vaginal bleeding. or vagina. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. or high cholesterol. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. or have high blood pressure. and vaginal infections. and brown. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. Because of the risk of blood clots. diabetes. In lowering blood cholesterol. These include rifampin.

This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. or other abdominal problems. kidney disease. congestive heart failure. gallbladder disease. indigestion. irregular heartbeat. nausea. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. lupus erythematosus. skin rash. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. or various blood-thinning drugs. confusion. or sleepiness. gout. diarrhea. impotence. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Children may take this drug. blurred vision. Available in tablet and liquid form. or blurred vision. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. barbiturates. thyroid problems. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). exercise. fainting. . ringing in the ears. excessive thirst. skin rash. and liver disease. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). and other muscle -relaxing drugs. It reduces water and salt in the body. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. with dosage based on body weight. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. diabetes. Patients with diabetes. fever. liver disorders. dizziness. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. hives. Patients with liver or kidney disease. impotence. nausea. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. dizziness. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. headache. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. lovastatin. vomiting. lightsensitivity. and lose weight as part of their treatment. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Possible side effects may include constipation. itching. narcotics. muscle or joint pain. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. but it does appear in breast milk. Possible side effects include constipation. diarrhea. h eadache.weeks of treatment. also known as a diuretic.

skin rash or itching. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. pancrelipase. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Famotidine Famotidine. or probenecid. hair loss. All rights reserved. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. It is available in tablet and liquid form. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. among other effects. and also in a liquid form that is injected. rapid or slow heartbeat. anxiety. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. impotence. dizziness. joint or muscle pain. . ketoconazole. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. seizures. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. stomach acid decreases. When histamine action is blocked. or cardiac arrest. drowsiness. Overdosage can cause confusion. All rights reserved. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. or sleepiness. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. pentoxifylline. Less common are diarrhea. both taken orally.

It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Also sometimes seen are constipation. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. carbamazepine. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. hair loss. light sensitivity. headache. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. and ranitidine. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ringing in the ears. thereby reducing blood pressure. nausea. Brand Names:Cardizem. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. digoxin. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. Diclofenac Sodium . fluid retention. sleeplessness. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. dry mouth. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. cimetidine. or opening.Diltiazem Diltiazem. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. The drug works by dilating. muscular weakness. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. Available in tablet and capsule form. aspirin. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. blood vessels and slowing the heart. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. diarrhea. All rights reserved. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. or abnormally slow heartbeat. skin rash. or vision changes. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor.

Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). ulcers. but it is known to appear in breast milk. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. and carteolol. lithium. diarrhea. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. All rights reserved. light sensitivity. nausea. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. ringing in the ears. Classified as an antiasthmatic. blood-thinning medications. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. cyclosporine. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. headache. blurred or double vision. heart medications containing digitalis. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. facial swelling. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. in somnia. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. constipation. indigestion. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. or vomiting. or dizziness. diuretics. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. hair loss. drowsiness. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. heart disease. lung inflammation. skin rash. if stomach upset occurs. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with food. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor.Diclofenac Sodium. or loss of consciousness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. methotrexate. the two branch es that connect the .

The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. All rights reserved. . which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. although most are taken four to six times per day. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. tablets are taken orally.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. throat irritation. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. Available by prescription only. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. although the complete. difficulty swallowing. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. skin rash. Possible side effects include coughing. sneezing. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Intal. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. dizziness. usually in 250. or powder. nasal congestion. including capsules (taken orally). Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. They may be taken w ith or without food. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or wheezing. joint pain. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. Nasalcrom. frequent urination. or swollen glands. nausea. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. It comes in several forms. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). headache. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. and bronchitis. nosebleed.

It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. indigestion. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. requires immediate medical attention. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. operating dangerous machinery. diarrhea. digoxin. sedative b arbiturate drug. but may include nausea. . or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. Dependency on this drug can occur. Patients with porphyria. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. or other risk-related activities. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. caffeine. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. acetaminophen. or an altered sense of taste.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. usually one or two tablets every four hours. especially with long-term use. theophylline. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. headache. should not take this drug. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. Severe diarrhea. and phenytoin. astemizole. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow.

