Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. and many suffered cramping. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. These include inducing fullterm labor. as well as certain other tumors.S. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. including the United States. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. . but a few take longer. and 3 percent aborted immediately. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. Under the trade name Mifeprex. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. which starts the process. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg. which starts contractions. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. Typically. In the United States. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. Misoprostol. a nonprofit. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. China. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. Nearly half the women in the U. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. given later. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. the cervix softens and opens. and the uterine lining breaks down. Instead. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. Two days later. At the third visit. and as a therapy for endometriosis. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. treating breast and ovarian cancer.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. two weeks later. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. Without progesterone. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. private research organization. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion.

Theoretically. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. no medical instruments are used. where the drug has been in use since 1988. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. and the procedure is not invasive. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. In contrast. in France. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. They also point out that. by making abortion potentially available in any . including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. in a small number of women. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. are that anesthesia is not required. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon. weakness. and fatigue. However. headache. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. is over much more quickly. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. diarrhea. However. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France.

drug introduced in 1953. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. spine. Britain. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. More than 10. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. Thalidomide. The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. a German pharmaceutical company. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. respiratory tract. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. palate. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. Eventually. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. kidneys.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. eyes. gastrointestinal tract. . Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. All rights reserved.physician’s office. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. During this delay. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. and reproductive tract. lip. and other countries. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. heart. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels.

Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. although not fully understood. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. Among other issues. when produced in excessive amounts. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. and the sores make eating difficult. This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. A serious skin disorder. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. . or chronic weight loss. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. Under these restrictions. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems.

starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. in prolonged action tablets. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. persons with congestive heart failure. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. The regular tablet can be crushed. fatigue. slow heart rate. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. This drug is available by prescription only. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. the typical. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. For treatment of hypertension or angina. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and 200-mg tablets.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). For prevention o f heart attacks. Metoprolol. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. 100-mg. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. It comes in 50-mg. For treatment after a heart attack. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. All rights reserved. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. cold hands and feet. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. lightheadedness. and decreased sexual desire. more commonly known as beta blockers. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. a n abnormally slow heart rate.

tranquilizers. dizziness. . without missing doses. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. aspirin. difficulty sleeping. Brand Names:Lopressor. digoxin. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. To minimize adverse side effects. calcium channel blockers. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. The typical. nifedipine. fluoxetine. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. oral antidiabetic drugs. taken once a day or in divided doses. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. or severe impairment of kidney function. theophyllinevenlafaxine. epinephrine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. chlorpromazine. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. albuterol. bleeding or blood cell disorders. constipation. diltiazem. cimetidine. Nabumetone. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. These include bloating. liver disease. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. reserpine. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. taken orally. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. diarrhea.sedative effect. oral hypoglycemic drugs. and verapamil. aminophylline. amiodarone. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. pregnant or breast-feeding women. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. furosemide. clonidine. hydralazine. insulin. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

nosebleed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. including antibiotics. liver disease. or increased appetite. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. irregular heartbeat. or vomiting. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. beta blockers. nausea. eyes. dry mouth or throat. joint or muscle pain. soreness of the mouth. Astemizole. fatigue. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Astemizole is available only by prescription. diarrhea. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. and liver or kidney damage. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. asthma or difficulty breathing. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. sweating. and skin. antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). itching or tingling. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. All rights reserved. blurred vision. heartburn.dizziness. skin rash. loss of appetite. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. nervousness. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. seizures. indigestion. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. nausea. or cardiac arrest. or sore throat. . diuretics. drowsiness. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. headache. impairment of normal blood clotting. and probenecid. Patients should not take more than a single. aspirin. lightheadedness. other salicylates. Patients with asthma. Less common are depression. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. dizziness. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. Possible side effects include drowsiness. headache. nervousness. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day.

This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. loss of appetite. setraline (Zoloft). and paroxetine (Paxil). Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. if necessary. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). nausea. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. vomiting. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. drug used to treat heart problems. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. blurred vision. skin rash. All are taken orally. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. although one form of the liquid is injected. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. Digoxin is available in capsule. It may be taken with food. All rights reserved. Dosages of this drug vary widely.5 mg per day. nefazodone (Serzone). headache. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. stomach pain. to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. ranging from 0. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. . The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. which is usually divided into two or more small doses.5 mg) on the first day. Children under age ten may take this drug. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). Digoxin. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1. or breast development in males. tablet. fluvoxamine (Luvox). and liquid form. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. as it may seriously affect heart function.125 to 0. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk.

patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. fatigue. Typically used to treat mental depression. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. insomnia. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. another type of antidepressant. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. diarrhea. diuretics. Because of these many drug interactions. including dry mouth. vomiting. dizziness. these may . blurred vision. chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. All rights reserved. thyroid hormones. It is taken orally in tablet form. an antidepressantdrug. breast enlargement. liver ailments. headache. drowsiness.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. antacids. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. migraine headaches.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. but it is known to appear in breast milk. often once a day at bedtime. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. these include seizures. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. anxiety. high fever. the maximum daily dosage for adults. heart or circulatory disorders. In addition. impotence. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. disorientation. steroids. bulimia. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. or stroke. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. Brand Names:Lanoxin. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). constipation. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. seizures. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. bronchodilators. heart attack. Amitriptyline.

confusion. barbiturates. or even death. drug used to treat anxiety. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. and large doses of vitamin C. irritable bowel syndrome. diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. irritability. panic attacks. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. muscle relaxants. stuffy nose. fainting. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. oral contraceptives. headache. loss of appetite. nausea. nausea. and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. drowsiness. tranquilizers. In addition. seizure medications. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. constipation. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs.include headache. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). premenstrual syndrome. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. with or without food. chest pains. as it may harm the baby. Alprazolam. It has also been used to treat depression. or seizures. usually three times a day. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. and certain phobias. or depression. decreased sex drive. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. thyroid hormones. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. diarrhea. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). or sleep disturbances. or engage in other risk-related activities.25 mg to 10 mg. irritability. Endep. Dosages may range from 0. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. or with . Brand Names:Elavil. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. All rights reserved. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. coma. muscular weakness. twitching. sleep medications. painkillers. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. antihistamines. It should not be combined with alcohol. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. operate dangerous machinery. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. muscle cramps.

antidepressants. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. disulfiram. Less common side effects include anxiety. various antihistamines. All rights reserved. In addition. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. with or without food. including carbamazepine. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. skin rash. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. but it does not interfere with muscle function. When combined with rest and physical therapy. high blood-pressure drugs. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. cimetidine. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. or tremors. and drugs that depress the central nervous system.narrow-angle glaucoma. and other tranquilizers. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. antispasmodic drugs. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. All rights reserved. operate dangerous machinery. insomnia. disorientation. constipation. diarrhea. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. indigestion. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. an irregular heartbeat. headache. an eye disorder. Available in tablet form. blurred or double vision. facial swelling. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. as serious or fatal reactions may result. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. sweating. . It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. Dry mouth is a common side effect. usually three times a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. abnormal heartbeat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. digoxin. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum.

unpasteurized beer. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. raisins. nervous tension. anxiety. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. canned fish. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. preferably on an empty stomach. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours). a dry mouth. nausea. pickled herring. avocado. or Tourette’s syndrome. The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. and 20-mg regular tablets. presumably by activating the brain stem. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. raspberries. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. bean curd. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. meat tenderizers. For sustained release tablets. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally. sherry. and weight loss with long-term use. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. yeast extracts. chianti. pregnant or breast-feeding women. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. 10-mg. salami. sour cream. . It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. stomach pain. For sustained release tablets. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. bologna. pepperoni. liver. and vermouth. taken before breakfast and lunch. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. meat extracts. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. soy sauce. a chemical that raises blood pressure. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. The regular tablet can be crushed. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets.Methylphenidate. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. severe depression. It comes in 5 -mg. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. persons with glaucoma. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. loss of appetite. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. chocolate. dried and salted fish. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. headache.

Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. phenobarbital.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. depression. skin rash or itching. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. or slow heartbeat. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. Less common side effects are diarrhea. and breathing difficulties. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and heart attack. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. and primidone. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. hair loss. anxiety. nausea. These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. Brand Names:Ritalin. angina. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. It affects the autonomic nervous system. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. including high blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. fatigue. Atenolol. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. Potential side effects include dizziness. Its safety for use in children is not known. or a slow heartbeat. with or without food. and tranylcypromine. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. heart blockage. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. impotence. . pargyline. All rights reserved. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. kidney disease.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. asthma. coronary artery disease. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. desipramine. and nortriptyline. phenelzine. headache. (An injectable. allergies. imipramine.

and for depression or other emotional disorders. anemia. other blood pressure medications. However. This process may take three months or more.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. hair loss. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. liver. or throat. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. or kidney function. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. headache. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. sore throat. impotence. All rights reserved. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. tongue. insulin. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. Both forms should be taken with meals. as severe. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. operate dangerous machinery. or liquid form. Side effects that include fever. constipation. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. dizziness. drowsiness. sensitivity to light. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. It also relieves neuralgia. They include muscle or joint pain. patients taking this drug should not drive. blurred vision. which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. which requires immediate medical treatment. itching. making seizures less frequent and less severe. breathing problems. fainting. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. continuous seizures may result. bruises. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. and antacids that contain calcium. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. low blood pressure. in the jaw. or impairment of heart. or pain along a sensory nerve. usually taken twice a day. such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). usually taken four times a day. Children six years and older may take this drug. mouth ulcers. for migraine headaches. thereby reducing pain. . hallucinations. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. or engage in other risk-related activities. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. For neuralgia. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. abdominal pain. and sweating. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction.

