Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID

),
any of a large group of drugs that reduce pain and inflammation in muscles and joints. NSAIDs work by blocking the production of prostaglandins, body chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain. NSAIDs are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. In the United States alone, 33 million people regularly take these drugs, spending $4 billion annually. NSAIDs are available over the counter and by prescription, and inclu de aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, indomethacin, oxaprozin, nabumetone, and many other similar drugs. A remarkably versatile group of drugs, NSAIDs relieve a variety of minor, everyday aches and pains as well as play an important role in the treatment of a n umber of chronic diseases, particularly arthritis. As such, they may be incorporated into long-term treatment programs that require the careful supervision of a qualified physician. More recently scientists have been investigating possible new uses for NSAIDs in preventing various diseases. For example, low doses of aspirin prevent blood from clotting and can help ward off heart attacks and strokes, which are among the leading causes of death in the United States. The American Heart Association now recomme nds that people with a personal or family history of heart attack may benefit from taking one aspirin every other day as a preventive measure. Preliminary studies show that certain NSAIDs, especially sulindac, a drug used to treat arthritis, may prevent some forms of colorectal cancer. Other emerging data suggest that different NSAIDs, particularly ibuprofen, may have a role in preventing Alzheimer’s disease. For all of their benefits, however, NSAIDs are not without risks, some of them severe. The most common side effects from NSAID use affect the digestive system. In addition to their role in pain perception and inflammation, prostaglandins help protect the lining of the digestive tract from corrosive stomach acid. When NSAIDs inhibit prostaglandin production, the digestive tract is left unprotected, resulting in problems ranging from minor discomfort, such as upset stomach, to life -threatening ulcers and bleeding from the stomach or intestine. NSAIDs can also cause problems with the kidneys, liver, brain, skin, and other organs. Although only a small percentage of NSAID users develop serious side effects, NSAID side effects pose a major health problem because the drugs are used by so many people. In the United States, NSAIDs are responsible for over 100,000 hospitalizations and over 10,000 deaths each year, mostly due to bleeding from the stomach or intestine. The risk of side effects is greatest in older people, in the disabled, in patients who are also taking the anti-inflammatory steroid prednisone, and in those who take high doses of NSAIDs for long periods of time to control arthritis or other chronic diseases. For those who must use NSAIDs for extended periods, doctors may prescribe a synthetic prostaglandin called misoprostol to help protect the stomach lining.

Scientists are working to develop safer NSAIDs by targeting inflammation more precisely. NSAIDs block prostaglandin production by inhibiting an enzyme known as cyclooxygenase, or COX. The enzyme has two forms, known as COX-1 and COX-2. COX-1 is involved in producing the prostaglandins that protect the stomach lining, while COX-2 is involved in inflammation. The next generation of NSAIDs will selectively target COX-2 while allowing the activity of COX1 to continue. Preliminary evidence suggests that these drugs will prove to be safer than most current NSAIDs. Like all drugs, NSAIDs can interact with other medications. The drugs inhibit blood clotting, which can be dangerous in patients who are also taking other anticoagulant drugs. NSAIDS can also cause fluid retention in patients who are taking certain medications for congestive heart failure. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Carisoprodol,
drug used to relieve muscle spasms and help with the healing of severe muscle strain. It relaxes muscles by blocking the transmission of impulses along certain nerves in the brain stem and the spinal cord. Available by prescription only, tablets are usually taken four times a day in 350-mg doses. The drug may be taken with or without food but should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. It is usually effective within minutes. Although carisoprodol can provide considerable relief from pain, patients taking this drug should follow a doctor’s recommendations to limit physical exercise or receive physical therapy. Rest is usually considered an important part of treatment with this drug. Patients with porphyria (a blood disorder), liver or kidney problems, a history of drug dependence, or a previous re action to this drug should use it with caution. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women has not been established. It is known to appear in breast milk. Possible side effects may include depression, dizziness, fainting, headache, i rritability, nausea, vomiting, tremors, rapid heartbeat, insomnia, or hiccups. Some patients experience an allergic reaction to the drug, which may range from mild itching or skin rash to fever, asthmatic attacks, low blood pressure, fluid retention, stinging of the eyes, muscle weakness, or shock. Occasionally, the first dose of this drug brings on temporary symptoms such as disorientation, vision or speech impairment, paralysis, or euphoria. Patients with a strong or disturbing reaction to carisoprodol should contact a doctor.

This drug may react adversely with various antidepressants, sedatives, or tranquilizers. It may cause withdrawal symptoms if the patient stops treatment suddenly, producing abdominal cramps or nausea, headache, insomnia, or chills. A serious overdose of carisoprodol can be fatal. Brand Name: Soma Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Sulfa Drugs,
common name applied to a group of chemotherapeutic agents that are effective again st a number of infectious diseases. In 1935 the German chemist, Gerhard Johannes Paul Domagk discovered that an azo dye, Prontosil, cured streptococcal infections in mice. The active principle in Prontosil was found to be paraaminobenzenesulfonamide, commo nly known as sulfanilamide. Clinical trials with sulfanilamide proved effective in arresting various bacterial diseases. Among the derivatives of sulfanilamide that have proved effective against such conditions as puerperal fever, scarlet fever, erysipelas, meningitis, pneumonia, and bacteremia are sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole, sulfadiazine, sulfaguanidine, sulfamerazine, and sulfasuxidine. All the sulfa drugs are somewhat toxic, producing blood abnormalities and kidney damage when indiscriminately used. Since the discovery of penicillin, which is as effective as the sulfa drugs although far less toxic, the use of sulfa drugs has somewhat declined. Because bacteria often develop resistance to a particular kind of treatment, however, sulfa drugs are used when bacterial tolerance for penicillin has developed. See Antibiotic. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Mifepristone, also RU-486,
drug that is used to induce abortions. Mifepristone is used as an alternative to surgical abortions during the first seven weeks of pregnancy. Mifepristone was developed in 1980 by French endocrinologist Etienne-Emile Baulieu, who was then a consultant to the French pharmaceutical company Roussel Uclaf. The drug was initially called RU-486 because it was the 486th in a series of compounds that the company tested. It has been used in France to induce abortions since 1988. Mifepristone has subsequently been marketed in many countries around the world, including the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and China. However, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) did not approve its use until September 2000. The delay in the United States was due primarily to opposition by conservative religious political activists.

China. The rest did not begin to bleed until after they received misoprostol. Misoprostol. In the United States the company gave the p atent rights to the Population Council. . In the United States misoprostol is used primarily to prevent stomach ulcers. the woman might wait in the physician’s office or the clinic for up to four hours for the embryo to be expelled. and many suffered cramping. In most cases a woman being treated with mifepristone visits her physician three times. In about 8 percent of women who were pregnant 49 days or less. Because of its progesterone-blocking activity. It did so because of threats that people who oppose abortion would boycott the company’s other products. Without progesterone. treating breast and ovarian cancer. as well as certain other tumors. In the United States. two weeks later. she returns and is given a pill containing 400 micrograms of misoprostol. private research organization. The Population Council spent at least $50 million to test the drug and get it approved by the FDA. These include inducing fullterm labor. given later.S. II HOW MIFEPRISTONE WORKS Mifepristone is used in conjunction with a drug called misoprostol. it is shipped directly to physicians who use it. a prostaglandin marketed under the trade name Cytotec. the fertilized egg detaches from the uterine wall. Mifeprex is not available in pharmacies. Under the trade name Mifeprex. Nearly half the women in the U. a nonprofit. and the uterine lining breaks down. stimulates the uterus to contract and expel the fertilized egg.Roussel Uclaf relinquished its patent rights to mifepristone in many countries. including the United States. but a few take longer. mifepristone is being tested for a variety of other potential uses. No company in the United States was willing to manufacture the drug because of the controversy surrounding it. Most abortions are complete within two weeks. which starts contractions. and as a therapy for endometriosis. a pelvic examination or a sonogram is conducted to ensure that the pregnancy has ended. studies experienced light or moderate bleeding after receiving mifepristone. and 3 percent aborted immediately. which starts the process. a company that was established specifically for that purpose. a hormone necessary to sustain a pregnancy. Most health insurance agencies in the United States have expressed a willingness to pay for the drug. the patient is required to sign an informed consent form on the first visit to indicate that she understands the risks and requirements of the procedure. surgery is necessary to complete the abortion. Typically. At the third visit. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone. On the first visit the patient takes three pills containing 600 milligrams of mifepristone. Mifeprex is thought to be manufactured in bulk by a pharmaceutical company in Shanghai. the drug is distributed by Danco Laboratories. the cervix softens and opens. Instead. Two days later.

Mifepristone proponents argue that the drug makes the abortion p rocess less invasive for pregnant women. In contrast. is over much more quickly. Women who have an intrauterine device (IUD) in place or who have been taking steroid therapy for a long time should not have a medical abortion. or women who are allergic to prostaglandins. The FDA responded that the secrecy was necessary to protect the officials and physicians from violence. also called a medical abortion or a chemical abortion. Antiabortion activists claim that abortion is the murder of an innocent human being and that the new drug simp ly provides physicians with a better weapon.The primary side effects of mifepristone include nausea. IV CONTROVERSY The ethical issues surrounding mifepristone are virtually identical to those surrounding abortion itself—whether the process is moral. by making abortion potentially available in any . and is more effective in the later stages of pregnancy. no medical instruments are used. III ADVANTAGES AND PRECAUTIONS The principal advantages of a drug-induced abortion. and the procedure is not invasive. are that anesthesia is not required. Theoretically. Medical abortion is not appropriate f or all women. headache. However. Mifepristone is used in about one-third of the abortions performed in France. and fatigue. Antiabortion groups questioned the FDA’s highly unusual policy of keeping much information about the drug secret. in France. women who have genetic blood diseases called porphyrias. including the names of distrib ution company officials and the identities of physicians who conducted clinical trials. However. in a small number of women. They also point out that. the annual number o f abortions increased by only about 6 percent from 1990 to 1998. It is also not recommended for women who suffer bleeding disorders or who are taking blood-thinning drugs. Women with an ectopic pregnancy—in which the embryo is lodged outside the uterus—cannot have it because it will not end such pregnancies. Abortion foes in the United States began a campaign warning women that the drug is dangerous for them because they could suffer excessive bleeding or hemorrhaging. a surgical abortion requires only two visits. according to the French government’s Directorate of Health. medical abortion becomes progressively less effective after the seventh week of pregnancy. medical abortions can be performed by any physician in the physician’s office. Groups opposed to abortion argue that the ready availability of the drug will lead to a sharp increase in the rate of abortions. where the drug has been in use since 1988. Those of misoprostol include nausea and vomiting and. weakness. whereas surgical abortions require a clinic or hospital. diarrhea.

The drug was never sold in the United States because marketing was delayed when the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) review of its application for approval revealed evidence of nerve damage with long-term thalidomide use. and other countries. but some evidence suggests it may be related to the drug’s ability to inhibit the formation of new blood vessels. . and reproductive tract. lip. and experimentally in bone-marrow transplant patients and certain immune system disorders. This period is crucial for the development of the fetus’s limbs and major organ systems. respiratory tract. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. reports emerged from Europe of severe birth defects in children born to women who took thalidomide while pregnant. Thalidomide gained notoriety in 1961 when it was found to cause severe malformations in the growing fetus such as stunted development or the complete absence of limbs. The mechanism of thalidomide’s negative effects has not been established. a German pharmaceutical company. kidneys. other organs susceptible to malformation from thalidomide use during this sensitive period include the ears. the clear connection between thalidomide usage and birth defects was firmly established and thalidomide was withdrawn from commercial distribution worldwide in 1961.physician’s office. Britain. initially prescribed for its sedative properties and widely used by women to alleviate the nausea and vomiting common in the early stages of pregnancy. Proponents also argue that mifepristone will increase the pool of health-care providers that include abortio n services in their practice and thus will expand access to abortion. drug introduced in 1953. eyes. gastrointestinal tract. By the late 1950s the drug was widely used as a tranquilizer in Germany. Thalidomide. This disaster triggered more rigorous government regulations for drug testing. palate. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.000 children were born with these disabling abnormalities before the drug was taken off the market. spine. A single dose of thalidomide taken only 34 to 50 days after a woman’s last menstruation before pregnancy is enough to hurt a developing fetus. who are sometimes targeted by antiabortion activists with guns. More than 10. heart. In addition to stunted or missing limbs. II HISTORY Thalidomide was first produced by Chemie Grunenthal. Use of mifepristone could also ease fears among abortion physicians. the drug eliminates the necessity for women to brave the picket lines and boisterous demonstrations now found outside abortion clinics. All rights reserved. Eventually. During this delay. Today thalidomide is used in the treatment of leprosy.

and the sores make eating difficult. or chronic weight loss. Among other issues. Under these restrictions. The FDA began to require that pharmaceutical companies determine that a new drug does not affect fetal development before the drug can be approved for sale in the United States. thalidomide continued to be used in experimental studies for a variety of diseases. a protein made by immune cells that may cause problems such as wasting. Canker sores in these patients do not heal as readily as in people with normal immune systems. triggered extensive studies into the drug’s effects on the immune system. Thalidomide’s success in treating ENL. ENL is believed to be caused by an abnormal immune reaction to the killed bacteria. thalidomide can only be obtained from selected doctors and pharmacies that have agreed to follow a strict protocol designed to prevent birth defects from the drug. The thalidomide disaster mobilized American support for the Drug Amendments Act of 1962. erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Thalidomide is also being studied as a possible treatment for various cancers and other diseases because of its ability to inhibit growth of new blood vessels. Early evidence suggests that thalidomide effectively suppresses the body’s rejection of donor bone marrow that sometimes occurs in bone-marrow transplant patients. The FDA approved thalidomide for the treatment of ENL in July 1998.Growing tissue needs an adequate blood supply to furnish it with needed nutrients and oxygen. and women must also agree to undergo periodic pregnancy tests. A serious skin disorder. III RECENT USES While its commercial distribution was halted. this legislation strengthened the FDA’s role in overseeing the drug development process. . This inhibition could slow or completely prevent growth of cancerous tumors that require new blood vessels in order to thrive. A series of studies beginning in the mid -1960s showed that thalidomide was effective in treating a leprosy-related disorder. Some studies suggest that thalidomide reduces the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Both men and women taking the drug must use birth control during sexual intercourse. Thalidomide has also been proven to heal painful canker sores in the mouth of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or other patients with impaired immune systems. although not fully understood. when produced in excessive amounts. Inadequate blood circulation would impair growth and development. ENL usually develops in leprosy patients after they begin taking antibiotics to combat the leprosy-causing bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. at the same time placing unprecedented restrictions on the drug’s use.

or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). cold hands and feet. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. fatigue. the typical. This drug is available by prescription only. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. The regular tablet can be crushed. slow heart rate. and its effectiveness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. For treatment of hypertension or angina. For treatment after a heart attack. Metoprolol. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. lightheadedness. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. in prolonged action tablets. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. persons with congestive heart failure. and 200-mg tablets. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its . either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. It may have a negative effect on driving or other risk-related activities. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. It comes in 50-mg. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. more commonly known as beta blockers. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate. 100-mg. Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. It should be used with caution by persons with re duced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. a n abnormally slow heart rate. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. drug used to treat h ypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). For prevention o f heart attacks. and decreased sexual desire. Possible risks of long-term use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease.

fluoxetine. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. difficulty sleeping. and verapamil. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of nabumetone has been determined. calcium channel blockers. nifedipine. without missing doses. taken orally. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. pregnant or breast-feeding women. epinephrine. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency.sedative effect. Toprol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. To minimize adverse side effects. diltiazem. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. liver disease. . cimetidine. aminophylline. dizziness. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. aspirin. This drug is available by prescription only. albuterol. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. hydralazine. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. theophyllinevenlafaxine. digoxin. oral antidiabetic drugs. constipation. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. reserpine. insulin. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. clonidine. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. These include bloating. Brand Names:Lopressor. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. chlorpromazine. diarrhea. The typical. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. nonste roidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. or severe impairment of kidney function. All rights reserved. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. furosemide. amiodarone. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. tranquilizers. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. taken once a day or in divided doses. Nabumetone.

nausea. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs. beta blockers. loss of appetite. nosebleed. asthma or difficulty breathing. Less common are depression. seizures. itching or tingling. or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. sweating.dizziness. nausea. It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. and probenecid. including antibiotics. nervousness. headache. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. aspirin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. lightheadedness. soreness of the mouth. drowsiness. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. Patients should not take more than a single. It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. eyes. It comes in tablet form a nd is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Brand Name:Relafen Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. dry mouth or throat. More serious but uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. other salicylates. indigestion. and skin. or increased appetite. dizziness. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. or cardiac arrest. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. . antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole). or vomiting. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. and liver or kidney damage. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. or sore throat. nervousness. and drugs that affect heart rhythms. liver disease. fatigue. Astemizole. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. diuretics. blurred vision. impairment of normal blood clotting. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. heartburn. irregular heartbeat. joint or muscle pain. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are severe or a dose was missed— because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting. diarrhea. Patients with asthma. All rights reserved. Possible side effects include drowsiness. headache. skin rash. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Astemizole is available only by prescription.

and paroxetine (Paxil). fluvoxamine (Luvox). It may be taken with food. drug used to treat heart problems.In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. stomach pain. which is usually divided into two or more small doses. and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. Children under age ten may take this drug. Digoxin is available in capsule. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac). to avoid stomach upset but should not be combined with bran or other high-fiber products. The use of this drug should not be halted abruptly. Patients taking digoxin may be asked to check their pulse rate periodically as a way to help determine the most effective dose. blurred vision. loss of appetite. nausea. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002.5 mg) on the first day. or breast development in males. nefazodone (Serzone). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole. several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. an artificial implant in the heart that regulates the heart rate. Symptoms o f overdose include those listed above as well as a very slow pulse and an irregular heartbeat. It also helps heart function in patients with pacemakers. such as congestive heart failure and irregular heartbeat. if necessary. because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Dosages of this drug vary widely. Digoxin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. . tablet. Some patients start treatment at a high dosage (1 to 1.125 to 0. but treatment with it is often prescribed for many months or years. skin rash. the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors. All are taken orally. Overdose can be caused by slight increases in dosage. This drug is usually taken once a day on an empty stomach.5 mg per day. although one form of the liquid is injected. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Digoxin works by increasing the force of heart muscle contractions and by regulating the electrical signal that controls heartbeat. vomiting. headache. Its safety for use by pregnant women is not known. ranging from 0. Digoxin is usually effective after one to two weeks of use. as it may seriously affect heart function. It belongs to a group of drugs known as cardiac glycosides. and liquid form. and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). setraline (Zoloft).

these may . chemicals in the brain that help transmit nerve impulses. including dry mouth. breast enlargement. disorientation. These side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used and usually disappear after a few days. It is taken orally in tablet form. another type of antidepressant.Digoxin may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. high fever. heart attack. patients taking digoxin should alert caretakers of this fact during emergency treatment or medical or dental procedures. Because of these many drug interactions. steroids. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. insomnia. migraine headaches. All rights reserved. heart or circulatory disorders. or stroke. diarrhea. Patients recovering from a heart attack should not take this drug. bulimia. These include but are not limited to antibiotics. and eye disorders such as glaucoma. Possible side effects of amitriptyline include a wide variety of ailments. This drug may also increase the skin’s sensitivity to sunlight. Dosages generally begin at 50 or 75 mg and are then gradually increased to 150 or 200 mg. Brand Names:Lanoxin. It works by restoring levels of neurotransmitters. Children over age 12 generally take about 30 mg per day. and certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis. Benefits from amitriptyline may not be seen for several weeks after first starting the medication. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied. Amitriptyline. and blood pressure drugs (including beta blockers and calcium channel blockers). dizziness. but it is known to appear in breast milk. thyroid hormones. Others include the drugs alprazolam and rifampin. an antidepressantdrug. these include seizures. impotence. liver ailments. anxiety. vomiting. amitriptyline may also be used to treat chronic pain. headache. blurred vision. antacids. Amitriptyline is available only by prescription.Lanoxicaps Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. drowsiness. Children under age 12 should not take this drug. In addition. Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can produce side effects as well. nor should people who are taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine. fatigue. diuretics. Patients with certain medical conditions should avoid using amitriptyline unless advised by a doctor. seizures. bronchodilators. the maximum daily dosage for adults. patients undergoing medical or dental procedures should be aware that amitriptyline can react adversely with anesthetics and other drugs used during these procedures. often once a day at bedtime. constipation. Typically used to treat mental depression.

Lowering the dosage or eliminating the drug can also produce side effects. This drug may interact adversely with a broad variety of drugs. with or without food. and large doses of vitamin C.25 mg to 10 mg. seizure medications. fainting. muscle relaxants. tranquilizers. In addition. including but not limited to allergy and cold medications. or with . Brand Names:Elavil. or seizures. diarrhea. sleep medications. thyroid hormones. but they may lessen or disappear with continued use of the drug. Alprazolam works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system. as it may harm the baby. muscular weakness. It has also been used to treat depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. painkillers. Dosages may range from 0.include headache. it should not be used by anyone with myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). and problems associated with alcohol withdrawal. constipation. Alprazolam is a prescription drug available in tablet form that is taken orally. Because drowsiness is a common side effect. irritability. irritability. All rights reserved. or depression. Alprazolam. The drug takes effect after one or two hours. panic attacks. drowsiness. Side effects are more likely to appear when the drug is first used or when dosage is increased. headache. Patients who are sensitive to or allergic to tranquilizers should not use alprazolam. depending on the severity of the patient’s condition. oral contraceptives. This set of side effects may include blurred vision. especially after prolonged use (more than four weeks). Endep. barbiturates. An overdose of this drug can cause sleepiness. stuffy nose. decreased sex drive. No safe dosages have been established for children under 18 years of age. chest pains. and certain phobias. twitching. patients taking this drug are advised not to drive. confusion. premenstrual syndrome. Alprazolam should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. muscle cramps. antihistamines. or engage in other risk-related activities. drug used to treat anxiety. Possible side effects of alprazolam include blurred vision. nausea. coma. operate dangerous machinery. usually three times a day. Triavil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. especially when combined with alcoholic beverages. An overdose of amitriptyline can be fatal. or sleep disturbances. irritable bowel syndrome. loss of appetite. nausea. or even death. It should not be combined with alcohol.

insomnia. Patients who experience either symptom should not drive. an eye disorder. including carbamazepine. Other possible side effects include drowsiness and dizziness. It is typically prescribed for no more than a three-week period. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. digoxin. abnormal heartbeat. antispasmodic drugs. an irregular heartbeat. patients with an overactive thyroid gland. indigestion. It works by affecting nerves that control muscles. When combined with rest and physical therapy. Dry mouth is a common side effect. with or without food. This drug may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma or with difficulties urinating. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or tremors. sweating. The typical daily dosage is 30 mg. or congestive heart failure should not take this drug. various antihistamines. All rights reserved.narrow-angle glaucoma. but it does not interfere with muscle function. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril. high blood-pressure drugs. In addition. which may be relieved by sucking on candy or ice or by chewing gum. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking this drug. with a maximum recommended dosage of 60 mg per day. Brand Name :Flexeril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. cyclobenzaprine is taken orally. and drugs that depress the central nervous system. operate dangerous machinery. usually three times a day. Cyclobenzaprine must be prescribed by a doctor. cimetidine. Its safety for use in pregnant or nursing women and in children under age 15 has not been established. Available in tablet form. disorientation. Brand Name:Xanax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. constipation. muscle-relaxing drug that is used to relieve muscle pain and stiffness associated with pulled or sprained muscles. blurred or double vision. diarrhea. headache. All rights reserved. disulfiram. antidepressants. as serious or fatal reactions may result. and other tranquilizers. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). . facial swelling. Patients taking antidepressant drugs that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (such as phenelzine) should not take this drug. Less common side effects include anxiety. skin rash. this drug usually relieves symptoms within a week or two. Cyclobenzaprine should not be combined with alcohol and it may interact adversely with barbiturates.