Potential side effects include drowsiness. steroids. anxiety. fluid retention or swelling. migraine. light-headedness. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. dizziness. fainting. All rights reserved. and heart palpitations. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.or 10-mg doses. flushing. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. Fiorinal. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. constipation. Brand Names:Norvasc. including dizziness. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. All rights reserved. These include antidepressants. low blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. patients with low blood pressure. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. headache. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. diarrhea. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Phrenilin. itching. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. sleepiness. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. breathing difficulties. antihistamines. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. twitching. or coma. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. warfarin. back or chest pain. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. usually in 5. nausea. However. Amlodipine Amlodipine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. fatigue. liver disease. or vomiting. and theophylline. The drug may be taken with or without food. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. Brand Names:Fioricet. such as beta blockers. oral contraceptives. and vomiting. . shock. thereby reducing blood pressure.

or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. rapid heartbeat. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. cardiovascular problems.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. indigestion. nausea.Albuterol Albuterol. muscle cramps. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. in fact. ringing in the ears. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Proventil. restoring comfortable breathing. tablet. dizziness. syrup. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. can make symptoms worse. tooth discoloration. sleeplessness. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. an irregular heartbeat. People with high blood pressure. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. It is available in aerosol. Ventolin. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. and vomiting. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. headache. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. diarrhea. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. . an overactive thyroid gland. nosebleeds. liver disease. Some of the more common ones include agitation. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. increased blood pressure. and capsule form. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. usually within 15 minutes. all of which are taken orally.

anticoagulants. effect. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. caffeine. operating dangerous machinery. kidney or liver problems. or influenza. Possible side effects include nausea. Pravastatin Pravastatin . for pain relief. constipation. pregnant women. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. or pain -killing. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . so patients should avoid driving. blood-clotting problems. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). vomiting. or engaging in other risk-related activities. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. antihistamines. or jaundice. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. especially after long-term use at high dosages. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. asthma. chickenpox.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Darvon. or other narcotic pain relievers. or nursing women. All rights reserved. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. as needed. muscle relaxants. muscle weakness. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. weight loss. ulcers. skin rash. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. headache. mood changes. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. sleep aids. antidepressants.

and suppository form. It may be taken with or without food. Pregnant or nursing women. itchiness. Patients with disorders affecting breathing.cholesterol. peptic ulcers. Promethazine Promethazine. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. injectable liquid. liver conditions. Available only by prescription. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. syrup. heart disease. warfarin. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. usually within 20 minutes. niacin. ketoconazole. muscular disorders. cyclosporine. should not take promethazine. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. cataracts. high blood pressure. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. constipation. skin rash. cimetidine. fight insomnia. gemfibrozil. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. drug used mainly to treat allergies. including asthma and sleep apnea. colestipol. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. prostate . Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. Typically. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. Children may take this drug. Promethazine works quickly. and immunosuppressive drugs. gas. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. or children under the age of 18. Patients with liver or kidney disease. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. or flulike symptoms. erythromycin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with dosages based on body weight. muscle cramps. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. All rights reserved. nausea. headache. stomach pain. usually at bedtime. Available by prescription in tablet. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. should not take pravastatin. diarrhea. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue.

Dependingon the site of the infection. or abnormal heart rhythm. operate dangerous machin ery. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. and diphtheria. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. whooping cough. However. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. gonorrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Erythromycin Erythromycin. blurred vision. or light sensitivity. and various liquids. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. or engage in other risk-related activities. or loss of consciousness. impaired kidney function. Other possible side effects include dizziness. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. All rights reserved. breathing difficulties. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. tranquilizers. tablets. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. urinary tract infections. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. vomiting. disorientation. sedatives. gel. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. preventing their multiplication and growth. nausea. with dosages determined by body weight. or narrow-angle glaucoma. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. ear and skin infections. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. Children may take most forms of this drug. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. jaundice. Brand Names: Phenergan. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. syphilis. and antidepressant drugs. however. rheumatic fever. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). blood pressure changes.enlargement. ointment. . antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. skin rash.

