Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

Nearly half the women in the U. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. given later. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. private research organization. and many suffered cramping. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai.S. which starts the process. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. These include inducing fullterm labor. the cervix softens and opens. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. Without progesterone. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. two weeks later. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. but a few take longer. including the United States. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. In the United States. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. and 3 percent aborted immediately. treating breast and ovarian cancer. Instead. Two days later. At the third visit. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Typically. and the uterine lining breaks down. as well as certain other tumors. and as a therapy for endometriosis. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. . Misoprostol. China. Under the trade name Mifeprex.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. a nonprofit. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. which starts contractions.

women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. and the procedure is not invasive.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. However. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. However. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. Theoretically. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. are that anesthesia is not required. by making abortion potentially available in any . whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. headache. is over much more quickly. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. and fatigue. weakness. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. diarrhea. no medical instruments are used. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. where the drug has been in use since 1988. in a small number of women. In contrast. in France. They also point out that.

A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. During this delay. gastrointestinal tract. drug introduced in 1953. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. respiratory tract. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. All rights reserved. and reproductive tract. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Thalidomide. More than 10. and other countries. heart. Eventually. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. palate. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. lip. kidneys.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. Britain. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. . reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant.physician’s office. eyes. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. spine. a German pharmaceutical company. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961.

this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. or chronic weight loss. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. . The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. although not fully understood. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. when produced in excessive amounts. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. Among other issues. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. A serious skin disorder. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. and the sores make eating difficult. Under these restrictions.

Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. The regular tablet can be crushed. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . lightheadedness. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and decreased sexual desire. fatigue. in prolonged action tablets. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. more commonly known as beta blockers. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. persons with congestive heart failure. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. the typical. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. Metoprolol. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. cold hands and feet. and 200-mg tablets. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. It comes in 50-mg. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. slow heart rate. This drug is available by prescription only. For prevention o f heart attacks. pregnant or breast-feeding women. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). All rights reserved. a n abnormally slow heart rate. For treatment after a heart attack. 100-mg. For treatment of hypertension or angina. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole.

oral antidiabetic drugs. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. digoxin. epinephrine. oral hypoglycemic drugs. calcium channel blockers. taken once a day or in divided doses. amiodarone. chlorpromazine. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. difficulty sleeping. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. fluoxetine. reserpine. To minimize adverse side effects. Nabumetone. diarrhea. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. furosemide. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. This drug is available by prescription only. constipation. bleeding or blood cell disorders. These include bloating. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. dizziness. pregnant or breast-feeding women. liver disease. Brand Names:Lopressor. and verapamil. theophyllinevenlafaxine. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hydralazine. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. or severe impairment of kidney function. aminophylline. insulin. aspirin. . nifedipine. cimetidine. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. without missing doses. All rights reserved. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. tranquilizers. albuterol. The typical. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. diltiazem. clonidine. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. taken orally.sedative effect. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets.

Less common are depression. asthma or difficulty breathing. sweating. . irregular heartbeat. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. and probenecid. dizziness. heartburn. Astemizole is available only by prescription. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. nosebleed. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. joint or muscle pain. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. Astemizole. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. Patients should not take more than a single. lightheadedness. headache. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives.dizziness. nervousness. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). seizures. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). nausea. aspirin. headache. soreness of the mouth. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. diuretics. diarrhea. or increased appetite. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. including antibiotics. indigestion. Possible side effects include drowsiness. fatigue. All rights reserved. impairment of normal blood clotting. and skin. skin rash. or sore throat. nervousness. dry mouth or throat. eyes. Patients with asthma. beta blockers. loss of appetite. liver disease. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. blurred vision. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. and liver or kidney damage. drowsiness. nausea. other salicylates. or cardiac arrest. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. itching or tingling. or vomiting. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment.

setraline (Zoloft). . Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. All are taken orally. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. vomiting. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. ranging from 0. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. headache. or breast development in males.5 mg per day. if necessary. drug used to treat heart problems. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. nausea. stomach pain. and liquid form. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat.5 mg) on the first day. as it may seriously affect heart function.125 to 0. nefazodone (Serzone). but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). It may be taken with food. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. Digoxin. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. All rights reserved. Dosages of this drug vary widely. and paroxetine (Paxil). skin rash. Children under age ten may take this drug. loss of appetite. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. although one form of the liquid is injected. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. Digoxin is available in capsule. fluvoxamine (Luvox). These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). Possible side effects include diarrhea. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blurred vision. tablet.

the maximum daily dosage for adults. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. diarrhea. these may . anxiety. bronchodilators. these include seizures. but it is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. including dry mouth. heart attack. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. drowsiness. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Lanoxin. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. bulimia. vomiting. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. Typically used to treat mental depression.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. an antidepressantdrug. fatigue. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. high fever. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. heart or circulatory disorders. seizures. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. diuretics. constipation. disorientation. thyroid hormones. impotence. All rights reserved. In addition. headache. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. Amitriptyline. another type of antidepressant. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. blurred vision. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. Because of these many drug interactions. or stroke. migraine headaches. dizziness. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. insomnia. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. breast enlargement. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. steroids. It is taken orally in tablet form. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). often once a day at bedtime. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. antacids. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. liver ailments. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. oral contraceptives. thyroid hormones. Dosages may range from 0. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. painkillers. irritability. irritable bowel syndrome. headache. coma. or even death. confusion. muscle cramps. premenstrual syndrome. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or sleep disturbances. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. and certain phobias. In addition. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. muscular weakness. muscle relaxants. It has also been used to treat depression. or depression. tranquilizers. seizure medications. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. panic attacks. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. chest pains.include headache. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. Brand Names:Elavil. antihistamines. or with . or seizures. nausea. diarrhea. loss of appetite. nausea. and large doses of vitamin C. operate dangerous machinery. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). All rights reserved. diarrhea. usually three times a day. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. It should not be combined with alcohol. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. constipation. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. barbiturates. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. twitching. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. decreased sex drive. as it may harm the baby. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. drug used to treat anxiety. or engage in other risk-related activities. fainting. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. drowsiness.25 mg to 10 mg. Endep. Alprazolam. sleep medications. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. irritability. stuffy nose. with or without food. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased.

This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. In addition. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antispasmodic drugs. or tremors. usually three times a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. skin rash. disulfiram. and other tranquilizers. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. as serious or fatal reactions may result. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. various antihistamines. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. an eye disorder. sweating. facial swelling. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. abnormal heartbeat. cimetidine. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum.narrow-angle glaucoma. an irregular heartbeat. Available in tablet form. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. constipation. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. headache. All rights reserved. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. with or without food. operate dangerous machinery. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. When combined with rest and physical therapy. insomnia. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. antidepressants. diarrhea. digoxin. All rights reserved. high blood-pressure drugs. blurred or double vision. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). disorientation. including carbamazepine. indigestion. Dry mouth is a common side effect. Less common side effects include anxiety. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. but it does not interfere with muscle function. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. .

chocolate. headache. loss of appetite. For sustained release tablets. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. . Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. meat tenderizers. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. severe depression. avocado. pepperoni. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. and weight loss with long-term use. It comes in 5 -mg. 10-mg. pickled herring. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. bologna. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. unpasteurized beer. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. taken before breakfast and lunch. soy sauce. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. The regular tablet can be crushed. stomach pain. or Tourette’s syndrome. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. chianti. bean curd. raspberries. meat extracts. canned fish. sherry. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. and vermouth. a chemical that raises blood pressure. persons with glaucoma. nausea. dried and salted fish. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. salami. liver. yeast extracts. a dry mouth. nervous tension. presumably by activating the brain stem. anxiety. and 20-mg regular tablets. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. preferably on an empty stomach. sour cream. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. For sustained release tablets.Methylphenidate. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. raisins. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness.

skin rash or itching. phenobarbital. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. It affects the autonomic nervous system. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. Potential side effects include dizziness. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. angina. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Its safety for use in children is not known. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. kidney disease. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. or a slow heartbeat. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. drowsiness. imipramine. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. or slow heartbeat. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. and tranylcypromine. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. coronary artery disease. including high blood pressure. headache. pargyline. and primidone. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. phenelzine. anxiety. heart blockage. Less common side effects are diarrhea. nausea. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. desipramine. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. hair loss. (An injectable. . depression. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. allergies. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. impotence. with or without food. and nortriptyline. and breathing difficulties. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. fatigue. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). asthma. Brand Names:Ritalin. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. and heart attack. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Atenolol.

However. hair loss. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. insulin. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. which requires immediate medical treatment. patients taking this drug should not drive. making seizures less frequent and less severe. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. or pain along a sensory nerve. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. and antacids that contain calcium. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. or engage in other risk-related activities. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. or impairment of heart. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. for migraine headaches. usually taken four times a day. usually taken twice a day. or liquid form. other blood pressure medications. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. anemia. as severe. This process may take three months or more. . and for depression or other emotional disorders. liver. Side effects that include fever. Children six years and older may take this drug. impotence. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. low blood pressure. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. For neuralgia. Both forms should be taken with meals. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. They include muscle or joint pain. tongue. dizziness. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). blurred vision.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. itching. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. operate dangerous machinery. or kidney function. It also relieves neuralgia. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. and sweating. fainting. constipation. in the jaw. bruises. abdominal pain. continuous seizures may result. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. headache. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. thereby reducing pain. All rights reserved. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. breathing problems. hallucinations. mouth ulcers. or throat. sore throat. drowsiness. sensitivity to light. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly.

hives. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. vaginitis. and other antiseizure medications. The drug is effective within three to five days. However. It is known to appear in breast milk. skin rash. urinary tract. the entire course of medication should be taken. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. confusion. vomiting.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. abdominal pain. All rights reserved. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). joint pain. All rights reserved. dizziness. as well as calcium channel blockers. and bones. theophylline. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). Brand Names:Keflex. fluid retention. hallucinations. capsule. reproductive system. kidney disorders. colitis (inflamed colon). Brand Names:Tegretol. This drug is available by prescription in table t. Less common side effects include indigestion. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. all of which are taken orally. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. haloperidol. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. colitis. used to treat infections of the middle ear. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. doxycycline. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. skin. It may also interact adversely with lithium.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and liquid form. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. Patients with drug allergies. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. . but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. Cephalexin.