The most common side effects of methylphenidate are nervousness and insomnia. or Tourette’s syndrome. Foods and beverages high in tyramine include aged cheeses. severe depression. taken before breakfast and lunch. or children with major psychiatric disorders or acute stress. avocado. preferably 30 to 45 minutes before a meal. salami. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Long-term use has the potential for serious psychological dependence and may interfere with normal growth in children. but the sustained release tablet should be taken whole. sour cream. The effectiveness of this drug can usually be determined in three to four weeks. The regular tablet can be crushed. raspberries. chocolate. soy sauce. For ADHD in children 6 years old and older. canned fish. a dry mouth. . For sustained release tablets. pepperoni. and 20-mg regular tablets. It may also cause dizziness and drowsiness. loss of appetite. bean curd. liver. 10-mg. persons with glaucoma. and in 20-mg sustained release tablets. Methylphenidate may interact adversely with foods and beverages containing large amounts of tyramine. drug classified as a stimulant and used chiefly in the treatment of narcolepsy in adults and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) in children. headache. sherry. preferably on an empty stomach. anxiety. meat extracts. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day. For sustained release tablets. the dosage is one 20-mg tablet one to three times a day (every 8 hours).Methylphenidate. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. nervous tension. unpasteurized beer. This dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg per week to a maximum dosage of 60 mg per day. chianti. meat tenderizers. raisins. Methylphenidate can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach upset. nausea. The typical adult dosage in regular tablet form is 5 to 20 mg taken two or three times a day. a chemical that raises blood pressure. bologna. This drug should not be discontinued abruptly if used for an extended period but should be tapered off to avoid severe depression and erratic behavior. yeast extracts. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function. presumably by activating the brain stem. Methylphenidate tends to improve alertness and concentration and increases learning ability and attention span. pickled herring. dried and salted fish. The safety and effectiveness of the drug in children under the age of six have not been determined. and vermouth. the initial dosage in regular tablets is 5 mg twice a day. Adults over the age of 60 usually begin with small doses. stomach pain. It comes in 5 -mg. and weight loss with long-term use. It is also used to treat mild to moderate depression and manage social withdrawal in the elderly. Driving and other risk-related activities may need to be restricted if alertness is impaired. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally.

and heart attack. skin rash or itching. desipramine. Potential side effects include dizziness. slowing the heartbeat and decreasing the force of heart contractions. depression. treatment should continue even after symptoms disappear. Less common side effects are diarrhea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Its safety for use in children is not known. Atenolol is taken orally in tablet form once a day. Patients with certain medical conditions should use this drug with caution or should avoid it altogether. with or without food. other antidepressant drugs known as monoamin e oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as isocarboxazid. This drug should not be used by pregnant or nursing women. headache. allergies. nausea. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. and nortriptyline. and breathing difficulties. or a slow heartbeat. and tranylcypromine. (An injectable. drowsiness. . These conditions include severe congestive heart failure. These changes ease the strain on the heart and result in lower blood pressure. Methylphenidate may also interact adversely with certain drugs including tricyclic antidepressants such as amitriptyline. asthma. Patients ending treatment with this drug should do so over a period of several weeks rather than stopping its use abruptly. imipramine. It affects the autonomic nervous system. phenelzine. and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug phenylbutazone. Relief of high blood pressure or angina pain (caused by lack of oxygen to the heart muscle) usually occurs one or two weeks after treatment begins. pargyline. Diabetics should be aware that atenolol may interfere with blood-sugar tests. All rights reserved. angina. high blood pressure medications (especially guanethidine). including high blood pressure.Caffeine should not be taken in any form. Brand Names:Ritalin. Atenolol. liquid form of this drug—effective within 5 minutes—may be used to treat a heart attack. and symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.) Because atenolol controls rather than cures cardiovascular problems. heart blockage. which controls the involuntary muscles and glands of the body. Atenolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta blockers. or slow heartbeat. kidney disease. It is also sometimes used for migraine headaches. impotence. phenobarbital. usually in 50 or 100 mg doses. and primidone. Ritalin-SR Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. fatigue. prescription drug used to treat heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) problems. coronary artery disease. anticonvulsants such as phenytoin. hair loss. anxiety.

such as diuretics (medication that increases urination). and sweating. Carbamazepine or Tegretol. the higher recommended dose for adults and childre n over the age of 12. headache. Brand Name:Tenormin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug is occasionally prescribed for patients recovering from alcohol or cocaine addiction. Children six years and older may take this drug. Pregnant or nursing women should avoid using this drug. abdominal pain. drowsiness. For neuralgia. It should be used with caution by patients with drug sensitivities and by those who have glaucoma. as severe. It works by suppressing impulses along nerve fibers in the brain. anemia. doses of 400 to 800 mg per day are usually effective. and other drugs used to treat diabetes. impotence. dizziness. fainting. prescription drug used to treat seizures such as those associated with epilepsy. itching. thereby reducing pain. It also relieves neuralgia. for migraine headaches.Atenolol is often prescribed in conjunction with other medications. constipation. insulin. or impairment of heart. hallucinations. The drug is typically prescribed in small doses in the beginning. usually taken twice a day. making seizures less frequent and less severe. mouth ulcers. liver. hair loss. Because of the potential for dizziness or drowsiness. in the jaw. and for depression or other emotional disorders. other blood pressure medications. However. patients taking this drug should not drive. which requires immediate medical treatment. . which are increased daily or weekly until symptoms are relieved. A variety of side effects have been associated with carbamazepine. or reddish spots on the skin may indicate a blood disorder. blurred vision. All rights reserved. Carbamazepine is taken orally and is available in tablet form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. sensitivity to light. low blood pressure. it may interact adversely with certain drugs including epinephrine. It also prevents the transmission of certain nerve impulses. This process may take three months or more. bruises. Side effects that include fever. tongue. sore throat. operate dangerous machinery. Patients with a sensitivity to certain antidepressant drugs (such as amitriptyline) or with reduced bone-marrow function should not use carbamazepine. Both forms should be taken with meals. breathing problems. They include muscle or joint pain. or engage in other risk-related activities. or throat. usually taken four times a day. or liquid form. Patients who take carbamazepine to control seizures should not stop taking it abruptly. or pain along a sensory nerve. The maximum children’s daily dosage is 1000 mg. Daily dosages for control of seizures range from 800 to 1200 mg. continuous seizures may result. although it is usually prescribed in smaller amounts. or kidney function. and antacids that contain calcium.

. skin. prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. all of which are taken orally. Cephalexin works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). doxycycline. All rights reserved. abdominal pain. This drug is available by prescription in table t. vomiting. reproductive system. and bones. urinary tract. dizziness.Biocef Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. used to treat infections of the middle ear. capsule. or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. Cephalexin. vaginitis. kidney disorders. It may also interact adversely with lithium. Cephalexin works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. However. haloperidol. hallucinations. colitis. Patients with drug allergies. and liquid form. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is known to appear in breast milk. Children should take the liquid form of this drug. Atretol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. confusion. Less common side effects include indigestion. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cephalexin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. hives. theophylline. as well as calcium channel blockers. The drug is effective within three to five days.Carbamazepine should not be combined with antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. This drug may interact adversely with diarrhea medications and oral contraceptives. A severe allergic reaction to cephalexin may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. skin rash. joint pain. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and yellowing of the eyes or skin. which is usually prescribed in two or four daily doses. and other antiseizure medications. All rights reserved. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. The total daily dosage for children is determined by body weight and the type of infection being treated. The typical adult dosage is 500 mg every 12 hours (sometimes prescribed as 250 mg every 6 hours). the entire course of medication should be taken. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. colitis (inflamed colon). but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Diarrhea is this drug’s most common side effect. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Brand Names:Tegretol. Brand Names:Keflex. fluid retention.

Chlorpromazine should be used with caution by patie nts with asthma. respiratory infections. vomiting. characterized by muscle spasms and twitches. antacids. anticonvulsants. fainting. Dosages are usually small (10 to 30 mg per day) at first. it does appear in breast milk. hives. seizures. irregular heartbeat. It can also interact adversely with anesthetics. a neurotransmitter in the brain. captopril. Abruptly stopping this drug can cause nausea. impotence. Several weeks of treatment are usually needed before this drug’s effectiveness becomes apparent. Oral forms of this drug are usually taken with meals t o prevent stomach irritation. thereby restoring normal nerve impulses and helping control psychotic behaviors. narcotics. Children over six months of age may take chlorpromazine based on body weight. use dangerous machinery. breast cancer. Dizziness and drowsiness are also possible. It works by suppressing the action of dopamine. increased as necessary to dosages that range from 300 to 800 mg per day. eye problems such as blurred vision or fixed gaze. tetanus. constipation. This drug should never be combined with alcoholic beverages. or dizziness. All rights reserved. and suppository form. kidney or liver diseases. Numerous other s ide effects are associated with this drug. manic-depressive illness (see Bipolar Disorder). tablet. nasal congestion. It is also used to treat porphyria (a blood disorder). Chlorpromazine is available in capsule. and uncontrollable hiccups. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking chlorpromazine. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or barbiturates. cimetidine. Prolonged use of this drug can cause a condition known as tardive dyskinesia. and high fever. Brand Name:Thorazine Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. intestinal blockage. glaucoma. Chlorpromazine may also cause neuroleptic malignant syndrome. An overdose of chlorpromazine can be fatal. diuretics. and violent hyperactivity in children. In addition. or brain tumors. including anemia. a sometimes fatal condition of rigid muscles. insomnia. light sensitivity. liquid. or epinephrine. anxiety before surgery. antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. headache. blood-thinners. .Chlorpromazine. and to control vomiting following chemotherapy. or nervousness. suppressed cough reflex. rapid heartbeat. tremors. prescription tranquilizer drug used to treat moderate to severe mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. so patients should not drive. emphysema. chlorpromazine is used to relieve withdrawal symptoms associated with drug addiction. change in urine color.

and muscle weakness. Clozapine is a prescription drug available in tablets that are taken orally with or without food. . sore throat. Clozapine has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 16 or in pregnant or nursing women. blood pressure medicatio ns. Clozapine may interact adversely with other antipsychotic drugs. drug used to treat schizophrenia. weight gain. nausea. an eye disorder. and warfarin. Classified as an antipsychotic (see Psychoactive Drugs). or nightmares. an enlarged prostate gland. clozapine works by blocking the action of dopamine. low blood pressure. Patients taking this drug should not drive. and behavior. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to four weeks of treatment. dizziness. epinephrine. Patients with existing blood disorders should not take this drug. atropine. The dosage is gradually increased by the physician to a typical dosage of 600 mg per day.Clozapine. In addition. impaired liver or kidney function. Brand Name:Clozaril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. as well as cimetidine. constipation. The maximum recommended dosage is 900 mg per day. clozapine should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. a serious blood disorder that can be brought on by this drug. All rights reserved. or engage in other risk-related activities. operate dangerous machinery. a history of seizures. In addition to agranulocytosis. tremors. Blocking dopamine tends to correct the abnormal nerve impulses that cause schizophrenic behavior. although maximum benefits are typically not observed for about three months. digoxin. emotions.5 to 25 mg take n once or twice a day. and can lead to death in some cases. Starting dosages usually range from 12. blurred vision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fever. and antidepressants. rapid heartbeat. a chemical in the brain associated with emotions and behavior. agranulocytosis causes fever. or narrow-angle glaucoma. drowsiness. headache. Patients taking clozapine are monitored with a blood test each week for signs of agranulocytosis. Characterized by a drop in the number of white blood cells. a mental illness characterized by severe disturbances in thought. epilepsy drugs (such as carbamazepine or phenytoin). It should be used with caution by patients with heart or circulatory problems (including high blood pressure). other possible side effects include seizures.

. skin rash. It may also be used to treat acute alcohol withdrawal. depression. Depending on the patient’s condition. muscle spasms. vomiting. dizziness. and rifampin. barbiturates. An overdose of this drug may cause sleepiness. capsule. mild tranquilizer drug. Diazepam is available by prescription in tablet. and certain types of seizures. constipation. With the exception of one form of liquid made for injection. or convulsions. antidepressants (especially MAO inhibitors). Diazepam may be taken with or without food. nonprescription drug used to relieve moderate to moderately severe pain and to control coughing. or epilepsy. slurred speech. or engage in other risk-related activities while taking diazepam. anticonvulsant drugs. Diazepam should be u sed with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. while breast-feeding. confusion. severe depression. Diazepam may interact adversely with a wide variety of drugs. fatigue. or poor muscle coordination. tremors. digoxin. confusion. Classified as a benzodiazepine. the n atural response to irritation of the lungs and air passages. and liquid form. Because this drug may be addictive or habit -forming. these symptoms may include abdominal cramps. Side effects of this drug may include drowsiness. hydrocodone is similar to codeine. used to treat anxiety and nervous tension. These include other tranquilizers. Other side effects include blurred or double vision. It works by suppressing the brain’s perception of pain and dulling the cough reflex. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. sweating. Patients taking diazepam for an extended period (more than four weeks) may experience withdrawal symptoms if use is stopped abruptly. producing a calming effect. nausea. insomnia. Patients with mental illnesses or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma (an eye disorder) should not take this drug. prescribed treatment is typically no longer than three weeks. the prescribed dosage may range from 2 mg to 10 mg 2 to 4 times daily. all are taken orally. or coma. A mild narcotic.Diazepam. ranitidine. Brand Names:Valium. narcotics. or low blood pressure.Dizac Hydrocodone. operate dangerous machinery. Valrelease. fluoxetine. Patients who experience these symptoms should not drive. Other potentially adverse drug interactions include cimetidine. with a maximum recommended dosage per day of 60 mg. diazepam works by blocking nerve activity in certain parts of the brain. It is not safe for use during pregnancy. and birth control pills. Relief of symptoms is usually apparent within three to five days. or in children under six months of age. lightheadedness. headache.

the dosage is 5 mg every four to six hours. who have a history of chemical dependency. Hydrocodone can increase the effects of sedative drugs taken at the same time.Vicodin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Patients who have previously reacted poorly to any narcotic. It is not known whether the drug appears in breast milk. constipation.Triaminic Expectorant DH. Brand Names:Dimetane Expectorant-DC.A common ingredient in cough medicines. Side effects associated with hydrocodone include drowsiness. vomiting. All rights reserved. Alcohol often interacts adversely with hydrocodone to cause depression. impaired kidney or liver function. blurred or double vision. In tablet form the dosage is 5 to 10 mg taken no more frequently than once every four hours. The drug is effective within 30 minutes and continues working for 3 to 6 hours. Taking the drug with or following food may help prevent stomach irritation or nausea. uninterrupted use should continue no longer than five to seven days. nausea. . and hydrocodone can intensify alcohol’s intoxicating effects. To avoid tolerance or drug dependence. skin rash. Extended use can cause chronic constipation. Pregnant women should avoid using hydrocodone unless a physician specifically prescribes it. dry mouth. delirium. impaired breathing. or chronic lung disease should use this drug with caution. As a liquid cough remedy. hydrocodone is also available in tablets coupled with an analgesic (pain killer) such as acetaminophen. depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. urinary retention. and a heightened awareness of pain after the drug wears off.

and patients who have previously had an allergic reaction to the drug should not take ketoconazole. headaches. Pregnant and nursing women. have liver disease or reduced liver function. The drug should be taken with food for bette r absorption and to avoid stomach irritation. or have low levels of hydrochloric acid in their stomachs. All rights reserved. Ketoconazole is available as a tablet. Ketoconazole enhances the blood-thinning effects of warfarin and minimizes the effects of theophylline. thereby either killing the fungus or stopping its growth. skin irritation and rash. Ketoconazole is also used to treat prostate cancer because it suppresses the production of testosterone. Patients using the drug in tablet form take 200 to 400 mg once a day for fungal infections and 400 mg three times a day for prostate cancer. Brand Name:Nizoral Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a hormone necessary for prostate cancer cell survival. Patients who consume alcohol while taking this drug may experience dizziness. . Common side effects of ketoconazole include reduced testosterone production (which may impair sexual function in males). take any other drugs. Antacids may lessen ketoconazole’s effectiveness. and liver problems. or shampoo. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It must be taken for two to four weeks before a physician can evaluate its effectiveness as an antifungal agent. A cure may require many months of treatment. prescription drug used to treat fungal infections. and nausea. headache. nausea. cream. diarrhea. Alcohol in combination with ketoconazole can also contribute to liver problems.Ketoconazole. patients with active liver disease. It works by weakening fungal cell walls. Patients should exercise caution in taking the drug if they are allergic to related antifungal drugs. have a history of alcoholism.

Complete disappearance of symptoms depends on the extent of the skin condition.Mometasone Furoate. If used in especially thin or sensitive skin areas. or over a long period. or dry skin. itching. If used over large surface areas. Some relief from itching and a decrease in redness and swelling is typically apparent in a few days. which are similar to hormones secreted naturally in the body by the outer layer. Mometasone furoate should be used only as specifically directed by a physician. this drug may cause skin damage. Avoid direct contact with the eyes. Its use in children should be limited to the least amount effective. too much of the drug may be absorbed into the body. children are more susceptible to toxicity than adults. A thin film of cream or ointment or a few drops of lotion should be applied to affected areas of skin once daily. drug used in the treatment of skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis as well as allergic rashes such as those caused by poison oak and poison ivy. mometasone furoate is available as a cream. tingling. producing serious adverse reactions such as suppression of the body’s normal production of certain hormones. Breast-feeding women should not use the drug and pregnant women should not use it indiscriminately or for prolonged periods. ointment. or cortex. Available by prescription only. It should not be used on areas of the body other than those for which it was prescribed. . stinging. Mometasone furoate belongs to a group of drugs called synthetic corticoids. Because of their higher skin surface to body weight ratio. with bandages. The drug is absorbed through the skin and reduces swelling and itching. The most frequent side effects of mometasone furoate are localized burning. or lotion. in areas of broken skin. of the adrenal glands. and treated skin should not be bandaged unless so ordered by a physician. although its exact mechanism is unknown.

However. persons recovering from a recent heart attack or with narrow-angle glaucoma. pregnant or breast-feeding women. patients should exercise caution to prevent over-absorption of the drug if prescribed along with oral corticoids. and 75 mg. Nortriptyline should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. . Nortriptyline relieves depression by regulating production of the brain’s neurotransmitters. chemicals crucial to the transmission of nerve impulses. Nortriptyline. Exposure to excessive heat or cold should be avoided. The initial adult dosage is 25 mg three to four times a day. All rights reserved. It may take two to three weeks for this drug to produce results. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Driving and other riskrelated activities should not be undertaken if drowsiness occurs. 25 mg. This drug is available by prescription only in capsules and as a liquid. severe pain and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. 50 mg. Its safety and effectiveness for children have not been established. The usual maintenance dosage ranges from 5 0 to 100 mg per day. The capsule is taken orally in doses of 10 mg. Brand Name:Elocon Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. A reduced dosage of 30 to 50 mg per day is recommended for adolescents and the elderly. drug used to treat major mental depression. It is also used to treat chronic. or persons who have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor drug within the past 14 days. Nortriptyline should be used with caution by persons with liver damage or problems with urination.Mometasone furoate is not known to interact adversely with any foods or other drugs. This drug should be discontinued gradually rather than abruptly.

and sleeping medications. Available by prescription only. Nortriptyline may cause sensitivity to sunlight and may activate latent diabetes. chest. and uncoordinated movements or balance problems. hallucin ations. and weight gain or loss. and skin. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. Nortriptyline may also interact adversely with other drugs including antiseizure medications. and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. carbamazepine. urinary tract. More serious but less common side effects include aggravation of paranoid psychoses and schizophrenia. constipation. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. tranquilizers. antihistamines. epinephrine. seizures. lightheadedness.Common side effects of nortriptyline that should disappear as the body adjusts to the drug include anxiety. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. Depending on the severity of infection. fa tigue. memory problems. birth control pills. a dry mouth. fluoxetine. Brand Names:Aventyl. decreased urination. Children under the age of 12 may take this drug safely. irregular heart rhythm. All rights reserved. Pamelor Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blurred vision. and a liquid form is administered intravenously. headache. fluconazole. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. nausea. narcotics. epilepsy. insomnia. barbiturates. Cefuroxime axetil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. drowsiness. the adult dosage may range from 125 to 500 mg taken twice a day. or glaucoma. usually in two daily doses of 125 or 250 mg per dose. A single d ose of 1 g is used to treat gonorrhea. . used to treat mild or moderate infections of the ears. peculiar tastes in the mouth. cimetidine. Cefuroxime Axetil or Ceftin. throat. nightmares.

prolonged use is not recommended as it may lead to a secondary infection. urinary tract. Ciprofloxacin works by blocking the action of gyrase. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. It is also used to treat serious ear infections. However. tuberculosis. Brand Name: Ceftin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and infections associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). vomiting. or skin problems such as redness.Cefuroxime axetil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. For children the tablets may be crushed and mixed with food. A severe allergic reaction to cefuroxime axetil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. nausea. an enzyme needed by the invading bacteria for cell reproduction. drug used to treat bacterial infections in the lower respiratory tract. or yeast infection. bones. This drug may interact adversely with the drug probenecid and with diarrhea medications. itching. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. thereby slowing or completely stopping bacterial growth. Patients with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. The drug is effective within three to five days. . seizures. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. infectious diarrhea. cholera. or rash. joints. the entire course of medication should be taken. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefuroxime axetil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. and it does appear in breast milk. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Ciprofloxacin. All rights reserved. Other side effects sometimes observed are dizziness. colitis. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. headache. and skin. Common side effects may include diarrhea. vaginitis.

headache. Serious side effects should be reported to a doctor. operate dangerous machinery. skin rash. can be fatal. Pregnant women. All rights reserved. Possible side effects include abdominal pain. or magnesium. Because of the possible risk of tendon rupture. Ciprofloxacin may be less effective when used in combination with vitamin supplements containing zinc or iron o r with antacids containing calcium. It may interact adversely with phenytoin and warfarin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. shortness of breath. nausea.The drug is available by prescription in tablets. while rare. impaired kidney function. Brand Names:Cipro. aluminum. Patients with severe liver disease. or restlessness. as allergic reactions to this drug. Depending on the severity of infection. which is used in the form of eyedrops. or with epilepsy or other disorders or injuries affecting the central nervous system should use this drug with caution.Ciloxan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or unconsciousness. Eyedrops are typically prescribed as one or two drops every 2 to 4 hours . Those who experience dizziness or lightheadedness with this medication should not drive. and in a liquid. and children under the age of 18 should not take this drug. tingling or itchin g. which are taken orally w ith or without food. strenuous physical activity should be avoided or approved by a doctor. . hives. or engage in other risk-related activities. Patients taking this drug should drink plenty of fluids but avoid excessive caffeine. Allergic symptoms may include facial swelling. breast-feeding women. sensitivity to light. Ciprofloxacin should not be combined with the drug theophylline. vomiting. dosages for tablets range from 250 to 750 mg taken every 12 hours. as serious or fatal reactions can result.

Fluva statin may interact adversely with the drugs cimetidine. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. weight loss.Fluvastatin. muscle pain. nausea. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Fluvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. The typical dosage ranges between 20 and 40 mg per day. or seizures should use this drug with caution. ketoconazole. It is typically p rescribed when dietary changes. Fluvastatin can cause damage to the liver or to muscle tissue. although problems can usually be d etected early with laboratory tests. dizziness. headache. Capsules are taken with or without food. diarrhea. . erythromycin. constipation. respiratory irritation or infection. low blood pressure. All rights reserved. Patients with liver or kidney problems. usually a t bedtime. This drug works by interfering with the body’s chemical pathways associated with cholesterol synthesis. Effectiveness of the drug is usually seen after three or four weeks. insomnia. Haloperidol. or rifampin. skin rash. Possible side effects of this drug include abdominal or back pain. gemfibrozil. fatigue. digoxin. and exercise are not effective in lowering cholesterol. ranitidine. Brand Name: Lescol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or coughing. This drug should not be taken by pre gnant or nursing women or by children under age 18.

insomnia. Alcoholic beverages should not be consumed by patients using this drug. and should use it only as necessary in the second and third trimesters. so the nursing child should be carefully monitored for any adverse effects. Treatment should be tapered off unless the patient suffers a severe side effect from haloperidol use. The drug is present in breast milk. eye damage. Haloperidol and lithium together can cause toxic effects in the nervous system and brain. It is also used to treat Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder) and for short-term treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children. Haloperidol can increase the effects of sedative drugs. low blood pressure. neck. . One possible consequence of long-term use is the onset of tardive dyskinesia. dry mouth. Treatment of mental illnesses and Tourette’s syndrome requires two or more daily doses. Pregnant women should not take haloperidol in their first trimester. active liver disease. Haloperidol works by interfering with the function of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the central nervous system. and increased heart rate. use of the drug should be discontinued. If benefits are not apparent within six weeks. The usual maximum dosage for an adult is 20 mg per day. Parkinson disease. and tongue. which may warrant abruptly ending treatment. Some drugs decrease haloperidol’s effects. skin rash. Dosage depends on the age and symptoms of the patient. a nervous system disorder that causes uncontrolled movements of the fingers. Haloperidol is available by prescription in tablet and liquid injectable form. or muscle rigidity. breast cancer. Common side effects of haloperidol include drowsiness. eyelids. Patients suffering from depression. including barbiturates and antacids with aluminum or magnesium.drug used to treat the hallucinations that accompany certain mental illnesses such as schizophrenia. depression. diminished sexual function. constipation. lips. Other side effects may include nausea. or a bone marrow or blood cell disorder should not take this drug. jaws. urinary retention. blurred vision. tremors.

Its safety for children has not been established. eyes. Lisinopril relaxes blood vessel walls. This drug is available by prescription only and is taken orally in tablet form. Dizziness and lightheadedness may occur from lowered blood pressure. However. heart or blood vessel disease. Potassium supplements and foods high in potassium should be avoided. a rarely observed side effect includes swelling of the face. resulting in difficulty swallowing or breathing and potential obstruction of the airway. The side effects of taking lisinopril are relatively minimal. heart attack. and potassium-sparing diuretics may increase . stroke.Brand name: Haldol Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. lips. The use of alcoholic beverages with this drug may dramatically lower blood pressure. Certain foods and other drugs may interact adversely with lisinopril. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Diuretic drugs (those that increase the elimination of urine) may lower blood pressure excessively. The cumulative effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks. All rights reserved. The typical dosage for adults ranges from 10 to 40 mg taken once a day. extremities. Lisinopril should not be taken by pregnant women. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood p ressure) and congestive heart failure (inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood). and tongue after the first dose. It should be used with caution by breastfeeding women and people with diabetes mellitus. kidney or liver disease. or systemic lupus erythematosus. Lisinopril. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart.

and Klebsiella bacteria by breaking down cell walls and interfering with the bacteria’s metabolism. Nitrofurantoin kills susceptible strains of Escherichia coli. Staphylococcus aureus. Although nitrofurantoin may cause the symptoms of a urinary tract infection to disappear within a few days. If dizziness or drowsiness occurs. The drug begins to take effect within 20 to 30 minutes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. persons with . it should be taken with a meal or a glass of water or milk. especially in the third trimester. Zestril Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Nitrofurantoin should not be used by pregnant women. milk. Enterobacter. 50-mg. To prevent stomach irritation and increase the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin. The liquid should be shaken well before measuring. anti-inflammatory drug. driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided. antibiotic drug used to treat bacterial infections of the bladder and kidneys. It is taken orally in 25-mg. and 100-mg tablets and as a liquid suspension of 25 mg per 5 -ml spoonful.blood potassium. it should be taken for the length of time prescribed. fruit juice. day and night. Nitrofurantoin. a nonsteroidal. Indomethacin. and the dose may be diluted in water. may decrease the effect of lisinopril. or baby f ormula. by breast-feeding women. The typical adult dosage for treatment of infections ranges from 50 to 100 mg every six hours. All rights reserved. This drug is available by prescription only. Dosages for children and infants over one month old are determined on the basis of age and weight and given on a similar schedule. Brand Names: Prinivil. the usual adult dosage is 50 to 100 mg taken at bedtime. For prevention of recurrent in fections.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A normal but harmless side effect is a change in the color of urine for the duration of treatment. Macrobid. nausea. oral antacids. Omeprazole works by reducing the amount of acid that the stomach secretes. nalidixic acid. loss of appetite. Nitrofurantoin may also cause abdominal or stomach pain. a condition in which stomach acid backs up into the esophagus. Brand Names:Furadantin. Nitrofurantoin is a potentially toxic drug with many side effects. magnesium trisilicate. and sulfinpyrazone. vitamin-B deficiency. or any debilitating disease. drug used to treat gastric (stomach) ulcers and ulcers in the duodenum. anticholinergic medications. sodium bicarbonate. the usual adult dosage . Stomach irritation is the most common.impaired kidney function. diarrhea. The typical adult dosage for duodenal ulcer or gastroesophageal reflux is 20 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. diabetes. This drug may interact adversely with other drugs including acetazolamide. Macrodantin Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. probenecid. or upper part of the small intestine. All rights reserved. causing heartburn. This drug is also used to treat gastroesophageal reflux. For gastric ulcer. electrolyte imbalances. This drug is available by prescriptio n only and comes in delayed release capsules of 10 mg and 20 mg that are taken orally. The elderly have an increased chance of experiencing side effects. or infants less than one month old. Occasionally this drug may have serious. or vomiting. It should be used with extreme caution by persons with anemia. adverse effects on the lungs or liver. Omeprazole.