which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. This drug is available by prescription in table t. Patients with drug allergies. doxycycline. capsule. the entire course of medication should be taken. The drug is effective within three to five days. all of which are taken orally.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Less common side effects include indigestion. theophylline. Cephalexin. as well as calcium channel blockers. Brand Names:Tegretol. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. kidney disorders. skin rash. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. However. . All rights reserved. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. All rights reserved. It may also interact adversely with lithium. hives. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. joint pain. vomiting. colitis. haloperidol. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. reproductive system. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. and other antiseizure medications. fluid retention. dizziness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Keflex. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. vaginitis. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. hallucinations. used to treat infections of the middle ear. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. urinary tract. colitis (inflamed colon). abdominal pain. and bones. It is known to appear in breast milk. confusion. skin. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). and liquid form. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. and yellowing of the eyes or skin.

or dizziness. antacids. and uncontrollable hiccups. and violent hyperactivity in children. hives. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. In addition. glaucoma. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. blood-thinners. narcotics. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. insomnia. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. change in urine color. Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. and suppository form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. nasal congestion. suppressed cough reflex. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. anxiety before surgery. captopril. including anemia.Chlorpromazine. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. kidney or liver diseases. Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. respiratory infections. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. fainting. emphysema. liquid. or brain tumors. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. impotence. All rights reserved. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. so patients should not drive. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. diuretics. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. irregular heartbeat. cimetidine. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. tremors. or nervousness. seizures. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. vomiting. rapid heartbeat. anticonvulsants. breast cancer. or barbiturates. use dangerous machinery. or epinephrine. a neurotransmitter in the brain. it does appear in breast milk. constipation. tetanus. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. . intestinal blockage. light sensitivity. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. headache. tablet. and high fever.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. Patients taking this drug should not drive. Starting dosages usually range from 12. drowsiness. . Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. fever. and behavior. nausea. low blood pressure. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). and warfarin. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. weight gain. an enlarged prostate gland. emotions. rapid heartbeat. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. blurred vision. other possible side effects include seizures. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. atropine. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. as well as cimetidine. agranulocytosis causes fever. In addition. blood pressure medicatio ns. drug used to treat schizophrenia. digoxin. constipation. an eye disorder. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day. sore throat. operate dangerous machinery. or narrow-angle glaucoma. In addition to agranulocytosis. or engage in other risk-related activities. epinephrine. impaired liver or kidney function. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. a history of seizures.Clozapine. It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure).5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. and can lead to death in some cases. and antidepressants. All rights reserved. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). dizziness. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. tremors. and muscle weakness. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. or nightmares. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.

Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. operate dangerous machinery. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. mild tranquilizer drug. fatigue. while breast-feeding. barbiturates. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. fluoxetine. or coma. and rifampin. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. or low blood pressure. dizziness. confusion. anticonvulsant drugs. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). skin rash. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. constipation. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. A mild narcotic. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. or convulsions. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. ranitidine.Diazepam. muscle spasms. depression. and certain types of seizures. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. tremors. or poor muscle coordination. all are taken orally. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. . or epilepsy. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. severe depression. slurred speech. lightheadedness. or in children under six months of age. and birth control pills. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Classified as a benzodiazepine. insomnia. Depending on the patient’s condition.Dizac Hydrocodone. Valrelease. These include other tranquilizers. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. confusion. Brand Names:Valium. nausea. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. and liquid form. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. sweating. vomiting. capsule. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. headache. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. narcotics. digoxin. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. Diazepam may be taken with or without food. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. producing a calming effect. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal.

All rights reserved. impaired kidney or liver function. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. skin rash. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC. dry mouth. depression. delirium.Triaminic Expectorant DH. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time. nausea. who have a history of chemical dependency. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. . As a liquid cough remedy. and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. Extended use can cause chronic constipation.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. constipation. blurred or double vision. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off. impaired breathing. the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. urinary retention. vomiting. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness.A common ingredient in cough medicines.

Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. take any other drugs. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. have a history of alcoholism. and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. skin irritation and rash. . Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. Pregnant and nursing women. and nausea. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headaches. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and liver problems. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. All rights reserved. or shampoo. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. diarrhea. cream. nausea. patients with active liver disease. headache.Ketoconazole. A cure may require many months of treatment. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). have liver disease or reduced liver function.

stinging. Available by prescription only. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. itching. or lotion. ointment. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. tingling.Mometasone Furoate. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. in areas of broken skin. although its exact mechanism is unknown. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. . and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. If used over large surface areas. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. this drug may cause skin damage. of the adrenal glands. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. or over a long period. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. with bandages. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. or cortex. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. or dry skin. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. mometasone furoate is available as a cream.

This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. 50 mg. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. However. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. It is also used to treat chronic.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. All rights reserved. Nortriptyline. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. 25 mg. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. and 75 mg. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. drug used to treat major mental depression. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day.

Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. . blurred vision. used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. epinephrine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and weight gain or loss. All rights reserved. urinary tract. nausea. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. throat. headache. constipation. drowsiness. epilepsy. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. fa tigue. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. Available by prescription only. chest. and skin. fluoxetine. fluconazole. tranquilizers. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. lightheadedness. memory problems. nightmares. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. and sleeping medications.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. Depending on the severity of infection. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. narcotics. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. peculiar tastes in the mouth. hallucin ations. decreased urination. birth control pills. cimetidine. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. antihistamines. or glaucoma. irregular heart rhythm. seizures. a dry mouth. Brand Names:Aventyl. confusion. insomnia. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. carbamazepine. barbiturates. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely.

This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. Common side effects may include diarrhea. . For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. colitis. or yeast infection. itching. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. cholera. Ciprofloxacin. nausea. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. tuberculosis. or skin problems such as redness. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. and skin. bones. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. urinary tract. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. vaginitis. the entire course of medication should be taken.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. The drug is effective within three to five days. or rash. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. joints. and it does appear in breast milk. seizures. All rights reserved. vomiting. However. headache. infectious diarrhea. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined.

Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. which is used in the form of eyedrops. . Patients with severe liver disease. impaired kidney function.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. while rare. Depending on the severity of infection. can be fatal. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. sensitivity to light. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. vomiting. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . Pregnant women. as serious or fatal reactions can result. shortness of breath. All rights reserved. or engage in other risk-related activities. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. headache. breast-feeding women. operate dangerous machinery. tingling or itchin g. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. skin rash. which are taken orally w ith or without food. hives. nausea. as allergic reactions to this drug. Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. or magnesium. and in a liquid. or unconsciousness. Brand Names:Cipro. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. aluminum. or restlessness.

ketoconazole. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. ranitidine. Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. nausea. Capsules are taken with or without food. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. diarrhea. low blood pressure. or rifampin. constipation. fatigue. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. weight loss. .Fluvastatin. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. Patients with liver or kidney problems. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. headache. skin rash. All rights reserved. muscle pain. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. insomnia. or coughing. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. digoxin. dizziness. Haloperidol. or seizures should use this drug with caution. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. usually a t bedtime. respiratory irritation or infection. gemfibrozil. erythromycin. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18.

and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. jaws.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. . Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. and increased heart rate. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. Parkinson disease. Patients suffering from depression. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. eye damage. dry mouth. urinary retention. depression. neck. eyelids. Other side effects may include nausea. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. use of the drug should be discontinued. diminished sexual function. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium. constipation. active liver disease. breast cancer. or muscle rigidity. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. tremors. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. and tongue. One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. skin rash. The drug is present in breast milk. low blood pressure. blurred vision. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. lips. insomnia. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system.

The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. Lisinopril. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. extremities. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lips. However.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or systemic lupus erythematosus. stroke. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. heart or blood vessel disease. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. Its safety for children has not been established. and tongue after the first dose. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. All rights reserved. kidney or liver disease. heart attack. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. eyes.

It is taken orally in 25-mg. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. day and night. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. All rights reserved. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. 50-mg. by breast-feeding women. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. persons with . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. For prevention of recurrent in fections. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. and the dose may be diluted in water. Nitrofurantoin.blood potassium. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. Indomethacin. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. anti-inflammatory drug. or baby f ormula. and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. Brand Names: Prinivil. fruit juice. milk. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. especially in the third trimester. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. This drug is available by prescription only. Staphylococcus aureus. Enterobacter. a nonsteroidal. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful.

A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. For gastric ulcer. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. or vomiting. oral antacids. Stomach irritation is the most common. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. diarrhea. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. electrolyte imbalances. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.impaired kidney function. probenecid. magnesium trisilicate. or upper part of the small intestine. All rights reserved. Omeprazole. or any debilitating disease. Occasionally this drug may have serious. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. causing heartburn. Macrobid. loss of appetite. and sulfinpyrazone. anticholinergic medications. nalidixic acid. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. vitamin-B deficiency. sodium bicarbonate. diabetes. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. Brand Names:Furadantin. nausea. or infants less than one month old. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. the usual adult dosage . Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally.

nausea and vomiting. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. muscle pain. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and phenytoin. diazepam. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established. . the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. dizziness. warfarin. or yeast infection of the esophagus. For excessive stomach acid conditions. Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Less common side effects are chest pain. For adults over the age of 60. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. constipation. kidney or liver damage. heartburn. digoxin. headache. skin rash or itching. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. gas. All rights reserved. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. urinary tract infection. diarrhea. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. ketoconazole. cyclosporine. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. pregnant or breast-feeding women. amoxicillin. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression.

constipation. decreased appetite.Paroxetine or Paxil. skin rashes. Within ten days of regular use. nervousness. Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. and muscle weakness. dry mouth. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. Brand Name: Paxil . urinary disorders. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets. nausea. digoxin. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. insomnia. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. and tryptophan. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. preferably in the morning. tremor. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. warfarin. diarrhea. a history of seizure disorders. anxiety. and impaired sexual function. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain.