An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. kidney or liver diseases. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. use dangerous machinery. and high fever. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. so patients should not drive. antacids. nasal congestion. tremors. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction.Chlorpromazine. a neurotransmitter in the brain. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. glaucoma. insomnia. breast cancer. . increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and violent hyperactivity in children. tetanus. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. including anemia. vomiting. hives. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. anticonvulsants. tablet. impotence. and uncontrollable hiccups. diuretics. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. irregular heartbeat. headache. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. blood-thinners. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. emphysema. In addition. anxiety before surgery. liquid. or brain tumors. it does appear in breast milk. seizures. or barbiturates. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). cimetidine. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. or nervousness. respiratory infections. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. or epinephrine. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. constipation. change in urine color. narcotics. rapid heartbeat. intestinal blockage. captopril. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and suppository form. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. fainting. All rights reserved. light sensitivity. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. or dizziness. suppressed cough reflex. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known.

and behavior. weight gain. a history of seizures. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. . and antidepressants. low blood pressure. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. other possible side effects include seizures. or engage in other risk-related activities. Patients taking this drug should not drive. drug used to treat schizophrenia. digoxin. fever. emotions. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. tremors. All rights reserved. an enlarged prostate gland. dizziness. an eye disorder. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. drowsiness. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. epinephrine. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. In addition to agranulocytosis. or nightmares. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blood pressure medicatio ns. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. rapid heartbeat. nausea. blurred vision. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. or narrow-angle glaucoma. operate dangerous machinery. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. and muscle weakness. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. and can lead to death in some cases. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). and warfarin. constipation. impaired liver or kidney function. sore throat. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). Starting dosages usually range from 12. agranulocytosis causes fever. headache. as well as cimetidine. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs).Clozapine. atropine. In addition. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women.

antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). or in children under six months of age. Depending on the patient’s condition. Classified as a benzodiazepine. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. depression. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. lightheadedness. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. Valrelease. and liquid form. dizziness. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. These include other tranquilizers. or convulsions. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. . It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. operate dangerous machinery. mild tranquilizer drug. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. skin rash. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. slurred speech. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. or low blood pressure. Brand Names:Valium. and certain types of seizures. headache. or epilepsy. anticonvulsant drugs. barbiturates. or poor muscle coordination. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. or coma. ranitidine. fluoxetine. sweating. nausea. tremors. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. muscle spasms. It is not safe for use during pregnancy.Dizac Hydrocodone. constipation. and rifampin. A mild narcotic. confusion. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. all are taken orally. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. confusion. and birth control pills. producing a calming effect. insomnia. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. vomiting. severe depression. while breast-feeding. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. fatigue.Diazepam. narcotics. digoxin. capsule. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension.

the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. impaired breathing. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. delirium. All rights reserved. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. As a liquid cough remedy.A common ingredient in cough medicines. impaired kidney or liver function. depression. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. nausea. urinary retention. dry mouth. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. vomiting. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. blurred or double vision. constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen.Triaminic Expectorant DH. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. .Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. who have a history of chemical dependency. skin rash.

All rights reserved. skin irritation and rash. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). diarrhea. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. headaches. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. headache. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. cream. . or shampoo. Pregnant and nursing women. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. patients with active liver disease. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. and nausea. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. and liver problems. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. A cure may require many months of treatment. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. have a history of alcoholism. have liver disease or reduced liver function. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. take any other drugs. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nausea. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness.Ketoconazole. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent.

If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas.Mometasone Furoate. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. . although its exact mechanism is unknown. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. tingling. itching. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. in areas of broken skin. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. with bandages. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. If used over large surface areas. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. or cortex. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. or dry skin. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. or lotion. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. of the adrenal glands. or over a long period. Available by prescription only. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. ointment. stinging. this drug may cause skin damage. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy.

severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. However. and 75 mg. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. drug used to treat major mental depression. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. 25 mg. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. All rights reserved. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. . The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. Nortriptyline. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat chronic. 50 mg. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids.

fluconazole. confusion. Brand Names:Aventyl. drowsiness. epinephrine. irregular heart rhythm. cimetidine. and weight gain or loss. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. antihistamines. a dry mouth. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. nightmares. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. and sleeping medications. throat. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. nausea. narcotics. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. peculiar tastes in the mouth. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. and skin. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. birth control pills. headache. memory problems. chest. seizures. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. epilepsy. tranquilizers. urinary tract. Depending on the severity of infection. . or glaucoma. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. insomnia. All rights reserved. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. Available by prescription only. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. barbiturates. lightheadedness.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. constipation. decreased urination. hallucin ations. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. blurred vision. carbamazepine. fa tigue. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. fluoxetine.

joints. itching. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. and skin. cholera. vomiting. or skin problems such as redness. or yeast infection. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). However. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. or rash. vaginitis. . but to prevent a recurrence of infection. and it does appear in breast milk.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. bones. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. seizures. Common side effects may include diarrhea. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. nausea. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. headache. tuberculosis. urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin. colitis. The drug is effective within three to five days. infectious diarrhea. the entire course of medication should be taken. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase.

and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. hives. or engage in other risk-related activities. impaired kidney function. or restlessness. headache. vomiting. operate dangerous machinery. Brand Names:Cipro. Patients with severe liver disease. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. Possible side effects include abdominal pain.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. aluminum. and in a liquid. as serious or fatal reactions can result. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. which is used in the form of eyedrops. tingling or itchin g.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. shortness of breath. as allergic reactions to this drug. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. sensitivity to light. or magnesium. Pregnant women. or unconsciousness. All rights reserved. skin rash. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. while rare. Depending on the severity of infection. breast-feeding women. which are taken orally w ith or without food. . Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. nausea. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. can be fatal.

ketoconazole. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. headache. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. constipation. . muscle pain. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. low blood pressure. respiratory irritation or infection. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Patients with liver or kidney problems. Capsules are taken with or without food. or seizures should use this drug with caution. Haloperidol.Fluvastatin. digoxin. diarrhea. fatigue. usually a t bedtime. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18. nausea. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. erythromycin. dizziness. weight loss. All rights reserved. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. or coughing. or rifampin. ranitidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. skin rash. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. gemfibrozil. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. insomnia.

Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. lips. low blood pressure. insomnia. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. eyelids. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. eye damage. and increased heart rate. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. blurred vision. or muscle rigidity. constipation. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. active liver disease.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. use of the drug should be discontinued. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. depression. Other side effects may include nausea. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. skin rash. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. breast cancer. The drug is present in breast milk. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. tremors. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. diminished sexual function. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Patients suffering from depression. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. neck. urinary retention. dry mouth. Parkinson disease. . jaws. and tongue. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use.

This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. or systemic lupus erythematosus. extremities. heart attack. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). kidney or liver disease. However. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. heart or blood vessel disease. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. and tongue after the first dose. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. lips. Its safety for children has not been established. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. All rights reserved. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. eyes. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. Lisinopril.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. stroke. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril.

Brand Names: Prinivil. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. or baby f ormula. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. day and night. by breast-feeding women. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. anti-inflammatory drug. a nonsteroidal. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful.blood potassium. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. especially in the third trimester. Nitrofurantoin. milk. persons with . To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. fruit juice. This drug is available by prescription only. All rights reserved. Staphylococcus aureus. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. and the dose may be diluted in water. It is taken orally in 25-mg. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. For prevention of recurrent in fections. 50-mg. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. Enterobacter. Indomethacin. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours.

This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide.impaired kidney function. causing heartburn. Stomach irritation is the most common. nausea. diarrhea. diabetes. electrolyte imbalances. For gastric ulcer. All rights reserved. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. loss of appetite. or any debilitating disease. magnesium trisilicate. Occasionally this drug may have serious. nalidixic acid. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. vitamin-B deficiency. anticholinergic medications. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. or infants less than one month old. and sulfinpyrazone. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. Macrobid. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. the usual adult dosage . Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. Omeprazole. or vomiting. or upper part of the small intestine. probenecid. Brand Names:Furadantin. oral antacids. sodium bicarbonate. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. adverse effects on the lungs or liver.

Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. For excessive stomach acid conditions. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. headache. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. dizziness. or yeast infection of the esophagus. amoxicillin. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. heartburn. Less common side effects are chest pain. ketoconazole. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. nausea and vomiting. muscle pain. diarrhea. constipation. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. All rights reserved. urinary tract infection. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. digoxin. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. For adults over the age of 60. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. skin rash or itching. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. cyclosporine. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. gas. and phenytoin. . warfarin. diazepam. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. kidney or liver damage.

diarrhea. and impaired sexual function. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. nervousness. warfarin. a history of seizure disorders. anxiety. tremor. constipation. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. and muscle weakness. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. nausea. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. decreased appetite. Brand Name: Paxil . Patients with liver or kidney impairment.Paroxetine or Paxil. insomnia. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. urinary disorders. dry mouth. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Within ten days of regular use. and tryptophan. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. skin rashes. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. preferably in the morning. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. digoxin.

and liquid form. although it is known to appear in breast milk. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. all of which are taken orally. usually once or twice a day. itching. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. coli) bacteria. allergies. All rights reserved. streptococcus infections. capsule. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. Brand Name: Duricef . and skin infections. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. urinary tract infections. the entire course of medication should be taken. however. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Children may safely take this drug. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. or colitis. skin rash or redness. vomiting. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. pneumonia. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. depending on the severity of infection. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. as it may lead to a secondary infection. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. Cefadroxil or Duricef. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. vaginal inflammation.

Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. drowsiness. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. and respiratory tract. vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. However. skin rash (including diaper rash). It is available in tablet and liquid form. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. which are both taken orally. abdominal pain. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. dizziness. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). including strep throat. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. . hives. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. as it may lead to a secondary infection.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. pneumonia. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. insomnia. nervousness. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Cefprozil or Cefzil. confusion. Less common side effects include diarrhea. genital itching. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. as well as skin infections. the entire course of medication should be taken. taken in one or two doses. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. ear.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. with one liquid form made for injection. also known as glibenclamide. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. Additional symptoms such as hives. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. which requires immediate medical attention. ulcer medications. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. headache. drop in blood pressure. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. vomiting. diarrhea. Glyburide. It is available in tablet or liquid form. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. drugs that treat diabetes. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. All rights reserved. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. abdominal pain. swelling. Possible side effects may include nausea. or hydrochlorothiazide. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It may be taken with or without food. although some children have used it safely. or skin rash. rifampin. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated . phenytoin.

25 to 20 mg daily. For this reason. itching. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. a condition of low blood sugar. as well as to watch for side effects. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. dizziness. nausea. nausea and vomiting. abdominal cramps. Patients with unstable diabetes. indigestion. and heartburn. drowsiness.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. Other possible side effects include skin rash. The drug takes effect within two hours. hives. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. fatigue. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. Brand Names: DiaBeta. After an initially positive response with the drug. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. All rights reserved. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Pregnant women. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. The usual dosage is from 1. headaches. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. hypothyroidism. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. Most effective on an empty stomach. peptic ulcer disease. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective.

After long-term use. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). insomnia. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. drug used to treat anxiety. and skin rashes. and epilepsy. Aprozide. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Capozide. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. nausea. All rights reserved. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. diabetes. imbalances in water. The drug appears in breast milk. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. . Lorazepam. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Some men experience impaired sexual function. prescription drug known as a diuretic. Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. low blood pressure. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. gout. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form.Hydrochlorothiazide. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Brand Names: Aldoril. and nursing women should avoid using it. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). salt. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n.

agitation. However. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. isoniazid. therapy begins with 0. sleep disturbance.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. and rifampin. change in appetite.5 to 1 mg at bedtime. weakness. vision problems. Brand Name:Ativan . carbamazepine.Available by prescription only. antidepressants. and as an injectable liquid. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. the dosage is 0. barbiturates. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. and memory impairment. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. headache. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. oral solution. dizziness. nausea. and unsteadiness. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. phenytoin. For insomnia. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. sedatives. levodopa. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. s kin problems. narcotics. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. cimetidine. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. antihistamines. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. depression. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses.

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. All rights reserved. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. . fo r 5 days. For adults and children over the age of 12. Streptococcus pyogenes. morning and evening. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. pain. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. and other types of Streptococcus. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. or itching at the infection site. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. stinging. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. Less common side effects are rash. nausea. tenderness. For children from 5 to 15 years old. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Mupirocin. reddening or dry skin. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. This drug is available by prescription only. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts.

.swelling. and hives. however. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. One of the ingredients in this ointment. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. bronchitis. The typical. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. chlamydia. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. skin infections. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. polyethylene glycol. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). and eyedrops. gonorrhea. in an injectable liquid. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. Ofloxacin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Bactroban.

diarrhea. speech problems. iron salts. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. drowsiness. and zinc salts. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lightheadedness. headache. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. All rights reserved. . without missing doses. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. nervousness. nausea. warfarin. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). and insomnia. calcium supplements. restle ssness. or norfloxacin. sucralfate. epilepsy. redness. probenecid. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. itching.Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. or dryness in the eye. seizures. vomiting. dizziness. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It should be taken on a regular schedule. or impaired vision. tremor. ciprofloxacin. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. dizziness. hallucinations. tearing. Brand Names: Floxin. excessive confusion. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). drug-induced hepatitis. theophylline. either one hour before or two hours after eating.

Because the drug appears in breast milk. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. indigestion. and. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. and may include headache. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). nausea.Pentoxifylline. it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. Side effects are rare. dizziness. skin rash. Brand Name: Trental . a protein that increases blood thickness. and it prevents blood from forming clots. vomiting. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. tremor. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. low blood pressure. Because nicotine narrows arteries. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. obstructions that can block off blood vessels.

muscle weakness. Phenelzine. In general. monoamine oxidase (MAO). The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. or epilepsy. or convulsions. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. Available by prescription only. heart disease. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. dizziness. phenelzine tablets are taken orally. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. headache. usually three times a day. liver disease. twitching or tremors. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. fluid retention. dry mouth. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. anxiety. drowsiness or fatigue. drug used to treat depression. weight g ain. or insomnia. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. . which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. It may detract from sexual performance in males.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nightmares. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. or phobias. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with or without food. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women.

bronchodilator inhalants. . Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. It is available in tablets. and other antidepressants. even after symptoms disappear. including death. and bananas. products that contain yeast. including the treatment of respiratory. and skin infections. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. appetite suppressants. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. ear. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. such as gonorrhea. all of which are taken orally. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. Amoxicillin. capsules. It has many u ses. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. and liquid form. amphetamines. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. sinus and hay-fever medications. if combined with certain foods or drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. alcoholic beverages. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. nasal decongestants. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. All rights reserved. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. Dosages for children are determined by body weight.

Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. . Augmentin Cefixime. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. Wymox. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. dizziness. swollen lymph nodes. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. colitis. insomnia. diabetes. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. throat.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. confusion. diarrhea. or bruising. nausea. chest. and urinary tract. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. the entire course of medication should be taken. skin rash. skin rash. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Patients with asthma. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. which are both taken orally. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. joint pain. genital sores. Brand Names:Amoxil. or vomiting. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. also in one or two daily doses. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. itching. hives. taken in one or two doses. anxiety or hyperactivity. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. liver disease.

severe diarrhea. itching. stomach cramps. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). nausea. usually once a day at bedtime.However. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. hives. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. or seizures. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. but does not cure. gas. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. shock. although it is known to appear in breast milk. headache. Doxazosin Mesylate. mild diarrhea. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. skin rash. as it may lead to a secondary infection. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. prolonged use is not recommended. or vomiting. with or without food. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. fever. high . Tablets are taken orally. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. Common side effects may include indigestion. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid).

blood pressure. which may be increased to 2. lowering blood pressure. insomnia.5 mg per day. drug used to increase urine production. especially when the dosage is increased. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. ringing in the ears. To treat fluid retention. muscle cramps or weakness. or depression. operate dangerous machinery. skin rash. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. the dosage is 2. or engage in other risk-related activities. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. coronary artery disease. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. should not drive. nausea. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. low white -blood-cell count. Other possible side effects include constipation. nosebleed. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. and as a result.25 mg per day. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. eye pain. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. The . mental depression. indigestion. subsequently relieving edema.5 mg per day. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). the dosage is 1.

skin rashes. gout. To avoid nighttime urination. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef .drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. headaches. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. visual problems. diarrhea. itching. . the drug should be taken with breakfast. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. urinary tract infection. and drowsiness. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. weakness. Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. diabetes. skin infection. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. nausea. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. pneumonia. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. upper respiratory tract infection.

All rights reserved. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. loss of appetite. headache. abdominal pain. an antigout drug. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. It should be used with caution. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. swelling mucous membranes. by persons with impaired kidney function. nervousness. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. . and skin rashes. penicillin allergies. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. Available by prescription only. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. at a reduced dosage. insomnia. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. sleepiness. Loratadine. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. Use with probenecid. a history of colitis. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. and itching eyes. nausea and vomiting. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. and dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Less common side effects are colitis. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream.

methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. muscle relaxants. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. also called methadon. An analgesic. clarithromycin. drowsiness. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. a class of antidepressants. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. itraconazole. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. tranquilizers. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. such as driving. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. narcotics. or dizziness. or tricyclic antidepressants. headache. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). barbiturates. In the late 1940s. and activities requiring mechanical skills. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. can increase the side effects of loratadine. . pain medication. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash.

Certain ailments. hives. in digestion. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. pneumonia. u nless approved by a doctor.” Taken in large doses. headache. drowsiness. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. light sensitivity. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. or vomiting.Unlike heroin. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. skin infections. and urinary tract infections. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. bronchitis. and anaphylaxis. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Available in capsule form. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. Because methadone itself is addictive. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. some patients continue to be treated for many years. . or yeast infection. Less common are chest pain. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. jaundice. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. nausea. In typical methadone therapy. Azithromycin. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. diarrhea. which kills the bacteria. It is typically prescribed for five days. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. such as sexually transmitted diseases. which interferes with breathing. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. dizziness. a severe form of diarrhea.

lovastatin. cyclosporine. drug used to control high blood pressure. hexobarbital. should use this drug with caution. Benazepril. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). This usually takes several weeks. All rights reserved. phenytoin. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium).Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. which influence salt and water retention. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. and lithium. digoxin. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. and warfarin. Patients with certain medical conditions. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. triazolam. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. even after symptoms are relieved. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. but must be taken regularly to be effective. especially those that help the body retain potassium. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor.

. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. irregular heartbeat. dizziness. nausea. skin rash. or vomiting. streptococcus infections. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. usually every eight hours. or muscle cramps.especially in the second and third trimesters. pneumonia. fluid retention. the entire course of medication should be taken. and skin infections. also every eight hours. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. urinary tract infections. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. Less common are chest pain. coli) bacteria. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. impotence. although it is known to appear in breast milk. headache. joint pain. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. sweating. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. Possible side effects include coughing. urinary infection. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. Children may take this drug. itching. constipation. which are both taken orally. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. excessive thirst. It also is known to appear in breast milk. fatigue.

or blood disorders. traveler’s diarrhea. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. vomiting. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. light sensitivity. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). hives. skin rash. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. Possible side effects include diarrhea. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. joint pain. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. tablets. which are taken orally. certain diuretics. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. and itching. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. and liquid forms. although one form of liquid is made for injection. diarrhea medications. liver disorders. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. thereby halting their growth. . but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. vaginal inflammation. headache. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. taken in one or two doses. skin rash. nausea. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment.Common side effects include diarrhea. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. vomiting. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. itching. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. and syphilis.

asthma. or bulging forehead (in infants). sodium bicarbonate. penicillin. difficulty swallowing.facial swelling. phenytoin. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. Prednisone. Brand Names:Doryx. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tuberculosis. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. birth control pills. barbiturates. All rights reserved. Prednisone is available only by prescription. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Children may develop discolored teeth. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. certain cancers. skin diseases. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. . blood-thinners. especially with long-term use. Vibra-Tabs. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. chest pain. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. and carbamazepine. multiple sclerosis. Vibramycin. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. It is usually discontinued gradually. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. and severe allergic reactions. usually with food to avoid stomach upset.

peptic ulcer disease. estrogen supplements. brittle bones. high blood pressure. osteoporosis. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. ketoconazole. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. phenytoin. rifampin. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. headache. muscle weakness. Liquid Pred. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. birth control pills. dizziness. thick skin. Prednicen-M. gastrointestinal disorders . or fluid retention. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. weight gain. diabetes medications. Brand Names: Deltasone. Possible side effects may include insomnia. high blood pressure. impaired thyroid function. depression. diabetes. skin rash. or a history of tuberculosis. and certain diuretics. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect.Patients with widespread fungus infections. muscle cramps. acne. amphotericin B. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and purplish. All rights reserved. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. Buspirone. carbamazepine. active tuberculosis. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). . Children may take this drug. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. mood swings.

headache. or decongestants. fatigue. Patients taking buspirone should not drive. warfarin. bone or muscle pain. depending on the patient’s condition. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. or vomiting. Also possible are blurred vision. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. and fluoxetine. haloperidol. or nervousness. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. narcotics. or engage in other risk-related activities. Possible side effects include dizziness. trazodone. usually three times p er day. usually found in combination with antihistamines. constipation. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. rapid heartbeat. with or without food. capsule. sweating. nausea.Tablets are taken orally. . Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. Unlike many tranquilizers. dry mouth. cough suppressants. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. and tablet form. upset stomach. skin rash. operate dangerous machinery. diarrhea. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk.

injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. Dimacol Caplets. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. nausea. a drug that prevents blood from clotting.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. preventing pregnancy 99. vomiting. and diarrhea. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. Prior to 1992 the drug . Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy. However.7 percent of the time. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. Comtrex Cold Formula. This drug is highly effective. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Brand Names: Cheracol D. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. stomach pain. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Triaminic Expectorant. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. In the United States.

it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. night and day. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. However. headaches. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). In many cases. Blood transfusions are often necessary. Other possible side effects include weight gain. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. mood changes. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. Taken every four hours. sometimes for a year or more. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. . Also. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. and abdominal pain. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems.

boisterous or violent behavior. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. a long-acting barbiturate. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. coma. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. and respiratory tract. Depending on the dosage or formulation.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. muscle incoordination. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. An antibiotic like penicillin. Ampicillin. overdoses can cause profound shock. All rights reserved. Phenobarbital. or death. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. a combination of urea and malonic acid. such as secobarbital. and sedation. urinary tract. Barbiturate. or anesthetic effect. depression. anticonvulsant. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. gastrointestinal tract. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . Taken orally or intravenously.

In cattle and other animals. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. colitis (inflamed bowel). brucei rhodesiense. and sometimes epidemic. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. also sleeping sickness. oral contraceptives. The most common is caused by T. brucei gambiense. In South America. cruzi. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. and probenecid. T. genus Trypanosoma. endemic. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. allopurinol. the disease is called nagana. .Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. Children may take ampicillin. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. hives. mouth irritation. fever. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. diarrhea. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. another version of the protozoan.to ten-day course. Possible side effects may include nausea. or anemia. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. but an entire course of medication. whereas a more local version is caused by T. usually a seven. vomiting. Another liquid form is administered by injection. skin rash. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. mefloquine. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. atenolol.

Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. . sleepiness.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. death. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. which more frequently attacks children. In the long term. It is also sometimes fatal. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. an accelerated heartbeat. an enlargement of the spleen. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). In early stages. with accompanying mood changes. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Allopurinol. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). frequently. and. and rash and fever. All rights reserved. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. Chagas' disease. eventual coma. lack of appetite.

or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. All rights reserved. Steroids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cortisone. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. is a sterol. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. Steroid hormones. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). with a great diversity of physiological activity. it has been superseded by safer. asthma and allergies. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). Side effects include rapid heartbeat. more specific drugs. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. aldosterone. and progesterone. . bile acids. and anxiety. Cholesterol. tremor. some natural drugs. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. and various eye diseases.Ephedrine. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. C10H15NO. or fat-soluble chemicals. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). Endocrine System). drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). dry mouth. many important hormones. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. Testosterone). Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. rheumatoid arthritis. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. It is sometimes misused. which are similar to but not identical with sterols. Hormone).

It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. See also Sports Medicine. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. . Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. Streptomyces griseus. tobramycin. amikacin. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. and kanamycin. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. leprosy. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. it is still used for this condition. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. and cholera. such as tuberculosis. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. These include gentamicin. the aminoglycosides. are susceptible to streptomycin. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve.

Fluoxetine.Acetaminophen. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. . particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. is taken orally in tablet form. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. type of drug known as an antidepressant. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. All rights reserved. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. After the medication begins to take effect. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). as aspirin tends to do for some users. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. available by prescription only. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. obsessive -compulsive disorder. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. and premenstrual syndrome. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and for the reduction of fever. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. prescribed for the treatment of depression. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. the dose may be lowered. Fluoxetine.

Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. . or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. headaches. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. the formula of which is given above. nausea. colorless. sometimes fatal results. Of the annual glycerol production in the U. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. odorless. diabetes. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. insomnia. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. with a specific gravity of 1. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. changes in appetite. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin.4° F). and diarrhea. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. sweet-tasting a lcohol. or a history of seizures. dizziness. C3H6O.S. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. C3H8O3. C3H6. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. or propylene. or for those with kidney or liver disease. weight loss. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures.26. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor.

from which they are released later by acidification. xylene. that is. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. Because cheaper products are now available. phenanthrene. including toothpastes. and oxygen. mostly hydrocarbons. toluene. Its composition varies with the coal. anthracene. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. can be extracted by alkali solutions. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). Distillation produces benzene. and other valuable products. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. as a plasticizer in cellophane.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. they incite cancerous gro wths. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. together with alcohols. The phenols. sulfur. and the equipment used. Coal Tar. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. and water. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. Left after distillation are residues of . of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. which are acidic. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. phenols. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. naphthalene. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar.

Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. perfumes. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. preservatives. drugs. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. Aspirin. including dyes. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. food flavorings. synthetic chemical compound. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. however. paint removers. paints. Salicylic acid is bitter. used in making roads. in roofing mixtures. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . acetylsalicylic acid. and plastics. cause iron deficiency. It is made from salicylic acid. stains. among others. however. explosives. to counter fever and pain. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. mild to moderate pain. and resins. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. however. artificial sweeteners. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. insecticides. .pitch. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. found in the bark of the willow tree. Since then. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. and irritates the stomach. creosote oil. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury.

The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Nuprin . When taken in excessive amounts. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly.Ibuprofen. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. In adults. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. Motrin. In prescription form. diarrhea. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. or high blood pressure. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. liver disease. inflammation. or fever. and may be taken with food. Brand Names: Advil. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. fever. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. rapid breathing. or rapid heartbeat. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. which usually involves vomiting. drug used to reduce inflammation. and the sensation of pain.

Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. or cortex. the activity of the nervous system. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. and diabetes. . Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. are employed for many medical purposes. the maturation of white blood cells. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. in 1935. high blood pressure. and the regulation of blood pressure. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. called cortisone. also cortisol. they must be used carefully. protein. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate.Hydrocortisone. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. hydrocortisone and related compounds. Medical). Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. and fat. muscle weakness. collagen diseases. Because of their widespread effects. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. called corticosteroids. of the adrenal gland. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. weight gain. the retention of salt and water in the body. or corticoids. and eye inflammations. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations.

informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. .Melatonin. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. night. fluctuations in body temperature. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. heart rate. or shift work. such as sleep-wake cycles. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. jet lag. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. for instance. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. However. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. water balance. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. and hormone balance.

Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. . These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. Epinephrine. epilepsy. is also known as adrenaline. All rights reserved. to prevent bleeding. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. raises the blood pressure. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). For example. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. epinephrine stimulates the heart. Although it is easily available over the counter. Parkinson disease. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. In times of excitement or emotional stress. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). and hypertension. Alzheimer’s disease. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. The pure compound. large additional quantities are secreted. but it is now made synthetically. constricts the small blood vessels. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. arthritis. liberates sugar stored in the liver. however.

and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. enlarged prostate gland. dizziness. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. In general. with or without meals. or levoarterenol. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. They may include blurred vision. hyperthyroidism. muscular weakness. tablet. or constipation. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. insomnia. digoxin. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. It is available in capsule. severe colitis. called norepinephrine. high blood pressure. severe heartburn. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. dry mouth. heart disease. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. tingling. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. Because of this. urinary tract blockage. impotence. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. corticoids. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. glaucoma. This drug can also decrease sweating. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. irregular heartbeat. headache. noradrenaline. An antispasmodic drug. and liquid form. fainting. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. or short-term memory loss. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. nausea. or nervousness. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. lightheadedness. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. drowsiness. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. or myasthenia gravis. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. These include but are not limited to antacids. diarrhea. and is taken orally four times a day. antihistamines. nasal congestion.

This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. diarrhea. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. Nizatidine Nizatidine. narcotic pain relievers. excessive fatigue. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. fever. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. itching. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. nausea. increased heart rate. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. headache. and bronchodilators. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. decreased sexual ability. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. fatigue. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. dizziness. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. unusual bleeding or bruising. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . More serious effects include confusion. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. and sweating. and weakness. stomach upset. antipsychotic drugs.

60-mg. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. or persons with low blood pressure. and theophylline. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. The safety and effectiveness of . Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. citrus fruit. This drug is available by p rescription only. if stomach irritation is a problem. pregnant or breast-feeding women. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. doses may be taken with food. and 90-mg extended release tablets. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug.Alcoholic beverages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Nifedipine Nifedipine. onions. however. highdose aspirin. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. protein-rich foods. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. garlic. reduced liver or kidney function. not crushed. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. pentoxiylline. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. For treatment of angina.

along with hydrocortisone. and otic (ear) drops. oral hypoglycemic drugs. insulin. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. low blood pressure. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. and ranitidine. flushing. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. and certain drugs including amiodarone. and ear infections. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. cigarette smoking. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. eye. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. diltiazem. For eye infections. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60.. Neomycin Neomycin. nausea. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . These combinations. lightheadedness. magnesium. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. nifedipine may increase angina. Brand Names:Adalat. phenytoin. cyclosporine. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. grapefruit juice. All rights reserved. For skin conditions. digitalis. and weakness. swelling of the feet and ankles. cimetidine. theophylline. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. Rarely. digoxin. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week.

or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. smallpox. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. taken once a day or in divided doses. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. and chicken pox infections. kidney or ear damage may occur. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. This drug is available b y prescription only. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Rarely. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. pregnant or breast-feeding women. irritation. or severe impairment of kidney function. To minimize adverse side effects. taken orally. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Names:Corticosporin. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. itching. or dryness. The typical. liver disease. All rights reserved. Nabumetone Nabumetone. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. without missing doses. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive.or the ear. bleeding or blood cell disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of .

or angina pectoris (chest pain). combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. This drug is available by prescription only. loss of appetite. beta blockers. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. indigestion. If tablets are missed. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. dizziness. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. known or . thickens the mucus of the cervix. nausea. or eyes. diarrhea. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. blood clots in the legs. nervousness. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. strokes. impairment of normal blood clotting. lightheadedness. and probenecid. and liver or kidney damage. soreness of the mouth. heartburn. headache. other salicylates. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. sweating.nabumetone has been determined. lungs. aspirin. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. dizziness. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. diuretics. constipation. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. These include bloating. drowsiness. blurred vision. or vomiting. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. respectively. difficulty sleeping. asthma or difficulty breathing. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness.

smoke. cervix. or have high blood pressure. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. fluid retention. unexplained vaginal bleeding. blotchy spots on exposed skin. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. breast tenderness. depression. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. These include rifampin. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. difficulty wearing contact lenses. dizziness. and brown. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. bleeding between menstrual periods. liver tumors. weight gain.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. In lowering blood cholesterol. and vaginal infections. loss of scalp hair. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. All rights reserved. rash. Because of the risk of blood clots. or known or suspected pregnancy. diabetes. and certain antibiotics. headache. or vagina. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. phenylbutazone. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). vomiting. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. nervousness. or high cholesterol. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin.

lovastatin. Patients with diabetes. lightsensitivity. kidney disease. headache. excessive thirst. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. dizziness. ringing in the ears. congestive heart failure. vomiting. also known as a diuretic. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). muscle or joint pain. skin rash. Available in tablet and liquid form. but it does appear in breast milk. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. impotence. impotence. or various blood-thinning drugs. with dosage based on body weight. lupus erythematosus. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. diarrhea. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. dizziness. h eadache. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. indigestion. narcotics. diarrhea. itching. liver disorders. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. confusion. blurred vision. nausea. diabetes. nausea. irregular heartbeat. Possible side effects include constipation. barbiturates. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). and liver disease. gallbladder disease. exercise. or sleepiness. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. and lose weight as part of their treatment. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. skin rash. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. Children may take this drug. fever. . or other abdominal problems. hives. gout. thyroid problems.weeks of treatment. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. It reduces water and salt in the body. Patients with liver or kidney disease. fainting. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Possible side effects may include constipation. or blurred vision.

It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. impotence. All rights reserved. joint or muscle pain. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. ketoconazole. Famotidine Famotidine. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. among other effects. rapid or slow heartbeat. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. pentoxifylline. or cardiac arrest. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. dizziness. . seizures. or probenecid. stomach acid decreases. Relief of symptoms may take several days. and also in a liquid form that is injected. When histamine action is blocked. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. or sleepiness. Overdosage can cause confusion. Less common are diarrhea. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. It is available in tablet and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. pancrelipase. anxiety. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. hair loss. All rights reserved. skin rash or itching. both taken orally.

Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. or abnormally slow heartbeat. headache. and ranitidine. sleeplessness.Diltiazem Diltiazem. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. cimetidine. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. blood vessels and slowing the heart. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. or vision changes. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. Brand Names:Cardizem. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. All rights reserved. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. light sensitivity. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. or opening. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. ringing in the ears. skin rash. Available in tablet and capsule form. Diclofenac Sodium . nausea. fluid retention. digoxin. aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. thereby reducing blood pressure. dry mouth. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. The drug works by dilating. carbamazepine. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. hair loss. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Also sometimes seen are constipation. muscular weakness. diarrhea.

Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. skin rash. or dizziness. diuretics. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. in somnia. hair loss. indigestion. heart medications containing digitalis. cyclosporine. if stomach upset occurs. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). An anti-inflammatory analgesic. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. methotrexate. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. drowsiness. facial swelling. the two branch es that connect the . insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. headache. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. All rights reserved. ringing in the ears. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. diarrhea. nausea. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. heart disease. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. or loss of consciousness. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. lung inflammation. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. light sensitivity. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. blood-thinning medications. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi.Diclofenac Sodium. with food. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. blurred or double vision. lithium. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. and carteolol. constipation. but it is known to appear in breast milk. or vomiting. Classified as an antiasthmatic. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution.

tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). skin rash. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. All rights reserved. usually in 250. Nasalcrom. although most are taken four to six times per day. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. and bronchitis. Available by prescription only. including capsules (taken orally). liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. difficulty swallowing. or powder. It comes in several forms. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. nosebleed. headache. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. throat irritation. joint pain. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. nasal congestion. . Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Possible side effects include coughing. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. or swollen glands. frequent urination. although the complete. nausea. or wheezing. Brand Names:Intal.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. sneezing. They may be taken w ith or without food. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. tablets are taken orally. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. dizziness. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known.

headache. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. operating dangerous machinery. or an altered sense of taste. usually one or two tablets every four hours. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. astemizole. acetaminophen. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. Dependency on this drug can occur. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. theophylline. but may include nausea. diarrhea. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. Severe diarrhea. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. should not take this drug. . It is taken in tablet or capsule form. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. and phenytoin.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. requires immediate medical attention. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. or other risk-related activities. Patients with porphyria. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. indigestion. sedative b arbiturate drug. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. digoxin. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. caffeine. especially with long-term use. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection.

constipation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. liver disease. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. usually in 5. breathing difficulties.or 10-mg doses. patients with low blood pressure. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. such as beta blockers. Fiorinal. and theophylline. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. .Potential side effects include drowsiness. fluid retention or swelling. light-headedness. Brand Names:Fioricet. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. and heart palpitations. sleepiness. All rights reserved. twitching. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. dizziness. flushing. Phrenilin. fainting. and vomiting. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. thereby reducing blood pressure. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. diarrhea. These include antidepressants. oral contraceptives. back or chest pain. or vomiting. fatigue. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. All rights reserved. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. steroids. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. nausea. including dizziness. However. low blood pressure. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. headache. migraine. itching. Brand Names:Norvasc. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. antihistamines. shock. anxiety. warfarin. Amlodipine Amlodipine. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. The drug may be taken with or without food. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. or coma. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined.

ringing in the ears. an irregular heartbeat. Some of the more common ones include agitation. liver disease. nosebleeds. . Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. It is available in aerosol. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. rapid heartbeat. People with high blood pressure. All rights reserved. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. increased blood pressure. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. restoring comfortable breathing. syrup.Albuterol Albuterol. all of which are taken orally. diarrhea. in fact. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. indigestion. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. cardiovascular problems. tablet. Brand Names:Proventil. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. can make symptoms worse. nausea. dizziness. Ventolin. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. muscle cramps. and capsule form. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. tooth discoloration. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. usually within 15 minutes. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. headache. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. and vomiting. sleeplessness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). an overactive thyroid gland.