Driving and other riskrelated activities should be avoided if drowsiness and dizziness occur. nausea and vomiting. the recommended daily dosage is 20 mg for all conditions. kidney or liver damage. All rights reserved. amoxicillin. urinary tract infection. cyclosporine. diazepam. The most common side effects of this drug are abdominal or stomach pain. pregnant or breast-feeding women. Brand Name: Prilosec Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. For excessive stomach acid conditions. Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco increase stomach acid secretion and should be avoided while taking this drug. For adults over the age of 60. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. heartburn. digoxin. gas. Omeprazole may interact adversely with certain drugs including ampicillin. Two to three weeks of regular use determines the overall benefit. clonazepam and some other benzodiazepines. ketoconazole. muscle pain. Less common side effects are chest pain. This drug should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it. skin rash or itching. but several days may pass before it relieves stomach pain. Rare but more serious effects include bone marrow depression. constipation. headache. or yeast infection of the esophagus. and phenytoin. and u nusual drowsiness or fatigue. dizziness. warfarin. Omeprazole should be taken with a glass of water on an empty stomach at least one hour befo re a meal (preferably the morning meal) or two hours after a meal. The safety and effectiveness of omeprazole for children under the age of 12 have not been established.ranges from 20 to 40 mg once a day for four to eight weeks. or persons with active bone marrow or blood cell disorders. Omeprazole takes effect within one hour. the typical adult dosage is 60 mg taken once a day for as long as necessary. The capsule should be swallowed whole and may be taken with an antacid if needed. diarrhea.

the drug’s concentration reaches a constant level in the bloodstream. warfarin. dry mouth. drug known as an antidepressant that functions by promoting higher levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the brain. Rarer reactions include dizziness upon rising from a seated or prone position. and muscle weakness. or manic-depressive mental illness should exercise caution when using the drug. preferably in the morning. Paroxetine interacts harmfully with cimetidine. anxiety. Within ten days of regular use.Paroxetine or Paxil. a history of seizure disorders. nervousness. decreased appetite. The drug is available in tablet form and is taken orally. insomnia. Brand Name: Paxil . Pregnant and nursing women should not use this drug. constipation. Because tryptophan also occurs naturally in many foods (including turkey and milk). Paroxetine must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients take up to 50 mg of the drug per day in one dose. Two to four weeks of use are necessary before the patient feels the drug’s benefits. skin rashes. urinary disorders. nausea. monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Alcohol should not be consumed by patients using paroxetine. Common side effects of paroxetine include dizziness. and tryptophan. tremor. diarrhea. and impaired sexual function. Low le vels of serotonin are thought to be associated with depression. Patients with liver or kidney impairment. digoxin. paroxetine patients must carefully regulate their diets.

Brand Name: Duricef . coli) bacteria.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. capsule. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or drug sensitivities should use this drug with caution. itching. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. and infections caused by Eschericia coli (E. allergies. All rights reserved. vaginal inflammation. however. or colitis. pneumonia. all of which are taken orally. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). The primary side effect of cefadroxil is diarrhea. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. Examples of conditions caused by these bacteria include strep throat. vomiting. Cefadroxil or Duricef. usually once or twice a day. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. Cefadroxil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. This drug may be taken safely with most other medications. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems. although it is known to appear in breast milk. Children may safely take this drug. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. It is commonly used to treat staphylococcu s infections. streptococcus infections. and skin infections. and liquid form. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Prolonged use of cefadroxil is not recommended. skin rash or redness. the entire course of medication should be taken. urinary tract infections. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. The daily adult dosage is 1 to 2 g. A severe allergic reaction to cefadroxil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. depending on the severity of infection.

Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefprozil may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. confusion. but it may be taken with food if it causes stomach upset. Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. and yellowing of the eyes and skin. ear. Cefprozil or Cefzil. including strep throat. and nursing mothers should be aware that this drug may appear in breast milk. pneumonia. All rights reserved. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. insomnia. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. taken in one or two doses. Less common side effects include diarrhea. The typical dosage for adult s and children over age 12 is 500 mg per day. Nausea is this drug’s most common side effect. the air passages that connect the windpipe to the lungs). nervousness. prolonged use of this drug is not recommended. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). which are both taken orally. Cefprozil works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. abdominal pain. The dose for children under age 12 is determined by body weight and the infection being treated. skin rash (including diaper rash). vomiting. . genital itching. and respiratory tract.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Cefprozil works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. and bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi. as well as skin infections. Cefprozil must be prescribed by a doctor. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. as it may lead to a secondary infection. However. the entire course of medication should be taken. headache. It is available in tablet and liquid form. hives. dizziness. It is commonly used to treat mild or moderate infections of the throat. Effectiveness is usually seen after three to five days. drowsiness.

A severe allergic reaction to cefprozil may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. This drug may interact adversely with other antibiotics, certain diuretics (medications that increase urination), diarrhea medications, and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill).

Brand Name:Cefzil

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clotrimazole,
antifungal drug used to treat a variety of fungal infections, especially on the skin and in the mouth and vagina. Examples include ringworm, athlete’s foot, jock itch, thrush, and vaginal yeast infections. The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

Clotrimazole is available in a variety of forms: skin cream, lotion, liquid solution, lozenges, vaginal cream, and vaginal tablet. Depending on the type of infection being treated, the drug is applied to the infected area once or twice a day. It may be massaged into the skin or inserted into the vagina with an applicator. The exception is lozenges, which are dissolved in the mouth, usually five times a day. Symptoms generally start to improve within the first one or two weeks of treatment.

Patients with abdominal pain, fever, or vaginal discharge should not use the vaginal forms of this drug. In addition, sexual intercourse should be avoided unless a condom is used. The vaginal medication can be used safely during menstruation, but clotrimazole’s safety during pregnancy and while nursing has not been determined. Children under age 5 should not use the lozenge form of this drug.

Possible side effects include fluid retention and skin irritation, such as itching, peeling, stinging, blistering, or burning. Vaginal preparations may cause abdominal cramps, vaginal burning or itching, headache, or discomfort during sexual intercourse, including irritation to the patient’s sexual partner. An important safety precaution with this drug is that it should not come in contact with the eyes. It can be combined safely with other medications.

Brand Names: Lotrimin, Mycelex, Lotrisone

Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Estradiol,
drug used to relieve the discomforts associated with menopause such as hot flashes and night sweats. It also is used to prevent osteoporosis (a bone-thinning disorder) and atrophy of genital tissues following menopause. Estradiol may also be helpful in treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. A synthetic form of the sex hormone estrogen, estradiol works by replacing estrogen in the body, which is needed for normal cellular activity.

Estradiol is available by prescription in capsules and tablets, which are taken orally; in a patch, which is applied to the skin; and in a cream, which is applied to vaginal tissues. Oral forms of this drug are taken with or without food in dosages ranging from 0.5 to 309 mg per day, depending on the disorder. The skin patch is usually prescribed in 0.05- or 0.1-mg doses, while the vaginal cream is used in 2 - to 4-mg doses. Estradiol’s effectiveness is usually apparent afte r 10 to 20 days of use, although long-term treatment (months to years) is sometimes prescribed.

Patients who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant should not use estradiol. It also should not be used by patients with liver disease, sickle cell disease, certain breast cancers, or a history of heart problems or stroke. Patients who smoke or have migraine headaches, epilepsy, asthma, high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, diabetes, endometriosis, or bloodclotting disorders should use this drug with caution. Estradiol may be associated with increased risk of breast cancer and cancer of the uterine lining, especially with long-term use.

Possible side effects of this drug may include abdominal cramps, breast tenderness or enlargement, change in menstru al flow, change in sex drive, weight gain or loss, headache, fluid retention, skin rash, nausea, vomiting, or benign uterine tumors. Other side effects sometimes observed are light sensitivity, cardiovascular problems (including high blood pressure), depre ssion, hair loss or excess growth, vaginal yeast infection, gallbladder disease, or certain cancers.

Estradiol may interact adversely with blood thinners, epilepsy drugs, diabetes drugs, barbiturates, certain antidepressants, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone, or rifampin.

Brand Names:Estraderm, Estracea

Fluconazole,
drug used to treat fungal infections, especially of the mouth and throat. It is also used for pneumonia, peritonitis, meningitis, infections of the urinary tract, and vaginal yeast infections. It is useful in treating fungal infections in organ transplant patients and those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The drug works by damaging the cell walls of the invading fungus, thereby inhibiting its growth.

ulcer medications. or hydrochlorothiazide. drug used for the treatment of adult -onset (Type 2) diabetes mellitus. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Dosages range from 100 to 400 mg per day. anticoagulants (especially warfarin). Additional symptoms such as hives. diarrhea. rifampin. It may be taken with or without food. It is available in tablet or liquid form. with one liquid form made for injection. which requires immediate medical attention. although some children have used it safely. usually starting with a high dose on the first day. although long-term use (months to years) may be required for some patients. Glyburide. Fluconazole may interact adversely with certain antihistamines. or difficulty breathing or swallowing may indicate an allergic reaction to this drug. phenytoin. drugs that treat diabetes. swelling. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. Its use in children under age 13 is not clearly established. Brand Name:Diflucan Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. vomiting. also known as glibenclamide. Glyburide is typically prescribed in addition to diet and weight-control measures to control this form of diabetes. or skin rash. headache. Th e drug’s effectiveness is usually seen after two to four weeks of treatment. drop in blood pressure. Possible side effects may include nausea. All rights reserved. abdominal pain.Fluconazole must be prescribed by a doctor. and it is useful for patients whose conditions cannot be treated .

25 to 20 mg daily. Patients with unstable diabetes. a condition of low blood sugar. dizziness. All rights reserved. itching. nausea. Other possible side effects include skin rash. headaches. At least one to two weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. Alcohol consumption while taking glyburide can lead to headaches. . The usual dosage is from 1. After an initially positive response with the drug. those unfamiliar with the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia.with diet alone but do not require insulin therapy. For this reason. patients who take this drug must monitor their blood sugar on a regular basis. A common side effect of glyburide use is hypoglycemia. peptic ulcer disease. The drug is available by prescription in tablet form. nausea and vomiting. and heartburn. hives. drowsiness. Glyburide lowers blood-sugar levels in diabetic patients by stimulating the pancreas to release insulin and by promoting sugar uptake into cells. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fatigue. or those who have histories of congestive heart failure. indigestion. as well as to watch for side effects. and patients whose liver or kidney function is impaired should not take the drug. hypothyroidism. Brand Names: DiaBeta. abdominal cramps. glyburide is commonly taken just before breakfast. or porphyria (a blood disorder) should notify their physicians before taking glyburide. Micronase Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The drug takes effect within two hours. some patients may find that it becomes ineffective. patients who prove allergic to glyburide. Pregnant women. Most effective on an empty stomach.

Capozide. Hydrochlorothiazide is available in tablet form. low blood pressure. prescription drug known as a diuretic. Aprozide. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporatio n. Chlorzide Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. salt. Side effects of using the drug include dizziness. and nursing women should avoid using it. Patients with kidney or liver disorders. All rights reserved. drug used to treat anxiety. Brand Names: Aldoril. Lorazepam. and potassium levels in the body ma y result. often by increasing the effectiveness of other hypertensive drugs such as beta blockers.Hydrochlorothiazide. Some men experience impaired sexual function. nausea. After long-term use. Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure (hypertension). . Taking the drug with food or shortly after meals can help prevent stomach irritation. and skin rashes. Two to three weeks of use are necessary to determine its effectiveness. and the usual dosage ranges from 50 to 200 mg per day. and epilepsy. insomnia. The drug is commonly taken at breakfast to prevent nighttime urination. The drug appears in breast milk. It is also used to calm surgery patients before anesthesia. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious about using hydrochlorothiazide. gout. imbalances in water. diabetes. It removes excess water from the body in order to reduce the effe cts of fluid retention. Lorazepam belongs to the benzodiazepine class of tranquilizers and works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). Pregnant women are generally discouraged from using hydrochlorothiazide but may do so with the close supervision of a physician.

5 to 1 mg at bedtime. antidepressants. nausea. and unsteadiness. oral solution. Since lorazepam can reduce alertness and slow reactions. Intravenous and intramuscular injections are given in dosages based on body weight. persons with acute narrow-angle glaucoma. sedatives. the dosage is 2 to 4 mg at bedtime. it should not be stopped abruptly if used for more than four weeks. the dosage is 0. It should be used with caution by people with liver or kidney disease. antihistamines. Because this drug can cause psychologica l and physical dependence when taken in large doses for an extended period. The drug usually takes effect in 45 minutes. s kin problems. users of the drug should avoid driving or other risk-related activities. with a maximum dosage of 10 mg per day. headache. therapy begins with 0. However. isoniazid.5 to 1 mg per day in divided doses and the maintenance dosage should not exceed 2 mg per day initially. For sedation and relief of anxiety in adults from 18 to 60 years old. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. and memory impairment. carbamazepine. and rifampin. sleep disturbance. Lorazepam may interact adversely with other drugs including alcohol. levodopa. Lorazepam should not be taken by people with a known sensitivity to benzodiazepine tranquilizers. cimetidine. For insomnia. vision problems. and as an injectable liquid. continuous use should be limited to several weeks. dizziness. lorazepam is dispensed in tablets. Brand Name:Ativan . The most frequent side effects of this drug are drowsiness. change in appetite.Available by prescription only. Its safety and effectiveness have not been established in ch ildren under the age of 18. narcotics. Less frequent side effects are disorientation. The usual maintenance dosage is 2 to 6 mg daily in divided doses. therapy begins with 1 mg per day orally divided in two to three doses. barbiturates. phenytoin. For sedation and anxiety in persons over the age o f 60. For insomnia in people over 60 years old. agitation. weakness. depression.

Whether on the skin or in the nostrils. Mupirocin. For children from 5 to 15 years old. and other types of Streptococcus. fo r 5 days. This drug is available by prescription only. reddening or dry skin. characterized by pus-filled lesions covered with thick yellow crusts. Mupirocin is also used to cure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in the nasal passages. It is available as an ointment applied directly to affected areas of the skin. pregnant or breast-feeding women. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 5 to 14 days. stinging. For adults and children over the age of 12. Such lesions are caused by several bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus. . Streptococcus pyogenes.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. The safety and efficacy of the regular ointment have not been established for children under the age of 5. The effects of this drug should be apparent after several days of continual use. antibiotic drug used to treat skin infections such as impetigo. For skin infections in adults and children 16 years and older. Mupirocin should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. or persons with extensive burns or open wounds. or itching at the infection site. while the safety and efficacy of the nasal ointment have not been established for children under the age of 12. a thin film of ointment is applied to the infection site three times a day for 3 to 5 days. It should not be applied to an area of skin larger than that prescribed by a physician. morning and evening. pain. nausea. The most common side effects of this drug include burning. All rights reserved. Less common side effects are rash. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. half the contents of a single -use nasal tube is squeezed into each nostril twice a day. mupirocin works by preventing bacteria from making proteins necessary for reproduction. tenderness. Special single -use tubes of ointment are prescribed for intranasal use.

and conjunctivitis(eye inflammation). All rights reserved. in itial dosage is one to two drops in the affected eye every two to four hours for the first two days followed by one to two drops four times a day for five additional days. gonorrhea. however. Ofloxacin kills the bacteria that cause these infections by interfering with an enzyme in the bacteria needed for reproduction. Conjunctivitis is treated with eyedrops only. Brand Names:Bactroban. . in an injectable liquid.swelling. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. This drug is available by prescription only in tablets taken orally. Ofloxacin. One of the ingredients in this ointment. polyethylene glycol. prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland). the full course of medication should be taken to prevent the recurrence of infection. Ofloxacin begins to kill bacteria within one to two hours. Prostatitis may require six weeks of treatment. and eyedrops. Other intranasal medications should not be used with the intranasal form of this drug. The usual adult dosage in tablet or injection form is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for 7 to 14 days depending on the type of infection. and hives. skin infections. Bactroban Intranasal Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Mupirocin may interact adversely with certain medications and should not be used with other ointments or treatments unless prescribed. antibiotic drug used to treat certain types of pneumonia. chlamydia. may be toxic to the kidneys if it is applied over an extensive burn or wound. Gonorrhea is usually treated with a single oral dose of 400 mg. bronchitis. The typical.

Antacids containing aluminum or magnesium and vitamin supplements containing iron or zinc should not be taken for two hours before or two hours after a dose of ofloxacin. ciprofloxacin. or factors that predispose a person to seizures (convulsions). vomiting. in order to keep a constant level of the drug in the blood or urine. . lightheadedness. or norfloxacin. hallucinations. iron salts. dizziness. without missing doses. redness. probenecid. itching. It should be taken on a regular schedule. or dryness in the eye. Common minor side effects of ofloxacin may include abdominal or stomach pain or discomfort. tearing. and insomnia. Ofloxacin may interact adversely with large amounts of caffeine and with other drugs including antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. Ocuflox Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. or impaired vision. or persons under 18 years old (ofloxacin may impair normal bone growth and development).Ofloxacin tablets should be taken on an empty stomach. dizziness. theophylline. Rare but more serious side effects may include severe allergic reactions. All rights reserved. warfarin. and tendon rupture as a result of heavy exertion. nausea. headache. It should be used with caution by persons with impaired liver or kidney function or known or suspected disorders such as severe cerebral atherosclerosis. The eyedrops may cause temporary burning or stinging. The safety and effectiveness of the eyedrops have not been established in children under one year old. Brand Names: Floxin. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if the user experiences drowsiness. nervousness. drug-induced hepatitis. This drug should not be taken b y people who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or to cinoxacin. sucralfate. restle ssness. either one hour before or two hours after eating. diarrhea. drowsiness. and zinc salts. seizures. excessive confusion. calcium supplements. pregnant or breast-feeding women. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. tremor. speech problems. epilepsy.

Pentoxifylline must be prescribed by a doctor. and may include headache. Pentoxifylline works in three ways to improve blood circulation to calf muscles so that more oxygen is delivered there. vomiting. Brand Name: Trental . it makes red blood cells more flexible for better passage through the smallest blood vessels. tremor. low blood pressure. Alcohol should be used with caution because it contributes to pentoxifylline’s blood pressure -lowering effect. drug prescribed to treat a lack of oxygen in the calf muscles that can cause pain and limping. It is available in tablets and is taken orally. Because nicotine narrows arteries. The effects of drugs that prevent blood clots and that lower blood pressure may be increased in the presence of pentoxifylline. development of heart rhythm disorders or angina (intense chest pain). It reduces blood levels of fibrinogen. indigestion. It takes two to four weeks of regular use for symptom relief to begin. who have a high risk of bleeding problems. Because the drug appears in breast milk.Pentoxifylline. skin rash. The standard dosage is 400 mg taken three times a day. obstructions that can block off blood vessels. Pregnant women should avoid pentoxifylline during the first trimester. nursing women should not take pentoxifylline. a protein that increases blood thickness. and two to three months of use for the drug to reach its full effectiveness. nausea. and. Patients who suffer from impaired liver function. and should take the drug during the remainder of the pregnancy only if there is a great need for it. and it prevents blood from forming clots. or coronary arte ry disease should be cautious about using pentoxifylline. dizziness. Taking the drug with food can help minimize stomach irritation. pentoxifylline is significantly less effective if the patient uses tobacco. Side effects are rare. when used by a patient with coronary heart disease.

anxiety. and long-term usage (months to years) may be prescribed. heart disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Blocking the breakdown of neurotransmitters permits these chemicals to become more highly concentrated. with or without food. It may detract from sexual performance in males. drug used to treat depression. which normally breaks down certain chemicals known as neurotransmitters in the brain. Abruptly ending treatment can cause agitation. or convulsions. liver disease. usually three times a day. Patients should also carry a medic-alert card or wear a bracelet t hat will alert medical personnel to the patient’s use of the drug in an emergency. or epilepsy. weight g ain. The benefits of taking phenelzine are usually apparent after three to four weeks of treatment. or an adrenal gland tumor should not take phenelzine. muscle weakness. Patie nts with a history of congestive heart failure. Phenelzine is known as a MAO inhibitor. dry mouth. Available by prescription only. In general. and it works by blocking the action of the enzyme. fluid retention. All rights reserved. The use of phenelzine may complicate other medical treatment and all patients should notify their physicians and dentists that they are using this drug. or insomnia. headache. Total daily dosage may range from 15 to 90 mg. dizziness. nightmares. monoamine oxidase (MAO). . twitching or tremors. Phenelzine. Side effects of phenelzine may include constipation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. or phobias. producing a more stable emotional state in the patient. drowsiness or fatigue. it is safe for children under the age of 16 or for pregnant or nursing women.Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. phenelzine tablets are taken orally.

Examples of drugs to avoid include cold and cough remedies. . although children over 20 kg (44 lb) can take adult dosages. an amino acid contained in aged cheeses and meats. capsules. ear. Among the foods to be avoided are those containing tyramine. as well as urinary or genital infections and gonorrhea. this drug should be taken for the full length of time prescribed by a doctor. appetite suppressants. even after symptoms disappear. Larger doses are prescribed for certain infections. sinus and hay-fever medications. including the treatment of respiratory. if combined with certain foods or drugs. All rights reserved. bronchodilator inhalants. Amoxicillin works by preventing invading bacteria from multiplying in the body. and liquid form. amphetamines. all of which are taken orally. such as gonorrhea. The typical adult dose is 259 mg taken every eight hours with or without food. an antibiotic drug used to treat infection. and bananas. products that contain yeast. nasal decongestants. Serious complications can occur up to two weeks after phenelzine treatment ends. It has many u ses. Dosages for children are determined by body weight. Amoxicillin must be prescribed by a doctor. and skin infections. The drug starts to work within one to two hours of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is available in tablets.Phenelzine can cause serious reactions. so it is important that patients taking phenelzine understand the dietary and medical restrictions that the use of this drug demands. alcoholic beverages. Brand Name:Nardil Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. Amoxicillin. and other antidepressants. including death. Because some infections can reappear in more harmful forms if not completely eliminated.

The typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 400 mg per day. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. or vomiting. liver disease. Amoxicillin interacts negatively with several common prescription drugs. joint pain. The total daily dose for children is determined by body weight. anxiety or hyperactivity. skin rash. It also may interfere with routine tests used to monitor diabetes. in order to determine whether the benefits of amoxicillin exceed any potential risk. diarrhea. nausea. Wymox. confusion.Amoxicillin should not be used by patients who are allergic to penicillin antibiotics. colitis. chest. but it may be taken with food if it otherwise causes stomach upset. It is used to treat bacterial infections in the ears. Side effects of amoxicillin include anemia. It is also used to treat gonorrhea. dizziness. or bruising. and urinary tract. . or kidney disease should advise their doctor of these conditions before taking this drug. skin rash. swollen lymph nodes. genital sores. Cefixime works fastest when taken on an empty stomach. taken in one or two doses. Indications of an allergic reaction to amoxicillin may include fever. Patients with asthma. which are both taken orally. also in one or two daily doses. This is also true for pregnant or nursing women. Cefixime works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. throat. allergies (such as hay fever or hives). the entire course of medication should be taken. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. diabetes. hives. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. a doctor’s approval should be obtained before taking amoxicillin with other prescriptions. itching. but to prevent a recurrence of infection. Children over 6 months of age may take this drug safely. Augmentin Cefixime. Brand Names:Amoxil. insomnia.

Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefixime may affect the accuracy of urine glucosemonitoring tests. as it may lead to a secondary infection. Effectiveness is usually apparent after six to eight weeks of treatment. Doxazosin Mesylate. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and symptoms associated with enlargement of the prostate gland (male organ located near the bladder that produces seminal fluid). Patients with kidney disorders or with colitis (inflamed colon) or other gastrointestinal problems should use this drug with caution. nausea. mild diarrhea. fever. stomach cramps. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. A starting dose of 1 mg is often prescribed to determine the patient’s response to the drug. This drug may interact with diarrhea medications. but does not cure. with or without food. itching.However. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Common side effects may include indigestion. headache. severe diarrhea. Dosages are then increased as needed to a maximum of 16 mg a day. vaginitis (inflammation of vaginal tissues). Brand Name: Suprax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. hives. usually once a day at bedtime. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gas. Other side effects sometimes o bserved are dizziness. prolonging the diarrhea or making it more severe. Tablets are taken orally. relaxing blood vessel walls and the smooth muscles that control urine flow. skin rash. or vomiting. Because doxazosin mesylate controls. A severe allergic reaction to cefixime may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics and penicillin. Doxazosin mesylate works by interfering with certain functions of the sympathetic nervous system. shock. or seizures. high . prolonged use is not recommended. All rights reserved. although it is known to appear in breast milk.

operate dangerous machinery. Its safety for children and pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been established. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. which may be increased to 2. skin rash. which may be increased to 5 mg per day. To treat hypertension (high blood pressure). Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. the dosage is 1.blood pressure. nausea. or engage in other risk-related activities. or depression. insomnia. Indapamide also causes the kidneys to decrease the amount of blood circulating through the body. or swelling caused by the buildup of water and salt in body tissues. nosebleed.5 mg per day. To treat fluid retention. and as a result. drug used to increase urine production. eye pain. it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. mental depression. should not drive. Some patients experience lightheadedness or dizziness. especially when the dosage is increased. low white -blood-cell count. or a h istory of stroke should use this drug with caution. The .5 mg per day. Patients with liver disease or untreated angina (severe chest pain) should not use doxazosin mesylate. subsequently relieving edema. indigestion. The most common side effects include fatigue and headache. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form.25 mg per day. the dosage is 2. ringing in the ears. Brand Name: Cardura Indapamide or Lozol. muscle cramps or weakness. Other possible side effects include constipation. This drug can be co mbined safely with most other medications. coronary artery disease. lowering blood pressure.

Long-term use can lead to diabetes in patients who have a predisposition for the disease and sodium and potassium imbalances in the body. nausea. Some men may experience problems with sexual performance. skin infection. urinary tract infection. . the drug should be taken with breakfast. skin rashes. The drug begins to take effect in about one hour. Brand Name:Lozol Loracarbef . Loracarbef prevents the cell division and growth of bacteria by interfering with the formation of bacterial cell walls. gout. visual problems. and kidney infection—all of which are caused by specific bacteria. or patients preparing to undergo surgery with general anesthesia should be cautious using the drug. diabetes. and drowsiness. itching. To avoid nighttime urination. headaches. pneumonia. antibiotic drug used in the treatment of illnesses including bronchitis. This drug is available by prescription in tablets and a dissolvable powder. A reduced dosage based on body weight is prescribed for infants and children under the age of 12. The typical adult dosage is 200 to 400 mg every 12 hours for seven days. weakness. diarrhea. Pregnant women and patients with kidney or liver disorders.drug is best taken with or after food to prevent stomach irritation. upper respiratory tract infection. Side effects associated with indapamide include lightheadedness.