This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. vomiting. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. usually once or twice a day. Children may safely take this drug. itching. urinary tract infections. as it may lead to a secondary infection. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Brand Name: Duricef . and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. capsule. and liquid form. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. pneumonia. skin rash or redness. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. however. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. depending on the severity of infection. or colitis. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. All rights reserved. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. although it is known to appear in breast milk. and skin infections. all of which are taken orally. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. allergies. coli) bacteria. the entire course of medication should be taken. vaginal inflammation. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. Cefadroxil or Duricef. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. streptococcus infections.

Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. dizziness. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. insomnia. and respiratory tract. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. pneumonia. However. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). skin rash (including diaper rash). Less common side effects include diarrhea. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. the entire course of medication should be taken. drowsiness.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. Cefprozil or Cefzil. . Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. genital itching. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. taken in one or two doses. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. It is available in tablet and liquid form. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. as well as skin infections. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. ear. hives. headache. All rights reserved. as it may lead to a secondary infection. abdominal pain. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. nervousness. which are both taken orally. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. vomiting. including strep throat. confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. ulcer medications. or skin rash. Additional symptoms such as hives. swelling. phenytoin. It is available in tablet or liquid form. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. rifampin. Possible side effects may include nausea. headache. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. drugs that treat diabetes. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. Glyburide. diarrhea. with one liquid form made for injection. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. abdominal pain. also known as glibenclamide. drop in blood pressure. vomiting. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. All rights reserved. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. although some children have used it safely. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. It may be taken with or without food. or hydrochlorothiazide. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. which requires immediate medical attention. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated .

For this reason. Brand Names: DiaBeta. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. nausea and vomiting. fatigue. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. peptic ulcer disease.25 to 20 mg daily. All rights reserved. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. itching. a condition of low blood sugar. The drug takes effect within two hours. Pregnant women. hypothyroidism. Other possible side effects include skin rash. dizziness. nausea. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. drowsiness. After an initially positive response with the drug. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. as well as to watch for side effects. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia. indigestion. The usual dosage is from 1. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. hives. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Most effective on an empty stomach. . Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. abdominal cramps. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Patients with unstable diabetes. and heartburn. headaches.

Brand Names: Aldoril. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. Some men experience impaired sexual function. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. . All rights reserved. gout. Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. low blood pressure. and epilepsy. salt. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. diabetes. Lorazepam. Capozide. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. The drug appears in breast milk. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness.Hydrochlorothiazide. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. imbalances in water. and skin rashes. nausea. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. and nursing women should avoid using it. Aprozide. drug used to treat anxiety. prescription drug known as a diuretic. After long-term use. insomnia.

Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. barbiturates. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. the dosage is 0. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. For insomnia. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. levodopa. and unsteadiness. therapy begins with 0. and as an injectable liquid. s kin problems. headache. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. vision problems. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. agitation. Brand Name:Ativan .5 to 1 mg at bedtime. carbamazepine. antidepressants.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. sleep disturbance. weakness. and rifampin. isoniazid. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. sedatives. phenytoin. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol.Available by prescription only. oral solution. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. antihistamines. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. dizziness. However. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. depression. cimetidine. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. narcotics. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. change in appetite. nausea. and memory impairment.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. This drug is available by prescription only. reddening or dry skin. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. stinging. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. . mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. morning and evening. fo r 5 days. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. All rights reserved. For adults and children over the age of 12. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. pregnant or breast-feeding women. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. Streptococcus pyogenes. Mupirocin. pain. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. nausea. For children from 5 to 15 years old. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. Less common side effects are rash. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use. or itching at the infection site. tenderness. and other types of Streptococcus.

in an injectable liquid. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). All rights reserved. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. gonorrhea. and eyedrops. The typical. and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). Brand Names:Bactroban. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. chlamydia. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. Ofloxacin. and hives. however. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. skin infections. bronchitis. One of the ingredients in this ointment. polyethylene glycol. the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection.swelling. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction.

Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. tremor. dizziness. without missing doses. vomiting. probenecid. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or norfloxacin. tearing. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. seizures. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. theophylline. headache. All rights reserved. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development). speech problems. itching. excessive confusion. . and insomnia. hallucinations. restle ssness. and zinc salts. Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. epilepsy. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. pregnant or breast-feeding women. nervousness. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions).Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. either one hour before or two hours after eating. lightheadedness. It should be taken on a regular schedule. Brand Names: Floxin. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. drug-induced hepatitis. sucralfate. calcium supplements. diarrhea. warfarin. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. redness. or impaired vision. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. nausea. iron salts. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. or dryness in the eye. dizziness. drowsiness. ciprofloxacin.

it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. nausea. Brand Name: Trental . tremor. vomiting. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. and it prevents blood from forming clots. and may include headache. Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. a protein that increases blood thickness. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. skin rash. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. dizziness. indigestion. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping.Pentoxifylline. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. Side effects are rare. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. Because the drug appears in breast milk. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease. It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. Because nicotine narrows arteries. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. and. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. low blood pressure.

producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. Phenelzine. It may detract from sexual performance in males. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. monoamine oxidase (MAO). Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. All rights reserved. liver disease. or phobias. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. or insomnia. dry mouth. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. with or without food. or epilepsy.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. heart disease. nightmares. Available by prescription only. fluid retention. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. muscle weakness. usually three times a day. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women. . phenelzine tablets are taken orally. or convulsions. headache. drowsiness or fatigue. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. In general. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. anxiety. drug used to treat depression. weight g ain. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. dizziness. twitching or tremors. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes.

and skin infections. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. appetite suppressants. such as gonorrhea. and bananas. ear. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. All rights reserved. amphetamines. alcoholic beverages. and other antidepressants. including death. Amoxicillin. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. It is available in tablets. and liquid form. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated. even after symptoms disappear. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. products that contain yeast. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. Dosages for children are determined by body weight.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. capsules. bronchodilator inhalants. all of which are taken orally. Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. . if combined with certain foods or drugs. including the treatment of respiratory. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nasal decongestants. sinus and hay-fever medications. It has many u ses.

. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. diabetes. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. liver disease. Patients with asthma. swollen lymph nodes. insomnia. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. anxiety or hyperactivity. skin rash. chest. joint pain. Brand Names:Amoxil. genital sores. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. dizziness. or vomiting. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. the entire course of medication should be taken. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. nausea. hives. also in one or two daily doses. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Augmentin Cefixime. confusion. or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. itching. diarrhea. and urinary tract. which are both taken orally. colitis. throat. skin rash.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). but to prevent a recurrence of infection. or bruising. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. taken in one or two doses. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. Wymox.

prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. high . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. shock. hives. or vomiting. gas. prolonged use is not recommended. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. but does not cure. Tablets are taken orally. or seizures. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. Doxazosin Mesylate. headache. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. although it is known to appear in breast milk. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. severe diarrhea. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. with or without food. itching. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. stomach cramps. skin rash.However. mild diarrhea. usually once a day at bedtime. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. Common side effects may include indigestion. fever. as it may lead to a secondary infection. All rights reserved.

Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). eye pain. or engage in other risk-related activities. To treat fluid retention. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. mental depression. lowering blood pressure. subsequently relieving edema. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. and as a result. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate.25 mg per day. operate dangerous machinery. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. coronary artery disease. low white -blood-cell count. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. The . skin rash. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol.5 mg per day. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form. the dosage is 2. should not drive.blood pressure. nausea. Other possible side effects include constipation. especially when the dosage is increased. nosebleed. insomnia. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. drug used to increase urine production.5 mg per day. the dosage is 1. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. muscle cramps or weakness. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. or depression. ringing in the ears. which may be increased to 2. indigestion.

Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. and drowsiness. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. the drug should be taken with breakfast. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness. skin rashes. upper respiratory tract infection. diabetes. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . diarrhea. . weakness. skin infection.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. gout. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. To avoid nighttime urination. Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. headaches. pneumonia. itching. visual problems. nausea. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. urinary tract infection.

the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day. and skin rashes. insomnia. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. and itching eyes. headache. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. abdominal pain. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. Loratadine. nausea and vomiting. by persons with impaired kidney function. All rights reserved. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. nervousness. People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. an antigout drug. Use with probenecid. It should be used with caution. Less common side effects are colitis. sleepiness. and dizziness. at a reduced dosage. penicillin allergies. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. . swelling mucous membranes. drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. a history of colitis. loss of appetite. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. Available by prescription only.

In the late 1940s. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. clarithromycin. or dizziness. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. muscle relaxants. a class of antidepressants. drowsiness. headache. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. or tricyclic antidepressants. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. and activities requiring mechanical skills. tranquilizers. narcotics.Loratadine may impair mental alertness. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. . Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. An analgesic. also called methadon. can increase the side effects of loratadine. such as driving. itraconazole. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. barbiturates. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight. pain medication.

drowsiness. u nless approved by a doctor. a severe form of diarrhea. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. such as sexually transmitted diseases. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. Available in capsule form. Azithromycin. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems. dizziness. skin infections. light sensitivity. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. and urinary tract infections. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). Certain ailments. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. pneumonia. or vomiting. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. hives. or yeast infection. and anaphylaxis. which interferes with breathing. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. nausea. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. diarrhea. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). headache. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. in digestion. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction. azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. some patients continue to be treated for many years. jaundice.Unlike heroin. . It is typically prescribed for five days. bronchitis. In typical methadone therapy. which kills the bacteria. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. Because methadone itself is addictive. Less common are chest pain.” Taken in large doses.