weight loss. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. or nursing women. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . antidepressants. or engaging in other risk-related activities. operating dangerous machinery. Possible side effects include nausea. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. vomiting.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. skin rash. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. as needed. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. All rights reserved. ulcers. kidney or liver problems.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. mood changes. headache. or influenza. Brand Names:Darvon. or jaundice. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. or pain -killing. blood-clotting problems. chickenpox. caffeine. so patients should avoid driving. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. for pain relief. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. pregnant women. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. constipation. antihistamines. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. muscle relaxants. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. anticoagulants. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. effect. asthma. muscle weakness. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. or other narcotic pain relievers. sleep aids. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. Pravastatin Pravastatin . Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. especially after long-term use at high dosages. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine).

stomach pain. niacin. diarrhea. constipation. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. should not take pravastatin. prostate . or children under the age of 18. nausea. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. including asthma and sleep apnea. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. Typically. Patients with liver or kidney disease. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. Pregnant or nursing women. usually within 20 minutes. usually at bedtime. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. Children may take this drug. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. and immunosuppressive drugs.cholesterol. skin rash. peptic ulcers. warfarin. cataracts. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. or flulike symptoms. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. muscle cramps. Promethazine Promethazine. should not take promethazine. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. heart disease. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. syrup. itchiness. ketoconazole. and suppository form. high blood pressure. Promethazine works quickly. headache. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. liver conditions. gemfibrozil. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. drug used mainly to treat allergies. All rights reserved. erythromycin. muscular disorders. Available only by prescription. cimetidine. cyclosporine. with dosages based on body weight. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. colestipol. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. gas. It may be taken with or without food. injectable liquid. Available by prescription in tablet. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. fight insomnia.

and various liquids. gel. tranquilizers. or abnormal heart rhythm. syphilis. jaundice. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. Dependingon the site of the infection. blurred vision. vomiting. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. however. or light sensitivity. sedatives. Brand Names: Phenergan. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. disorientation. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. ear and skin infections. or engage in other risk-related activities. Children may take most forms of this drug. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. However. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. impaired kidney function. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. nausea. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. skin rash. whooping cough. breathing difficulties. with dosages determined by body weight. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or loss of consciousness. or narrow-angle glaucoma. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ointment. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection.enlargement. operate dangerous machin ery. All rights reserved. blood pressure changes. Erythromycin Erythromycin. tablets. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. rheumatic fever. urinary tract infections. and diphtheria. preventing their multiplication and growth. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. gonorrhea. and antidepressant drugs. Other possible side effects include dizziness.

and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. bone cysts in children. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. yellowing of the eyes or skin.Ilosone. digoxin. tendinitis. carbamazepine. lovastatin. and theophylline. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. or diarrhea. ulcerative colitis. vomiting.Benzamycin. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole.Theramycin Z.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. lupus erythematous. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It comes in a tablet. an injectable liquid. eye irritation. multiple sclerosis. or temporary hearing loss. Brand Names: Erythrocin. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. redness. it is usually taken for four to . inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). and psoriasis. All rights reserved. It is also used to treat anemia. and to treat asthma. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. blood-thinners. dizziness.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). itching. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. For tablets. nausea. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. This drug is available by prescription only. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. and most forms of arthritis. eczema.Erymax. phenytoin. For acute disorders.Erygel. croup. loss of appetite. preferably right after a bowel movement. Emgel. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. hives. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. an ointment. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). and an enema. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). Also seen are skin rash. It reduces swelling. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. rapid heartbeat.

ketoprofen. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. All rights reserved. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. smallpox. Naproxen . rabies. peptic ulcer disease. glaucoma. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. and increased susceptibility to infection. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. aspirin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. and certain vaccines. retention of salt and water. phenytoin. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. ketoconazole. cyclosporine. peptic ulcer. ephedrine. hypertension (high blood pressure). carbamazepine. retarded growth and development in children. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. barbiturates . oral contraceptives (birth control pills). weight gain. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. oral antidiabetic drugs. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. possible diabetes. drugs containing estrogen. For chronic disorders. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. increased blood sugar. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. antacids. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. and naproxen. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. digoxin.ten days. insulin. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. indomethacin. Medrol. Brand Names:Duralone. cataracts.

This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. orthopedic surgery. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. tendinitis. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. menstrual cramps. nausea. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. and for strains and sprains. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. osteoarthritis. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. soreness of the mouth. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. and liver or kidney damage. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. and other pain. changes in menstruation. diarrhea. and as a liquid. To minimize adverse side effects. bleeding or blood cell disorders. difficulty breathing. or vomiting. difficulty sleeping. nervousness. If possible. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. or severe impairment of kidney function. heartburn. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. drowsiness. dental treatment. pregnant or breast-feeding women. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. These include bloating. it may be taken with food or antacids. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. tendinitis. and gout. indigestion. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. sweating. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. constipation. bursitis. and 500 mg. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. headache. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. without missing doses.Naproxen. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. . osteoarthritis. Pain relief should begin within one hour. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. If stomach irritation occurs. lightheadedness. For bursitis. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. loss of appetite. liver disease. dizziness. 375 mg. For gout.

starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. methotrexate. metoprolol. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. It may have a negative effect on . Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. 100-mg. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. pregnant or breast-feeding women. The regular tablet can be crushed. the typical. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. atenolol. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. salicylates. aspirin. and 200-mg tablets. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. For prevention of heart attacks. and timolol. For treatment after a heart attack. Metoprolol Metoprolol. lithium. in prolonged action tablets. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. and probenecid. For treatment of hypertension or angina. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). Brand Names:Aleve. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. more commonly known as beta blockers. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. an abnormally slow heart rate. This drug is available by prescription only. beta blockers such as acebutolol. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It comes in 50-mg. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). All rights reserved. persons with congestive heart failure.

chlorpromazine. which may trigger pain and inflammation. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.driving or other risk-related activities. digoxin. clonidine. hydralazine. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). slow heart rate. fluoxetine. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. diltiazem. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. cimetidine. . Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. calcium channel blockers. aminophylline. cold h ands and feet. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. amiodarone. oral antidiabetic drugs. albuterol. epinephrine. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. furosemide. osteoarthritis. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. and decreased sexual desire. fatigue. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. and verapamil. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. aspirin. gout. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. All rights reserved. and tendinitis. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. Brand Names:Lopressor. lightheadedness. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. tranquilizers. nifedipine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. reserpine. insulin. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use.

ringing in the ears. lithium. nausea. sulfinpyrazone. dizziness. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. aspirin. b eta blockers.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. relieving swelling and stiffness. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. ulceration. indomethacin. mouth sores. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or a severe impairment of kidney function. anticoagulants. depression. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. itching. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. methotrexate. diarrhea. and vomiting. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. or with a prescribed antacid. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. and warfarin. sleep disturbances. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. such as aspirin. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Etodolac is available only by prescription. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. valproic acid. hives. Etodolac Etodolac. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . All rights reserved. headache. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. with meals. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. indigestion. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. constipation. should not take this drug. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. enoxaparin. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. skin rash. and bleeding. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. To avoid adverse side effects.

indigestion. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. blood-thinning medications. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tablet. heart disease. diarrhea. or muscle weakness. skin rash. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. rapid heartbeat. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. nausea. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. drug used to reduce the inflammation. fluid retention. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. peptic ulcer. skin rash. constipation. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. fever. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. and menstrual cramps. and nausea. fainting. diuretics. sweating. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. anemia. bursitis. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. Possible side effects include drowsiness. with increased blood flow during menstruation. dizziness. headache. Patients with kidney or liver problems. tendinitis. All rights reserved. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. insomnia. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. and it may appear in breast milk. depression.stomach upset. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. and digoxin. milk. indigestion. and suppository form. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. fever. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. ringing in the ears. but it can be taken with food. .

or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls.4 mg from a spray container. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lithium. All rights reserved. Breast-feeding women. As a result. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). one 1 . For long-term prevention of angina. bleeding disorders. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. patients with allergies to the drug.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . verapamil.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. and chest pain is alleviated. applied on or under the tongue. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. and diuretics. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. For prevention of angina. steroids. blood supply to the heart muscle improves.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. impaired kidney function. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. If necessary. or one metered dose of 0. drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain).15 to 0. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. aspirin. nifedipine. and patients with ulcers. insulin. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. workload on the heart is reduced. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. phenytoin. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs.

the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women.5 -inch (7. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. Nitrocap TD. acetylcysteine. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. diltiazem. sudden drop in blood pressure . Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. Warfarin . or a 0. To maintain its effectiveness. All rights reserved. recent head trauma. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and heart palpitations. antihypertensive drugs. rapid heart rate. heparin. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. hyperthyroidism. headache. colds. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. and coughs. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. rather. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). aspirin. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. Nitrocine Transdermal. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness.

nausea. and ibuprofen (Advil. hair loss. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. or gangrene. fish. a heart-related infection. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. difficulty breathing. asparagus. or swelling. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Motrin). headache. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. some forms of irregular heartbeat. difficulty swallowing. joint pain. chest pain. an aneurysm. any infectious disease. Patients with peptic ulcers. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. beef liver. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. diabetes. puncture. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. All rights reserved. For this reason. or recent surgery should not use this drug. fever. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. and bacon. s kin inflammation. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. discolored (purplish) toes.Warfarin. cauliflower. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. and hypertension (high blood pressure). prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. a blood disorder. severe allergies. Other side effects may include diarrhea. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. cut. or patients with high blood pressure. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. or intestinal problems. Classified as an anticoagulant. ulcerative colitis. After the first two to three days. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. acetaminophen (Tylenol). warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. Verapamil works by . impaired liver or kidney function. Verapamil Verapamil.

fluid retention. dry mouth. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and in me n. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Isoptin. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. sleepiness. prostate gland enlargement. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. Brand Names:Calan. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. ringing in the ears. cyclosporine. taken in three or four doses. fatigue. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. cimetidine. aspirin. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. hair loss. and it does appear in breast milk. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. with meals and at bedtime with food. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. impotence. Available in tablet and capsule form.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. phenobarbital. constipation. digoxin. or congestive heart failure. or s low heartbeat. skin rash. headache. Terazosin Terazosin . congestive heart failure. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. carbamazepine. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. lithium. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. theophylline. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). abnormally low blood pressure. All rights reserved. thereby lowering blood pressure. rifampin. nausea. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . an injectable solution is also available. phenytoin. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. and various diuretics. light sensitivity. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs.

Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). estrogens. to dilate arteries. even when symptoms are relieved. fatigue. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. and urinary tract infections. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. dizziness. taken in one or two doses. muscle weakness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Available by prescription in capsule form. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. Ramipril Ramipril. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. which influence salt and water retention. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. All rights reserved. or a history of stroke. reduce blood volume. coronary artery disease. headache. or engaging in other risk-related activities. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime.problems of urine flow. and lower blood pressure. At these times. .5 to 20 mg per day. stuffy nose. it should be taken regularly. difficulty breathing. numbness. Dosages range from 2. sweating. fainting. nausea. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. heart palpitations. especially beta blockers. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. operating dangerous machinery. patients should avoid driving. or blurred vision. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. drug used to control high blood pressure. painful urination. fluid retention. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin.

characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. caused by epilepsy. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. capsule. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. It is also known to appear in breast milk. it must be taken regularly to be effective. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. or violent muscle contractions. systemic lupus erythematosus. especially in the second and third trimesters. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lightheadedness. vomiting. . Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. To avoid stomach irritation. cyclosporine. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. requires immediate medical attention. and liquid form. heart disease. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. impaired liver or kidney function. drug used to treat the seizures. Taken orally. and potassium supplements. except for one liquid form made for injection. nausea. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. fatigue. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. coughing. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. All rights reserved. An allergic reaction to this drug. Side effects may include headache. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. it can react adversely with such drugs. scleroderma. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. or low white blood cell levels. high potassium levels. muscle pain. It also may react with aspirin. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. or light sensitivity. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. as it can harm the fetus. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. lithium. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord.

theophylline. carbamazepine. oral contraceptive s. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. but are not limited to. Other observed side effects include nausea. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. The injection is given within a muscle. These include. abnormal hair growth. or slurred speech. diabetes. methylphenidate.Patients with impaired liver function. estrogens. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sodium valproate. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. acute pain. impotence. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). steroids. headache. bedwetting. ulcer medications. four to six hours apart. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. twitching. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. joint pain. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . doxycycline. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. skin rash. insomnia. and as eyedrops. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. The initial. mental confusion. Ketorolac Ketorolac. diazepam. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. certain tranquilizers. and valproic acid. blood thinners. fever. Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. dizziness. or change in urine color. phenobarbital. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). or heart disease should use this drug with caution. furosemide. Also included are the drugs felbamate. involuntary eye movement. aspirin. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. and antacids.

constipation. All rights reserved. cefotetan. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. Glipizide Glipizide. asthma. lupus erythematosus. and gastrointestinal bleeding. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. headache. edema. ulceration. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. or high blood pressure. renal failure. indigestion. ketoprofen. and perforation. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. as well as with lithium. plicamycin. increased sweating. dizziness. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. allergic reactions. methotrexate.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. colitis. . burning or pain at the injection site. drowsiness. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. diabetes mellitus. Brand Names:Acular. moxalactam. diarrhea. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. nabumetone. probenecid. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. kidney or liver disease. and oxaprozin. bruising at the site of injection. decrease in urine output. heparin.more than five days. naproxen. cefamandole. cefoperazone. heart disease. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. Less common side effects are eye irritation. vomiting. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. acetaminophen. Abdominal or stomach pain. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. edema. superficial eye infections. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug.

The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. Potential side effects may include headache. anemia. rapid heartbeat. disorientation. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. The starting dose is 5 mg. antacids. . Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. sulfa drugs. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. in one or two doses. shallow breathing. All rights reserved. with or without food. corticoids. but depending on the patient’s response. nausea. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. skin rash. impaired kidney or liver function. dizziness. estrogens. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. but are not limited to. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. light sensitivity. thyroid medications. birth control pills. Patients with heart disorders. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. With long-term use (months to years). aspirin. Tablets are taken orally. in dosages ranging from 2. which control salt and water retention. tranquilizers. sweating. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish.5 to 40 mg per day. drowsiness. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). These include. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Enalapril Enalapril. or seizures. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). stomach pain. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment.

secretion of stomach acid decreases. excessive sweating. rapid heartbeat. nausea. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. herpes infections (including shingles). both taken orally. hair loss. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. impotence. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. it may react adversely with such drugs. loss of appetite. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It also may cause chest pain. It is also known to appear in breast milk. skin rash or itching. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). It is used to treat reflux disease. or abnormally low blood pressure. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. dizziness. usually taken immediately . including salt substitutes that contain potassium. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. Depending on the condition being treated. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Brand Names:Vasotec. depression. sensitivity to light. Cimetidine Cimetidine. and an overactive parathyroid gland. hives. breast enlargement (in males). dry mouth or eyes.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. All rights reserved. muscle cramps or weakness. and in a liquid form that is injected. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. When histamine action is blocked. blurred vision. It has not been proven safe for use in children. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. abdominal pain. acne. excessive hair growth in women. especially in the second and third trimesters. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn.

this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. nicotine. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. or hallucinations. metronidazole. All rights reserved. joint or muscle pain. depression. quinine. skin rash or inflammation. pentoxifylline.2 lb). and aspirin. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. cyclosporine. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. With prolonged use (one month or more). narcotic pain relievers. metoclopramide. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. cigarette smoking. also known as valproic acid. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. some patients experience anxiety. rapid or slow heartbeat.after a meal. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. paroxetine. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat seizures. including medications for diabetes. and excessive caffeine. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. and warfarin. sucralfate. which is increased as needed (to a . dizziness. theophylline. Available in tablet form. phenytoin. hair loss. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Relief of symptoms may take several days. confusion. impotence. digoxin. anemia. such as those associated with epilepsy. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. Less common side effects are diarrhea. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). heart palpitations. Divalproex Divalproex. and sleepiness.

behavior changes.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. sleep aids. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. or weight gain. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and birth control pills. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. Some patients experience drowsiness and. antihistamines. operate dangerous machinery. itching. heart attacks. nausea. muscle weakness. which is divided into several smaller doses. should not drive. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. yellowing skin or eyes. blood thinners. All rights reserved. constipation. surgery. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. drowsiness. double vision. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. This drug can cause liver damage. fever. This drug slows blood clotting. and other seizure medications.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. tranquilizers. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. especially when used in children under the age of two. or engage in other risk-related activities. vomiting. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. Captopril Captopril. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and vomiting. fluid retention. as continuous seizures may result. Possible side effects include indigestion. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. or dental procedures. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. Patients are often started on a . facial swelling. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. It also may interact with erythromycin. and loss of seizure control. isoniazid. loss of appetite. as a result . drug typically used to control high blood pressure. tremors. skin rash. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. which influence salt and water rete ntion.

All rights reserved. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. mouth. which is increased as needed. as it can harm the fetus. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. light sensitivity. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. A reaction that includes chest pain. lightheadedness. especially in the second and third trimesters.small dosage. which also requires immediate medical care. Possible side effects include itching. sweating. vomiting. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. It also may react adversely with aspirin. or swelling of the arms. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. lithium. even after symptoms are relieved. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). Brand Names:Capoten. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). depression. peptic ulcer. legs. anti-inflammatory medications. muscle pain or weakness. it can react adversely with these drugs. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. Less common side effects include blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. which usually takes several weeks. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. skin rash. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). nitroglycerin. and extremely low blood pressure. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. fatigue. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. wheezing stroke. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). nausea. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. constipation. diarrhea. confusion. or heart failure. sleepiness. Lovastatin Lovastatin . fainting. . Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. loss of taste.

Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . usually at bedtime. Simvastatin Simvastatin. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. gas. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. cyclosporine. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fever. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. which are taken orally. and unusual tiredness or weakness. gemfibrozil. muscle aches or cramps. This drug should be taken with food. niacin. and warfarin. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. diarrhea. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. headache. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. Less common side effects are blurred vision. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. heartburn.Available by prescription only. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. 20-mg. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. severe stomach pain. and stomach pain. nausea. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. weight loss. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. dizziness. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Tablets are taken with or without food. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. preferably with evening meals. skin rash. and 40-mg tablets. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. All rights reserved. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily.

or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. muscle weakness. warfarin. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. diarrhea. stomach pain. The drug is effective within 48 hours. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. Levothyroxine may be used during . although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. ketoconazole. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. in tablets and an injectable liquid. skin rash.weeks of treatment. This drug is available by prescription only. All rights reserved. erythromycin. cataracts. digoxin. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. and diabetes. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. nicotinic acid. and for infants with cretinism. cimetidine. or by young people under the age of 20. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. or lowered blood pressure. muscular disorders. by pregnant or nursing women. nausea. or hepatitis. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. impaired vision. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. cyclosporine. gas. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). including high blood pressure. or thyrotoxicosis. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. gemfibrozil. constipation. and spironolactone. Patients with impaired liver function. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. clofibrate.