People with impaired liver or kidney function and the elderly may need smaller and less frequent doses. a history of colitis. at a reduced dosage. . drug used to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies and hives. headache. loss of appetite. thereby inhibiting the development of symptoms such as sneezing. increases the levels of loracarbef in the bloodstream. All rights reserved. a chemical released in the body during allergic reactions. Loratadine blocks the action of histamine. insomnia. sleepiness. penicillin allergies. an antigout drug. by persons with impaired kidney function.Loracarbef should be taken at least one hour prior to eating or two h ours after eating. Available by prescription only. and itching eyes. Loratadine should be taken on an empty stomach because food may delay its absorption. Less common side effects are colitis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The most common side effects of loracarbef are diarrhea. Loratadine. Use o f loracarbef with potent diuretics increases the risk of kidney disease. Use with probenecid. and dizziness. swelling mucous membranes. Its use should continue for the full seven-day course to prevent reinfection. and persons taking potent diuretics to increase the volume of urine excreted. The drug is usually effective in one to three hours. It should not be taken by persons with a known allergy to loracarbef or to cephalosporin -class antibiotics. It should be used with caution. abdominal pain. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under six months of age. and skin rashes. nausea and vomiting. nervousness. Brand Name: Lorabid Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. the typical dosage for adults and children over the age of 12 is 10 mg once a day.

Loratadine may impair mental alertness. . muscle relaxants. or tricyclic antidepressants. or fluconazole may cause serious heart rhythm disturbances. drowsiness. headache. or dizziness. narcotics. should not be performed until the effects of the drug have been determined. Antibiotics such as azithromycin. itraconazole. tranquilizers. The most common side effects of loratadine are skin rash. Extreme drowsiness may result if loratadine is used with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. In the late 1940s. barbiturates. Loratadine taken concurrently with the antifungal drugs ketoconazole. also called methadon. This d rug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers or people undergoing skin tests for allergies. a class of antidepressants. such as driving. which were unavailable during World War II (1939-1945). methadone was d eveloped in 1943 in Germany to replace morphine and opium. researchers discovered that methadone could reduce the withdrawal symptoms associated with heroin addiction. An analgesic. can increase the side effects of loratadine. and activities requiring mechanical skills. In 1965 American researchers Vincent Dole and Marie Nyswander of The Rockefeller University developed a program of treating heroin addiction using high doses of methadone. and its effects during pregnancy have not been thoroughly studied. clarithromycin. pain medication. or erythromycin may have a toxic interaction with loratadine. synthetic pain -relieving drug often used to treat drug dependence. The safety and effectiveness of loratadine in children under the age of 12 are not understood. Brand Name:Claritin Methadone. Less common side effects include heart rhythm disturbances and skin sensitivity to sunlight.

azithromycin is taken orally and is available only by prescription. jaundice. antibiotic drug used to treat a variety of infections. or yeast infection. a severe form of diarrhea. limiting their appeal to the recovering addict. such as tonsillitis (inflamed and swollen tonsils). in digestion. Potential common side effects include abdominal pain. Methadone treatment has proven effective for heroin addicts who voluntarily seek to end their addiction.” Taken in large doses. It is not known if the drug poses a risk for nursing mothers and their babies. Because methadone itself is addictive. a potentially fatal allergic reaction. which interferes with breathing. and urinary tract infections. nausea. drowsiness. light sensitivity. with a 500-mg single dose the first day followed by 250mg doses each day thereafter. Available in capsule form. which kills the bacteria. This drug is not recommended for use by children under 16 and should not be used by pregnant women or patients with liver problems.Unlike heroin. Some serious but rare reactions have been reported. some patients continue to be treated for many years. In typical methadone therapy. dizziness. diarrhea. These reactions include swelling of the face and neck. Patients who suspect any of these conditions may need immediate medical help. headache. and anaphylaxis. pneumonia. hives. . u nless approved by a doctor. It works by interfering with the formation of important proteins inside the invading bacteria. it also blocks the euphoric effects of heroin and other narcotics. Azithromycin should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). Azithromycin. may be treated with a single dose of 1000 mg. methadone does not provide the user with a euphoric “high. It is typically prescribed for five days. bronchitis. or vomiting. Certain ailments. Improvement is often seen after three or four days of treatment. skin infections. Many clinics require addicts to submit to drug tests during treatment to insure they are not continuing their use of heroin or other illegal drugs. such as sexually transmitted diseases. addicts receive gradually increasing doses of the drug until they are receiving 100 to 120 milligrams a day. Less common are chest pain.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Benazepril. It is one of a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors. Tablets or capsules are taken orally either once or twice a day in dosages ranging from 20 to 40 mg per day. drug used to control high blood pressure. even after symptoms are relieved. and lithium. cyclosporine. Benazepril may be taken with or without food. digoxin. All rights reserved. Patients with certain medical conditions. The result is relaxed artery walls and lower blood pressure. hexobarbital.Azithromycin should not be combined with antacids containing aluminum or magnesium. lovastatin. Benazepril must be prescribed by a doctor. . This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. but must be taken regularly to be effective. such as congestive heart failure or kidney disorder. Brand Name:Zithromax Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. especially those that help the body retain potassium. The maximum recommended daily dosage is 80 mg. which influence salt and water retention. should use this drug with caution. potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). It also may interact with certain antihistamines (especially astemizole). This usually takes several weeks. phenytoin. triazolam. The drug may interact adversely with carbamazepine. Benazepril may interact adversely with certain diuretics (medication that increases urinatio n). and warfarin. Benazepril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body.

It is commonly used to treat staphylococcus infections. fluid retention. streptococcus infections. or muscle cramps. Patients with diabetes should be aware that cefaclor may affect the accuracy of urine glucose-monitoring tests. urinary infection. itching. sweating. joint pain. Patients with colitis (inflamed bowel) or other gastrointestinal problems should avoid using this drug. Children may take this drug. and skin infections. usually every eight hours. irregular heartbeat. Benazepril has not been proven safe for use in children under age 12. although it is known to appear in breast milk. fatigue. Each adult dose typically is 250 mg. impotence. Cefaclor should be taken on an empty stomach unless it causes stomach upset. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. although the total daily dose is determined by body weight. which are both taken orally. constipation. headache. coli) bacteria. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. or vomiting. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. Cefaclor works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. Possible side effects include coughing. Less common are chest pain. skin rash. dizziness. pneumonia. Brand Names:Lotensin Cefaclor or Ceclor . tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils).especially in the second and third trimesters. Examples of ailments caused by these bacteria include strep throat. excessive thirst. It also is known to appear in breast milk. but to avoid a recurrence of infection. the entire course of medication should be taken. . also every eight hours. nausea. and infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. bacteria-fighting drug in a group known as cephalosporin antibiotics. urinary tract infections.

vomiting. Doxycycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. joint pain. liver disorders. traveler’s diarrhea. with a recommended maximum dose of 300 mg a day. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. certain diuretics. Typical dosages range from 100 to 200 mg per day.Common side effects include diarrhea. or blood disorders. Patients with liver disease and pregnant or breast-feeding women should not use this drug. A severe allergic reaction to cefaclor may occur in patients who are sensitive to both cephalosporin antibiotics. Other side effects sometimes observed are nausea. nausea. It is also sometimes used to treat early Lyme disease and to prevent the spread of malaria. diarrhea medications. It may be taken by children over the age of eight at a dosage based on body weight. This drug is available by prescription in capsules. which are taken orally. vaginal inflammation. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). thereby halting their growth. and syphilis. Doxycycline belongs to a group of antibiotics known as tetracyclines. vomiting. and oral contraceptives (see Birth Control Pill). . skin rash. and itching. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. headache. but it should be taken for the entire prescribed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. light sensitivity. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. tablets. although one form of liquid is made for injection. skin rash. and liquid forms. itching. taken in one or two doses. Possible side effects include diarrhea. Brand Name: Ceclor Doxycycline. it should be taken on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. hives. antibiotic drug used to treat various types of bacterial infections including urinary tract infections.

usually with food to avoid stomach upset. prednisone works by suppressing the action of certain white blood cells in the immune system. multiple sclerosis. chest pain. Dosages vary from 5 to 60 mg per day. tuberculosis. . Vibramycin. Doxycyline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. An antiinflammatory drug known as a steroid. ulcerative colitis (inflamed colon). difficulty swallowing. Children may develop discolored teeth. drug used to treat a variety of ailments including arthritis. All rights reserved. especially with long-term use. penicillin. and severe allergic reactions. Brand Names:Doryx. Prednisone is also used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs. and carbamazepine. Prednisone’s effectiveness is usually apparent after four to ten days of treatment. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blood-thinners. It is taken orally in tablet or liquid form. barbiturates. asthma. although some acute conditions may be treated with up to 200 mg per day. or bulging forehead (in infants). Prednisone is available only by prescription.facial swelling. It is usually discontinued gradually. sodium bicarbonate. Vibra-Tabs. Prednisone. Bio-Tab Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. certain cancers. with smaller and smaller doses until the end of treatment. skin diseases. phenytoin. birth control pills.

active tuberculosis. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. amphotericin B. and certain diuretics. high blood pressure. All rights reserved. myasthenia gravis (chronic muscle weakness). or fluid retention. muscle cramps. or a history of tuberculosis. Pregnant and breast-feeding women should avoid prednisone. diabetes medications. carbamazepine. a hormonal disorder characterized by obesity. or an eye infection caused by the herpes simplex virus should not take this drug. Prednicen-M. Buspirone. and purplish. headache. Possible side effects may include insomnia. Brand Names: Deltasone. Sterapred Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. osteoporosis. Children may take this drug. brittle bones. peptic ulcer disease. mood swings. . thick skin. acne. phenytoin. impaired thyroid function. Patients taking prednisone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles and should not be vaccinated during treatment. Longterm use may cause various eye problems or Cushing’s syndrome. dizziness. depression. skin rash. rifampin. Prednisone may interact adversely with cyclosporine. muscle weakness. high blood pressure. gastrointestinal disorders . birth control pills. Liquid Pred. It should be used with caution by patients with glaucoma.Patients with widespread fungus infections. weight gain. diabetes. but long-term use is not recommended as it ma y stunt growth. ketoconazole. mild tranquilizer drug used to treat various forms of anxiety and nervous tension. estrogen supplements. It works by interacting with the neurotransmitter serotonin to produce a calming effect.

Patients taking buspirone should not drive. It i s not addictive and does not usually cause withdrawal symptoms when treatment is stopped. expectorant (medication that helps in coughing up mucus) available over-the-counter in syrup. The drug acts by loosening fluids that are produced in the nasal passages and lungs. . constipation. skin rash. depending on the patient’s condition. sweating. usually found in combination with antihistamines. nausea. These include antidepressants that act as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors such as phenelzine. and tablet form. trazodone. diarrhea. or decongestants. fatigue. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment with buspirone. buspirone has minimal sedative effects. Possible side effects include dizziness. rapid heartbeat. warfarin. operate dangerous machinery. bone or muscle pain. narcotics. or engage in other risk-related activities. and it is not known whether it appears in breast milk. Its safety for use by pregnant women and children under age 18 has not been determined. headache. or vomiting. Buspirone’s effectiveness may not be evident until one to two weeks after beginning treatment. usually three times p er day. Total daily dosages range from 15 mg to 60 mg. Unlike many tranquilizers. Brand Name:Buspar Guaifenesin. The fluids are then more easily expelled from the air passages by coughing. and fluoxetine. upset stomach. dry mouth. Also possible are blurred vision.Tablets are taken orally. and certain drugs may in teract adversely with it. capsule. haloperidol. with or without food. or nervousness. cough suppressants. Patients with impaired kidney or liver function should not take this drug.

stomach pain. with a maximum dosage of 600 mg a day. Although guaifenesin is most effective when taken on an empty stomach. Guaifenesin can increase the effects of heparin. Vicks Children’s Cough Syrup. Contac Cough and Chest Cold. It also thickens the mucus of the cervix (small organ that connects the uterus to the vagina). Prior to 1992 the drug . and it has not yet been determined if use by nursing mothers is safe.7 percent of the time. This drug is highly effective. and patients taking both of these medications may increase their risk of bleeding problems. nausea. preventing pregnancy 99. There is some evidence that use by pregnant women may have negative effects on the unborn child. Children between the ages of 6 and 11 are given 100 to 200 mg every four hours. it has been available in New Zealand since 1969. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate or Depo-Provera. Triaminic Expectorant. a drug that prevents blood from clotting. vomiting. Dimacol Caplets. making it difficult for sperm to pass into the uterus. Children under the age of two receive individ ualized dosage instructions from their physicians. with a maximum dosage of 1200 mg per day. and diarrhea. with a maximum of 2400 mg per day. medroxyprogesterone acetate has been prescribed as a contraceptive since 1992. the patient should drink a glass of water when taking the drug to assist in loosening mucus. Comtrex Cold Formula. and children between 2 and 5 are given 50 to 100 mg every four hours. the monthly release of an egg from the ovary. In the United States. However. It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases. Brand Names: Cheracol D. A woman who receives an injection of medroxyprogesterone acetate every three months does not have to take pills o r use any other contraceptive device to prevent pregnancy.Physician-prescribed dosages for adults and juveniles 12 years and older range from 200 to 400 mg every four hours. Possible side effects of guaifenesin use include drowsiness. injectable form of the female sex hormone progesterone that prevents pregnancy by stopping ovulation.

This side effect has not been shown to cause health problems. In many cases. Blood transfusions are often necessary. Taken every four hours. medroxyprogesterone acetate is a safe contraceptive method for women who are breast-feeding. Beginning six weeks after giving birth. it reduces the risk of infection and relieves many neurological complications associated with AIDS. Brand Name: Depo-Provera Zidovudine or AZT. Studies show that it decreases the risk of endometrial cancer (cancer of the uterine lining). Also. Women who choose to discontinue using this drug because of bothersome side effects must wait for three months—until the medication is no longer effective—for side effects to disappear. However. It has been used by at least 30 million women in 90 countries. About half of all women who use this contraceptive stop menstruating (a condition known as amenorrhea). frequent blood monitoring is required to co ntrol anemia. The most common side effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate is irregular bleeding for the first few months of use. and the drug must be withdrawn if bone-marrow function is severely affected. . mood changes. side effects clear up as a woman continues to use the contraceptive. sometimes for a year or more. Other possible side effects include weight gain. it may take from six months to a year after the last injection for a woman to conceive. a potentially life-threatening side effect of zidovudine. Zidovudine was developed in the mid -1980s and approved for use in 1987. night and day.was prescribed in the United States to treat cancers of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and the kidney. It is not a cure for the disease but prolongs the lives of people suffering from the symptoms of AIDS. headaches. and abdominal pain. antiviral drug used in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

such as secobarbital. The number of babies infected was reduced by two-thirds when mothers received zidovudine during pregnancy. although tranquilizers are more suitable sleep inducers. Barb iturates are common drugs of abuse. barbiturates have a sedative (tranquilizing). coma. overdoses can cause profound shock. they are still in use for the short-term treatment of insomnia. or anesthetic effect. Depending on the dosage or formulation. Barbiturate. or death. Taken orally or intravenously. All rights reserved. any of an important group of drugs that depress brain function. hypnotic (sleep-inducing). ampicillin interferes with the invading bacteria’s ability to multiply in the body. a combination of urea and malonic acid. .A research study on zidovudine in 1994 showed that the drug does p rovide some protection to babies whose mothers are infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Other barbituric-acid derivatives. Very short-acting barbiturates such as thiopental are injected intravenously to induce rapid anesthesia before surgery. urinary tract. and sedation. a long-acting barbiturate. gastrointestinal tract. they produce symptoms similar to drunkenness: loss of inhibition. boisterous or violent behavior. were used as antianxiety medications until the development of the tranquilizer. anticonvulsant. Phenobarbital. See Drug Dependence Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. An antibiotic like penicillin. they are derived from barbituric acid (C4H4N2O3). depression. muscle incoordination. They are physically addicting and produce severe withdrawal symptoms. drug used to treat bacterial infections of the skin. is prescribed with other medications to prevent epileptic seizures. Ampicillin. and respiratory tract.

Possible side effects may include nausea. another version of the protozoan. particularly tetracycline and erythromycin. and probenecid. diarrhea. Brand Name: Omnipen Trypanosomiasis. with a maximum dosage of 6000 mg per day. mefloquine. Patients who are allergic to penicillin or cephalosporin antibiotics should not take this drug. allopurinol. also sleeping sickness. Children may take ampicillin. In cattle and other animals. is transmitted by the triatoma bug and is called Chagas' disease. The most common is caused by T. oral contraceptives. chronic disease caused by a protozoan blood parasite. vomiting. hives. Ampicillin may interact adversely with other antibiotics. brucei rhodesiense. genus Trypanosoma. colitis (inflamed bowel). endemic. which serve as the reservoir for the protozoa. should be taken to avoid any recurrence of infection. but an entire course of medication. fever. but they should be monitored for such side effect s as diarrhea or skin rash. atenolol. the disease is called nagana. Two variations of the disease occur in central and western Africa. . skin rash. mouth irritation. and sometimes epidemic. Its safety for use in pregnant women has not been determined. Doses range from 200 to 1000 mg every six hours. Diabetic patients should be aware that ampicillin may affect the accuracy of urine glucose monitoring tests. cruzi.to ten-day course. brucei gambiense.Available by prescription in liquid and capsule form. Another liquid form is administered by injection. usually a seven. or anemia. In South America. both of them transmitted in the salivary glands of infected tsetse flies. ampicillin is usually taken orally with a full glass of water either one hour before a meal or two hours after. T. whereas a more local version is caused by T. Signs of infection usually disappear after several days of treatment.

All rights reserved. . It is also sometimes fatal. Discovered accidentally in the early 1960s in the search for new immunosuppressives (drugs that repress the body’s immune system). and. an accelerated heartbeat. In early stages. as well as to the liver and the heart muscles. it prevents the deposit of urates (salts of uric acid) in the joints and the formation of kidney stones. with accompanying mood changes. Encephalitis is also sometimes called sleeping sickness. drug mainly prescribed for the treatment of chronic gout (a disease caused by buildup of uric acid and marked by painful inflammation of the joints). frequently. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. and may even provoke them in the first stages of therapy. In the long term. Allopurinol is an isomer (chemical variation) of hypexanthine C5H4N4O. it has no effects on acute gout attacks. Allopurinol. treatment in later stages with arsenic-containing drugs is less likely to be effective. and acts by reducing levels of uric acid in the blood. Chagas' disease.African sleeping sickness begins with a chancre at the site of the insect bite. lack of appetite. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. death. also involves fever and damage to the spleen and nervous system. Over the next few months the nervous system is attacked. sleepiness. an enlargement of the spleen. which more frequently attacks children. African sleeping sickness can be alleviated by the administration of various antiparasitic drugs. and rash and fever. eventual coma.

© 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and progesterone. with a great diversity of physiological activity. asthma and allergies. rheumatoid arthritis. Cholesterol. and various eye diseases. and in cases of adrenal insufficiency.Ephedrine. or fat-soluble chemicals. Most oral contraceptives are synthetic steroids consisting of female sex hormones that inhibit ovulation (see Birth Control). drug that act s like adrenaline on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic). some natural drugs. Steroid hormones. is a sterol. derived from Asian gymnosperms (genus Ephedra) or synthesized. dry mouth. Perhaps the most widely used steroids in medicine are cortisone and various synthetic derivatives of this substance. Endocrine System). it has been superseded by safer. Included among the steroids are certain alcohols (sterols). and the poisons found in the skin of some toads (see Digitalis. and anxiety. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. a major contributor to arteriosclerosis. or the malfunctioning of the adrenal cortex (see Adrenal Gland. It is contained in some cold remedies as a decongestant. cortisone. C10H15NO. . aldosterone. It is sometimes misused. All rights reserved. include the adrenal cortical steroids hydrocortisone. Side effects include rapid heartbeat. Ephedrine is an alkaloid. bile acids. Once used to relieve bronchospasm in asthma. Testosterone). and the female and male sex hormones (see Estrogen. more specific drugs. large group of naturally occurring and synthetic lipids. Steroids. Hormone). Such steroids are prescription drugs used for a variety of skin ailments. Various sterols found in the skin of human beings are transformed into vitamin D when they are exposed to the ultraviolet rays of the sun (see Vitamin: Vitamin D). many important hormones. tremor. which are similar to but not identical with sterols. and excess leads to mental confusion and increased confidence in one's own capabilities as they actually decline.

leprosy. more effective antibiotics of the same chemical family. including increased aggressive behavior and cancer of the liver. the aminoglycosides.Anabolic steroids induce weight gain and increased muscle mass. tobramycin. such as tuberculosis. See also Sports Medicine. Microorganisms that cause many serious diseases. In recent decades steroids have been abused by many athletes hoping to improve performance. An important drawback to the use of streptomycin is the development of resistance to the drug by certain bacteria. A number of athletes have been disqualified in competitions. after gas chromatography testing for their presence became possible. related articles see also Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drug Streptomycin. These include gentamicin. Besides the unfairness their use introduces into competition. . Originally developed to help cancer patients and victims of starvation. although it has been replaced for most purposes by newer. and cholera. The International Olympics Committee banned the use of steroids in 1974. Resistance may be delayed by supplementing streptomycin with para -aminosalicylic acid or isoniazid. and kanamycin. they are derived from the male sex hormone testosterone. antibiotic agent produced by a filamentous (thready) soil bacterium. steroids can have serious psychological and physiological side effects. Streptomyces griseus. It was first described in 1944 by the American soil microbiologist Selman Waksman and his collaborators. amikacin. are susceptible to streptomycin. Aminoglycosides may also damage the kidney. The first d rug effective against tuberculosis. it is still used for this condition. Streptomycin occasionally causes damage to the vestibular or auditory division of the eighth cranial nerve.

Fluoxetine. A large overdose of acetaminophen may cause severe liver damage. Like the other common analgesic drugs aspirin and ibuprofen. acetaminophen relieves pain by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins in the body. the usual dose ranges from 20 to 60 mg per day. and for the reduction of fever. . such as headaches and structural muscle aches. and premenstrual syndrome. A lower dose may be sufficient for treatment of conditions other than depression. The effectiveness of fluoxetine is not altered by food. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. but it also does not irritate the stomach lining. It usually requires three to four weeks for the patient to feel the effects. Fluoxetine. the dose may be lowered.Acetaminophen. When fluoxetine is prescribed to treat depression. Fluoxetine works by regulating serotonin levels in the brain. prescribed for the treatment of depression. All rights reserved. It does not reduce inflammation as do those other two analgesics. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. obsessive -compulsive disorder. available by prescription only. type of drug known as an antidepressant. An insufficient amount of serotonin in the brain may contribute to depression. as aspirin tends to do for some users. so the medication can be taken on an empty or full stomach. a chemical in the body’s nervous system associated with maintaining a general sense of wellbeing. is taken orally in tablet form. particularly depression lasting longer than two weeks and interfering with daily functioning. After the medication begins to take effect. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter. Fluoxetine may also be prescribed for treatment of other conditions related to insufficient levels of serotonin including eating disorders (obesity and bulimia). nonprescription drug used for the relief of minor pain.

with a specific gravity of 1. Obtained as a by-product of soap manufacture. but is insoluble in ether and many other organic solvents. Fluoxetine is not recommended for people recovering from heart attack. C3H6. or propylene. sometimes fatal results.Fluoxetine should not be taken in combination with other types of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. diabetes. sweet-tasting a lcohol. The rest is synthesized from the petroleum products allyl alcohol. colorless. . changes in appetite. Simple fats and oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol. It forms a solution with water in any proportion. dizziness. C3H6O. weight loss. the formula of which is given above. nausea. Women who are pregnant or breast-feeding are advised not to take fluoxetine.4° F). and people taking it should not consume alcohol. At least five weeks must be allowed between the last dose of fluoxetine and the first dose of a MAO inhib itor. Liquid glycerol resists freezing but may crystallize at low temperatures. insomnia. or by the catalytic action of hydrogen on sugar at high temperature and pressure. about 40 percent comes from soapmaking. Taking these medications at the same time or even within a month of one another has serious. Brand Name: Prozac Glycerol or Glycerin. or a history of seizures. headaches. Common adverse side effects of fluoxetine include anxiety. odorless. It boils at 290° C (554° F) and melts at 18° C (64. crude glycerol is purified by distillation. Of the annual glycerol production in the U.26. after fats and oils have been treated with alkali to form the soap. and diarrhea. The term glycerol refers specifically to the compound. and dissolves in alcohol in all proportions. whereas glycerin may also refer to glycerite (glycerol in solution) or other solutions of or preparations made from glycerol. or for those with kidney or liver disease.S. C3H8O3.

the temperature at which it is fo rmed. Left after distillation are residues of . Some 300 distinct compounds have been identified in coal tar. only 5 percent of the production of industrial glycerol goes into the making of nitroglycerol explosives. sulfur. that is. Other important applications are in the preparation of drugs and toilet articles. When formed at temperatures below 600° C (1112° F). viscous black liquid produced in the destructive distillation of coal to make coke and gas. Coal Tar. glycerin is a suitable lubricant for foodprocessing machinery. The variation in composition means that most of the compounds in coal tar are formed during the co king process and are not present as such in the original coal. mostly hydrocarbons. The processing may be varied to give differe nt proportions. from which they are released later by acidification. Some of the constituents are carcinogens. glycerol is a valuable constituent in stamp pad inks. and as a moistening agent in tobacco products. they incite cancerous gro wths. together with alcohols. including toothpastes. which are acidic. can be extracted by alkali solutions. and oxygen. The nitrogen compounds react with and dissolve in acidic solutions and are freed later by alkalizing. and coal tar formed in that temperature range consists mostly of aromatic hydrocarbons plus phenols and some compounds containing nitrogen. coal tar consists of hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin types. Because of its high viscosity and its nonpoisonous character. xylene. naphthalene.The most common use for glycerol is in the making of alkyd resins (see Plastics). Pumps for petroleum products are lubricated by glycerin because it resists dissolving in petroleum liquids. anthracene. Separation of coal tar into its constituent compounds or groups of compounds is achieved by extraction and distillation. Because cheaper products are now available. toluene. as a plasticizer in cellophane. Distillation produces benzene. of which about 50 are separated and used commercially. The phenols. Coal tar is a complex mixture of organic compounds. and other valuable products. and the equipment used. and water. Coke is usually produced at about 1000° C (about 1832° F). Because of its affinity for water and its high viscosity. phenols. Its composition varies with the coal. phenanthrene.