croup. vomiting. and theophylline. lovastatin. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. This drug is available by prescription only. bone cysts in children. lupus erythematous. It comes in a tablet.Erymax. For acute disorders. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. Also seen are skin rash. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. or diarrhea. an ointment. and an enema. and psoriasis. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). itching. All rights reserved.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. It is also used to treat anemia.Erygel. digoxin.Theramycin Z. redness. tendinitis. eye irritation. it is usually taken for four to . the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. rapid heartbeat. Emgel. nausea.Ilosone. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. or temporary hearing loss. hives. It reduces swelling. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. yellowing of the eyes or skin. carbamazepine. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. multiple sclerosis. loss of appetite. For tablets.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ulcerative colitis. eczema. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. an injectable liquid.Benzamycin. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. and most forms of arthritis. phenytoin. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. and to treat asthma. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. dizziness. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names: Erythrocin. blood-thinners. preferably right after a bowel movement. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

retention of salt and water. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. carbamazepine. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. possible diabetes. ketoprofen. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). insulin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. rabies. glaucoma. indomethacin. and naproxen. ephedrine. aspirin. increased blood sugar. cataracts. peptic ulcer. and increased susceptibility to infection. Medrol. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. drugs containing estrogen. hypertension (high blood pressure). barbiturates . Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. and certain vaccines. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. peptic ulcer disease. digoxin. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. Naproxen .ten days. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). reactivation of latent tuberculosis. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. smallpox. phenytoin. All rights reserved. cyclosporine. oral antidiabetic drugs. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. antacids. weight gain. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. retarded growth and development in children. For chronic disorders. ketoconazole. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). Brand Names:Duralone.

These include bloating. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. orthopedic surgery. dental treatment. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. nervousness. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. loss of appetite. lightheadedness. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. If stomach irritation occurs. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. drowsiness. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. osteoarthritis. it may be taken with food or antacids. indigestion. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. menstrual cramps. For gout. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. 375 mg. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. headache. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. or vomiting. and 500 mg. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine).Naproxen. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. constipation. or severe impairment of kidney function. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. nausea. . bursitis. difficulty breathing. heartburn. and for strains and sprains. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. and as a liquid. osteoarthritis. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. liver disease. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. tendinitis. and other pain. For bursitis. Pain relief should begin within one hour. sweating. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. and gout. pregnant or breast-feeding women. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. dizziness. If possible. difficulty sleeping. changes in menstruation. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. without missing doses. and liver or kidney damage. diarrhea. tendinitis. To minimize adverse side effects. soreness of the mouth. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation.

an abnormally slow heart rate. aspirin. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. persons with congestive heart failure. methotrexate. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. For prevention of heart attacks. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. For treatment after a heart attack. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). salicylates. in prolonged action tablets. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. metoprolol. beta blockers such as acebutolol. lithium. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. The regular tablet can be crushed. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. pregnant or breast-feeding women. atenolol. Metoprolol Metoprolol. the typical. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. 100-mg. Brand Names:Aleve. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. For treatment of hypertension or angina. This drug is available by prescription only.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. and timolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. and probenecid. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. All rights reserved. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. It may have a negative effect on . It comes in 50-mg. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. more commonly known as beta blockers. and 200-mg tablets. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established.

slow heart rate. . Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. digoxin. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . cimetidine. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. oral antidiabetic drugs. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. chlorpromazine. fluoxetine. cold h ands and feet. hydralazine. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. fatigue. Brand Names:Lopressor. gout. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. amiodarone. osteoarthritis. All rights reserved. albuterol. insulin. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. epinephrine. furosemide. oral hypoglycemic drugs.driving or other risk-related activities. theophyllinevenlafaxine. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. aminophylline. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. and tendinitis. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. tranquilizers. diltiazem. nifedipine. reserpine. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. and decreased sexual desire. calcium channel blockers. which may trigger pain and inflammation. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. and verapamil. lightheadedness. aspirin. clonidine.

ringing in the ears. sleep disturbances. and bleeding. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. hives. mouth sores. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. should not take this drug. itching. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. diarrhea. indomethacin. and vomiting. methotrexate. Etodolac is available only by prescription. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. All rights reserved. nausea. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. indigestion. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . and warfarin. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. depression. Etodolac Etodolac. constipation. skin rash. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. To avoid adverse side effects. such as aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lithium. enoxaparin. dizziness. ulceration. relieving swelling and stiffness. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. with meals. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. headache. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. or with a prescribed antacid. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. or a severe impairment of kidney function. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. aspirin. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. anticoagulants. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. b eta blockers. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. valproic acid. sulfinpyrazone. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain.