Levoxine. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or chest pain. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . but never admitted any wrongdoing. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. agitation. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Patients should not take more than a single. Astemizole Astemizole. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. sweating. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. which causes thyroid overactivity. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. diarrhea. Brand Names: Levothroid. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. Astemizole is available only by prescription. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. weight loss or gain. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). heart palpitations. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. and skin. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. tiredness. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. flushed skin. eyes. All rights reserved.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. headache. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. with or without food. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. All rights reserved. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. and cholestyramine. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. Patients with anemia. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. nausea. impaired liver or kidney function. . procainamide. phenytoin. or pain associated with cancer. loss of appetite. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. with dosages based on body weight. especially of the urinary tract and eye. pneumonia. vomiting. Brand Names:Bactrim. Available by prescription only. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. cyclosporine. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. and traveler’s diarrhea. abdominal cramps. dapsone. or increased blood potassium. Tramadol Tramadol. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. rifampin. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. back or joint pain. bronchitis. sore mouth. diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

. constipation. sedatives. operate dangerous machinery. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. diarrhea. sweating. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. people taking this drug should not drive. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. or dry mouth. For this reason. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. and a liquid form that is injected. Its safety for children under the age of 16. In addition. or engage in other riskrelated activities. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. cream and ointment forms applied topically. including an oral inhalant. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. two to three times a day. Other possible side effects include nausea. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. vomiting. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. tablets. All rights reserved. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. quinidine. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma.

Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. peptic ulcer. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. sneezing. headache. mottled skin. warfarin. phenytoin. Taken orally. or a history of tuberculosis. digoxin. nasal irritation or congestion. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. Tretinoin Tretinoin. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). . Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. nosebleed. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). glaucoma (an eye disorder). It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). fluid retention. diabetes drugs (including insulin). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. wheezing. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. memory loss.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. All rights reserved. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Brand Names:Azmacort. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. carbamazepine. and primidone. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. hoarseness. but helps alleviate symptoms. weight loss. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. skin rash.

or spices. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. Hands should be washed immediately after application. usually once a day at bedtime. This drug is available in liquid form. mouth. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. preferably an hour before meals. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. It should not come in contact with the eyes. astringents. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. temporary worsening of acne. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. Brand Names:Retin-A. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. and solution. especially those containing sulfur. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. darkening or lightening of skin color. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. cream. as well as with medicated soaps. Renoval. salicylic acid. excessive redness or peeling of the skin.Tretinoin is available in a gel. citrus scents. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. and s kin products containing alcohol. The tablet form is taken orally. or resorcinol. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. It is applied to the skin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. although maximum improvement may take several months. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. All rights reserved. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. . crusty skin) should use this drug with caution.

insulin and other diabetes drugs. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. cimetidine. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. tablet. improving circulation. lung disease. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. tingling or numbness. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Theophylline Theophylline. impaired liver or kidney function. diarrhea. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. especially in patients with heart disorders. Possible side effects may include headache. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). vomiting. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. All are taken orally. and liquid form. As a bronchodilator. or impotence. Brand Names: Timoptic. or heart failure. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). hay fever or other allergies. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). hair loss. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. shortness of breath. theophylline. dizziness. chronic bronchitis. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. prescription drug used to treat asthma. as well as epinephrine. low blood pressure. and pulmonary (lung) disease. chlorpromazine. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. All rights reserved. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. which may be increased if needed. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. . muscle weakness. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. low blood sugar.Patients with asthma. Blocadren. an overactive thyroid gland. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Theophylline is available in capsule. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. chest pain.

Patients with peptic ulcers. It also may interact with cimetidine. low blood pressure. All rights reserved. ciprofloxacin. acne. increased urination. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. applied topically. and birth control pills. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). or heart disease should use this drug with caution. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. thereby halting their growth. Changes in heart rate. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. taken orally. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. should be checked by a doctor. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. and gonorrhea. another possible side effect. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. seizure disorders. insomnia. propanolol. impaired liver or kidney function. erythromycin. Brand Names:Slo-bid. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. or coma. gum disease. . including urinary tract infections. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. taken in one to four doses. or skin rash. high blood pressure. and in a reconstituted powder solution. clarithromycin. irregular heartbeat. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. doxycycline. Tetracycline Tetracycline. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. headache. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. convulsions. phenytoin.

eyes. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. Unlike many other antihistamines. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. blood thinners. oral contraceptives. indigestion. nausea. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. and sucralfate. increased intraocular pressure. Possible side effects include headache. skin rash. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. nausea. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. Brand Name:Allegra . Topicycline. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. itching. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. renal impairment. headache. insomnia. All rights reserved. cold or flu. sore throat. As an antihistamine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blurred vision. confusion. penicillin. diabetes mellitus. or in infants. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. light sensitivity. and throat. and menstrual pain. Possible side effects include diarrhea. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. irregular heartbeat. or seizures. facial swelling. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. lithium. fatigue. hyperthyroidism. or prostatic hypertrophy. cholestyramine. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. ischemic heart disease. difficulty swallowing. Brand Names:Achromycin V. a bulging soft spot on the head. chest pain. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. isotretinoin. vomiting.

As a result. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. producing a calming effect. a yeastlike fungus. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. which can interact with terconazole. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or chills. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. All rights reserved. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. All rights reserved. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. fever. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. drug used to treat insomnia. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. headache. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Temazepam Temazepam. preventing its reproduction and growth. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. body pain. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. narcotics. convulsions. or vomiting. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. All rights reserved. If needed. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. confusion. and oral contraceptives. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. especially when starting treatment. seizures. or engaging in risk-related activities. tremors. barbiturates. increased dreaming. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. or nausea. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. tremors. or by young people under the age of 18. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. usually in a 15-mg dose. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. blurred vision. tranquilizers. . Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. diarrhea. In addition. depression. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). including antidepressants. When treatment is stopped. restlessness. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nervousness. antihistamines. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Available only by prescription. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. or hallucinations. Other possible side effects include fatigue. or coma. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. headache. operating dangerous machinery. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. Also observed in some patients are sweating. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. difficulty in breathing.

tingling. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. stiff neck. irregular heartbeat. esophagus. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. muscle weakness. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. or a dry mouth. or fainting are sometimes observed. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. Irregular heartbeat. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. especially angina. has not been determined. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. as well as cimetidine. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects may include constipation. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. quinidine. ranitidine. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. and theophylline. Brand Name:Carafate . It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. ketoconazole. change in blood pressure. digoxin. sore throat. and blood-thinners. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. phenytoin. Its safety for children. Raynaud’s syndrome. dizziness. tetracycline. certain antibiotics. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. uncontrolled high blood pressure. Sucralfate Sucralfate. antispasmodic drugs. This drug heals existing ulcers. preferably with water. or skin rash. digestive tract. Possible side effects may include dizziness. drowsiness. or va gina. or allergies. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. diarrhea. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. All rights reserved. drug used to treat ulcers.Patients with heart disease. difficulty breathing. sucralfate is taken orally. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. tightness in the chest or throat. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations.

and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). Sertraline Sertraline. usually at bedtime. or by young people under the age of 20. less often. weight loss. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). nausea. skin rash. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. obsessive -compulsive disorders. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. ketoconazole. or hepatitis. cimetidine. by pregnant or nursing women. nicotinic acid. impaired vision. stomach pain. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . Possible side effects of this drug include headache. muscular disorders. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Tablets are taken with or without food. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. digoxin. clofibrate. cyclosporine. Patients with impaired liver function. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. erythromycin. gemfibrozil. drug used to treat depression and. gas. muscle weakness. or lowered blood pressure. Simvastatin Simvastatin. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cataracts. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. diarrhea. warfarin. constipation. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. and spironolactone. All rights reserved. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day.

When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. weight loss. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. warfarin. or behaviora l changes. Available only by prescription. vomiting. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. insomnia. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. if needed. tremors. seizures. All rights reserved. irregular heartbeat. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. cimetidine. diarrhea. agitation. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. The typical dose is 42 mg. including headache. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. fatigue. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. sleepiness. The starting dose is 50 mg. twice daily. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. lithium. sweating. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. sensitivity to bright light. various diabetes medications including insulin. a dry mouth. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. Parkinson disease. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. digitoxin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which a doctor may slowly increase. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. Salmeterol Salmeterol. breast enlargement (in both females and males). or problems with male sexual performance. or two inhalations. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. difficulty breathing or swallowing. . drug used for the treatment of asthma. tolbutamide. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. constipation.Available only by prescription.

liver disease. nervousness. headaches. or taking antacids. All rights reserved. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. or skin rashes. skin rash. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. Ranitidine Ranitidine. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. . causing chronic heartburn. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. capsule. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. all taken orally. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. smoking cigarettes. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. Less common side effects are diarrhea. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. diabetes. heart attack. or overactive thyroid gland. and drowsiness. It is also available as an injectable liquid. anemia. or muscle cramps. joint or muscle pain. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. hair loss. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. dizziness. dizziness. as well as theophylline and caffeine. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. and liquid form. rapid or slow heartbeat. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16.

An allergic reaction to this drug. midazolam. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. muscle pain. thereby reducing blood pressure. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. as well as with diazepam. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. which influence salt and water retention. theophylline. or vomiting. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. glipizide. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. high potassium levels. procainamide. sucralfate. systemic lupus erythematous. especially in the second and third trimesters. ketoconazole. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. chest or abdominal pain. fatigue. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. cyclosporine. nausea. Available by prescription. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. it can react adversely with these drugs. All rights reserved. and potassium supplements. tetracycline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or low white blood cell counts. It also may react with lithium. The drug relaxes arterial walls. Quinapril Quinapril. lightheadedness. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. heart disease. as it can harm the fetus. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. scleroderma. and triamterene. requires immediate medical attention. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. enoxacin. it must be taken regularly to be effective. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. coughing. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. . Possible side effects include dizziness. itraconazole. reduces blood volume.

All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. .Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

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