Aspirin causes insignificant gastrointestinal bleeding that can over time. mild to moderate pain. Aspirin is thought to act by interfering with synthesis of prostaglandins. cause iron deficiency. paints. including dyes. explosives. who took salicylic acid for rheumatism. It is a more effective analgesic than codeine. Salicylic acid is bitter. food flavorings. however. found in the bark of the willow tree. used in making roads. drugs. . paint removers. however. to counter fever and pain. The German chemist Felix Hoffman synthesized the acetyl derivative of salicylic acid in 1893 in response to the urging of his father. Complications can be avoided by using enteric-coated aspirin. and irritates the stomach. It is made from salicylic acid. artificial sweeteners. Aspirin should not be given to children who have chicken pox or influenza. however. which was used by the ancient Greeks and Native Americans. Aspirin. Coal tar was once regarded as a useless nuisance. synthetic chemical compound. Studies of aspirin's anticlotting activities suggest that half an aspirin tablet per day may reduce the risk of heart attack and stroke in some persons. Since then. insecticides. preservatives. it has led to a whole new field of chemistry . Coal tar is also the chief source of cresols. and plastics. which does not dissolve until reaching the intestine. and resins. which are implicated in inflammation and fever. because it increases the risk of contracting the rare and frequently fatal Reye's syndrome. acetylsalicylic acid. and in electrodes for the production of aluminum. and inflammation due to arthritis or injury. gastric ulcers may also occur with long-term use. and its compounds are indispensable to a vast number of products. creosote oil. a disease of the brain and some abdominal organs. perfumes. a group of chemicals used in antiseptics.pitch. in roofing mixtures. Aspirin is currently the first-choice drug for fever. among others. stains.

or fever. Ibuprofen reduces fever by blocking prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus. In prescription form. or rapid heartbeat. Nuprin . Because ibuprofen can cause stomach upset. When taken in excessive amounts. Prolonged use of ibuprofen can result in ulcers and internal bleeding because it blocks the production of the stomach lining’s protective mucous barrier. ibuprofen is usually taken to relieve the more severe symptoms associated with arthritis.Ibuprofen. The nonprescription form available over the counter is taken for low-intensity pain. pills should be swallowed with a full glass of water. a structure in the brain that regulates body temperature. rapid breathing. fever. Ibuprofen works by inhibiting the action of prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain). ibuprofen can produce a potentially fatal overdose syndrome. For mild to moderate pain in nonprescription uses. and may be taken with food. In adults. or high blood pressure. inflammation. Ibuprofen prevents the body from excreting salt and water properly. the dosage of ibuprofen commonly prescribed for arthritis is 1200 to 3200 mg per day. drug used to reduce inflammation. Ibuprofen is not recommended for use by pregnant women. liver disease. Brand Names: Advil. which usually involves vomiting. and the sensation of pain. Ibuprofen also acts as an anticoagulant. usually divided into 3 or 4 doses. and it should be used with caution by people who suffer from kidney disease. Alcoholic beverages should be avoided while taking this medication. suppressing the formation of blood clots. Motrin. diarrhea. the dosage is generally 400 mg taken every 4 to 6 hours as necessary. The anticoagulant effect of ibuprofen can also result in excessive bleeding when taken prior to tooth extraction or m inor surgery.

or cortex. hydrocortisone and related compounds. Because of their widespread effects. collagen diseases.Hydrocortisone. the maturation of white blood cells. also cortisol. was the first corticosteroid to be isolated. called cortisone. and the regulation of blood pressure. Synthetic corticosteroids with more specific activity have now been made and are preferred in many situations. they must be used carefully. the retention of salt and water in the body. rheumatoid disease that is not helped by milder drugs. Secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal cortex is stimulated by the pituitary h ormone ACTH. the principal hormone secreted by the outer layer. It was synthesized in 1944 and subsequently became available for widespread medical use. in 1935. Hydrocortisone affects the metabolism of carbohydrate. Another naturally occurring corticosteroid hormone. and diabetes. Because corticosteroids affect so many body processes. and to counter severe non-infectious inflammations. Cortisone is rapidly converted to hydrocortisone in the body. and eye inflammations. so they are used to increase acceptance of transplants (Transplantation. Other conditions for which they are helpful are asthma. muscle weakness. called corticosteroids. or corticoids. weight gain. Medical). and fat. common names for 17-hydroxy-corticosterone. the activity of the nervous system. high blood pressure. a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Corticosteroids dispose persons to infection and can lead to swelling of the face and limbs. . protein. are employed for many medical purposes. of the adrenal gland. They are used to treat a deficiency of adrenal cortical hormones. Corticosteroids suppress the immune response.

they believe the hormone plays a role in the body’s circadian rhythm. naturally occurring hormone that is released into the bloodstream during the hours of darkness. The hypothalamus receives cues about the amount of sunlight that is absorbed by the eye — darkness causes the hypothalamus to stimulate melatonin release while light suppresses its release. or time of year is critical for mating and reproduction so that offspring are born at the best time of year. water balance. fluctuations in body temperature. While scientists continue to study the function of melatonin in humans.Melatonin. leading some researchers to speculate that melatonin acts as an antiaging hormone by alleviating some of the adverse effects of aging such as heart disease. In animals it is clear that conveying information about day. More recently melatonin has become a popular nonprescription dietary supple ment with the alleged ability to combat a variety of health problems. a cone-shaped gland about the size of a pea that is situated near the center of the brain. The release of melatonin from the pineal body into t he bloodstream is orchestrated by the hypothalamus. the levels of most hormones decline with advancing age and there is little evidence to indicate that melatonin supplements can slow the aging process. However. Scientists theorize that because melatonin levels are low during the day and high at night. enabling the body to adapt and meet the demands of its changing environment. Melatonin is produced by the pineal body. heart rate. Other studies have found that melatonin levels in the body decline with age in humans. and hormone balance. Melatonin may also provide seasonal cues by. informing the body about the longer nights that occur in winter and the shorter nights in summer. melatonin may instruct the body when it is day or n ight. night. or shift work. Some studies suggest that melatonin helps regulate sleep-wake cycles and is an effective treatment for some forms of insomnia. usually in the milder spring rather than the harsher winter. such as sleep-wake cycles. It is less clear how this role ma y affect humans. and blood pressure (see Biological Clocks). jet lag. This rhythm regulates the physiological functions that occur in the body within a 24-hour period. for instance. . a region of the brain that governs the body’s internal environment to maintain temperature.

Epinephrine normally is present in the bloodstream in minute quantities. and hypertension. Alzheimer’s disease. Epinephrine. is also known as adrenaline.Melatonin is the subject of active research as scientists try to determine its exact function in the body and how it may be used to enhance human health. It is widely used as a drug to stimulate the heart in cases of shock. The pure compound. Although it is easily available over the counter. . © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. to prevent bleeding. For example. liberates sugar stored in the liver. constricts the small blood vessels. Effective dosages have not yet been determined and potential side effects are poorly understood. and to expand lung bronchioles in acute asthma attacks. epilepsy. but it is now made synthetically. it is not regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). first isolated by the Japanese chemist Jokichi Takamine. arthritis. large additional quantities are secreted. Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia 2002. raises the blood pressure. Melatonin is also subject to sensational claims that link it with enhanced sexual performance and the prevention of serious diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It was formerly prepared from adrenal glands. hormone secreted by the adrenal gland. Parkinson disease. however. These claims are not supported by scientific studies and consumers should therefore use melatonin cautiously. All rights reserved. epinephrine stimulates the heart. exerting a marked effect on body structures in preparation for physical exertion. and relaxes certain involuntary muscles while contracting others. In times of excitement or emotional stress.

or constipation. drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome. One to two weeks of treatment may be needed before this drug’s effectiveness is seen. dizziness. called norepinephrine. urinary tract blockage. nausea. corticoids. antihistamines. or short-term memory loss. or nervousness. headache. resulting in a great increase in blood pressure. digoxin. high blood pressure. Dicyclomine may interact adversely with a wide variety of medications. or myasthenia gravis. and other heart medications (including nitroglycerin). hiatal hernia (protrusion of stomach tissue into the diaphragm). glaucoma. the function of norepinephrine seems to be the maintenance of normal blood circulation. severe colitis. Large amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine are produced by some tumors of the adrenal glands. enlarged prostate gland. This drug can also decrease sweating. it works by relieving smooth muscle spasms in the digestive tract. certain antidepressants (especially MAO . hyperthyroidism. reducing or eliminating abdominal discomfort. tingling. severe heartburn. It is available in capsule. dry mouth. risk-related activities such as driving or operating machinery are not recommended. muscular weakness. recurring symptoms of abdominal pain. with or without meals. Dicyclomine Dicyclomine. Patients should not take dicyclomine if they suffer from gastrointestinal blockage. An antispasmodic drug. or a nerve condition known as automatic neuropathy. irregular heartbeat. and is taken orally four times a day. The typical starting dosage is 80 mg per day. Because of this. nasal congestion. Other side effects sometimes seen are disorientation. These include but are not limited to antacids. diarrhea. leading to fever and heatstroke in hot weather. insomnia. lightheadedness. In general. Side effects are not uncommon with this drug. It has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children. which is increased to 160 mg per day when satisfactory tolerance of the drug has been established. drowsiness. noradrenaline. and liquid form. Dicyclomine must be prescribed by a doctor. impotence. This drug should be used with caution by those with liver or kidney disease. heart disease. fainting. tablet. or levoarterenol.The adrenal gland also secretes a substance chemically related to epinephrine. It is also the chemical agent responsible for transmission of n erve impulses in the autonomic nervous system. They may include blurred vision.

The safety and efficacy for children under the age of 16 have not been determined. fatigue. headache. decreased sexual ability. . antipsychotic drugs. Nizatidine blocks the effects of histamine in the stomach. itching. and by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg for the treatme nt of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid. The over-the-counter form should be used to treat heartburn only. The typical oral dosage for heartburn in persons over the age of 16 is one 75-mg tablet taken one to two times per day. stomach upset. All rights reserved. Most side effects should disappear as the body adjusts to nizatidine. they should not be taken within an hour of taking nizatidine. Since antacids can block absorption of this drug. This drug should not be stopped abruptly when being used to treat peptic ulcers. The usual maintenance dosage is 150 mg per day. Its effectiveness in healing peptic ulcer disease can usually be determined in four to six weeks. It is also used to reduce the secretion of stomach acid and prevent the return of peptic ulcers. unusual bleeding or bruising. Brand Name:Bentyl Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. drug used to treat peptic ulcer disease and heartburn. excessive fatigue. Mild side effects may occur with use of nizatidine including constipation. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function. This drug is available over the counter in 75-mg tablets for the treatment of heartburn. narcotic pain relievers. Driving and other risk-related activities should be avoided if dizziness or confusion occurs. The typical oral dosage for treatment of peptic ulcers and excessive stomach acid in persons over 16 years old is 300 mg taken at bedtime or 150 mg taken twice a day for up to eight weeks. This drug should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to it or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. More serious effects include confusion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. fever. dizziness. Confusion and dizziness are especially likely to occur in adults over 60 years old. Nizatidine Nizatidine.inhibitors and tricyclic drugs). thereby reducing the concentration of stomach acid. nausea. increased heart rate. diarrhea. Nizatidine can be taken on an empty stomach or with food or milk. and weakness. and bronchodilators. and sweating.

not crushed. Nifedipine Nifedipine. pentoxiylline. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and drowsiness occur with use of nifedipine. and 90-mg extended release tablets. This drug is available by p rescription only. Nizatidine may also interact adversely with other drugs including amoxicillin. and theophylline. The typical maintenance dosage is either one 10-mg or 20-mg regular capsule taken three times per day or one 60-mg or 90-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. highdose aspirin. For treatment of angina. however. or persons with low blood pressure. The safety and effectiveness of . dropping blood pressure to undesirably low levels. 60-mg. Nifedipine should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug. nifedipine relaxes blood vessels. The typical maintenance dosage is one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day.Alcoholic beverages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Hot environments can exaggerate the effects of this drug. and tomatoes increase stomach acid secretio n and should be avoided while taking this drug. the initial adult dosage is either one 10-mg regular capsule taken three times a day. These combined effects reduce the workload of the heart during exertion and help prevent angina. onions. garlic. or a significant narrowing of the aorta. It is taken orally and comes in 10-mg and 20-mg regular capsules and in 30-mg. protein-rich foods. By blocking the passage of calcium into cells of the heart and blood vessels. although overall benefits may not be determined for two to four weeks. if stomach irritation is a problem. on an empty stomach either one hour before or two hours after a meal. pregnant or breast-feeding women. reduced liver or kidney function. The effects of this drug are apparent within 30 to 60 minutes. citrus fruit. thereby lowering blood pressure and increasing the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart. Only extended release tablets a re used in the treatment of hypertension. Brand Name:Axid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. All rights reserved. calcium channel blocker drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain) and hypertension (high blood pressure). The initial dosage for hypertension is one 30-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. or one 30-mg or 60-mg extended release tablet taken once a day. The tablets or capsules should be taken whole. doses may be taken with food.

Rarely. swelling of the feet and ankles. The skin ointment or cream should not be used over large areas of the body or for more than one week and should not be used in the eye . Brand Names:Adalat. insulin. thereby preventing the production of proteins needed by the bacteria to multiply and survive. Nifedipine may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages. a thin film of ointment or cream is applied to the affected area two to four times per day for up to one week. nausea. along with hydrocortisone. cigarette smoking. There is an increased chance of side effects in persons over the age of 60. The prescription preparations come as skin ointments or creams. theophylline. infants and children should be given three eardrops three to four times per day. cyclosporine. Nifedipine should not be stopped abruptly but should be tapered off under a physician’s supervision. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. oral hypoglycemic drugs. These combinations. eye. are also available by prescription for inflammatory conditions that require a corticoid drug in addition to an antibiotic.this drug have not been determined for children under the age of 12. For eye infections. For skin conditions. Neomycin alters the chemical activity in bacteria that causes such infections. a thin coating of the eye ointment or one to two eyedrops are put into the affected eye every three to four hours for seven to ten days. grapefruit juice. and certain drugs including amiodarone. digitalis. and ear infections. Adult ear infections are treated with four eardrops three to four times per day. Neomycin Neomycin.. diltiazem. headache. This drug is available in over-the-counter preparations in combination with polymyxin B sulfate and either bacitracin zinc or pramoxine hydrochloride as a first aid antibiotic and pain -relieving o intment or cream. especially in persons who have stopped taking beta blocker drugs. and otic (ear) drops. Procardia Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ophthalmic (eye) ointments or drops. magnesium. Common side effects of this drug include dizziness. cimetidine. nifedipine may increase angina. These preparations should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to any of these drugs. lightheadedness. digoxin. phenytoin. antibiotic drug most commonly used in combination-drug preparations to treat skin. The regular capsules should not be used by persons over 71 years old. flushing. All rights reserved. and weakness. low blood pressure. and ranitidine.

without missing doses. Neomycin occasionally causes the skin to redden and become sensitive. pregnant or breast-feeding women. It should be taken with food to increase absorption of the drug and to prevent stomach irritation. taken once a day or in divided doses. All rights reserved. smallpox. Preparations containing hydrocortisone may cause burning. taken orally. or severe impairment of kidney function.or the ear. Rarely. liver disease. irritation. Nabumetone blocks the production of certain chemicals in the body called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and inflammation. Relief of symptoms may be felt within one hour. the lowest effective daily dose should be used. Nabumetone should be taken on a regular schedule. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceration or bleeding. The typical. kidney or ear damage may occur. None of the neomycin preparations are known to have adverse reactions with other drugs. initial adult dosage is 1000 mg per day. bleeding or blood cell disorders. Brand Names:Corticosporin. itching. Neosporin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. This dosage may be increased as needed and tolerated to 1500 to 2000 mg per day. and chicken pox infections. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of . Nabumetone Nabumetone. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. It comes in 500-mg and 700-mg tablets. Use of neomycin on large areas of the body or for extended periods of time may cause stretch marks and more serious systemic damage. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Nabumetone should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. but it may take up to two weeks to feel the full effect of the drug. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function and persons taking drugs that reduce blood clotting. To minimize adverse side effects. This drug is available b y prescription only. Prolonged use may cause secondary bacterial or fungal infections. or dryness. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. The eardrops should not be used for herpes simplex.

Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness. blurred vision. loss of appetite. nausea. If tablets are missed. or eyes. sweating. One tablet is taken orally each day for 21 days. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are synthetic hormones similar to the natural female sex hormones progesterone and estrogen. lightheadedness. Certain mild side effects may occur with nabumetone that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. and other anti-inflammatory drugs. aspirin. Brand Name:Relafen Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol Norgestrel/Ethinyl Estradiol. making it more difficult for the sperm to enter the uterus. dizziness. respectively. heartburn. lungs. after which the same dosage cycle is repeated each month. This drug is available by prescription only.nabumetone has been determined. asthma or difficulty breathing. Norgestrel and ethinyl estradiol are considered effective in contraception after seven consecutive days. and the chance of becoming pregnant is less than 1 percent per year when no tablets are missed. This combination drug suppresses the release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). diarrhea. thickens the mucus of the cervix. dizziness. strokes. soreness of the mouth. bleeding in the stomach or duodenum. beginning on the first Sunday following the beginning of the menstrual period. and liver or kidney damage. other salicylates. constipation. and causes changes in the lining of the uterus that prevent a fertilized egg from implanting. beta blockers. difficulty sleeping. blood clots in the legs. combination drug used as birth control pill by women to prevent pregnancy. or angina pectoris (chest pain). headache. This drug should not be used by women who have had heart attacks. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. impairment of normal blood clotting. drowsiness. nervousness. This drug is most effective if the tablets are taken no more than 24 hours apart. an additional method of birth control must be used until the tablets have again been taken for seven consecutive days. Nabumetone may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and with certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. or impaired vision occurs with use of this drug. These include bloating. or vomiting. and probenecid. known or . More serious b ut uncommon side effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. The tablets are then discontinued for seven days. diuretics. indigestion.

fluid retention. vomiting. blotchy spots on exposed skin. dizziness. Certain drugs may interact with oral contraceptives to make them less effective in preventing pregnancy or cause an increase in breakthrough bleeding. In lowering blood cholesterol. unexplained vaginal bleeding. or known or suspected pregnancy. loss of scalp hair. depression. These include rifampin. it should be discontinued three to four weeks before surgery and for two weeks after surgery. yellowing of the whites of the eyes or skin during pregnancy or previous use of the pill. nervousness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight . Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil. smoke. headache. liver tumors. a fatty substance both manufactured in the body and consumed in the diet. breast tenderness.suspected breast cancer or cancer of the uterine lining. The risks associated with the drug are increased significantly in women who have these conditions. Brand Names: Lo/Ovral. rash. drugs used for epilepsy such as barbiturates and phenytoin. difficulty wearing contact lenses. phenylbutazone. or high cholesterol. cervix. or have high blood pressure. Dosages range from 1200 to 1600 mg per day. prescription drug used to reduce blood cholesterol. All rights reserved. and vaginal infections. Tablets are taken orally twice a day about 30 minutes before a meal. gemfibrozil decreases the risk of coronary heart disease as well as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and several studies have found no overall increase in the risk of developing breast cancer. The most common side effects of this drug are nausea. Because of the risk of blood clots. There is at present no confirmed evidence that oral contraceptives increase the risk of cancer of the reproductive organs. diabetes. or vagina. bleeding between menstrual periods. Ovral-28 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and brown. weight gain. Uncommon—but serious and potentially fatal— side effects are blood clots and blockage of blood vessels. Some studies have found an increase in the incidence of cervical cancer. The drug should not be used by breast-feeding mothers. and certain antibiotics. Other side effects may include changes in appetite.

or an allergy to sulfa d rugs should use furosemide with caution. indigestion. excessive thirst. Patients taking this drug are usually advised to follow a special diet. nausea. dizziness. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks. Potassium supplements or a potassium-rich diet is needed in some patients to prevent excess potassium loss. Other side effects sometimes observed are anemia. lovastatin. skin rash. nausea.weeks of treatment. Furosemide may interact adversely with aspirin. ringing in the ears. lightsensitivity. drug used to help the body remove excess fluid by increasing urine flow. narcotics. This is increased as needed to a maximum daily dosage of 600 mg. and lose weight as part of their treatment. congestive heart failure. gout. and other muscle -relaxing drugs. fever. dizziness. or abdominal pain (including appendicitis). Possible side effects include constipation. but it does appear in breast milk. It reduces water and salt in the body. thyroid problems. Furosemide must be prescribed by a doctor. skin rash. Taking gemfibrozil may lead to or worsen symptoms of myositis (a muscle disease). Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. or blurred vision. Brand Name:Lopid Furosemide Furosemide. confusion. it is usually taken twice a day in dosages starting at 20 to 80 mg. itching. or various blood-thinning drugs. . although long-term treatment (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. diabetes. and liver disease. muscle or joint pain. vomiting. lupus erythematosus. The drug may be taken with food to minimize stomach irritation. hives. diarrhea. fainting. diarrhea. Patients with diabetes. irregular heartbeat. or sleepiness. also known as a diuretic. liver disorders. impotence. impotence. headache. Children may take this drug. This is useful in the treatment of high blood pressure. gallbladder disease. Available in tablet and liquid form. or impaired liver or kidney function should use gemfibrozil with caution. kidney disease. with dosage based on body weight. barbiturates. Possible side effects may include constipation. Patients with liver or kidney disease. exercise. or other abdominal problems. This drug has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. h eadache. Gemfibrozil may interact adversely with glyburide. blurred vision. relieving pressure on the circulatory system and various organs.

and also in a liquid form that is injected. stomach acid decreases. Overdosage can cause confusion. Long-term use (months to years) is sometimes prescribed for prevention of symptoms. This drug must be prescribed by a doctor. drowsiness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Famotidine blocks the action of histamine. Famotidine may interact adversely wit h the drugs itraconazole. both taken orally. dizziness. rapid or slow heartbeat. pentoxifylline. seizures. All rights reserved. or cardiac arrest. pancrelipase. impotence. When histamine action is blocked. joint or muscle pain. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. hair loss. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. . skin rash or itching. anxiety. Less common are diarrhea. Patients taking famotidine should avoid antacids within one to two hours of a famotidine dose. causing heartburn) and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. The typical dosage is 20 to 40 mg taken in a single dose at bedtime. among other effects. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under age 16.Brand Name: Lasix Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. It is available in tablet and liquid form. All rights reserved. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. Brand Name: Pepcid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. ketoconazole. It is also used to treat reflux disease (a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. Relief of symptoms may take several days. or probenecid. or sleepiness. Famotidine Famotidine.

and nursing mothers should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 360 mg per day. Its safety for use during pre gnancy or in children under age 12 has not been determined. nausea. fluid retention. or opening. hair loss. diarrhea. Diltiazem must be prescribed by a doctor. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for two to four weeks. Dilacor XR Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or abnormally slow heartbeat.Diltiazem Diltiazem. Diclofenac Sodium . Those with an impaired liver or with congestive heart failure should use this drug with caution. dry mouth. Patients with low blood pressure or certain types of irregular heartbeat should not use diltiazem. Diltiazem belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Possible side effects include dizziness or light-headedness. All rights reserved. digoxin. muscular weakness. drug used to treat angina (sharp chest pain caused by reduced oxygen to the heart muscle) and high blood pressure. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. aspirin. so it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Long-term therapy for months to years is not uncommon with this drug. ringing in the ears. thereby reducing blood pressure. carbamazepine. Available in tablet and capsule form. Also sometimes seen are constipation. This also relieves the chest pains associated with angina. It is also sometimes used to treat congestive heart failure and abnormal heart rhythms. cimetidine. It is important to remember that diltiazem only controls cardiovascular problems (it does not cure them). and ranitidine. An extended-release form of this drug is taken once a day. light sensitivity. headache. skin rash. or vision changes. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. These are divided into three or four smaller doses. The drug works by dilating. which are typically taken before meals and at bedtime. Brand Names:Cardizem. blood vessels and slowing the heart. sleeplessness. Diltiazem may interact adversely with beta blocker drugs.

diuretics. drowsiness. skin rash. The total daily dosage usually ranges from 100 to 200 mg. Classified as an antiasthmatic. Tablets are taken orally two to five times per day. Children under the age of 12 should not use this drug. cyclosporine. All rights reserved.Diclofenac Sodium. ringing in the ears. Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn Sodium or Intal. and carteolol. nausea. lithium. with 225 mg being the recommended maximum. An anti-inflammatory analgesic. An overdose of diclofenac sodium can cause acute kidney failure. heart disease. Patients with kidney or liver problems. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take diclofenac sodium. or dizziness. blood-thinning medications. with food. drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. but it is known to appear in breast milk. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. the two branch es that connect the . hair loss. if stomach upset occurs. blurred or double vision. thereby relieving the swelling and stiffness commonly associated with arthritis. Tablets should be taken with a full glass of water and. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. drug used to treat various forms of arthritis. constipation. light sensitivity. headache. ulcers. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. It is also sometimes used to relieve menstrual pain (see Menstruation). Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can also help prevent stomach upset. Diclofenac sodium must be prescribed by a doctor. Brand Name:Voltaren Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. in somnia. heart medications containing digitalis. it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi. indigestion. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. or loss of consciousness. lung inflammation. insulin and certain other diabetes drugs. methotrexate. facial swelling. this drug works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in tissue that produce inflammation and pain. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes ca used by this medication. or vomiting.

Nasalcrom. nasal congestion. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. usually in 250. Available by prescription only. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. The drug works by interfering with the formation of proteins in the invading bacteria. Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. including capsules (taken orally). Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. sneezing. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. tablets are taken orally. including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution.to 500-mg doses every 12 hours. dizziness. difficulty swallowing. skin rash. . Brand Names:Intal. or powder. or swollen glands. headache. or wheezing. cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Sometimes seen are facial swelling. antibiotic drug used to treat respiratory tract and skin infections such as pneumonia. Effectiveness in controlling infection is usually apparent after 4 to 6 days. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed. frequent urination.trachea or windpipe to the lungs. although the complete. nosebleed. liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose). throat irritation. and bronchitis. They may be taken w ith or without food. Clarithromycin Clarithromycin. thereby preventing their growth and multiplication. Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. Possible side effects include coughing. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. All rights reserved. joint pain. nausea. tonsillitis (swollen and inflamed tonsils). Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs. although most are taken four to six times per day. It comes in several forms.