indigestion. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and nausea. indigestion. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. tendinitis. . or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. nausea. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. diarrhea. anemia. skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fever. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. and it may appear in breast milk. blood-thinning medications. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. Patients with kidney or liver problems. constipation. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. ringing in the ears. insomnia. peptic ulcer. with increased blood flow during menstruation. heart disease. but it can be taken with food. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. dizziness. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. or muscle weakness. diuretics. skin rash. and digoxin. tablet. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. rapid heartbeat. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. Possible side effects include drowsiness.stomach upset. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. All rights reserved.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. fainting. sweating. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. depression. and menstrual cramps. fever. bursitis. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. milk. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. headache. and suppository form. drug used to reduce the inflammation. fluid retention. or yellowing of the skin or eyes.

aspirin.15 to 0. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. one 1 . As a result. If necessary. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. and diuretics. insulin. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and chest pain is alleviated. verapamil. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. and patients with ulcers. steroids. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. or one metered dose of 0. phenytoin. For long-term prevention of angina. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. nifedipine. Breast-feeding women. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek .6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. impaired kidney function. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). All rights reserved. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). workload on the heart is reduced. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. For prevention of angina. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. patients with allergies to the drug. applied on or under the tongue. bleeding disorders.4 mg from a spray container. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. lithium. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack.

or a 0. Warfarin . sudden drop in blood pressure . The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. rapid heart rate. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. and coughs. aspirin. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. To maintain its effectiveness. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. diltiazem. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. All rights reserved. Nitrocine Transdermal. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. hyperthyroidism. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin.5 -inch (7. recent head trauma. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Nitrocap TD. rather. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. headache. antihypertensive drugs. acetylcysteine. and heart palpitations. colds. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. heparin.

It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. headache. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form.Warfarin. and bacon. a heart-related infection. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. any infectious disease. asparagus. a blood disorder. beef liver. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. cauliflower. diabetes. For this reason. an aneurysm. discolored (purplish) toes. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other side effects may include diarrhea. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. ulcerative colitis. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. Patients with peptic ulcers. or swelling. After the first two to three days. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. cut. hair loss. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. chest pain. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). puncture. Motrin). Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. or intestinal problems. s kin inflammation. All rights reserved. Verapamil Verapamil. difficulty breathing. some forms of irregular heartbeat. or recent surgery should not use this drug. fever. and ibuprofen (Advil. Verapamil works by . warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. impaired liver or kidney function. acetaminophen (Tylenol). or patients with high blood pressure. Classified as an anticoagulant. severe allergies. and hypertension (high blood pressure). difficulty swallowing. joint pain. fish. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. or gangrene. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment.

Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. Terazosin Terazosin . and in me n. an injectable solution is also available. abnormally low blood pressure. Brand Names:Calan. phenobarbital. aspirin. Isoptin. fluid retention. headache. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. congestive heart failure. sleepiness. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. cyclosporine. ringing in the ears. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. nausea. lithium. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. constipation. and various diuretics. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. All rights reserved. light sensitivity. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. fatigue. or congestive heart failure. and it does appear in breast milk. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. rifampin. phenytoin. cimetidine. carbamazepine. prostate gland enlargement. Available in tablet and capsule form. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. digoxin. hair loss. with meals and at bedtime with food. taken in three or four doses. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. dry mouth. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). or s low heartbeat. impotence. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. theophylline. thereby lowering blood pressure.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina.

taken in one or two doses. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. nausea. At these times. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. which influence salt and water retention. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Ramipril Ramipril. operating dangerous machinery. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. or a history of stroke. it should be taken regularly. All rights reserved. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. patients should avoid driving. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. sweating. Available by prescription in capsule form. heart palpitations. stuffy nose. drug used to control high blood pressure. and urinary tract infections. coronary artery disease. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. numbness. fluid retention. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. painful urination. estrogens. especially beta blockers. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. and lower blood pressure.5 to 20 mg per day. fainting. difficulty breathing. even when symptoms are relieved. to dilate arteries. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. Dosages range from 2. reduce blood volume. fatigue. . dizziness. muscle weakness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or blurred vision.problems of urine flow. headache. or engaging in other risk-related activities. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg.

scleroderma. as it can harm the fetus. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. capsule. nausea. coughing. muscle pain. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. . It is also known to appear in breast milk. fatigue. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. and potassium supplements. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. drug used to treat the seizures. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. vomiting. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. or violent muscle contractions. and liquid form. lightheadedness. Taken orally. Side effects may include headache. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. heart disease. or low white blood cell levels. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. high potassium levels. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. or light sensitivity. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. An allergic reaction to this drug. except for one liquid form made for injection. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. systemic lupus erythematosus. it can react adversely with such drugs. cyclosporine. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. impaired liver or kidney function. it must be taken regularly to be effective.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. lithium. caused by epilepsy. especially in the second and third trimesters. It also may react with aspirin. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. requires immediate medical attention. To avoid stomach irritation.