This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. This usually takes several weeks. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. phenytoin.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. hexobarbital. should use this drug with caution. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cyclosporine. and lithium. Benazepril. lovastatin. Patients with certain medical conditions. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. triazolam. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). but must be taken regularly to be effective. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. digoxin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. especially those that help the body retain potassium. which influence salt and water retention. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. and warfarin. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. All rights reserved. . potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). even after symptoms are relieved. drug used to control high blood pressure.

impotence. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. pneumonia. and skin infections. streptococcus infections. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. urinary tract infections. Children may take this drug. although it is known to appear in breast milk. sweating. which are both taken orally. excessive thirst. or vomiting. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. irregular heartbeat. or muscle cramps. joint pain. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. skin rash. usually every eight hours. It also is known to appear in breast milk. the entire course of medication should be taken. fluid retention. constipation. Possible side effects include coughing. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. Less common are chest pain.especially in the second and third trimesters. itching. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria. nausea. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. dizziness. fatigue. urinary infection. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. headache. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. . also every eight hours. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. but to avoid a recurrence of infection.

hives. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. and liquid forms. or blood disorders. nausea. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Rocky Mountain spotted fever. certain diuretics. diarrhea medications. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Possible side effects include diarrhea. vomiting. liver disorders. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. which are taken orally. traveler’s diarrhea. tablets. . antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections. and syphilis. itching. headache. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. and itching. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. skin rash. thereby halting their growth. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. vomiting. although one form of liquid is made for injection. vaginal inflammation. skin rash. taken in one or two doses. light sensitivity. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug.Common side effects include diarrhea. joint pain.

usually with food to avoid stomach upset. Vibra-Tabs. It is usually discontinued gradually. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. sodium bicarbonate. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. and severe allergic reactions. barbiturates. Brand Names:Doryx. tuberculosis. multiple sclerosis. or bulging forehead (in infants). ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon).facial swelling. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. Prednisone is available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. Children may develop discolored teeth. chest pain. Prednisone. All rights reserved. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. penicillin. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Vibramycin. birth control pills. blood-thinners. asthma. difficulty swallowing. and carbamazepine. certain cancers. skin diseases. . Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. especially with long-term use. phenytoin.

gastrointestinal disorders .Patients with widespread fungus infections. dizziness. thick skin. . estrogen supplements. birth control pills. and purplish. or fluid retention. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. acne. rifampin. Liquid Pred. muscle weakness. ketoconazole. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. phenytoin. diabetes. osteoporosis. Possible side effects may include insomnia. weight gain. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). mood swings. All rights reserved. Prednicen-M. high blood pressure. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect. amphotericin B. peptic ulcer disease. or a history of tuberculosis. muscle cramps. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. Children may take this drug. impaired thyroid function. Buspirone. active tuberculosis. and certain diuretics. Brand Names: Deltasone. skin rash. carbamazepine. diabetes medications. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. brittle bones. depression. high blood pressure.

sweating. capsule. . Patients taking buspirone should not drive. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. constipation. cough suppressants. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. Also possible are blurred vision. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. usually found in combination with antihistamines. or nervousness. with or without food. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. trazodone. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. or engage in other risk-related activities. and tablet form. warfarin. fatigue. headache. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. Unlike many tranquilizers. Possible side effects include dizziness.Tablets are taken orally. haloperidol. narcotics. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. or vomiting. usually three times p er day. depending on the patient’s condition. skin rash. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. diarrhea. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. upset stomach. bone or muscle pain. and fluoxetine. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. or decongestants. dry mouth. nausea. rapid heartbeat. operate dangerous machinery.

a drug that prevents blood from clotting. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. However. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. Prior to 1992 the drug . with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. In the United States. Dimacol Caplets. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Brand Names: Cheracol D. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Comtrex Cold Formula. stomach pain.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. preventing pregnancy 99. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. This drug is highly effective. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. nausea. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy.7 percent of the time. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. vomiting. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. Triaminic Expectorant. and diarrhea. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe.

it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. However. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. Also. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. Other possible side effects include weight gain.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. and abdominal pain. Blood transfusions are often necessary. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Taken every four hours. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. headaches. In many cases. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). . sometimes for a year or more. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. mood changes. night and day.

The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. such as secobarbital. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. depression. a combination of urea and malonic acid. muscle incoordination. Barbiturate. a long-acting barbiturate. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. overdoses can cause profound shock. boisterous or violent behavior. anticonvulsant. or death. and respiratory tract. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. and sedation. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other barbituric-acid derivatives. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. coma. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures.A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). hypnotic (sleep-inducing). urinary tract. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. Depending on the dosage or formulation. Phenobarbital. Taken orally or intravenously. Ampicillin. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. gastrointestinal tract. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. or anesthetic effect. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. . An antibiotic like penicillin. All rights reserved.

to ten-day course. but an entire course of medication. genus Trypanosoma. or anemia. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment. another version of the protozoan. and probenecid. T. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. mefloquine. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. oral contraceptives. and sometimes epidemic. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. also sleeping sickness. colitis (inflamed bowel). both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. whereas a more local version is caused by T. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. the disease is called nagana. usually a seven. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. The most common is caused by T. brucei rhodesiense. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. Possible side effects may include nausea. In cattle and other animals. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. diarrhea. In South America. hives.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. allopurinol. fever. brucei gambiense. Children may take ampicillin. atenolol. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. . particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. vomiting. cruzi. mouth irritation. Another liquid form is administered by injection. skin rash. endemic.

and rash and fever. sleepiness. Allopurinol. Chagas' disease. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. death. It is also sometimes fatal. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. lack of appetite. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. All rights reserved. and. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. it has no effects on acute gout attacks.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. eventual coma. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. which more frequently attacks children. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. an enlargement of the spleen. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. In the long term. In early stages. an accelerated heartbeat. frequently. with accompanying mood changes. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system).

which are similar to but not identical with sterols. drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). some natural drugs. cortisone. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. dry mouth. and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. Steroids. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. tremor. and progesterone. All rights reserved. It is sometimes misused. is a sterol. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. it has been superseded by safer. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. C10H15NO. Endocrine System). or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. aldosterone. with a great diversity of physiological activity. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. asthma and allergies. Testosterone). and various eye diseases. Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. Steroid hormones. Cholesterol. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. bile acids. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline. rheumatoid arthritis. Hormone). and anxiety. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. many important hormones. or fat-soluble chemicals. Side effects include rapid heartbeat.Ephedrine. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). more specific drugs. . Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance.

leprosy. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. such as tuberculosis. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. and cholera. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. These include gentamicin. . steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. and kanamycin. tobramycin. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. are susceptible to streptomycin. it is still used for this condition. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. See also Sports Medicine. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. amikacin. the aminoglycosides. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. Streptomyces griseus. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible.

It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. Fluoxetine. and premenstrual syndrome. Fluoxetine. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. After the medication begins to take effect. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. the dose may be lowered. . as aspirin tends to do for some users. All rights reserved. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. prescribed for the treatment of depression. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. and for the reduction of fever. type of drug known as an antidepressant. available by prescription only. obsessive -compulsive disorder.Acetaminophen. nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain. such as headaches and structural muscle aches. is taken orally in tablet form. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining.

Of the annual glycerol production in the U. weight loss. sweet-tasting a lcohol. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. changes in appetite.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and diarrhea. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. odorless. or for those with kidney or liver disease. or propylene. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. the formula of which is given above.S. diabetes. C3H6. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. with a specific gravity of 1. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. headaches. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. . or a history of seizures. sometimes fatal results. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine. insomnia. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. C3H6O. colorless. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. and people taking it should not consume alcohol. C3H8O3. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. nausea.4° F). Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. dizziness. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking.26. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure.

and the equipment used. phenols. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. toluene. and oxygen. which are acidic. including toothpastes. Left after distillation are residues of . coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. and other valuable products. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. sulfur. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. from which they are released later by acidification. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. and water. phenanthrene. Because cheaper products are now available. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. together with alcohols. Its composition varies with the coal. Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. The phenols. anthracene. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. xylene. that is. mostly hydrocarbons. can be extracted by alkali solutions.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. naphthalene. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. they incite cancerous gro wths. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. the temperature at which it is fo rmed. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. Coal Tar. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Distillation produces benzene.

because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. paints. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. used in making roads. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. explosives. Since then. and plastics. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . and irritates the stomach. Salicylic acid is bitter. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. however. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. acetylsalicylic acid. however. among others. paint removers. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. to counter fever and pain. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. .pitch. mild to moderate pain. insecticides. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. in roofing mixtures. cause iron deficiency. drugs. found in the bark of the willow tree. creosote oil. It is made from salicylic acid. and resins. preservatives. Aspirin. Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. artificial sweeteners. synthetic chemical compound. perfumes. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. food flavorings. including dyes. however. stains.

Brand Names: Advil.Ibuprofen. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. In prescription form. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. liver disease. diarrhea. When taken in excessive amounts. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. In adults. and the sensation of pain. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. or high blood pressure. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. inflammation. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. rapid breathing. or fever. Motrin. Nuprin . Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. which usually involves vomiting. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. and may be taken with food. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis. drug used to reduce inflammation. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. or rapid heartbeat. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. fever.

the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. . Because of their widespread effects. or cortex. protein. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. of the adrenal gland. Medical). in 1935. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. also cortisol. the retention of salt and water in the body. the activity of the nervous system. or corticoids. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones.Hydrocortisone. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. and the regulation of blood pressure. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. called corticosteroids. hydrocortisone and related compounds. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. and diabetes. weight gain. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. they must be used carefully. called cortisone. the maturation of white blood cells. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. are employed for many medical purposes. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. high blood pressure. and fat. and eye inflammations. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. muscle weakness. collagen diseases.

Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. or shift work. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. and hormone balance. they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. . However. such as sleep-wake cycles. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. for instance. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). night.Melatonin. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. water balance. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature. jet lag. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. fluctuations in body temperature. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. heart rate. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus.

Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. For example. arthritis. first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. however. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. constricts the small blood vessels. Parkinson disease. Although it is easily available over the counter. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. is also known as adrenaline. and hypertension. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. liberates sugar stored in the liver. . raises the blood pressure. All rights reserved. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). to prevent bleeding. The pure compound. but it is now made synthetically. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. large additional quantities are secreted. Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. epinephrine stimulates the heart. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. Alzheimer’s disease. In times of excitement or emotional stress. Epinephrine. epilepsy.