The drug’s side effects are usually minimal.prescribed treatment (usually 7 to 14 days) should be taken even if symptoms have subsided to prevent a recurring infection. sometimes caused by the drug’s effect on the intestine. caffeine. indigestion. but may include nausea. It is taken in tablet or capsule form. Dosages should not be increased without a doctor’s approval. acetaminophen. It works by decreasing the activity of the central nervous system. Patients with kidney disease or a sensitivity to erythromycin or similar antibiotics should avoid this drug or use it with caution. Brand Name:Biaxin Butalbital Butalbital. Patients with porphyria. diarrhea. Butalbital’s safety for use by children and pregnant women has not been established. Severe diarrhea. nursing women should be aware that it does appear in breast milk. as well as with the drugs carbamazepine. or an altered sense of taste. It should be taken with food or a large drink of water and should not be combined with alcohol.) The maximum recommended dosage is six tablets per day. Patients taking this drug should avoid driving. or other risk-related activities. Clarithromycin has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or for pregnant women. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that the drug may appear in breast milk. . should not take this drug. usually one or two tablets every four hours. astemizole. Dependency on this drug can occur. It is typically combined with other ingredients (such as aspirin. digoxin. (One capsule or tablet typically contains 50 mg of butalbital combined with various other active ingredients. requires immediate medical attention. especially with long-term use. Clarithromycin may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. a medical condition affecting the liver or bone marrow. operating dangerous machinery. and phenytoin. A medication containing butalbital must be prescribed by a doctor. headache. or codeine) to create a medication used to relieve headaches or muscle pain in the neck and shoulders. theophylline. sedative b arbiturate drug.

Uncommon side effects may include nausea. light-headedness. headache. including dizziness. patients with low blood pressure. so it may be combined with most other blood pressure or angina medications. twitching. Brand Names:Norvasc. These include antidepressants. back or chest pain. fatigue. Amlodipine is available only by prescription. . migraine. The drug’s full effectiveness is not achieved until seven or eight days of treatment is completed. sleepiness. fluid retention or swelling. itching. Symptoms of butalbital overdose are confusion. All rights reserved. such as beta blockers. usually in 5. Amlodipine Amlodipine.or 10-mg doses. and theophylline. certain drugs for hig h blood pressure. breathing difficulties. warfarin. flushing. dizziness. drug used to treat angina and high blood pressure. or severe heart disease should take smaller doses or avoid this drug altogether. oral contraceptives. low blood pressure. Lotrel Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. anxiety. Amlodipine controls but does not cure cardiovascular problems. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and heart palpitations. steroids. A few common side effects are associated with this drug. Amlodipine may be taken safely with most other drugs. Amlodipine also relieves the chest pains associated with a ngina that occur when clogged arteries prevent sufficient oxygen from reaching the heart muscle. Its safety for use in children under age 12 or in pregnant or nursing women has not been determined. Tablets or capsules are taken orally once a day. or vomiting. antihistamines. constipation. However. Brand Names:Fioricet. and vomiting. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corp oration. Amlodipine belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. All rights reserved. insulin and other drugs for diabetes. shock. nausea. Phrenilin. It works by dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart. Numerous drugs may combine adversely with medications containing butalbital. The drug may be taken with or without food. diarrhea.Potential side effects include drowsiness. thereby reducing blood pressure. Fiorinal. fainting. or coma. Sedapap Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. liver disease.

and vomiting. restoring comfortable breathing. For prevention of a spasm caused by exercise. Ventolin. All rights reserved.) When used to prevent bronchial spasm. drug generally used for the treatment of asthma. It works by relaxing the constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi (the two branches at the end of the trachea that provide air passage to the lungs). People with high blood pressure. Inhalation of the aerosol form provides the most immediate relief. nausea. dizziness. and capsule form. sudden episodes of breathlessness and wheezing that make breathing difficult. Albuterol is a bronchodilator. A large variety of side effects have been associated with albuterol. diarrhea.Albuterol Albuterol. Albuterol should not be combined with antidepressants or beta blockers unless approved by a doctor. an overactive thyroid gland. headache. tablet. can make symptoms worse. an irregular heartbeat. Albuterol can also relieve bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. or diabetes should consult a doctor before using albuterol. It relieves and can prevent bronchial spasms. Extended-release tablets should be swallowed whole without crushing or chewing. in fact. usually within 15 minutes. two inhalations about 15 minutes before exercising are recommended. nosebleeds. . rapid heartbeat. tooth discoloration. ringing in the ears. Increasing the dosage of this drug without a doctor’s approval is strongly discouraged and. Brand Names:Proventil. Albuterol must be prescribed by a doctor. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is available in aerosol. Volmax Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. muscle cramps. Some of the more common ones include agitation. syrup. liver disease. This drug’s safety for use during pregnancy and while nursing have not been adequately studied. Two inhalations every four to six hours is the usual dosage for adults and children over age 12. The drug expands the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. all of which are taken orally. (Safe dosages for younger children depend on the form of albuterol taken. The aerosol form should not be combined with other inhaled drugs without a doctor’s approval. sleeplessness. indigestion. increased blood pressure. the dosage is slightly less: two inhalations four times a day. cardiovascular problems.

so patients should avoid driving. antidepressants.Darvocet-N Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. headache. muscle weakness. ulcers. or engaging in other risk-related activities. It is often combined with other ingredients such as aspirin. or pain -killing. antihistamines. drug used to treat mild to moderate pain. usually one or two tablets of 65 mg every four hours. or other narcotic pain relievers. Possible side effects include nausea. kidney or liver problems. or jaundice. All rights reserved. Propoxyphene is a narcotic that works by depressing the activity of the central nervous system to create an anesthetic. or nursing women. anticoagulants. pregnant women. or acetaminophen to form combination medications. as needed. mood changes. vomiting. constipation. but it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. anticonvulsant drugs (especially carbamazepine). Drowsiness and dizziness are also associated with propoxyphene. operating dangerous machinery. asthma. weight loss. Propoxyphene preparations that contain aspirin should be used cautiously by patients with liver or kidney dis orders. Propoxyphene should not be taken with most tranquilizers. They are taken in tablet or capsule form. blood-clotting problems. and exercise are ineffective in lowering cholesterol. Medications containing propoxyphene must be prescribed by a doctor. Patients taking propoxyphene can become dependent on it. drug used to lower cholesterol levels in the bloodstream in cases when dietary changes. or influenza. Pravastatin Pravastatin .Propoxyphene Propoxyphene. Pain relief begins within one to two hours. chickenpox. Pravastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the manufacture of . This drug should not be used by ch ildren. for pain relief. muscle relaxants. especially after long-term use at high dosages. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Brand Names:Darvon. sleep aids. Propoxyphene may be taken with or without food. effect. caffeine. skin rash.

cataracts. Brand Name: Pravachol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and minimize pain and vomiting after surgery. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of heart disease. cholesterol levels begin falling four to six weeks after the medication is started. Patients with liver or kidney disease. muscular disorders. usually at bedtime. liver conditions. peptic ulcers. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. diarrhea. stomach pain. syrup. Promethazine’s safety for use during pregnancy and breast-feeding has not been determined. nausea. drug used mainly to treat allergies. niacin. Children may take this drug. Sometimes it is prescribed as a sedative. heart disease. and immunosuppressive drugs. skin rash. although problems can usually be detected early using well-established laboratory tests. gemfibrozil. should not take promethazine. cyclosporine. It should be used with caution by patients with seizure disorders. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). including asthma and sleep apnea.cholesterol. muscle cramps. Pravastatin can cause damage to the liver or muscle tissue. colestipol. or flulike symptoms. and suppository form. a natural chemical released by body tissues during allergic reactions. Promethazine works quickly. Typically. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. prostate . headache. Pregnant or nursing women. should not take pravastatin. or children under the age of 18. itchiness. erythromycin. Pravastatin may be contraindicated for patients who are also taking the following drugs: cholestyramine. fight insomnia. Promethazine Promethazine. cimetidine. injectable liquid. Available by prescription in tablet. It is also prescribed to control motion sickness. Patients with disorders affecting breathing. All rights reserved. warfarin. Promethazine works by blocking the action of histamine. The typical dosage ranges between 10 and 40 mg per day. high blood pressure. gas. usually within 20 minutes. with dosages based on body weight. It may be taken with or without food. constipation. Possible side effects of this drug include dizziness. tablets of pravastatin are taken with or without food. Available only by prescription. Pravastatin is often prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. promethazine is usually prescribed in 25-mg doses taken once or twice daily. ketoconazole.

preventing their multiplication and growth. Patients wit h liver disease should not take this drug. An overdose of promethazine can cause a slo wer heart rate. Some forms of this drug should be taken o n an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). disorientation. All rights reserved. It is generally safe for use during pregnancy (except in the form known as erythromycin estolate). or narrow-angle glaucoma. or light sensitivity. impaired kidney function. antibiotic drug used to treat a wide variety of bacterial infections. the drug is taken orally or applied directly to the infected area. breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug appears in breast milk. Promethazine may affect the accuracy of a pregnancy test. sedatives. tranquilizers. and diphtheria. It works b y interfering with the formation of essential proteins in the invading bacteria. blood pressure changes. Other possible side effects include dizziness. jaundice. tablets. whooping cough. or engage in other risk-related activities. Mepergan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or abnormal heart rhythm. or loss of consciousness. Promethazine may cause health problems if taken with certain narcotic pain relievers. vomiting. The drug is also used in a form applied directly to the skin to treat acne. Dosages range from 250 to 1000 mg taken every six hours. ointment. Erythromycin Erythromycin. however. . Erythromycin’s effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days. and antidepressant drugs. It should be used with caution by patients with a history of allergies. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. blurred vision.enlargement. Dependingon the site of the infection. gel. breathing difficulties. nausea. operate dangerous machin ery. Children may take most forms of this drug. rheumatic fever. urinary tract infections. gonorrhea. skin rash. This drug should not be taken with alcoholic beverages. Patients who experience drowsiness should not drive. the entire prescribed course of treatment should be completed to avoid recurrence of infection. ear and skin infections. with dosages determined by body weight. and various liquids. Brand Names: Phenergan. These infections include respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia. Erythromycin is available by prescription in capsules. syphilis. However.

Theramycin Z. carbamazepine. dizziness. hives. blood-thinners. and to treat asthma. eczema. a reduced tablet dosage is prescribed for children and may be prescribed for adults over the age of 60. The usual adult dosage for injections into a muscle or joint is 10 to 120 mg at intervals ranging from once a week to once every four weeks. nausea. The effect of methylprednisolone should be felt in two to four days. digoxin. the injection dosage for children is prescribed according to body weight. It is most commonly used to manage serious skin disorders such as dermatitis. acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia. and major rheumatic disorders like bursitis. Emgel.Pediazole Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. the usual adult dosage is 4 to 48 mg daily. bone cysts in children. This drug is available by prescription only. lovastatin. croup. or temporary hearing loss. or diarrhea. Brand Names: Erythrocin. it is usually taken for four to . itching. lupus erythematous. yellowing of the eyes or skin. For acute disorders. and allergic reactions by blocking some of the body’s normal immune system defenses. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). and most forms of arthritis.Possible side effects include abdominal pain. inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis). steroid drug used in the treatment of various inflammatory and allergic disorders. Also seen are skin rash. the enema dosage for children is determined individually by a physician.Benzamycin. Erythromycin should never be combined with astemizole. It comes in a tablet. and theophylline. It is also used to treat anemia. multiple sclerosis. and psoriasis. Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone. taken orally as a single dose or in divided doses. vomiting. redness. an injectable liquid. loss of appetite. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). rapid heartbeat. and an enema. The usual adult dosage for enemas is 40 mg three to seven times per week. tendinitis. Erythromycin can react adversely with a variety of drugs. an ointment. These include other antibiotics (including penicillin). ulcerative colitis. preferably right after a bowel movement.Erymax. For tablets.Ilosone. All rights reserved. It reduces swelling. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and severe vomiting caused by chemotherapy. eye irritation. phenytoin.Erygel.

Methylprednisolone can be taken with food or milk to prevent stomach irritation. cyclosporine. arrhythmia (abnormal heartbeat). phenytoin. Heavy smoking may add to the effects of methylprednisolone. this drug should be taken only as long as needed to stabilize the chronic condition and permit a gradual withdrawal. antacids. or yellow fever and should not be resumed for at least 14 days a fter vaccination. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to it in the past or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. and increased susceptibility to infection. weight gain. possible diabetes. peptic ulcer. retarded growth and development in children. Methylprednisolone may interact adversely with certain drugs including amphotericin B. insulin. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. barbiturates . Prolonged use of the oral form is associated with serious side effects such as mood alterations. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced kidney function a nd people over the age of 60. oral antidiabetic drugs. and certain vaccines. reactivation of latent tuberculosis. and drinking alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of peptic ulcers in persons taking this drug orally. Meprolone Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. aspirin. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen. ephedrine. glaucoma. drugs containing estrogen. Prolonged use in infants and children should be avoided. indomethacin. Naproxen . hypertension (high blood pressure). ketoconazole. Medrol. Common side effects of methylprednisolone include increased appetite. This drug should not be stopped abruptly after long-term treatment but should be tapered off in decreasing dosages. and elimin ation of potassium in the urine. rabies. Methylprednisolone should be discontinued 72 hours before vaccination against measles. cataracts. smallpox. ketoprofen. increased blood sugar. For chronic disorders. It should also be avoided by persons with active tuberculosis. peptic ulcer disease. and naproxen. antihypertensive (high blood pressure) drugs. digoxin. eye infections caused by the herpes simplex virus. osteoporosis (loss of bone strength). oral contraceptives (birth control pills). retention of salt and water.ten days. Brand Names:Duralone. or recent surgical joining of two bowel segments. carbamazepine. oral anticoagulants (blood thinners).

For bursitis. it may be taken with food or antacids. dental treatment. drowsiness. and other pain. Naproxen should not be used by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to this drug or an asthmatic reaction to aspirin. sweating. Pain relief should begin within one hour. the dosage is determined on the basis of body weight. and ankylosing spondylitis is 200 to 500 mg twice a day. and liver or kidney damage. menstrual cramps. indigestion. the initial adult dosage is 500 mg followed by 250 mg every six to eight hours. or vomiting. soreness of the mouth. or persons with peptic ulcers or any form of gastrointestinal ulceratio n or bleeding. headache. For children with rheumatoid arthritis. constipation. If stomach irritation occurs. These include bloating. changes in menstruation. nausea. dizziness. administered ora lly in 125 mg per 5-ml spoonful. the initial adult dosage is 750 mg followed by 250 mg every eight hours until symptoms disappear. the lowest effective daily d ose should be used. It is also used in treating headaches and menstrual cramps. nervousness. . heartburn. diarrhea. difficulty breathing. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. without missing doses. and as a liquid. This drug may be purchased over the counter in tablets of 225 mg. osteoarthritis. bleeding in the stomach or bowel. orthopedic surgery. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occur with the use of this drug. Certain mild side effects may occur with naproxen that should disappear as the body adapts to the drug. in sustained-release tablets of 375 mg and 500 mg. loss of appetite. Reduced dosages are advised for persons over the age of 60 until their tolerance of naproxen has been determined. 375 mg. If possible. and gout. ankylosing spondylitis (chronic inflammation of the spine). pregnant or breast-feeding women. It is available in larger dosages—by prescription only—in tablets of 250 mg. This drug may also cause increased sensitivity to sunlight. bursitis. It blocks the production of certain chemicals called prostaglandins that may trigger pain and infla mmation. bleeding or blood cell disorders. For gout. nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with adult and adolescent rheumatoid arthritis. tendinitis. To minimize adverse side effects. and for strains and sprains. it should be taken on an empty stomach 30 to 60 minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals.Naproxen. difficulty sleeping. although the full anti-inflammatory effect of this drug may not be apparent for two to four weeks after continuous use. The typical adult oral dosage for rheumatoid arthritis. Naproxen is an effective painkiller after childbirth. lightheadedness. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1250 mg. and 500 mg. liver disease. Naproxen should be taken on a regular schedule. osteoarthritis. or severe impairment of kidney function. More serious but uncommon adverse effects include activation of peptic ulcer disease or ulcerative colitis. tendinitis. The safety and efficacy of this drug for children under the age of two have not been established.

For prevention of heart attacks. salicylates. Naprosyn Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. in 50-mg and 100-mg prolonged action tablets. This drug is available by prescription only. the oral dosage is up to 400 mg once a day. or disorders of heart impulse transmission (such as patients with cardiac pacemakers). Tablets can be taken with meals or on an empty stomach. metoprolol. It lowers blood pressure by blocking nerve impulses that contribute to a high heart rate.Naproxen may interact adversely with alcoholic beverages and certain other drugs including anticoagulants (blood thinners) such as warfarin. the typical oral dosage in regular tablets is 50 mg every 6 hours. and 200-mg tablets. The regular tablet can be crushed. atenolol. an abnormally slow heart rate. It may have a negative effect on . and timolol. This drug should not be used by persons with a previous allergic reaction to it. It comes in 50-mg. aspirin. All rights reserved. For treatment after a heart attack. in prolonged action tablets. Brand Names:Aleve. more commonly known as beta blockers. and probenecid. and in a liquid that is administered intravenously. but the prolonged action tablet should be taken whole. either taken as a single dose or in divided doses. beta blockers such as acebutolol. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function or asthma and by people over the age of 60. or persons taking a class of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. drug used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina pectoris (chest pain). persons with congestive heart failure. Metoprolol Metoprolol. This drug is effective within 2 hours when given orally. Its safety and effectiveness in children under the age of 12 have not been established. the oral dosage in regular tablet form ranges from 10 to 450 mg per day. lithium. 100-mg. the typical. or other anti-inflammatory drugs. For treatment of hypertension or angina. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. pregnant or breast-feeding women. starting 15 minutes after the last intravenous dose followed by 100 mg twice a day for three months to one year. and to reduce the risk of a second heart attack. methotrexate. and its effective ness in lowering blood pressure is apparent after 10 to 14 days. furosemide and thiazide-type diuretics. intravenous injected dosage is 5 mg every two minutes for a total of three doses. Metoprolol belongs to a group of drugs called beta adrenergic blocking agents.

although the full effect may not be apparent during the first six weeks of regular use. diltiazem. Alcohol may exaggerate the drug’s ability to lower blood pressure and increase its sedative effect. tranquilizers. aspirin. Brand Names:Lopressor. oral hypoglycemic drugs. Possible risks of longterm use include congestive heart failure in advanced heart disease. Toprol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Oxaprozin Oxaprozin . and tendinitis. One to two weeks of continual usage determines the general effectiveness of the drug. which may trigger pain and inflammation. Common side effects of this drug include drowsiness. and verapamil. oral contraceptives (birth control pills). cimetidine. . osteoarthritis. theophyllinevenlafaxine. Excessive salt intake should be avoided when using this drug. albuterol. Metoprolol should not be discontinued abruptly but should be tapered off gradually over one to two weeks. drug used for relief of pain and inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis. fluoxetine. calcium channel blockers. indomethacin and possibly other aspirin substitutes or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. amiodarone. furosemide. cold h ands and feet. aminophylline. digoxin. oral antidiabetic drugs. insulin. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. slow heart rate. Exposure to cold can further reduce the diminished circulation in hands and feet that may occur with this drug. This drug is available by prescription only and comes in 600-mg caplets that are taken orally. and increased asthma attacks in asthmatic persons. clonidine. fatigue. The typical adult dosage is 1200 mg per day determined individually on the basis of weight and health. nifedipine. Oxaprozin blocks the production of chemicals called prostaglandins. chlorpromazine.driving or other risk-related activities. gout. All rights reserved. Pain is usually relieved after a single dose. epinephrine. and decreased sexual desire. worsening angina in coronary heart disease. barbiturates such as phenobarbital. Metoprolol can interact adversely with certain drugs including other antihypertensive drugs. lightheadedness. but reduction of inflammation may require regular doses for several days. hydralazine. Exposure to heat can lower blood pressure and exaggerate the effects of metoprolol. Smoking may reduce the drug’s potency. reserpine.

enoxaparin. mouth sores. methotrexate. sleep disturbances. Rare but serious side effects include kidney damage and gastrointestinal pain. Possible side effects of oxaprozin may include altered or blurred vision. such as aspirin. depression. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. with meals. and vomiting. Persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to oxaprozin or to any other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. constipation. and warfarin. sulfinpyrazone. Oxaprozin may interact adversely with other drugs including acetaminophen. hives. relieving swelling and stiffness. Brand Name:Daypro Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Etodolac Etodolac. ringing in the ears.Oxaprozin should be taken with a full glass of water or milk. the lowest effective daily dose should be taken. itching. mild analgesic that works by reducing concentrations of certain chemicals in bodily tissues that produce inflammation and pain. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if drowsiness or dizziness occurs. Drinking alcoholic beverages with this drug may increase the risk of stomach ulceration or bleeding. nausea. Small doses are advisable for persons over the age of 60 until tolerance is determined. The safety and effectiveness of this drug for children under the age of 12 have not been established. All rights reserved. ulceration. The total daily dosage should not exceed 1200 mg. or a severe impairment of kidney function. drug used to treat osteoarthritis. should not take this drug. Etodolac is a nonsteroid. b eta blockers. Etodolac is available only by prescription. anticoagulants. It should be avoided by pregnant or breast-feeding women. dizziness. skin rash. and bleeding. Capsules or tablets of etodolac are taken orally every six to eight hours. diarrhea. lithium. aspirin. diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide and furosemide. Capsules should be taken with food and a fu ll glass of water. (Not lying down for 20 to 30 minutes after taking the drug can help avoid . It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver or kidney function. valproic acid. To avoid adverse side effects. or with a prescribed antacid. and by persons with bleeding or blood cell disorders. usually in 200 to 400 mg doses. headache. increased skin sensitivity to sunlight. indomethacin. indigestion.

with increased blood flow during menstruation. The drug is taken daily in 3 or 4 doses for a total of 150 to 300 mg. fluid retention. tendinitis. or muscle weakness. Men may experience problems with s exual performance and breast enlargement. indigestion. or high blood pressure should use this drug with caution. diarrhea. Brand Name: Lodine Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. bursitis. Patients who experience allergic reactions to aspirin or related medications should not take etodolac. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drug used to reduce the inflammation. skin rash. headache. and menstrual cramps. . It is most effectively absorbed if taken on an empty stomach. Women may find their menstrual cycles affected. peptic ulcer. heart disease. This drug may interact adversely with aspirin. constipation. Other possible side effects include abdominal pain. Children under age 12 should not use this drug. or yellowing of the skin or eyes. Occasionally seen are fluid retention. nausea. Patients with kidney or liver problems. and pain associated with such diseases as arthritis. dizziness. The patient must take ketoprofen for one to three weeks before physicians can evaluate its effectiveness. skin rash. Ketoprofen is believed to work by preventing prostaglandins (chemicals that cause inflammation and contribute to the brain’s perception of pain) from concentrating in body tissues.stomach upset. Ketoprofen Ketoprofen. and it may appear in breast milk. Possible side effects include drowsiness. but it can be taken with food. fever. tablet. indigestion. All rights reserved. Ketoprofen is available by prescription in capsule. insomnia. fainting. or an antacid to prevent stomach irritation. and suppository form. Ulcers or internal bleeding are sometimes caused by this medication. rapid heartbeat. blood-thinning medications.) Effectiveness of this drug may not been seen for one to two weeks after beginning treatment. diuretics. anemia. Its safety for use during pregnancy is not known. and digoxin. ringing in the ears. fever. milk. depression. and nausea. sweating.

Ketoprofen may have negative effects when taken with other anti-inflammatory drugs. those who suffer asthma with aspirin use. Breast-feeding women. Brand Name: Orudis Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. For relief of pain following an acute (sudden) a ngina attack. and diuretics. workload on the heart is reduced. If necessary. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. bleeding disorders.6 mg taken sublingually (under the tongue) and allowed to dissolve. Nitroglycerin relaxes the muscles of blood vessel walls. steroids. or one metered dose of 0.Pregnant women should not use ketoprofen in the third trimester of pregnancy. As a result. These immediate-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 1 to 3 minutes. and chest pain is alleviated. It comes in immediate-release forms used either for fast relief of an angina attack or taken immediately before engaging in strenuous activity that may cause an attack. applied on or under the tongue. or liver disease should not take ketoprofen. Nitroglycerin (drug) Nitroglycerin (drug). patients with allergies to the drug. thereby dilating arteries and veins and lowering blood pressure. the typical dosage is one tablet of 0. impaired kidney function. verapamil. Nitroglycerin is available by prescription only. aspirin.4 mg from a spray container. phenytoin. lithium.15 to 0. Nitroglycerin is also prescribed in sustained-release forms used to prevent angina on a long-term basis. For long-term prevention of angina.to 2 -mg sustained-release buccal tablet placed between the cheek . drug used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris (chest pain). nifedipine. insulin. one tablet is placed under the tongue or one metered spray is taken 5 to 10 minutes before activities that may precipitate an attack. blood supply to the heart muscle improves.5 -mg sustained-release tablet or capsule taken orally every 6 to 8 hours. Alcoholic beverages can increase the risk of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach. and patients with ulcers. the dosage may be repeated e very 5 minutes for a maximum of three tablets or three metered sprays within 15 minutes. typical dosages of the sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin are one 2. one 1 . For prevention of angina.