dizziness. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. theophylline. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). oral contraceptive s. and antacids. or change in urine color. certain tranquilizers. steroids. skin rash. joint pain. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. diabetes. insomnia. and as eyedrops. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. estrogens. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. furosemide. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. Ketorolac Ketorolac. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . or slurred speech. Other observed side effects include nausea. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. abnormal hair growth. bedwetting. carbamazepine. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. twitching. mental confusion. four to six hours apart. aspirin. ulcer medications. blood thinners. diazepam. The injection is given within a muscle.Patients with impaired liver function. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. and valproic acid. Also included are the drugs felbamate. but are not limited to. methylphenidate. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. fever. sodium valproate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. These include. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). acute pain. doxycycline. All rights reserved. involuntary eye movement. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. impotence. phenobarbital. The initial. headache.

The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. and perforation. heart disease. . Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. diabetes mellitus. colitis. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. cefoperazone. Glipizide Glipizide. indigestion. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. as well as with lithium. diarrhea. drowsiness. Abdominal or stomach pain. heparin. increased sweating. edema. cefamandole. renal failure. methotrexate. naproxen. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and gastrointestinal bleeding. allergic reactions. vomiting. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. burning or pain at the injection site. probenecid. acetaminophen. Brand Names:Acular. kidney or liver disease. lupus erythematosus. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. All rights reserved. decrease in urine output. nabumetone. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. ketoprofen. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses.more than five days. headache. moxalactam. bruising at the site of injection.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. ulceration. and oxaprozin. Less common side effects are eye irritation. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. cefotetan. superficial eye infections. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. asthma. plicamycin. edema. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. or high blood pressure. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. dizziness. constipation. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections.

With long-term use (months to years). stomach pain. impaired kidney or liver function. These include. but depending on the patient’s response. Tablets are taken orally. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care.5 to 40 mg per day. corticoids. Potential side effects may include headache. . Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. but are not limited to.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. or seizures. disorientation. shallow breathing. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. with or without food. estrogens. sulfa drugs. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. anemia. Enalapril Enalapril. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. drowsiness. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. light sensitivity. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). antacids. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). in one or two doses. in dosages ranging from 2. dizziness. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Patients with heart disorders. birth control pills. The starting dose is 5 mg. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. tranquilizers. which control salt and water retention. aspirin. sweating. nausea. thyroid medications. skin rash. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. All rights reserved. rapid heartbeat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood.

including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. impotence. both taken orally. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. hair loss. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). It is also known to appear in breast milk. hives. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. nausea. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. All rights reserved. excessive sweating. muscle cramps or weakness. It is used to treat reflux disease. abdominal pain. Cimetidine Cimetidine. secretion of stomach acid decreases. acne. and in a liquid form that is injected. it may react adversely with such drugs. It also may cause chest pain. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. dry mouth or eyes. Depending on the condition being treated. sensitivity to light. loss of appetite. or abnormally low blood pressure. especially in the second and third trimesters. Brand Names:Vasotec. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. When histamine action is blocked. herpes infections (including shingles). typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. skin rash or itching. dizziness. rapid heartbeat. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. breast enlargement (in males). and an overactive parathyroid gland. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. excessive hair growth in women. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. depression.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. It has not been proven safe for use in children. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. blurred vision. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. usually taken immediately .

quinine. and sleepiness. heart palpitations. drug used to treat seizures. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. cigarette smoking. such as those associated with epilepsy. hair loss. Less common side effects are diarrhea. Relief of symptoms may take several days. paroxetine. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. also known as valproic acid. dizziness. and aspirin. anemia.2 lb). Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. and warfarin. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. phenytoin. skin rash or inflammation. Available in tablet form. Divalproex Divalproex. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. joint or muscle pain. and excessive caffeine. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. All rights reserved. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. cyclosporine. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). With prolonged use (one month or more). some patients experience anxiety. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. depression. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. which is increased as needed (to a . narcotic pain relievers. theophylline. including medications for diabetes. digoxin. metoclopramide. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. rapid or slow heartbeat. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. metronidazole. or hallucinations. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. sucralfate. pentoxifylline. impotence.after a meal. confusion. nicotine.