This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. drowsiness. high blood pressure. enlarged prostate gland. An antispasmodic drug. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. with or without meals. digoxin. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. or myasthenia gravis. tingling. glaucoma. tablet. and liquid form. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. irregular heartbeat. urinary tract blockage. dizziness. hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). or nervousness. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. or constipation. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. impotence. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). noradrenaline. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. severe colitis. lightheadedness. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. headache. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. heart disease. nausea. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. fainting. insomnia. corticoids. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. This drug can also decrease sweating. called norepinephrine. In general. These include but are not limited to antacids. or short-term memory loss. nasal congestion. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. dry mouth. or levoarterenol. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. and is taken orally four times a day. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. severe heartburn. antihistamines. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. hyperthyroidism. muscular weakness. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. diarrhea.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. They may include blurred vision. Because of this. It is available in capsule.

Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. fever. and bronchodilators. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. fatigue. . nausea. More serious effects include confusion. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. increased heart rate. headache. dizziness. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. decreased sexual ability. antipsychotic drugs. diarrhea. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. excessive fatigue. and weakness. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. Nizatidine Nizatidine. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. narcotic pain relievers. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. and sweating. itching. All rights reserved. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. unusual bleeding or bruising. stomach upset. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation.

The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day.Alcoholic beverages. protein-rich foods. and 90-mg extended release tablets. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. and theophylline. onions. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. garlic. pregnant or breast-feeding women. reduced liver or kidney function. highdose aspirin. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. This drug is available by p rescription only. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. Nifedipine Nifedipine. All rights reserved. however. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. citrus fruit. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. if stomach irritation is a problem. pentoxiylline. doses may be taken with food. 60-mg. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. not crushed. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or persons with low blood pressure. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. For treatment of angina. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The safety and effectiveness of . Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina.

phenytoin. grapefruit juice. cigarette smoking. and otic (ear) drops. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. oral hypoglycemic drugs. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. These combinations. flushing. eye.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. cyclosporine. along with hydrocortisone. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. lightheadedness. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. magnesium. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. For eye infections. diltiazem. digitalis. Neomycin Neomycin. nifedipine may increase angina. and ear infections. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. insulin. nausea. All rights reserved. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic. For skin conditions.. swelling of the feet and ankles. headache. and weakness. Rarely. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. digoxin. and ranitidine. cimetidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. low blood pressure. theophylline. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . and certain drugs including amiodarone. Brand Names:Adalat. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin.

or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. The typical. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. itching. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. pregnant or breast-feeding women. irritation. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. smallpox. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . Nabumetone Nabumetone. This drug is available b y prescription only.or the ear. All rights reserved. Rarely. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. taken once a day or in divided doses. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. and chicken pox infections. To minimize adverse side effects. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. or severe impairment of kidney function. taken orally. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. Brand Names:Corticosporin. bleeding or blood cell disorders. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. without missing doses. or dryness. liver disease. kidney or ear damage may occur.

or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. asthma or difficulty breathing. other salicylates. If tablets are missed. aspirin. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. blurred vision. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. constipation. These include bloating. nervousness. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. beta blockers. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. respectively. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. and probenecid. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. impairment of normal blood clotting. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. blood clots in the legs. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. nausea. and liver or kidney damage. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. dizziness. headache. strokes. lightheadedness. loss of appetite. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. lungs. indigestion. drowsiness. dizziness. This drug is available by prescription only. known or . thickens the mucus of the cervix. difficulty sleeping. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). sweating. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus.nabumetone has been determined. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. or eyes. diarrhea. or vomiting. soreness of the mouth. diuretics. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. or angina pectoris (chest pain). Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. heartburn.

and brown. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. dizziness. Because of the risk of blood clots. or known or suspected pregnancy. rash. and certain antibiotics. depression. Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. breast tenderness. liver tumors. smoke. All rights reserved. difficulty wearing contact lenses. unexplained vaginal bleeding. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. Other side effects may include changes in appetite. phenylbutazone. and vaginal infections. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas).suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. In lowering blood cholesterol. diabetes. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. or vagina. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. weight gain. or have high blood pressure. or high cholesterol. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. blotchy spots on exposed skin. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. bleeding between menstrual periods. cervix. headache. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. loss of scalp hair. These include rifampin. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. vomiting. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. nervousness. fluid retention.

fever. or sleepiness. also known as a diuretic. Possible side effects may include constipation.weeks of treatment. and lose weight as part of their treatment. h eadache. irregular heartbeat. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. lovastatin. kidney disease. impotence. diarrhea. muscle or joint pain. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. ringing in the ears. . Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. lightsensitivity. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. headache. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. blurred vision. dizziness. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). nausea. indigestion. with dosage based on body weight. exercise. hives. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. skin rash. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. thyroid problems. and liver disease. fainting. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. It reduces water and salt in the body. nausea. excessive thirst. congestive heart failure. but it does appear in breast milk. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. or blurred vision. liver disorders. or other abdominal problems. diabetes. or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. or various blood-thinning drugs. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. Children may take this drug. skin rash. Patients with diabetes. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs. itching. Possible side effects include constipation. lupus erythematosus. dizziness. Available in tablet and liquid form. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). gout. vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Patients with liver or kidney disease. confusion. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. gallbladder disease. barbiturates. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. narcotics. diarrhea. impotence.

joint or muscle pain. drowsiness. and also in a liquid form that is injected. When histamine action is blocked. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. ketoconazole. seizures. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. or sleepiness. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. pancrelipase. All rights reserved. pentoxifylline. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. anxiety. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. hair loss. rapid or slow heartbeat. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. . skin rash or itching. or probenecid. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. both taken orally. Less common are diarrhea. impotence. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is available in tablet and liquid form. among other effects.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Overdosage can cause confusion. Famotidine Famotidine. dizziness. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16. stomach acid decreases. All rights reserved. or cardiac arrest.

or abnormally slow heartbeat. blood vessels and slowing the heart.Diltiazem Diltiazem. ringing in the ears. and ranitidine. Also sometimes seen are constipation. thereby reducing blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fluid retention. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. hair loss. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs. muscular weakness. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. The drug works by dilating. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. headache. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. All rights reserved. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. diarrhea. aspirin. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). Brand Names:Cardizem. Available in tablet and capsule form. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. sleeplessness. or vision changes. skin rash. digoxin. Diclofenac Sodium . drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. dry mouth. cimetidine. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. nausea. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. carbamazepine. light sensitivity. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. or opening.

Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. heart medications containing digitalis. Patients with kidney or liver problems. headache. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. Classified as an antiasthmatic. diuretics. but it is known to appear in breast milk. ringing in the ears. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). nausea. and carteolol. or vomiting. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. lung inflammation. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. drowsiness. facial swelling. diarrhea. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. heart disease. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. or loss of consciousness. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor.Diclofenac Sodium. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. with food. All rights reserved. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. ulcers. blurred or double vision. or dizziness. hair loss. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. indigestion. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. skin rash. cyclosporine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. lithium. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. in somnia. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. blood-thinning medications. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. methotrexate. light sensitivity. the two branch es that connect the . constipation. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. if stomach upset occurs.

cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. nasal congestion. and bronchitis. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. tablets are taken orally. They may be taken w ith or without food. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). or powder. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. although the complete. frequent urination. skin rash. difficulty swallowing. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). All rights reserved. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. It comes in several forms. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nasalcrom. joint pain. nausea. Available by prescription only. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. Brand Names:Intal. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. or swollen glands. or wheezing. dizziness. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. sneezing. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. . although most are taken four to six times per day. throat irritation. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. including capsules (taken orally). headache. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. usually in 250. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Possible side effects include coughing. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nosebleed.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment.

Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. operating dangerous machinery. especially with long-term use. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. and phenytoin. theophylline. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. but may include nausea.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. or other risk-related activities. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. Patients with porphyria.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. or an altered sense of taste. headache. usually one or two tablets every four hours. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. indigestion. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. digoxin. requires immediate medical attention. diarrhea. . It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. Severe diarrhea. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol. should not take this drug. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. caffeine. The drug’s side effects are usually minimal. astemizole. Dependency on this drug can occur. sedative b arbiturate drug. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. acetaminophen.

usually in 5. or coma. warfarin. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. fatigue. twitching. antihistamines. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. sleepiness. These include antidepressants. such as beta blockers. headache. diarrhea. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. breathing difficulties. including dizziness. However. Phrenilin. flushing. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. thereby reducing blood pressure. Brand Names:Norvasc. Uncommon side effects may include nausea. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. and vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.Potential side effects include drowsiness. or vomiting. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. fluid retention or swelling. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. dizziness. anxiety. shock. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. fainting. liver disease. light-headedness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. All rights reserved. and heart palpitations. and theophylline. . so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. nausea. steroids. oral contraceptives. back or chest pain. constipation. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. patients with low blood pressure. low blood pressure. migraine. itching. Fiorinal. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. Amlodipine Amlodipine. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. The drug may be taken with or without food.or 10-mg doses. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. Brand Names:Fioricet. Amlodipine is available only by prescription.

syrup. an overactive thyroid gland. dizziness. tooth discoloration. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. . Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. ringing in the ears. sleeplessness. all of which are taken orally. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. People with high blood pressure. Ventolin. in fact. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. can make symptoms worse. and capsule form. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. It is available in aerosol. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. tablet. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. All rights reserved. headache. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). Brand Names:Proventil. an irregular heartbeat. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. rapid heartbeat.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. muscle cramps. nausea. restoring comfortable breathing. and vomiting. usually within 15 minutes. diarrhea. Some of the more common ones include agitation. liver disease. increased blood pressure. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. cardiovascular problems. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing.Albuterol Albuterol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. indigestion. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. nosebleeds.

Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . anticoagulants. sleep aids. kidney or liver problems. All rights reserved. Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. operating dangerous machinery. vomiting. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. or jaundice. mood changes. or pain -killing. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. effect. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. or other narcotic pain relievers. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers.Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. Pravastatin Pravastatin . anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). caffeine. This drug should not be used by ch ildren. pregnant women. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. chickenpox. or engaging in other risk-related activities. muscle relaxants. especially after long-term use at high dosages. so patients should avoid driving. headache. antidepressants. for pain relief. constipation. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. skin rash. or influenza. ulcers. weight loss. Possible side effects include nausea. Brand Names:Darvon. asthma. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. or nursing women. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. antihistamines. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. as needed. muscle weakness. blood-clotting problems.

constipation. Promethazine works quickly. usually at bedtime. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). liver conditions.cholesterol. or flulike symptoms. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. ketoconazole. gas. nausea. injectable liquid. Available only by prescription. drug used mainly to treat allergies. including asthma and sleep apnea. high blood pressure. cimetidine. should not take promethazine. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. peptic ulcers. diarrhea. muscle cramps. fight insomnia. skin rash. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. headache. cyclosporine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. Children may take this drug. Patients with liver or kidney disease. prostate . Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. erythromycin. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. or children under the age of 18. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. usually within 20 minutes. heart disease. with dosages based on body weight. muscular disorders. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. and suppository form. gemfibrozil. It may be taken with or without food. syrup. should not take pravastatin. colestipol. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. niacin. Promethazine Promethazine. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. Typically. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Available by prescription in tablet. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. cataracts. stomach pain. Pregnant or nursing women. itchiness. warfarin. and immunosuppressive drugs.

All rights reserved. ear and skin infections. blurred vision. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. or abnormal heart rhythm. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). and various liquids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. rheumatic fever. tablets. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. Brand Names: Phenergan. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. breathing difficulties. Erythromycin Erythromycin. impaired kidney function. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. vomiting. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. however. . with dosages determined by body weight. tranquilizers. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). gel. Dependingon the site of the infection. or light sensitivity. whooping cough. or narrow-angle glaucoma. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. nausea. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. or engage in other risk-related activities. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. jaundice. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sedatives. Other possible side effects include dizziness. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections.enlargement. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. and diphtheria. operate dangerous machin ery. and antidepressant drugs. skin rash. urinary tract infections. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. syphilis. Children may take most forms of this drug. or loss of consciousness. gonorrhea. preventing their multiplication and growth. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. blood pressure changes. ointment. disorientation. However.

lupus erythematous. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. itching. or temporary hearing loss. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone.Ilosone. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. croup. or diarrhea. blood-thinners. nausea. For acute disorders. It reduces swelling. It is also used to treat anemia. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). an ointment. eye irritation. an injectable liquid. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. rapid heartbeat. hives. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole. Also seen are skin rash. and to treat asthma. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. preferably right after a bowel movement. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. carbamazepine. For tablets. and an enema. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). vomiting. Emgel. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. dizziness. ulcerative colitis. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. and theophylline. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. All rights reserved. multiple sclerosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Erygel. redness. and psoriasis.Erymax. phenytoin. bone cysts in children.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. tendinitis. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. eczema. digoxin. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. lovastatin.Benzamycin. Brand Names: Erythrocin. This drug is available by prescription only. loss of appetite. yellowing of the eyes or skin. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician.Theramycin Z. It comes in a tablet. and most forms of arthritis.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. it is usually taken for four to . and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy.

phenytoin. For chronic disorders. Medrol. indomethacin. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. drugs containing estrogen. smallpox. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. aspirin. cyclosporine. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. rabies. peptic ulcer disease. ketoconazole. weight gain. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. antacids. oral antidiabetic drugs. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. ephedrine. retention of salt and water. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. and naproxen. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). oral anticoagulants (blood thinners). peptic ulcer. hypertension (high blood pressure). reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. cataracts. and certain vaccines. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. glaucoma. carbamazepine. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. barbiturates . It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. All rights reserved. digoxin. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. increased blood sugar. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. ketoprofen. Brand Names:Duralone. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). possible diabetes. and increased susceptibility to infection. Naproxen .ten days. insulin. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. retarded growth and development in children. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

orthopedic surgery. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. or severe impairment of kidney function. tendinitis. dizziness. or vomiting. and gout. liver disease. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. For bursitis. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. it may be taken with food or antacids.Naproxen. menstrual cramps. without missing doses. Pain relief should begin within one hour. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. and 500 mg. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. difficulty sleeping. osteoarthritis. To minimize adverse side effects. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. loss of appetite. tendinitis. constipation. These include bloating. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. dental treatment. changes in menstruation. lightheadedness. If stomach irritation occurs. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. headache. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. bursitis. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. difficulty breathing. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. diarrhea. soreness of the mouth. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. heartburn. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. If possible. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. nervousness. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. pregnant or breast-feeding women. 375 mg. drowsiness. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. and for strains and sprains. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established. sweating. osteoarthritis. and liver or kidney damage. For gout. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. and as a liquid. indigestion. and other pain. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. nausea. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals. . in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg.

in prolonged action tablets. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. Metoprolol Metoprolol. This drug is available by prescription only. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). It comes in 50-mg. 100-mg. atenolol. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. aspirin. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. more commonly known as beta blockers. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. Brand Names:Aleve. For prevention of heart attacks. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. and probenecid. The regular tablet can be crushed. and 200-mg tablets. lithium. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. methotrexate. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. It may have a negative effect on . either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. beta blockers such as acebutolol. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. All rights reserved. persons with congestive heart failure. and timolol. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. an abnormally slow heart rate. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. For treatment of hypertension or angina. salicylates. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents. pregnant or breast-feeding women. For treatment after a heart attack. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. metoprolol. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the typical.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses.

oral antidiabetic drugs. All rights reserved. clonidine. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. calcium channel blockers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . nifedipine. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. tranquilizers. hydralazine. chlorpromazine. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. cimetidine. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. cold h ands and feet. and verapamil.driving or other risk-related activities. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. epinephrine. oral hypoglycemic drugs. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. . but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. furosemide. gout. fatigue. which may trigger pain and inflammation. Brand Names:Lopressor. amiodarone. although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. and decreased sexual desire. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. insulin. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. fluoxetine. theophyllinevenlafaxine. aspirin. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. and tendinitis. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. slow heart rate. diltiazem. albuterol. aminophylline. reserpine. osteoarthritis. digoxin. lightheadedness. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol.

Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. ulceration. aspirin. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. headache. b eta blockers. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. sleep disturbances. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. indigestion. To avoid adverse side effects. and warfarin. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . methotrexate. indomethacin. should not take this drug. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. Etodolac Etodolac. All rights reserved. valproic acid. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. mouth sores. or a severe impairment of kidney function. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. dizziness. sulfinpyrazone. depression. or with a prescribed antacid. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. itching. relieving swelling and stiffness. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. ringing in the ears. such as aspirin. anticoagulants. diarrhea. and bleeding. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. enoxaparin. Etodolac is available only by prescription. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. constipation.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. hives. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. nausea. skin rash. and vomiting. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. lithium. with meals.

nausea. and menstrual cramps. All rights reserved. It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. heart disease. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. fever. and nausea. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. or muscle weakness. drug used to reduce the inflammation. and it may appear in breast milk. tablet. constipation. . Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. dizziness. and digoxin. sweating. Possible side effects include drowsiness. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. tendinitis. skin rash. fluid retention. headache. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. with increased blood flow during menstruation. insomnia. anemia. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. Patients with kidney or liver problems. diarrhea. peptic ulcer. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. depression.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. but it can be taken with food. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. bursitis. diuretics. rapid heartbeat. indigestion. skin rash.stomach upset. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. indigestion. fainting. fever. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. blood-thinning medications. ringing in the ears. milk. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. and suppository form. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and patients with ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Breast-feeding women. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. workload on the heart is reduced. Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. impaired kidney function. patients with allergies to the drug. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. For prevention of angina. lithium. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. or one metered dose of 0. As a result. one 1 .6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. If necessary.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack.4 mg from a spray container. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. verapamil. phenytoin. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. applied on or under the tongue. nifedipine. bleeding disorders. All rights reserved. aspirin. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. blood supply to the heart muscle improves. steroids. insulin. and diuretics.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug).15 to 0. and chest pain is alleviated. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. For long-term prevention of angina. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing. headache. diltiazem. These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. recent head trauma. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. To maintain its effectiveness. aspirin. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). Nitrocine Transdermal. heparin.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. Warfarin . colds. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. rather. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. and coughs. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Nitrocap TD. rapid heart rate. antihypertensive drugs. acetylcysteine. All rights reserved. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. or a 0. sudden drop in blood pressure . hyperthyroidism. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. and heart palpitations.5 -inch (7. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness.

beef liver. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. Patients with peptic ulcers. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. or intestinal problems. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. cauliflower. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Other side effects may include diarrhea. acetaminophen (Tylenol). some forms of irregular heartbeat. Motrin). or patients with high blood pressure. joint pain. nausea. and bacon. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. Verapamil works by . Verapamil Verapamil. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. headache. difficulty breathing. a blood disorder. fish. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. diabetes. chest pain. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. or recent surgery should not use this drug. discolored (purplish) toes. After the first two to three days. cut. severe allergies. or swelling. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. asparagus. or gangrene.Warfarin. any infectious disease. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. fever. hair loss. s kin inflammation. ulcerative colitis. and ibuprofen (Advil. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. puncture. Classified as an anticoagulant. and hypertension (high blood pressure). a heart-related infection. impaired liver or kidney function. For this reason. difficulty swallowing. All rights reserved. an aneurysm. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin.