5 -inch (7. The body usually develops a tolerance to the sustained-release forms after 24 hours. All rights reserved. acetylcysteine. diltiazem. recent head trauma. Driving or other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness or faintness occur. sudden drop in blood pressure . and coughs. increased heart rate or increased blood pressure following a heart attack. It should be used with caution by pregnant or breast-feeding women. or glaucoma (excess pressure within the eyeball). These sustained-release forms of nitroglycerin take effect within 30 to 60 minutes. colds.5-mg) strip of ointment applied in a thin. Warfarin . and isosorbide dinitrate or mononitrate. Nitroglycerin can also interact adversely with other drugs including many over-the-counter products for allergies. Nitroglycerin taken in hot environments can cause excessively low blood pressure. Nitroglycerin should not be taken by persons who have had a previous allergic reaction to the drug or persons with severe anemia. rapid heart rate. Nitrocine Transdermal. one transdermal patch applied to a hairless area of the skin every 24 hours and left on for 12 to 14 hours. and smoking cigarettes can reduce its effectiveness. It should not be stopped abruptly after long-term use. Nitrocap TD. The most common side effects of taking nitroglycerin are facial flushing.and gum every 4 to 5 hours and allowed to dissolve. the dosage should be gradually reduced over a period of six weeks. the drug should not be taken for 10 to 12 hours out of every 24 hours. and heart palpitations. Brand Names: Nitro-Bid. To maintain its effectiveness. abnormal growth of heart muscle in response to vascular disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dihydroergotamine or similar ergot medicines. rather. Alcoholic beverages should be completely avoided while using this drug. heparin. antihypertensive drugs. aspirin. or a 0. even layer to hairless skin every 3 to 4 hours. Nitro-Dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. and cold environments can increase the amount needed for full effectiveness. headache. Diarrhea and fainting may also occur. hyperthyroidism.

headache. Warfarin may react adversely with dozens of medications including over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. severe allergies. discolored (purplish) toes. Patients with peptic ulcers. patients taking warfarin are usually advised to carry a drug identification card. cauliflower. and hypertension (high blood pressure). asparagus. prescription drug used to treat heart and circulatory conditions such as angina pectoris. All rights reserved. warfarin works by interfering with the action of vitamin K. After the first two to three days. hair loss. Available in tablets taken orally on an empty stomach and in an injectable liquid form. Foods that may diminish warfarin’s effectiveness are those rich in vitamin K such a s leafy green vegetables. puncture. and ibuprofen (Advil. For this reason. joint pain. Patients taking this drug should also avoid alcoholic beverages. acetaminophen (Tylenol). diabetes. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headache. Classified as an anticoagulant. or intestinal problems. nausea. or gangrene. Effectiveness is usually apparent after three to five days of treatment. some forms of irregular heartbeat. impaired liver or kidney function. a blood disorder. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. or recent surgery should not use this drug. and bacon. Excessive bleeding from a nosebleed.Warfarin. ulcerative colitis. This drug should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant o r breast-feeding women. warfarin is usually prescribed in an initial dose of 10 to 15 mg per day. difficulty breathing. or swelling. fish. difficulty swallowing. the dosage is adjusted according to changes in the patient’s bloodclotting capacity as determined by laboratory tests. a heart-related infection. or unusual menstrual flow should be checked by a doctor. any infectious disease. Brand Name:Coumadin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Motrin). s kin inflammation. fever. which plays an essential role in blood thickening and clot production. Verapamil works by . Verapamil Verapamil. chest pain. Possible side effects of warfarin include hemorrhage (severe bleeding). or patients with high blood pressure. beef liver. It should be used with caution by patients preparing to undergo surgery o r invasive dental procedures. an aneurysm. Other side effects may include diarrhea. prescription blood-thinning drug used to treat or prevent blood clots. cut.

phenytoin. E ffectiveness may not be apparent for two to four weeks. cyclosporine. light sensitivity. prostate gland enlargement. prescription drug used to treat high blood pressure. Long-term therapy (months to years) is not uncommon with this drug. Verelan Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. impotence. and it should be taken as prescribed even after symptoms are relieved. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. headache. thereby reducing blood pressure and relieving the chest pain associated with angina. theophylline. with meals and at bedtime with food. Verapamil controls—but does not cure —cardiovascular problems. These include other blood pressure drugs (especially beta blockers and ACE inhibitors). An extended-release form of verapamil is taken once a day. digoxin. sleepiness. an injectable solution is also available. Terazosin Terazosin . or congestive heart failure. An increase in angina attacks can occur if this medication is stopped abruptly. Verapamil may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. skin rash.dilating blood vessels and slowing the heart rate. taken in three or four doses. fatigue. rifampin. and in me n. Patients with low blood pressure or irregular heartbeats should not use verapamil. or s low heartbeat. lithium. hair loss. dry mouth. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. cimetidine. and various diuretics. ringing in the ears. carbamazepine. constipation. abnormally low blood pressure. fluid retention. All rights reserved. Available in tablet and capsule form. phenobarbital. or a history of stroke should use this drug with caution. congestive heart failure. aspirin. thereby lowering blood pressure. Brand Names:Calan. It alleviates prostate problems by relaxing muscles in the urinary tract to relieve . and it does appear in breast milk. Isoptin. Other side effects sometimes observed are diarrhea. Verapamil belongs to a group of medications called calcium channel blockers. Possible side effects include dizziness or lightheadedness. nausea. Its safety for use during pregnancy or in children under the age of 12 has not been determined. Terazosin dilates blood vessels. this drug is usually prescribed in dosages ranging from 180 to 480 mg per day.

fluid retention. ramipril works best when taken on an empty stomach. which may include a frequent urge to urinate. to dilate arteries. difficulty breathing. dizziness. It works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. but initial effectiveness in controlling symptoms may not be apparent for several weeks. drug used to control high blood pressure. estrogens. Available by prescription in capsule form. Brand Name:Hytrin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. patients should avoid driving. Terazosin may interact adversely with other blood pressure medications. which a doctor may increase to 5 or 10 mg if needed. nausea. reduce blood volume. and urinary tract infections. . which influence salt and water retention. Dosages range from 2. Terazosin has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. Possible side effects include lightheadedness (especially upon standing). At these times. painful urination. fainting.problems of urine flow. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. headache. it should be taken regularly. especially beta blockers. and certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin. numbness. Patients should also avoid alcohol use and tobacco smoking while taking t his drug. heart palpitations. Capsules are taken orally with or without food.5 to 20 mg per day. muscle weakness. Patients with depression or untreated angina should not take this drug. Because terazosin controls rather than cures blood pressure. operating dangerous machinery. The usual starting dose is 1 mg at bedtime. and lower blood pressure. or engaging in other risk-related activities. Dizziness is most likely to occur at the start of treatment or when the dosage is increased. even when symptoms are relieved. fatigue. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. sweating. Terazosin starts to work within one or two hours after taking it. coronary artery disease. stuffy nose. The maximum daily dose is 20 mg. taken in one or two doses. or a history of stroke. All rights reserved. Ramipril Ramipril. or blurred vision.

The maximum recommended daily dosage is 600 mg. or violent muscle contractions. It also may react with aspirin. The drug can also control seizures associated with surgery of the brain or spinal cord. It is also known to appear in breast milk. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. high potassium levels. vomiting. oral phenytoin should be taken with food. All rights reserved. Phenytoin is available by prescription in tablet. caused by epilepsy. Because ramipril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. and potassium supplements. fatigue. impaired liver or kidney function. as it can harm the fetus. To avoid stomach irritation.Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. the drug is usually prescribed in 100-mg doses taken once a day. including salt substitutes containing potassium. Although ramipril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. coughing. . especially in the second and third trimesters. Brand Name:Altace Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. systemic lupus erythematosus. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. Ramipril should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. Taken orally. preventing or minimizing the abnormal electrical impulses that cause seizures. The drug’s effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. drug used to treat the seizures. cyclosporine. characterized by facial swelling and difficulty swallowing or breathing. it must be taken regularly to be effective. muscle pain. or light sensitivity. Longterm treatment over months or years is common. nausea. Phenytoin Phenytoin or Dilantin. lightheadedness. Side effects may include headache. heart disease. Patients with liver disease or a history of severe allergic reactions should not take this drug. scleroderma. An allergic reaction to this drug. it can react adversely with such drugs. Ramipril has not been proven safe for use in children. capsule. Phenytoin influences the m ovement of sodium along nerve fibers. and liquid form. requires immediate medical attention. lithium. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. except for one liquid form made for injection. or low white blood cell levels.

certain tranquilizers. Ketorolac Ketorolac. An overdose of phenytoin can be fatal. and antacids. methylphenidate. furosemide. diazepam. but are not limited to. as well as for the short-term treatment of itchy eyes caused by seasonal allergies. mental confusion. Other observed side effects include nausea. This drug is available by prescription only as an injectable liquid. oral contraceptive s. followed by 15-mg or 30-mg doses four times a day. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The initial. Brand Name:Dilantin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. diabetes. The injection is given within a muscle. or change in urine color. Pregnant women or those nursing an infant should not take this drug. abnormal hair growth. Also included are the drugs felbamate. carbamazepine. ulcer medications. with a maximum daily dose of 150 mg the first day and 120 mg every day thereafter for no more than five days. acute pain. with a maximum daily dose of 40 mg for no . Although long-term use of phenytoin is common. non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug used in the short-term management of severe. in 10-mg tablets that are taken orally. impotence. steroids. and valproic acid. These include. aspirin. phenobarbital. four to six hours apart. estrogens. blood thinners. doxycycline. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. insomnia. skin rash. fever. joint pain. dizziness.Patients with impaired liver function. bedwetting. All rights reserved. or slurred speech. involuntary eye movement. injectable dose is typically 30 mg or 60 mg. theophylline. headache. It is sometimes used with a n arcotic to provide better pain relief than either drug alone can offer. Ketorolac relieves pain and reduces fever and inflammation by blocking the production of prostaglandins (fatty acids in the body that regulate cell activities). Tablets are usually given in doses of 10 mg every four to six hours. twitching. and as eyedrops. it may be associated with the development of cancers in the lymphatic system or the bone marrow (leukemia). Users of phenytoin should not drink alcoholic beverages. sodium valproate. Phenytoin may interact adversely with a variety of medications. Possible side effects include decreased coordination. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause uninterrupted seizures that may also be fatal. Children who take it should be monitored with particular care.

lupus erythematosus. burning or pain at the injection site. or valproic acid may increase risk of bleeding. and gastrointestinal bleeding. nabumetone.more than five days. bruising at the site of injection. and nausea are the most common side effects of both the oral and injected forms of the drug. acetaminophen. cefoperazone. plicamycin. Glipizide Glipizide. decrease in urine output. Ketorolac should be used with caution by patients with known bleeding disorders or sensitivities to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as well as by patients with a history of alcohol abuse. The effectiveness of all forms is usually apparent in 30 to 60 minutes. Glipizide works by stimulating the pancreas to secrete more insulin and by helping body tissues to use the insulin more effectively. drowsiness. a feeling of fullness in the abdominal or stomach area. . The usual eyedrop dose is one drop (0. Less common side effects are eye irritation. ulceration. The safety of this drug for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children has not been determined. or high blood pressure. and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. diarrhea. allergic reactions. It is usually prescribed in conjunction with a specialized diet and an exercise plan. heparin. A temporary stinging and burning sensation in the eye is the most common side effect of the eyedrop solution. Toradol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. methotrexate. heart disease.25 mg) four times a day for up to a week. moxalactam. Use of ketorolac with bloodthinning drugs. vomiting. cefamandole. indigestion. and oxaprozin. Abdominal or stomach pain. as well as with lithium. kidney or liver disease. prescription drug used to treat diabetes in patients who are not dependent on insulin injections. Brand Names:Acular. headache. Less common side effects are bloating or gas. asthma. cefotetan. All rights reserved. ketoprofen. constipation. edema. superficial eye infections. renal failure. dizziness. The eyedrop solution should not be used by patients wearing contact lenses. edema. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and superficial inflammation of the eye’s cornea. diabetes mellitus. probenecid. Ketorolac may interact adversely with aspirin. colitis. naproxen. increased sweating. and perforation.

or low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). Glipizide can interact adversely with a variety of drugs. Patients taking glipizide should avoid alcoholic beverages. skin rash. and antidepressants known as MAO inhibitors. sulfa drugs. tranquilizers. With long-term use (months to years). prescription drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. The starting dose is 5 mg. rapid heartbeat. Effectiveness is usually apparent after several weeks of treatment. in dosages ranging from 2. These include. Patients with heart disorders. birth control pills. or seizures. Tablets are taken orally. shallow breathing. the drug’s effectiveness may diminish. Brand Name:Glucotrol Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The result is relaxed arterial walls and lower blood pressure. Potential side effects may include headache. stomach pain. aspirin. a physician may slowly increase the dosage to as much as 40 mg a day.5 to 40 mg per day. in one or two doses. nausea. light sensitivity. but depending on the patient’s response. but are not limited to. certain heart medications (beta blockers and calcium channel blocke rs). dizziness. Enalapril Enalapril. corticoids.Tablets are taken orally with a morning meal. antacids. drowsiness. or peptic ulcer should use glipizide with caution. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Enalapril is classified with a group of drugs known as ACE inhibitors that work by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. which control salt and water retention. anemia. It should not be used by patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (an excessive level of acid in the blood). sweating. an inability of the heart to pump sufficient blood. estrogens. and that severe hypoglycemia requires immediate medical care. All rights reserved. disorientation. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks of treatment. thyroid medications. Patients taking glipizide should be aware that the symptoms of hypoglycemia include blurred vision. Long-term treatment with this drug (months or years) is common. Glipizide has not been proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or nursing women. . with or without food. impaired kidney or liver function.

dizziness.Patients with kidney d isease or impaired kidney function should use enalapril with caution. usually taken immediately . skin rash or itching. It has not been proven safe for use in children. typical dosages range from 800 to 1200 mg per day. hair loss. nausea. both taken orally. depression. and in a liquid form that is injected. secretion of stomach acid decreases. hives. Vaseretic Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. including salt substitutes that contain potassium. excessive hair growth in women. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women as it can harm the fetus. it may react adversely with such drugs. Enalapril can cause a wide variety of side effects. herpes infections (including shingles). It also may cause chest pain. Although enalapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics (drugs that remove excess water from the body). headache. impotence. acne. Brand Names:Vasotec. allowing ulcers and other gastrointestinal ailments to heal. Combining enalapril with exercise or exposure to excessive heat may cause dehydration. Cimetidine Cimetidine. All rights reserved. sensitivity to light. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus causing heartburn. When histamine action is blocked. Cimetidine is also used to treat chronic hives. abdominal pain. or abnormally low blood pressure. muscle cramps or weakness. Depending on the condition being treated. including an allergic reaction known as angiodema (facial swelling with difficulty in swallowing or breathing). © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. dry mouth or eyes. breast enlargement (in males). loss of appetite. It is also known to appear in breast milk. especially in the second and third trimesters. It may also react adversely with aspirin and with potassium supplements. This drug is available by prescription in tablet and liquid form. and to prevent upper abdominal bleeding. Cimetidine blocks the action of histamine. It is used to treat reflux disease. and an overactive parathyroid gland. drug used in the treatment of stomach and intestinal ulcers. blurred vision. Cimetidine may be taken in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two or four smaller doses. rapid heartbeat. excessive sweating.

impotence. digoxin. pentoxifylline. Available in tablet form. Brand Name:Tagamet Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. The typical starting dose is 15 mg per kg (2. It should not be stopped abruptly by patients taking it for peptic ulcer disease. cyclosporine. suppressing the abnormal electrical discharges that cause seizures. metronidazole. cigarette smoking. or hallucinations. Divalproex works by increasing the availability of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. and fungal infections as well as blood pressure drugs (both beta blockers and calcium blockers). some patients experience anxiety. rapid or slow heartbeat. heart palpitations. All rights reserved. joint or muscle pain. and excessive caffeine. and sleepiness. anemia. nicotine. depression. hair loss. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients should refrain from taking antacids within one to two hours of a cimetidine dose. Other drugs that may interact adversely include chlorpromazine. skin rash or inflammation. Breast development in men and headaches are the two most common side effects of this drug. benzodiazepine tranquilizers (such as diazepam). metoclopramide. sucralfate. confusion. such as those associated with epilepsy. which is increased as needed (to a . phenytoin. quinine. but they are temporary and subside several days after drug treatment ends.2 lb). and aspirin. theophylline. including medications for diabetes. Less common side effects are diarrhea. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or nursing women or for children under the age of 16.after a meal. also known as valproic acid. It is also sometimes used to treat migraine headaches. Patients taking this drug should avoid alcohol. Divalproex Divalproex. Relief of symptoms may take several days. Recurrence of ulcers after cimetidine treatment ends may be slightly higher than with other forms of treatment. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. dizziness. Cimetidine may interact adversely with a variety of drugs. paroxetine. With prolonged use (one month or more). this drug is prescribed in amounts based on body weight. and warfarin. drug used to treat seizures. These reactions are more likely to occur in elderly or severely ill patients. narcotic pain relievers.

Captopril is classified as an ACE inhibitor. which influence salt and water rete ntion. Divalproex should not be combined with alcohol. Divalproex may interact adversely with aspirin. All rights reserved. fever. This drug can cause liver damage. which is divided into several smaller doses. should not drive. and other seizure medications. The usual daily dosage ranges from 1000 to 1600 mg. It also may interact with erythromycin. constipation. drug typically used to control high blood pressure.maximum of 60 mg per kg) to control symptoms. and birth control pills. skin rash. antihistamines. drowsiness. (Symptoms of liver impairment may include dizziness. Tablets are taken orally two or three times a day in doses ranging from 25 to 150 mg. and loss of seizure control. double vision. operate dangerous machinery. and vomiting. Possible side effects include indigestion. heart attacks. facial swelling. blood thinners. It is also used to treat congestive heart failure. such as carbamazepine and phenytoin . Divalproex should not be stopped abruptly. sleep aids. muscle weakness. Captopril should be taken one hour before a meal. yellowing skin or eyes. This drug slows blood clotting. itching. or dental procedures. nausea. fluid retention. especially when used in children under the age of two. Other possible side effects include abdominal cramps. behavior changes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Patients with impaired liver function or a bleeding disorder should not take divalproex. tremors.) Pregnant or nursing women should not use this drug. The result is relaxed artery walls and lowered blood pressure. loss of appetite. and kidney disease in diabetic patients. surgery. It works by interfering with angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Effectiveness in controlling seizures is usually seen within two weeks of treatment. Brand Name: Depatoke Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Some patients experience drowsiness and. The drug should be taken one hour before a meal but may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. or weight gain. as a result . Captopril Captopril. isoniazid. vomiting. which may result in excessive bleeding during injury. Patients are often started on a . as continuous seizures may result. or engage in other risk-related activities. tranquilizers.

drug used to reduce high blood cholesterol levels and slow the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. loss of taste. or heart failure. especially in the second and third trimesters. as it can harm the fetus. fatigue. the type of cholesterol thought to reduce the risk of heart disease. constipation. and increases high-density lipoproteins (HDL). wheezing stroke. a fatlike substance that can both harden and clog the arteries. nitroglycerin. Breast-feeding women should be aware that captopril is known to appear in breast milk. Captopril has not been proven safe for children. Lovastatin Lovastatin . which also requires immediate medical care.small dosage. and extremely low blood pressure. light sensitivity. Lovastatin interferes with an enzyme in the liver responsible for making cholesterol. anti-inflammatory medications. Although captopril may be prescribed in combination with a diuretic or digitalis (found in the drug digoxin). vomiting. Yellowing of the skin or eyes may indicate a liver problem. skin rash. or hardening of the heart’s arteries. and potassium supplements (including salt substitutes that contain potassium). Brand Names:Capoten. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. diarrhea. fainting. Longterm use of this drug for months or years is not uncommon. muscle pain or weakness. Possible side effects include itching. It also may react adversely with aspirin. or throat (including difficulty swallowing) requires immediate medical attention. sleepiness. lithium. or swelling of the arms. legs. Patients with kidney disease or impaired kidney function should use captopril with caution. depression. which is increased as needed. it can react adversely with these drugs. A reaction that includes chest pain. Capozide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Exercise or other physical activity should be approved by a doctor. mouth. All rights reserved. This drug reduces low-density lipoproteins (LDL). nausea. certain blood pressure medications such as beta blockers. confusion. the type of cholesterol that increases the risk of coronary heart disease. peptic ulcer. . even after symptoms are relieved. Less common side effects include blurred vision. lightheadedness. Captopril must be taken regularly to be effective. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. which usually takes several weeks. sweating.

The maximum dosage should not exceed 80 mg daily. this drug is dispensed in 10-mg. and warfarin. and 40-mg tablets. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. fever.Available by prescription only. persons with active liver disease or active peptic ulcers. which are taken orally. It should not be used by persons who have had an allergic reaction to lovastatin. Common side effects of lovastatin include constipation. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. headache. dizziness. Driving and other risk-related activities should be restricted if dizziness and blurred vision occur while taking this drug. cyclosporine. 20-mg. severe stomach pain. The initial adult dosage is 20 mg taken once a day. and unusual tiredness or weakness. niacin. This drug should be taken with food. weight loss. after which the dosage may be increased up to 40 mg twice a day. Lovasta tin may interact adversely with certain drugs including clofibrate. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. heartburn. The safety and effectiveness of lovastatin for people under the a ge of 20 have not been established. Simvastatin Simvastatin. Tablets are taken with or without food. preferably with evening meals. and stomach pain. All rights reserved. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. gas. gemfibrozil. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six . or pregnant or breast-feeding women. Less common side effects are blurred vision. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Effectiveness should be apparent within two weeks. erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics such as asithromycin and clarithromycin. The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. diarrhea. muscle aches or cramps. Brand Name:Mevacor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. usually at bedtime. Long-term use of this drug may result in abnormal liver function tests. It should be used with caution by persons with reduced liver function and habitual users of alcohol. nausea. skin rash. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes.

a condition marked by arrested physical and mental development due to insufficient thyroid secretions. The drug is effective within 48 hours. muscle weakness. constipation. Levothyroxine may be used during . or hepatitis. drug used in the treatment of thyroid deficiency. erythromycin. Injections are used for adults suffering from myxedema coma. digoxin. impaired vision. skin rash.weeks of treatment. The typical oral dosage for adults is 50 to 100 micro grams (one millionth of a gram) taken once a day and continued for life. and diabetes. This drug is available by prescription only. cyclosporine. in tablets and an injectable liquid. ketoconazole. or thyrotoxicosis. a condition that results from thyroid deficiency. including high blood pressure. nicotinic acid. although full effects may not be felt for several weeks. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this d rug with caution. Patients with impaired liver function. stomach pain. or lowered blood pressure. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone that increases the body’s metabolism (rate at which the body burns calories and runs vital processes). Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. by pregnant or nursing women. cataracts. gas. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. cimetidine. diarrhea. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. and spironolactone. or by young people under the age of 20. warfarin. nausea. a condition caused by excessive amounts of the natural thyroid hormone. It is also used to treat an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and thyroid cancer. Levothyroxine should be used with caution by patients with cardiovascular disease. Levothyroxine Levothyroxine. All rights reserved. muscular disorders. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. gemfibrozil. It should not be used by patients suffering from heart attack. and for infants with cretinism. clofibrate. Children often require a higher dosage and adults over 60 years old a lower dosage.

It helps control the appearance of hives and hay fever symptoms but does not provide immediate relief. a brand-name version of levothyroxine. Astemizole Astemizole. Brand Names: Levothroid. heart palpitations. All rights reserved. diarrhea. which causes thyroid overactivity. antihistamine drug that is used to treat hay fever and recurring hives. Astemizole is often prescribed for use over several weeks. agitation. Side effects from levothyroxine are rare and usually due to overdosage. but never admitted any wrongdoing. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. In 1996 the Wall Street Journal exposed a controversy surrounding Synthroid. tiredness. weight loss or gain. or chest pain. Synthroid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Symptoms of overdose include anxiety. The typical dosage for adults and children over age 12 is 10 mg once a day. In August 1997 the manufacturer agreed to pay participants in the class-action lawsuit $98 million. eyes. Its absorption may be reduced by cholestyramine and colestipol. Patients should not take more than a single. Levothyroxine may increase the effect o f oral blood-thinning drugs and may increase the requirements for insulin or oral antidiabetic drugs. flushed skin. It works by blocking the action of histamine (a chemical released by the body during allergic reactions) that contributes to swelling and itching of the nose. Patients sensitive to lactose may not tolerate this drug because lactose is used in its manufacture. It comes in tablet form and is taken orally on an empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal). It has not been proven safe for children under age 12. Levoxine. This controversy culminated in a class-action lawsuit brought against the manufacturers of Synthroid by users of the drug.pregnancy but should be used with caution by breast-feeding mothers. The drug starts to be effective within one hour of treatment. and skin. prescribed dose—even if symptoms are . sweating. Astemizole is available only by prescription. The drug’s users charged the manufacturer with suppressing research indicating that less expensive generic versions of levothyroxine are biologically equivalent to the brandname versions.

severe or a dose was missed—because overdose reactions are severe and may include fainting, irregular heartbeat, seizures, or cardiac arrest. Possible side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth or throat, fatigue, headache, or increased appetite. Less common are depression, diarrhea, dizziness, itching or tingling, joint or muscle pain, nervousness, nausea, nosebleed, skin rash, or sore throat. Patients with asthma, liver disease, or kidney disease should use this drug with caution. Astemizole may interact adversely with certain types of drugs, including antibiotics, antifungal drugs (especially ketoconazole), and drugs that affect heart rhythms. Its safety during pregnancy and nursing is not known. In 1998 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert warning that astemizole can cause death due to irregular heart rhythms if taken with certain other drugs or used at higher than recommended doses. The FDA cautioned that in addition to those drugs previously known to have adverse interactions with astemizole, several other drugs should be avoided by those taking astemizole. These include the antidepressants fluoxetine (marketed under the brand name Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), setraline (Zoloft), nefazodone (Serzone), and paroxetine (Paxil); the AIDS drugs known as protease inhibitors; and the anti-asthma medication zileuton (Zyflo). The FDA also warned against drinking grapefruit juice while taking astemizole, because grapefruit juice slows down the metabolism of astemizole by the liver. Brand Name: Hismanal Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Cromolyn Sodium
Cromolyn Sodium or Intal, drug used to treat respiratory problems such as hay fever and asthma. Classified as an antiasthmatic, it works by interfering with the chemical reactions that constrict muscles in the bronchi, the two branches that connect the trachea or windpipe to the lungs. It also prevents the swelling and itching associated with allergic reactions. Cromolyn sodium is available only by prescription. It comes in several forms, including capsules (taken orally), liquid (inhaled orally or sprayed into the nose), or powder, which is packaged in capsules or cartridges for inhalation or spraying into the nose. Dosages vary widely depending on the form prescribed, although most are taken four to six times per day.