It also may interact with erythromycin. operate dangerous machinery. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. constipation. Possible side effects include indigestion. tranquilizers. fever. which is divided into several smaller doses. blood thinners. loss of appetite. surgery. isoniazid. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. This drug slows blood clotting. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. Some patients experience drowsiness and. yellowing skin or eyes. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. vomiting. Captopril Captopril. which influence salt and water rete ntion. Patients are often started on a .) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. drowsiness. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . nausea. antihistamines. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. especially when used in children under the age of two. and birth control pills. behavior changes. or engage in other risk-related activities. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. heart attacks. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. All rights reserved. as continuous seizures may result. and vomiting. as a result . Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. facial swelling. muscle weakness. skin rash. or weight gain. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. or dental procedures. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. and other seizure medications. should not drive. and loss of seizure control. sleep aids. double vision. fluid retention. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. itching. tremors. This drug can cause liver damage. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg.

diarrhea. as it can harm the fetus. Possible side effects include itching. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. muscle pain or weakness. legs. All rights reserved. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sweating. Brand Names:Capoten. loss of taste.small dosage. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. which also requires immediate medical care. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. peptic ulcer. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). or heart failure. anti-inflammatory medications. nausea. confusion. it can react adversely with these drugs. sleepiness. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. A reaction that includes chest pain. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. even after symptoms are relieved. which is increased as needed. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). lightheadedness. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). fatigue. skin rash. which usually takes several weeks. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. vomiting. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. wheezing stroke. Less common side effects include blurred vision. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. lithium. light sensitivity. and extremely low blood pressure. It also may react adversely with aspirin. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Lovastatin Lovastatin . or swelling of the arms. depression. nitroglycerin. constipation. mouth. fainting. especially in the second and third trimesters. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers.

This drug should be taken with food. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. severe stomach pain. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. cyclosporine. fever.Available by prescription only. Less common side effects are blurred vision. muscle aches or cramps. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. Simvastatin Simvastatin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. and unusual tiredness or weakness. skin rash. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. All rights reserved. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. heartburn. Tablets are taken with or without food. which are taken orally. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. niacin. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. and stomach pain. and 40-mg tablets. usually at bedtime. 20-mg. preferably with evening meals. gas. gemfibrozil. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. and warfarin. weight loss. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. nausea. dizziness. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease.

a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. gemfibrozil. diarrhea. by pregnant or nursing women. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. or hepatitis. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. This drug is available by prescription only. and for infants with cretinism. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. or by young people under the age of 20. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. or thyrotoxicosis. digoxin. stomach pain. including high blood pressure. erythromycin. gas. constipation. impaired vision. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. All rights reserved. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). ketoconazole. clofibrate. Patients with impaired liver function. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. or lowered blood pressure. and spironolactone. in tablets and an injectable liquid. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. nicotinic acid. cyclosporine. warfarin. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. muscular disorders. muscle weakness. skin rash. cataracts. nausea.weeks of treatment. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. The drug is effective within 48 hours. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. and diabetes. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. cimetidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. Levothyroxine may be used during . drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names: Levothroid. Astemizole Astemizole. or chest pain. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. flushed skin. diarrhea. Astemizole is available only by prescription. eyes. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. which causes thyroid overactivity.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and skin. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. tiredness. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. agitation. weight loss or gain. sweating. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. heart palpitations. Levoxine. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. Patients should not take more than a single. All rights reserved.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

headache. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. loss of appetite. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with dosages based on body weight. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. or pain associated with cancer. Patients with anemia.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. diarrhea. abdominal cramps. Tramadol Tramadol. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. phenytoin. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. dapsone. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. back or joint pain. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. or increased blood potassium. procainamide. nausea. cyclosporine. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. with or without food. pneumonia. Available by prescription only. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. vomiting. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. . bronchitis. and cholestyramine. All rights reserved. impaired liver or kidney function. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. rifampin. Brand Names:Bactrim. sore mouth. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. and traveler’s diarrhea. especially of the urinary tract and eye.

Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. including an oral inhalant. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for children under the age of 16. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. and a liquid form that is injected. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. constipation. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. sedatives. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. quinidine. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. In addition. vomiting. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. . It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. operate dangerous machinery. All rights reserved. tablets. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. Other possible side effects include nausea. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. sweating. For this reason. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. two to three times a day. diarrhea. or engage in other riskrelated activities. people taking this drug should not drive. cream and ointment forms applied topically. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. or dry mouth.

Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. . Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. but helps alleviate symptoms. mottled skin. phenytoin. fluid retention. carbamazepine. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. and primidone. or a history of tuberculosis. hoarseness. nosebleed. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. wheezing. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. peptic ulcer. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. sneezing. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. weight loss. glaucoma (an eye disorder). Tretinoin Tretinoin. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. Brand Names:Azmacort. digoxin. memory loss. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). Taken orally. headache. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. warfarin. All rights reserved. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). nasal irritation or congestion. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. diabetes drugs (including insulin). skin rash. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples.

Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. citrus scents. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. All rights reserved. . cream. and s kin products containing alcohol. Brand Names:Retin-A. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. temporary worsening of acne. and solution. astringents.Tretinoin is available in a gel. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. Hands should be washed immediately after application. especially those containing sulfur. The tablet form is taken orally. salicylic acid. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. mouth. or resorcinol. or spices. It should not come in contact with the eyes. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. as well as with medicated soaps. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. darkening or lightening of skin color. It is applied to the skin. although maximum improvement may take several months. This drug is available in liquid form. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. preferably an hour before meals. Renoval. usually once a day at bedtime.

Patients with asthma. cimetidine. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. diarrhea. dizziness. theophylline. Brand Names: Timoptic. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. or heart failure. hay fever or other allergies. improving circulation. and liquid form. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. Possible side effects may include headache. Theophylline is available in capsule. which may be increased if needed. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. especially in patients with heart disorders. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. . the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. Theophylline Theophylline. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. chlorpromazine. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). tingling or numbness. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). chest pain. and pulmonary (lung) disease. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. an overactive thyroid gland. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. hair loss. insulin and other diabetes drugs. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). shortness of breath. muscle weakness. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. All rights reserved. or impotence. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. As a bronchodilator. vomiting. chronic bronchitis. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. lung disease. prescription drug used to treat asthma. Blocadren. low blood sugar. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tablet. as well as epinephrine. impaired liver or kidney function. low blood pressure. All are taken orally. nausea.

Patients with peptic ulcers. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. increased urination. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. and birth control pills. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). thereby halting their growth. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. gum disease. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. taken orally. Brand Names:Slo-bid. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Tetracycline Tetracycline. another possible side effect. erythromycin. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. . Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It also may interact with cimetidine. All rights reserved. acne. Changes in heart rate. or skin rash. doxycycline. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. clarithromycin. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. impaired liver or kidney function. taken in one to four doses. including urinary tract infections. headache. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. phenytoin. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. or coma. propanolol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and gonorrhea. ciprofloxacin. should be checked by a doctor. seizure disorders. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. high blood pressure. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. applied topically. and in a reconstituted powder solution. irregular heartbeat. convulsions. insomnia. low blood pressure.

also effective against hives and cold symptoms. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. eyes. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. fatigue. renal impairment. All rights reserved. diabetes mellitus. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. light sensitivity. or seizures. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. Brand Name:Allegra . fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. cold or flu. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Topicycline. and menstrual pain. confusion. a bulging soft spot on the head. or prostatic hypertrophy. Possible side effects include diarrhea. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. headache. ischemic heart disease. Possible side effects include headache. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. indigestion. and sucralfate. Unlike many other antihistamines. skin rash. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. blurred vision. As an antihistamine. and throat. penicillin. chest pain. oral contraceptives. nausea. hyperthyroidism. itching. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. increased intraocular pressure. insomnia. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. isotretinoin. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. blood thinners. sore throat. facial swelling. difficulty swallowing. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. lithium. Brand Names:Achromycin V. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cholestyramine. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. vomiting. irregular heartbeat. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. nausea. or in infants.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. Temazepam Temazepam. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. or chills. As a result. preventing its reproduction and growth. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. a yeastlike fungus. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. body pain. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. producing a calming effect. headache. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. drug used to treat insomnia. All rights reserved. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. fever. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . which can interact with terconazole. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. .

Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. diarrhea. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. convulsions. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. difficulty in breathing. headache. usually in a 15-mg dose. increased dreaming. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. When treatment is stopped. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. Other possible side effects include fatigue. tremors. and oral contraceptives. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. or nausea. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. or hallucinations. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. or by young people under the age of 18. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. tranquilizers. restlessness. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. operating dangerous machinery. confusion. antihistamines. especially when starting treatment. nervousness. or vomiting. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. In addition. or coma. barbiturates. blurred vision. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). If needed. or engaging in risk-related activities. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including antidepressants. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. With long-term use (more than a few weeks).Available only by prescription. depression. Also observed in some patients are sweating. seizures. tremors. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. narcotics. All rights reserved. .

or a dry mouth. and blood-thinners. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. drowsiness. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. This drug heals existing ulcers.Patients with heart disease. sucralfate is taken orally. uncontrolled high blood pressure. or skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Name:Carafate . or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. digoxin. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. tingling. stiff neck. difficulty breathing. tetracycline. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. nausea. diarrhea. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. tightness in the chest or throat. quinidine. Raynaud’s syndrome. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. esophagus. irregular heartbeat. as well as cimetidine. Possible side effects may include constipation. drug used to treat ulcers. ketoconazole. All rights reserved. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. especially angina. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. Irregular heartbeat. phenytoin. dizziness. Its safety for children. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. or allergies. Possible side effects may include dizziness. antispasmodic drugs. preferably with water. Sucralfate Sucralfate. digestive tract. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. muscle weakness. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. ranitidine. certain antibiotics. sore throat. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. or fainting are sometimes observed. has not been determined. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. and theophylline. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. or va gina. change in blood pressure.

clofibrate. and spironolactone. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. skin rash. impaired vision. warfarin. Patients with impaired liver function. All rights reserved. Sertraline Sertraline. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. Tablets are taken with or without food. cyclosporine. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. diarrhea. nausea. digoxin. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). erythromycin. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. by pregnant or nursing women. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . ketoconazole. Simvastatin Simvastatin. weight loss. gemfibrozil. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. less often. All rights reserved. constipation. gas. muscular disorders. or by young people under the age of 20. obsessive -compulsive disorders. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. muscle weakness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. nicotinic acid. usually at bedtime. cataracts.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. cimetidine. or lowered blood pressure. stomach pain. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. drug used to treat depression and. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. or hepatitis. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease.

Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. warfarin. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. . When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. difficulty breathing or swallowing. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. a dry mouth. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. drug used for the treatment of asthma. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. diarrhea. Parkinson disease. All rights reserved. sensitivity to bright light. or two inhalations. vomiting. seizures. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. The starting dose is 50 mg. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. constipation. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. cimetidine. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. insomnia. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. including headache. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. various diabetes medications including insulin. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. tremors. sleepiness. Available only by prescription. breast enlargement (in both females and males). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. agitation. The typical dose is 42 mg. sweating. which a doctor may slowly increase. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. Salmeterol Salmeterol. tolbutamide. digitoxin. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. fatigue. lithium. weight loss. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. irregular heartbeat. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. if needed.Available only by prescription. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. or problems with male sexual performance. twice daily. or behaviora l changes.

dizziness. skin rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. as well as theophylline and caffeine. and liquid form. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. capsule. diabetes. or taking antacids. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. or muscle cramps. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. hair loss. joint or muscle pain. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. anemia. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or overactive thyroid gland. causing chronic heartburn. All rights reserved. headaches. rapid or slow heartbeat. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Less common side effects are diarrhea. . Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. and drowsiness. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. Ranitidine Ranitidine. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. smoking cigarettes. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. all taken orally. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. liver disease. or skin rashes. nervousness. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. It is also available as an injectable liquid. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. dizziness. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. heart attack.

The drug relaxes arterial walls. systemic lupus erythematous. Available by prescription. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. theophylline. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. which influence salt and water retention. thereby reducing blood pressure. as it can harm the fetus. heart disease. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. as well as with diazepam. lightheadedness. chest or abdominal pain. it must be taken regularly to be effective. glipizide. and potassium supplements. it can react adversely with these drugs. high potassium levels. procainamide. requires immediate medical attention. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. All rights reserved. Quinapril Quinapril. midazolam. especially in the second and third trimesters. or low white blood cell counts. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. scleroderma. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. nausea. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. enoxacin. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. An allergic reaction to this drug. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. coughing. sucralfate. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. reduces blood volume. fatigue. and triamterene. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Possible side effects include dizziness. or vomiting. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. muscle pain. ketoconazole. itraconazole. It also may react with lithium. tetracycline. cyclosporine.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food.

Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. . All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

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