congestive heart failure. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. with meals and at bedtime with food. abnormally low blood pressure. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. All rights reserved. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. digoxin. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. an injectable solution is also available. impotence. Available in tablet and capsule form. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. rifampin. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. and it does appear in breast milk. Terazosin Terazosin . light sensitivity. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. sleepiness. hair loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. phenobarbital. lithium. and in me n. ringing in the ears. and various diuretics. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . cyclosporine. prostate gland enlargement. An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. or congestive heart failure. fatigue. or s low heartbeat. thereby lowering blood pressure. skin rash. aspirin. carbamazepine. theophylline.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. Isoptin. phenytoin. fluid retention. dry mouth. headache. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. taken in three or four doses. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. constipation. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). Brand Names:Calan. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. nausea. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day. cimetidine.

headache. to dilate arteries. heart palpitations. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. numbness. muscle weakness. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. especially beta blockers. painful urination. and lower blood pressure. . patients should avoid driving. fainting. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. sweating. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. fluid retention. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. At these times. reduce blood volume. and urinary tract infections. fatigue. estrogens. stuffy nose.5 to 20 mg per day. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or engaging in other risk-related activities. dizziness. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. which influence salt and water retention. it should be taken regularly. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. coronary artery disease. Capsules are taken orally with or without food. Ramipril Ramipril.problems of urine flow. even when symptoms are relieved. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). or blurred vision. operating dangerous machinery. difficulty breathing. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. drug used to control high blood pressure. Available by prescription in capsule form. taken in one or two doses. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. Dosages range from 2. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. or a history of stroke. nausea.

the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. impaired liver or kidney function. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. . It also may react with aspirin. high potassium levels. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. lightheadedness. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. especially in the second and third trimesters. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. An allergic reaction to this drug. heart disease. nausea. muscle pain. lithium. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. fatigue. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. vomiting. except for one liquid form made for injection. cyclosporine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. scleroderma. or light sensitivity. or violent muscle contractions. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. To avoid stomach irritation. capsule. coughing. or low white blood cell levels. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. and potassium supplements. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. systemic lupus erythematosus. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. caused by epilepsy. Side effects may include headache. including salt substitutes containing potassium. requires immediate medical attention. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. It is also known to appear in breast milk. All rights reserved.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. it must be taken regularly to be effective. it can react adversely with such drugs. Taken orally. and liquid form. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. drug used to treat the seizures. as it can harm the fetus. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin.

and antacids. All rights reserved. Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Also included are the drugs felbamate. Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. carbamazepine. twitching. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. insomnia. and valproic acid. The initial. blood thinners. mental confusion. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. The injection is given within a muscle. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. involuntary eye movement. or change in urine color. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care. bedwetting. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. diazepam. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. estrogens. oral contraceptive s. doxycycline.Patients with impaired liver function. These include. fever. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . acute pain. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. but are not limited to. diabetes. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Ketorolac Ketorolac. theophylline. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). furosemide. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. abnormal hair growth. Other observed side effects include nausea. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. joint pain. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. ulcer medications. four to six hours apart. or slurred speech. methylphenidate. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. sodium valproate. and as eyedrops. steroids. skin rash. dizziness. impotence. aspirin. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. certain tranquilizers. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. headache. phenobarbital.

nabumetone. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. bruising at the site of injection. decrease in urine output. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. naproxen. cefoperazone.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. indigestion. vomiting. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. and perforation. ketoprofen. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. moxalactam. methotrexate. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. asthma. headache. kidney or liver disease. or high blood pressure. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. increased sweating. diabetes mellitus. colitis. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. acetaminophen. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. Less common side effects are eye irritation. Brand Names:Acular. All rights reserved. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. diarrhea.more than five days. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and gastrointestinal bleeding. and oxaprozin. constipation. as well as with lithium. Glipizide Glipizide. superficial eye infections. cefotetan. heart disease. burning or pain at the injection site. Abdominal or stomach pain. ulceration. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. dizziness. drowsiness. edema. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. cefamandole. lupus erythematosus. probenecid. edema. plicamycin. heparin. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. . Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. renal failure. allergic reactions.

birth control pills. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. rapid heartbeat. corticoids. Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish.5 to 40 mg per day. or seizures. Tablets are taken orally. with or without food. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Patients with heart disorders. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. sweating. anemia. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. but depending on the patient’s response. tranquilizers. but are not limited to. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. sulfa drugs. which control salt and water retention. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). estrogens. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. impaired kidney or liver function.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. These include. stomach pain. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. antacids. in dosages ranging from 2. shallow breathing. dizziness. thyroid medications. Enalapril Enalapril. . Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. disorientation. Potential side effects may include headache. prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The starting dose is 5 mg. or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). skin rash. With long-term use (months to years). light sensitivity. aspirin. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. All rights reserved. drowsiness. in one or two doses. nausea.

herpes infections (including shingles). It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. secretion of stomach acid decreases. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. blurred vision.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. especially in the second and third trimesters. Brand Names:Vasotec. Cimetidine Cimetidine. sensitivity to light. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. All rights reserved. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. excessive sweating. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. dry mouth or eyes. It has not been proven safe for use in children. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. headache. impotence. and in a liquid form that is injected. hair loss. dizziness. both taken orally. hives. it may react adversely with such drugs. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. muscle cramps or weakness. It is used to treat reflux disease. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). or abnormally low blood pressure. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. It is also known to appear in breast milk. rapid heartbeat. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. Depending on the condition being treated. skin rash or itching. breast enlargement (in males). depression. and an overactive parathyroid gland. loss of appetite. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. excessive hair growth in women. nausea. It also may cause chest pain. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. When histamine action is blocked. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. abdominal pain. usually taken immediately . acne.

sucralfate. also known as valproic acid. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. rapid or slow heartbeat. Available in tablet form. and aspirin. paroxetine. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. and excessive caffeine. and warfarin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. cigarette smoking. heart palpitations. nicotine. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. or hallucinations. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function.after a meal. joint or muscle pain. drug used to treat seizures. metoclopramide.2 lb). Divalproex Divalproex. confusion. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends. phenytoin. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. digoxin. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. depression. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. some patients experience anxiety. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. which is increased as needed (to a . including medications for diabetes. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. hair loss. skin rash or inflammation. All rights reserved. anemia. metronidazole. With prolonged use (one month or more). and sleepiness. theophylline. cyclosporine. this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. such as those associated with epilepsy. narcotic pain relievers. pentoxifylline. impotence. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). quinine. Relief of symptoms may take several days. dizziness. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16. Less common side effects are diarrhea.

muscle weakness. nausea. or engage in other risk-related activities. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. or weight gain. fluid retention. Some patients experience drowsiness and. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tremors. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. isoniazid. This drug can cause liver damage. as continuous seizures may result. constipation. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. skin rash. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or dental procedures. double vision. All rights reserved. yellowing skin or eyes. behavior changes. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. drowsiness. and birth control pills.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. vomiting. and kidney disease in diabetic patients.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. as a result . surgery. blood thinners. drug typically used to control high blood pressure. This drug slows blood clotting. itching. sleep aids. especially when used in children under the age of two. should not drive. operate dangerous machinery. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. which influence salt and water rete ntion. facial swelling. It also may interact with erythromycin. fever. and vomiting. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. loss of appetite. Captopril Captopril. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. which is divided into several smaller doses. heart attacks. Possible side effects include indigestion. Patients are often started on a . tranquilizers. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. antihistamines. and other seizure medications. and loss of seizure control.

skin rash. or heart failure. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. It also may react adversely with aspirin. nausea. or swelling of the arms. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. wheezing stroke. lightheadedness. even after symptoms are relieved. depression. All rights reserved. fainting. Brand Names:Capoten. confusion. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. A reaction that includes chest pain. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. peptic ulcer. legs. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. anti-inflammatory medications. especially in the second and third trimesters. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. sleepiness. vomiting. nitroglycerin. which is increased as needed. fatigue. which usually takes several weeks. which also requires immediate medical care. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. it can react adversely with these drugs. Less common side effects include blurred vision. . light sensitivity. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). mouth. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. muscle pain or weakness. Lovastatin Lovastatin . sweating. loss of taste. constipation.small dosage. Possible side effects include itching. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. lithium. and extremely low blood pressure. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. as it can harm the fetus. diarrhea.

Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. and 40-mg tablets. which are taken orally. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. Tablets are taken with or without food. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. This drug should be taken with food. and stomach pain. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. cyclosporine. preferably with evening meals. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. dizziness. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. gemfibrozil. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. gas. All rights reserved. heartburn. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. diarrhea. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol.Available by prescription only. usually at bedtime. 20-mg. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. headache. nausea. weight loss. and unusual tiredness or weakness. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. muscle aches or cramps. severe stomach pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. Simvastatin Simvastatin. fever. skin rash. Less common side effects are blurred vision. and warfarin. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. niacin.

although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. Patients with impaired liver function. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. Levothyroxine may be used during . cimetidine. clofibrate. diarrhea. muscle weakness. by pregnant or nursing women. and diabetes. in tablets and an injectable liquid. including high blood pressure. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or hepatitis. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. cataracts. cyclosporine. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage. stomach pain. digoxin. ketoconazole. warfarin. muscular disorders. or thyrotoxicosis. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. and spironolactone. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. nicotinic acid.weeks of treatment. impaired vision. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. The drug is effective within 48 hours. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. erythromycin. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. or lowered blood pressure. gas. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. All rights reserved. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. constipation. a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. gemfibrozil. and for infants with cretinism. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. or by young people under the age of 20. skin rash. This drug is available by prescription only.