Unlike asthma medications that provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties, cromolyn sodium helps to control and prevent symptoms. Effectiveness in preventing asthma attacks is usually achieved after four to six weeks of treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function should avoid taking this drug or should use it with caution. Its safety for use during pregnancy or while nursing is not known. Cromolyn sodium may be especially effective for controlling asthma in young patients. Children over age five can safely take most forms of this drug. Possible side effects include coughing, nasal congestion, sneezing, throat irritation, nausea, or wheezing. Sometimes seen are facial swelling, difficulty swallowin g, headache, dizziness, joint pain, nosebleed, skin rash, frequent urination, or swollen glands. Cromolyn sodium may be taken safely with most other drugs, including bronchodilators used to provide immediate relief from asthma attacks. Brand Names:Intal, Nasalcrom, Gastrorom Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Clonazepam
Clonazepam or Klonopin, anticonvulsant drug used to treat epilepsy. It is also sometimes used for panic disorders, Tourette’s syndrome (a movement disorder), and depression. Classified in a group of drugs known as benzodiazepines, clonazepam works by increasing the action of certain chemicals needed for nerve transmission, which has the effect of blocking seizures. Clonazepam must be prescribed by a doctor. Available in tablet form, clonazepam is taken orally three times a day, with or without food. Starting adult doses range from 0.5 to 1.5 mg, which may be increased, as needed, under a doctor’s supervision. The maximum daily dosage is 20 mg. Children may safely take this drug, although dosages are determined by body weight. Effectiveness of this drug may not be seen for several weeks, and dosage adjustments for optimum effectiveness may require several months. Side effects may include drowsiness, behavior changes, or lack of coordination. Also sometimes seen are anemia, constipation, diarrhea, double vision, hair loss, fever, insomnia, appetite changes, memory loss, confusion, difficult urination, skin rash, twitching, or weig ht gain. If treatment with this drug is stopped suddenly (which is not

recommended), withdrawal symptoms may include muscle cramps, restlessness, tremors, convulsions, or hallucinations. Patients with severe liver disease or with acute narrow-angle glaucoma, an eye disorder, should not take this drug. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been adequately studied, but it is known to appear in breast milk. Patients who experience drowsiness with this drug should not drive, operate dangerous machinery, o r engage in other risk-related behavior. Clonazepam should not be combined with alcohol. It may also interact adversely with various kinds of drugs, including antidepressants, tranquilizers, sedatives, narcotic pain relievers, barbiturates, antianxiety dru gs, and other anticonvulsants. In addition, it may become habit -forming and may lose its effectiveness over time. Brand Name:Klonopin Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Zolpidem

Zolpidem, prescription drug used to treat insomnia. Zolpidem works by affecting certain brain sites that influence sleep patterns and control the onset of sleep. Tablets are taken orally, without food, at bedtime. The usual dosage is 10 mg each night for up to ten nights. Longer treatment is not usually recommended because the drug becomes less effective over time and can cause the patient to become dependent on ever-increasing doses. Zolpidem begins to work within one hour of ingestion to induce sleep. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, depression, or a history of excessive alcohol or drug use should take zolpidem with caution. It should not be used by children under the age of 18 or by pregnant or breast-feeding women. When treatment is discontinued, some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia. Dizziness or drowsiness the day after taking zolpidem are possible side effects, especially when beginning treatment. Patients who experience a loss of mental clarity should avoid driving, operating dangerous machinery, or engaging in other risk-related activities. Other possible side effects may include nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, skin rash, tremors, memory loss, or abnormal thoughts or behavior. Withdrawal symptoms, such as vomiting or cramps, may occur if treatment is stopped abruptly. Zolpidem may interact adversely with drugs that affect the central nervous system such as narcotics, tranquilizers, and antidepressants. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages.

Brand Name:Ambien Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

Venlafaxine
Venlafaxine, prescription drug used to treat mental depression. Classified as a antidepressant, it works by interfering with the action of serotonin and dopamine, chemicals associated with nerve impulse transmission in the central nervous system. Tablets are taken orally, with or without food, in dosages starting at 75 mg per day, usually divided into several small doses. If necessary, a doctor may prescribe a d osage as high as 225 mg per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within two weeks of beginning treatment. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function, high blood pressure, heart disease, or a history of seizures should use this drug with caution. Children under the age of 18 should not use venlafaxine. Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women is not known. A variety of possible side effects are associated with venlafaxine, including nausea, diarrhea, dry mouth, sweating, dizziness, blurred vision, weight loss, sleepiness, or increased blood pressure. Venlafaxine may have serious, sometimes fatal, interactions with another group of antidepressants known as monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. These drugs, such as phenelzine and tranylcypromine, should be discontinued at least two weeks before starting treatment with venlafaxine. Other drug groups that may have adverse interactions with venlafaxine include tranquilizers, narcotic pain relievers, sleep aids, and cimetidine Brand Name:Effexor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

or folic acid deficiency should avoid this drug or use it with caution. . Trimethoprim can interact adversely with amantadine. impaired liver or kidney function. although the prescribed treatment typically lasts 10 to 14 days. with dosages based on body weight. prescription drug used to treat moderate to severe pain including pain following surgery or dental procedures. It produces a pain -killing effect by interfering with the action of chemicals called neurotransmitters that are vital for nerve transmission. dapsone. vomiting. phenytoin. Pregnant or breast-feeding women should also avoid using this drug. One liquid form is made for injection and another for eyedrops. cyclosporine. Brand Names:Bactrim. and cholestyramine. Trimethoprim can be used for children and infants over two months old. Patients with anemia. The usual oral dosage is 100 mg every 12 hours and the maximum recommended dosage is 640 mg per day. headache. back or joint pain. sore mouth. All rights reserved. It is also available in combination with sulfamethoxazole to treat ear infections. pneumonia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one week. loss of appetite. Tramadol Tramadol. Tramadol is classified as an analgesic. this drug is taken orally in tablet form. especially of the urinary tract and eye. Some infections can develop resistance to this drug and may require other forms of treatment. and traveler’s diarrhea. thereby limiting their ability to grow and multiply. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.Trimethoprim Trimethoprim. or increased blood potassium. Septra Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. bronchitis. nausea. with or without food. Trimethoprim works by interfering with protein formation in the invading bacteria. rifampin. procainamide. Eyedrops are applied as a single drop every three hours up to six drops per day. Possible side effects may include skin rash or itching. abdominal cramps. antibacterial drug used to treat infections. or pain associated with cancer. Available by prescription only. diarrhea.

. Tablets may be taken with food to avoid stomach upset. Its safety for children under the age of 16.Tablets are taken orally as needed for pain. sedatives. Possible side effects include dizziness or drowsiness. tablets. An overdose can cause breathing difficulties or seizures. steroid drug used to treat breathing problems associated with such disorders as hay fever and asthma. two to three times a day. Triamcinolone works by keeping open the bronchial tubes (the two divisions of the windpipe leading into the lungs) and reducing inflammation in the mucous tissues of the respiratory tract. or dry mouth. people taking this drug should not drive. Other possible side effects include nausea. Tramadol may interact adversely with carbamazepine. cream and ointment forms applied topically. They may be taken with or without food in doses ranging from 50 to 100 mg. The tablet dosage ranges from 4 to 48 mg per day. or engage in other riskrelated activities. vomiting. The maximum recommended dosage is 400 mg per day. or for pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. operate dangerous machinery. and drugs that depress the central nervous system such as tranquilizers. and monoamine oxidase (MAD) inhibitors. including an oral inhalant. although prescribed dosages are usually smaller. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. and a liquid form that is injected. In addition. People with seizure disorders or impaired liver or kidney function should use this drug with caution. Triamcinolone Triamcinolone. quinidine. Children 6 to 12 years old can use this drug. All rights reserved. Effectiveness is typically apparent within one to two weeks of treatment. It is also effective in treating inflamed areas of the skin as well as growths (polyps) inside the nose. Brand Name:Ultram Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. with a maximum of 16 inhalations per day. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. constipation. sweating. For this reason. diarrhea. tramadol should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. Triamcinolone is usually prescribed for adults in 2 inhalations. This drug is available by prescription only in several forms.

or a history of tuberculosis. Treatment with triamcinolone should not be stopped abruptly because it may trigger a dangerous imbalance in the body’s endocrine system. This drug may interact adversely with bronchodilators (both inhaled and tablet forms). Its safety for pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been adequately studied. nasal irritation or congestion. Nasacort Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. tretinoin works by interfering with the ability of skin cells to form pimples. Unvaccinated patients taking triamcinolone should avoid exposure to chicken pox and measles. diabetes drugs (including insulin). Taken orally. A naturally occurring derivative of vitamin A. warfarin. but helps alleviate symptoms. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It is taken in oral form as a chemotherapeutic agent against acute promyelocytic leukemia (cancer of the blood-forming tissues). It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. memory loss. Tretinoin Tretinoin. sneezing. carbamazepine. weight loss. peptic ulcer. nosebleed. glaucoma (an eye disorder). Tretinoin is also the first in a new class of cancer drugs known as differentiating agents. All rights reserved. Patients with bronchitis or a systemic fungal infection should not use this drug. and primidone.Triamcinolone does not provide immediate relief from respiratory difficulties. phenytoin. skin rash. fluid retention. a cancer that begins on the skin and spreads to the internal organs. which aids in healing acne and reduces sun-related conditions like fine wrinkling and rough. it has also shown promise improving AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma. hoarseness. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is sometimes prescribed to control asthma. wheezing. . Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. digoxin. prescription drug used to treat moderate acne and sun-damaged skin. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). It also speeds the growth of new skin cells. Brand Names:Azmacort. headache. mottled skin. or fungal infections in the mouth or throat.

All rights reserved. citrus scents. Effectiveness is usually apparent after two to three weeks of treatment. Effectiveness is usually apparent after one to two weeks. mouth.Tretinoin is available in a gel. prescription drug used to treat glaucoma. This drug is available in liquid form. Vesanoid Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. or spices. . Hands should be washed immediately after application. excessive redness or peeling of the skin. darkening or lightening of skin color. It is applied to the skin. although maximum improvement may take one to two months. an eye disorder characterized by pressure within and hardening of the eyeball. and s kin products containing alcohol. and solution. although maximum improvement may take several months. Timolol Maleate Timolol Maleate. cream. preferably an hour before meals. It also slows the heart rate and relaxes blood vessel walls. but periodic evaluations by a doctor are recommended. The gel form of this drug is flammable and should be kept away from heat or open flames. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Timolol maleate interacts with the sympathetic nervous system to reduce the formatio n of excess fluid in the eyeball. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and certain heart conditions. Long-term treatment with this drug (months to years) is not uncommon. About 20 to 30 minutes before application the skin should be cleansed with a mild soap and patted dry. temporary worsening of acne. Tretinoin may interact adversely with other skin medications. and the typical dosage is 10 to 20 mg twice a day. salicylic acid. as well as with medicated soaps. Renoval. usually once a day at bedtime. or a sensation of heat or stinging when the drug is applied. or resorcinol. or mucous me mbranes of the nose. crusty skin) should use this drug with caution. astringents. Patients with sensitive skin or eczema (inflamed. especially those containing sulfur. It should not come in contact with the eyes. Brand Names:Retin-A. The tablet form is taken orally. Possible side effects may include sun sensitivity. administered as one eyedrop every 12 to 24 hours.

Brand Names: Timoptic. especially in patients with heart disorders. theophylline. It should be used with caution by patients with diabetes. and pulmonary (lung) disease. It also opens blood vessels in the lungs. vomiting. Theophylline is sometimes used to treat breathing problems in infants at risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). shortness of breath. As a bronchodilator. and liquid form. Symptoms of an overdose may include wheezing. or certain heart disorders should not use this drug. All are taken orally. chest pain. hair loss. or emphysema (lung disease characterized by labored breathing). a chronic disease of the respiratory system. Timolol maleate has not been proven safe for children under the age of 12 or pregnant women. It is also used to treat asthmalike symptoms in patients with emphysema. or heart failure. . insulin and other diabetes drugs. low blood pressure. Effectiveness is usually apparent within 48 to 72 hours. usually with food to prevent stomach irritation. The maximum adult dose is 900 mg per day. dizziness. Theophylline Theophylline. All rights reserved. Blocadren. tablet. Theophylline is available in capsule. cimetidine. diarrhea. and nonprescription nasal decongestants. tingling or numbness. the drug works by relaxing constricted muscles of the lung’s bronchi. Timolide Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. improving circulation.Patients with asthma. hay fever or other allergies. chlorpromazine. myasthenia gravis (muscle weakness). which may be increased if needed. Possible side effects may include headache. monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. the two branches of the trachea (w indpipe) that lead to the lungs. as well as epinephrine. lung disease. or impotence. prescription drug used to treat asthma. low blood sugar. Adult dosages usually start at 200 mg taken twice a day. an overactive thyroid gland. It is known to appear in breast milk and may adversely affect a nursing infant. Treatment with this drug should not be stopped abruptly. muscle weakness. chronic bronchitis. nausea. This drug may interact adversely with various heart medications. Dosage in children under the age of 16 is based on body weight. impaired liver or kidney function.

Theo-dur Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. it should be taken on a n empty stomach (one hour before or two hours after a meal) with a full glass of water. phenytoin. Typical capsule dosages range from 1 to 2 g per day. another possible side effect. Unless this drug causes stomach upset. clarithromycin. drug used to treat various bacterial infections. or skin rash. . taken in one to four doses. and gonorrhea. Symptoms of overdose can include the side effects described above or more severe effects including high fever. increased urination. headache. or heart disease should use this drug with caution. All rights reserved. should be checked by a doctor. insomnia. Tetracycline is also sometimes used to treat early stages of Lyme disease.Patients with peptic ulcers. including urinary tract infections. Tetracycline usually relieves symptoms after 48 hours of treatment. Tetracycline is available by prescription in capsule form. thereby halting their growth. ciprofloxacin. Tetracycline Tetracycline. doxycycline. taken orally. and in a reconstituted powder solution. erythromycin. with a recommended maximum of 4 g per day. It should not be combined with milk or other dairy products. Side effects may include nausea or restlessness. and birth control pills. and certain gastrointestinal ulcers. Rocky Mountain spotted fever. or coma. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. It also may interact with cimetidine. seizure disorders. Changes in heart rate. propanolol. convulsions. Theophylline may interact adversely with the medication in a flu shot. gum disease. Theophylline should not be used by breast-feeding women and should be avoided during pregnancy. low blood pressure. Brand Names:Slo-bid. acne. trachoma (a chronic eye infection). applied topically. especially when starting treatment with theophylline. It works by interfering with the invading bacteria’s ability to form essential proteins. Other possible side effects are diarrhea. but it should be taken for the prescrib ed length of time to avoid recurrence of infection. high blood pressure. irregular heartbeat. impaired liver or kidney function.

prescription drug used primarily to treat hay fever. Brand Names:Achromycin V. This drug should not be used by breastfeeding women or children under the age of 12. Topicycline. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. nausea. vomiting. Tetracycline may interact adversely with antacids and other common gastrointestinal medications. hyperthyroidism. and menstrual pain. cholestyramine. Unlike many other antihistamines. eyes. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. facial swelling. Fexofenadine Fexofenadine. Possible side effects include diarrhea. indigestion. fatigue. or in infants. Symptoms of overdose may include fainting. chest pain. a chemical released during allergic reactions that contributes to swelling and itching of mucous membranes in the nose. All rights reserved. ischemic heart disease. skin rash. itching. insomnia. a bulging soft spot on the head. also effective against hives and cold symptoms. As an antihistamine. sore throat. and throat. difficulty swallowing. Its safety for use during pregnancy has not been determined. confusion. blurred vision. or prostatic hypertrophy. or seizures. fexofenadine works by blocking the action of histamine. nausea. Tablets of fexofenadine are ta ken orally. oral contraceptives. Fexofenadine should be used with caution in patients with hypertension. diabetes mellitus. headache. fexofenadine causes little or no drowsiness.Patients with severe liver disease or pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take this drug. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Children may develop discolored teeth with long-term use. increased intraocular pressure. lithium. isotretinoin. cold or flu. light sensitivity. blood thinners. and sucralfate. Possible side effects include headache. renal impairment. The typical dose is 60 mg taken twice a day. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with systemic lupus erythematosus should use tetracycline with caution. Brand Name:Allegra . penicillin. preferably with food to avoid stomach irritation. irregular heartbeat.

Possible side effects may include genital pain and burning sensations. headache. preventing its reproduction and growth. As a result. although patients should not use tampons until treatment ends. Temazepam Temazepam. All rights reserved. or chills. Terconazole is generally considered safe in combination with other medications. Terconazole Terconazole or Terazol 3 . Terconazole works by altering the cell membranes of the invading fungus. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. A non-latex condom will help reduce the chance of reinfection. producing a calming effect. body pain. a yeastlike fungus. fever. which can interact with terconazole. Brand Name:Terazol 3 Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Temazepam works by increasing the action of certain neurotransmitters. This drug has not b een proven safe for use in children or in pregnant or breast-feeding women. This drug is available as a cream or in a suppository form inserted into the vagina with a reusable applicator. Patients should avoid sexual intercourse during treatment or use birth control that does not involve latex products such as diaphragms or latex condoms. Treatment can continue during a menstrual period. nerve activity to certain parts of the brain is blocked. drug used to treat insomnia. Temazepam also tends to relax muscles as it helps the patient go to sleep. The dose is generally 5 g (one suppository or one applicator full of cream) at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. . All rights reserved. prescription drug used to eliminate fungus infections of the vulva and vagina caused by candida. brain chemicals needed for nerve transmission. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.

barbiturates. Dizziness or drowsiness the next day are two possible side effects of temazepam. operating dangerous machinery. Treatment with this drug is usually short-term (a few days or weeks). Other possible side effects include fatigue. antihistamines. increased dreaming. diarrhea. depression. It works b y shrinking swollen blood vessels in the brain that are believed to cause migraines. This drug is available by prescription in tablet form and as a liquid administered by self-injection in a 6-mg dose just below the skin. temazepam is taken orally in capsule form at bedtime. Abruptly stopping treatment can cause muscle cramps. The maximum dosage in a 24-hour period is two injections or 300 mg of tablets. or engaging in risk-related activities. some patients experience a recurrence of insomnia that lasts for one or two nights. blurred vision. Persistent insomnia may require other forms of treatment. including antidepressants. a second dose may be taken one hour after the first. or nausea. Sumatriptan Sumatriptan or Imitrex. seizures. difficulty in breathing. If needed. When treatment is stopped. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one to two hours. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. especially when starting treatment. Also observed in some patients are sweating. or coma. Effectiveness is usually apparent within one hour. Tablets are taken orally in doses ranging from 25 to 100 mg. headache.Available only by prescription. narcotics. or by young people under the age of 18. Temazepam may interact adversely with various drugs. A dose of the drug is taken as soon as migraine symptoms appear. confusion. usually in a 15-mg dose. tranquilizers. Temazepam should not be used by pregnant or breast-feeding women. and oral contraceptives. or vomiting. In addition. An overdose can cause l ow blood pressure. All rights reserved. or hallucinations. tremors. it should not be combined with alcoholic beverages. With long-term use (more than a few weeks). Patients with impaired liver or kidney function or with severe depression should use this drug with caution. Patients who experience a lack of mental clarity should avoid driving. restlessness. . tremors. convulsions. temazepam can both lose its effectiveness and become addictive. drug used to treat severe migraine headaches. nervousness. Brand Name:Restoril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002.

or a dry mouth. Sumatriptan may react adversely with medications containing ergotamine. difficulty breathing. on an empty stomach one hour before or two hours after a meal. although treatment typically lasts from four to eight weeks. Possible side effects may include dizziness. Patients with kidney failure should use sucralfate with caution. or allergies. It is sometimes used to soothe throat pain after a tonsillectomy. esophagus.Patients with heart disease. It works by forming a protective coating over irritated tissues a nd stimulating tissues to heal. stiff neck. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. drowsiness. Possible side effects may include constipation. sucralfate is taken orally. sore throat. All rights reserved. dizziness. Its safety for children. or a history of heart attack should not take this drug. has not been determined. drug used to treat ulcers. irregular heartbeat. or ulcers that form in the uppermost 25 cm (10 in) of the small intestine. phenytoin. nausea. diarrhea. as well as cimetidine. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. but does not stop new ulcers from forming. Its safety for young people under the age of 18 and pregnant or breastfeeding women has not been determined. or pregnant or breast-feeding women. a drug commonly found in other migraine preparations. muscle weakness. or va gina. Sucralfate is often effective after one to two weeks. Irregular heartbeat. Prescribed in either tablet or liquid form. certain antibiotics. Brand Name:Carafate . ketoconazole. and blood-thinners. especially angina. Sucralfate can also help heal ulcers or similar irritations in the mouth. ranitidine. tightness in the chest or throat. The typical dosage is 1 g four times a day. quinidine. Brand Name:Imitrex Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. digoxin. change in blood pressure. antispasmodic drugs. Sucralfate Sucralfate. tingling. uncontrolled high blood pressure. or fainting are sometimes observed. preferably with water. digestive tract. It is primarily used for duodenal ulcers. This drug heals existing ulcers. and theophylline. Raynaud’s syndrome. Sucralfate may interact adversely with antacid s. or skin rash. tetracycline.

stomach pain. Sertraline works by adjusting brain levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin . Tablets are taken with or without food. erythromycin. usually at bedtime. This drug should not be taken by patients with liver disease. and exercise are not effective in reducing cholesterol. gas. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. by pregnant or nursing women. cyclosporine. It is typically prescribed by a physician when dietary changes. obsessive -compulsive disorders. Possible side effects of this drug include headache. Patients with impaired liver function. Simvastatin is usually prescribed in combination with a cholesterol-lowering diet. ketoconazole.Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Simvastatin works by blocking the liver enzyme that controls the production of cholesterol. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks of treatment. muscular disorders. digoxin. skin rash. Simvastatin Simvastatin. less often. drug used to treat depression and. drug used to lower cholesterol levels. It is primarily effective against low-density lipoproteins (LDL). The typical dosage ranges between 5 and 40 mg per day. nausea. Simvastatin may interact adversely with the drugs cholestyramine. or by young people under the age of 20. cataracts. gemfibrozil. Brand Name:Zocor Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Other side effects sometimes observed are muscle pain. and spironolactone. All rights reserved. or lowered blood pressure. which are characterized by persistent ideas (obsessions) that trigger repetitive acts (compulsions). diarrhea. clofibrate. nicotinic acid. warfarin. or hepatitis. Sertraline Sertraline. the form of cholesterol associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease. All rights reserved. or a history of alcohol abuse should use this drug with caution. cimetidine. constipation. impaired vision. weight loss. muscle weakness.

fatigue. warfarin. tolbutamide. if needed. tremors. This drug should not be combined with alcoholic bevera ges. A variety of possible side effects are associated with sertraline. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. The typical dose is 42 mg. diarrhea. or behaviora l changes. vomiting. Sertraline may interact adversely with diazepam. Salmeterol is a bro nchodilator that works by relaxing constricted muscles in the bronchial tubes. the recommended dose is two inhalations within 30 to 60 minutes before exercising. breast enlargement (in both females and males). sensitivity to bright light. The starting dose is 50 mg. Additional doses should not be taken within a 12-hour period. agitation. twice daily. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to eight weeks of treatment. salmeterol enters the respiratory system through the mouth with the use of an inhaler. a dry mouth. digitoxin. difficulty breathing or swallowing. Salmeterol Salmeterol. Salmeterol can also relieve the bronchial spasms that occur in some people after exercising. or two inhalations. Parkinson disease. All rights reserved. to a maximum daily dose of 200 mg. sleepiness. or a recent heart attack should use sertraline with caution. weight loss. including headache. Salmeterol starts to work within one hour. seizures. thereby expanding the passageways for air to move in and out of the lungs. but its effectiveness in preventing asthma takes four to six weeks of treatment. the two b ranches of the trachea (windpipe) that lead into the lungs. Patients with impaired liver or kidney function. . cimetidine. Brand Name:Zoloft Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. Its safety for children under the age of 12 or pregnant or breast-feeding women has not been determined. Available only by prescription. insomnia.Available only by prescription. drug used for the treatment of asthma. constipation. tablets are taken once a day with or without food. lithium. which a doctor may slowly increase. Such spasms make it difficult for asthma-sufferers to breathe or take deep breaths. sweating. or problems with male sexual performance. It relieves and helps prevent spasms in the bronchial tubes. and monamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors. Less common side effects are abnormal hair growth. irregular heartbeat. When salmeterol is used to prevent exercise-induced spasms. various diabetes medications including insulin.

skin rash. a condition in which stomach acids back up into the esophagus. Salmeterol may interact adversely with certain antidepressants. smoking cigarettes. It is also available as an injectable liquid. causing chronic heartburn. anemia. Effectiveness is usually apparent after four to six weeks. This drug has not been proven safe for pregnant or breast-feeding women or for children under the age of 16. or skin rashes. It should be used with caution by patients who have high blood pressure. all taken orally. dizziness. To treat milder acid indigestion and stomach upset. rapid or slow heartbeat. liver disease. The typ ical oral dosage is 150 mg or 10 ml. All rights reserved. It should be used with caution by patients with impaired liver or kidney function. An overdose can cause irregular heartbeat. fatigue. Salmeterol’s safety for use in children under the age of 12 or in pregnant or nursing mothers has not been adequately studied. Ranitidine should not be used within two hours of drinking alcoholic beverages. Ranitidine reduces gastrointestinal irritation and helps heal ulcers by blocking the action of histamine. drug used in the treatment of ulcers of the stomach and intestines.Patients with an irregular heartbeat should not use this drug. This drug is available by prescription in tablet. an over-thecounter form is available in tablets of 75 mg. or taking antacids. hair loss. It is also used to prevent upper abdominal bleeding and treat gastroesophageal reflux disease. Less common side effects are diarrhea. which may be prescribed in a single dose at bedtime or divided into two smaller doses usually taken immediately after meals. or overactive thyroid gland. . diabetes. joint or muscle pain. capsule. and drowsiness. dizziness. heart attack. and liquid form. or muscle cramps. Headache is the most common side effect of this drug. especially MAO inhibitors and tricyclic antid epressants. Brand Name:Serevent Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. a chemical in the body that stimulates acid secretions in the stomach. headaches. as well as theophylline and caffeine. nervousness. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Ranitidine Ranitidine. Possible side effects may include a dry mouth or throat. Patients who take it for ulcers of the stomach and small intestine should not stop treatment abruptly.

and triamterene. which influence salt and water retention. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation. Dosages range from 10 to 80 mg per day. as well as with diazepam. Long-term treatment lasting months or years is common. It also may react with lithium. sucralfate. An allergic reaction to this drug. Quinapril has not been proven safe for use in children under the age of 12. It should be used with caution by patients with liver or kidney disease. Available by prescription. Although quinapril may be prescribed in combination with certain diuretics. cyclosporine. systemic lupus erythematous. Quinapril Quinapril. scleroderma. as does any sore throat or fever that develops during treatment. or vomiting. . as it can harm the fetus. The drug relaxes arterial walls. or low white blood cell counts. it must be taken regularly to be effective. Patients with a blood cell or bone marrow disorder should not use quinapril. Brand Name:Zantac Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. quinapril is taken orally in tablet form with or without food. All rights reserved. Quinapril works by interfering with angiotensin -converting enzymes (ACE) in the body. Breast-feeding mothers should be aware that this drug is known to appear in breast milk. including salt substitutes containing potassium. tetracycline. Possible side effects include dizziness. fatigue.Ranitidine may interact adversely with blood-thinning drugs such as warfarin. chest or abdominal pain. midazolam. muscle pain. procainamide. enoxacin. drug used to control high blood pressure and sometimes to treat congestive heart failure. thereby reducing blood pressure. especially in the second and third trimesters. characterized by such symptoms as facial swelling and difficult y swallowing or breathing. glipizide. it can react adversely with these drugs. nausea. theophylline. high potassium levels. Positive results are usually apparent after several weeks. itraconazole. coughing. reduces blood volume. Because quinapril controls rather than cures high blood pressure. requires immediate medical attention. a condition in which the heart’s ability to pump blood is impaired. heart disease. This drug should not be taken by pregnant women. and potassium supplements. It should not be combined with alcoholic beverages unless approved by a doctor. ketoconazole. lightheadedness.

. All rights reserved.Brand Name: Accupril Microsoft ® Encarta ® Encyclopedia 2002. © 1993-2001 Microsoft Corporation.