In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. All rights reserved. Levoxine. Patients should not take more than a single. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. diarrhea. Astemizole Astemizole. Astemizole is available only by prescription. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug. or chest pain. flushed skin. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. eyes. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). tiredness. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. sweating. but never admitted any wrongdoing. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. heart palpitations. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. and skin. which causes thyroid overactivity. Brand Names: Levothroid. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. agitation. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions. weight loss or gain. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. rifampin. Patients with anemia. with dosages based on body weight. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. bronchitis. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. sore mouth. pneumonia. impaired liver or kidney function. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. Tramadol Tramadol. procainamide. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. and cholestyramine. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. dapsone. . or increased blood potassium. headache. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. back or joint pain. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. especially of the urinary tract and eye. Brand Names:Bactrim. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. phenytoin. or pain associated with cancer. and traveler’s diarrhea. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. All rights reserved. cyclosporine. vomiting.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. loss of appetite. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. nausea. Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. with or without food. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. Available by prescription only. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. abdominal cramps. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment.

tablets. diarrhea. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. or engage in other riskrelated activities. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. cream and ointment forms applied topically. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. and a liquid form that is injected. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. sedatives. two to three times a day. or dry mouth. vomiting. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. quinidine. people taking this drug should not drive. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. For this reason. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. In addition. All rights reserved. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. Other possible side effects include nausea. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. constipation. sweating. Its safety for children under the age of 16. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. including an oral inhalant. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. operate dangerous machinery. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. .

it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. peptic ulcer. wheezing. Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. skin rash. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). and primidone. sneezing. headache. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. carbamazepine. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. phenytoin. Brand Names:Azmacort. nasal irritation or congestion. memory loss. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. warfarin. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). All rights reserved. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. nosebleed. Taken orally. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. diabetes drugs (including insulin). but helps alleviate symptoms. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. hoarseness. digoxin. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). glaucoma (an eye disorder). or a history of tuberculosis. mottled skin. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. fluid retention. . weight loss. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. Tretinoin Tretinoin.

as well as with medicated soaps. and solution. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. usually once a day at bedtime. citrus scents.Tretinoin is available in a gel. Brand Names:Retin-A. cream. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. temporary worsening of acne. or spices. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. It is applied to the skin. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. although maximum improvement may take several months. Renoval. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. Hands should be washed immediately after application. It should not come in contact with the eyes. darkening or lightening of skin color. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. This drug is available in liquid form. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. especially those containing sulfur. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. and s kin products containing alcohol. astringents. . but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. mouth. preferably an hour before meals. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The tablet form is taken orally. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. or resorcinol. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. salicylic acid. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. excessive redness or peeling of the skin.

diarrhea. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). and pulmonary (lung) disease. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. Blocadren. low blood sugar. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. lung disease. cimetidine. improving circulation. and liquid form. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). As a bronchodilator. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. tablet. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. an overactive thyroid gland. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All are taken orally.Patients with asthma. dizziness. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. shortness of breath. which may be increased if needed. theophylline. hay fever or other allergies. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Possible side effects may include headache. Brand Names: Timoptic. . chronic bronchitis. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. vomiting. impaired liver or kidney function. All rights reserved. a chronic disease of the respiratory system. especially in patients with heart disorders. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. tingling or numbness. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). hair loss. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. chlorpromazine. Theophylline is available in capsule. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. as well as epinephrine. muscle weakness. chest pain. Theophylline Theophylline. insulin and other diabetes drugs. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. prescription drug used to treat asthma. or impotence. nausea. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. or heart failure. low blood pressure. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs.

Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. doxycycline. taken orally. acne. applied topically. insomnia. erythromycin. high blood pressure. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. ciprofloxacin. another possible side effect. taken in one to four doses. gum disease. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day.Patients with peptic ulcers. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. headache. Changes in heart rate. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. and in a reconstituted powder solution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. convulsions. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. thereby halting their growth. clarithromycin. or coma. increased urination. . impaired liver or kidney function. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. It also may interact with cimetidine. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. phenytoin. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease. All rights reserved. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. irregular heartbeat. should be checked by a doctor. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. seizure disorders. including urinary tract infections. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. propanolol. and gonorrhea. Brand Names:Slo-bid. and birth control pills. low blood pressure. Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or skin rash. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. Tetracycline Tetracycline.

renal impairment. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. Topicycline. skin rash. diabetes mellitus. nausea. penicillin. blood thinners. prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. oral contraceptives. difficulty swallowing. Possible side effects include headache. Brand Name:Allegra . indigestion. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. fatigue.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. itching. insomnia. hyperthyroidism. Possible side effects include diarrhea. vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Unlike many other antihistamines. confusion. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. headache. or seizures. chest pain. irregular heartbeat. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. ischemic heart disease. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. and menstrual pain. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. and sucralfate. cholestyramine. cold or flu. Brand Names:Achromycin V. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. or prostatic hypertrophy. As an antihistamine. light sensitivity. sore throat. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. nausea. a bulging soft spot on the head. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness. or in infants. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. and throat. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. eyes. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. increased intraocular pressure. isotretinoin. lithium. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. facial swelling. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. blurred vision.

Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. . headache. Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. All rights reserved. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or chills.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. fever. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. Temazepam Temazepam. preventing its reproduction and growth. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. As a result. producing a calming effect. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. All rights reserved. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . a yeastlike fungus. drug used to treat insomnia. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. body pain. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. which can interact with terconazole. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida.

Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. barbiturates. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In addition. difficulty in breathing. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. seizures. nervousness. tranquilizers. increased dreaming. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. narcotics. antihistamines. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Also observed in some patients are sweating. or vomiting. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. restlessness. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. . usually in a 15-mg dose. headache. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. tremors. When treatment is stopped. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). tremors. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. depression. or hallucinations. or coma. or engaging in risk-related activities. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. If needed. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets.Available only by prescription. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. operating dangerous machinery. especially when starting treatment. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. convulsions. blurred vision. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. confusion. All rights reserved. including antidepressants. Other possible side effects include fatigue. or by young people under the age of 18. diarrhea. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. or nausea. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. and oral contraceptives.

It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. and blood-thinners. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. tightness in the chest or throat. uncontrolled high blood pressure. esophagus. or allergies. difficulty breathing. tingling. sore throat. and theophylline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. has not been determined. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. Sucralfate Sucralfate. phenytoin. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. or va gina. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. change in blood pressure. drowsiness. quinidine. ranitidine. Possible side effects may include constipation. dizziness. Its safety for children. antispasmodic drugs. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. drug used to treat ulcers. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. This drug heals existing ulcers. digestive tract.Patients with heart disease. stiff neck. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. certain antibiotics. muscle weakness. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. or fainting are sometimes observed. preferably with water. or a dry mouth. Brand Name:Carafate . tetracycline. ketoconazole. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. diarrhea. especially angina. or skin rash. digoxin. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. nausea. Raynaud’s syndrome. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. All rights reserved. sucralfate is taken orally. Possible side effects may include dizziness. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. as well as cimetidine. Irregular heartbeat. irregular heartbeat.

or by young people under the age of 20. drug used to treat depression and. less often. ketoconazole. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). constipation. cyclosporine. by pregnant or nursing women. warfarin. or lowered blood pressure. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. weight loss. Patients with impaired liver function. muscular disorders. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. Possible side effects of this drug include headache.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Tablets are taken with or without food. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. muscle weakness. skin rash. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. digoxin. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . cimetidine. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. erythromycin. and spironolactone. gas. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. obsessive -compulsive disorders. Simvastatin Simvastatin. clofibrate. diarrhea. or hepatitis. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. stomach pain. Sertraline Sertraline. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. usually at bedtime. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. impaired vision. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. cataracts. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). gemfibrozil. nicotinic acid.

A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. or problems with male sexual performance. . or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs.Available only by prescription. breast enlargement (in both females and males). agitation. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. tremors. weight loss. irregular heartbeat. sleepiness. or behaviora l changes. cimetidine. twice daily. Salmeterol Salmeterol. which a doctor may slowly increase. or two inhalations. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. sensitivity to bright light. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. a dry mouth. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. The typical dose is 42 mg. diarrhea. Parkinson disease. digitoxin. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. Available only by prescription. difficulty breathing or swallowing. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used for the treatment of asthma. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. tolbutamide. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. if needed. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. constipation. including headache. lithium. seizures. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. vomiting. insomnia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. sweating. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. The starting dose is 50 mg. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. warfarin. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. various diabetes medications including insulin. All rights reserved.

This drug is available by prescription in tablet. diabetes. liver disease. fatigue. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Less common side effects are diarrhea. smoking cigarettes. Ranitidine Ranitidine. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. nervousness. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. dizziness. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. It is also available as an injectable liquid. anemia. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines. dizziness. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. and liquid form. skin rash. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. or taking antacids. joint or muscle pain. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. . as well as theophylline and caffeine. All rights reserved. hair loss. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. all taken orally. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. causing chronic heartburn. headaches. rapid or slow heartbeat. and drowsiness. or skin rashes. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. or muscle cramps. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. capsule. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. or overactive thyroid gland. heart attack.

An allergic reaction to this drug. tetracycline. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. especially in the second and third trimesters. and triamterene. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. midazolam. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. chest or abdominal pain. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. . This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. scleroderma. requires immediate medical attention. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. cyclosporine. and potassium supplements. Possible side effects include dizziness. it can react adversely with these drugs. or vomiting. ketoconazole. as well as with diazepam. which influence salt and water retention. lightheadedness. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. It also may react with lithium. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. itraconazole. high potassium levels. sucralfate.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. thereby reducing blood pressure. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. procainamide. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. it must be taken regularly to be effective. The drug relaxes arterial walls. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. nausea. fatigue. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. systemic lupus erythematous. Available by prescription. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. reduces blood volume. or low white blood cell counts. coughing. All rights reserved. glipizide. Quinapril Quinapril. heart disease. including salt substitutes containing potassium. as it can harm the fetus. theophylline. muscle pain. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. enoxacin.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. .

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