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Learning agent A multi-agent system (MAS) is a system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems which are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or monolithic system to solve. Examples of problems which are appropriate to multi-agent systems research include online trading, disaster response, and modelling social structures.
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1 Overview 2 Multi-agent system basics o 2.1 Multiple agent systems paradigms o 2.2 Properties 3 The study of multi-agent systems 4 Frameworks 5 Applications in the real world 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading
The agents in a multi-agent system have several important characteristics:
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Autonomy: the agents are at least partially autonomous Local views: no agent has a full global view of the system, or the system is too complex for an agent to make practical use of such knowledge Decentralization: there is no one controlling agent (or the system is effectively reduced to a monolithic system)
Typically multi-agent systems research refers to software agents. However, the agents in a multi-agent system could equally well be robots, humans or human teams. A multi-agent system may contain combined human-agent teams. Multi-agent systems can manifest self-organization and complex behaviors even when the individual strategies of all their agents are simple. Agents can share knowledge using any agreed language, within the constraints of the system's communication protocol. Example languages are Knowledge Query Manipulation Language (KQML) or FIPA's Agent Communication Language (ACL).
evolving "contracts". Path length-MEDIUM_IMPORTANCE: max=60 expectedMax=40. Multi-agent system basics  Multiple agent systems paradigms Many MAS systems are implemented in computer simulations. tend to find the best solution for their problems "without intervention". e. such as energy minimizing. where physical objects tend to reach the lowest energy possible. There is high similarity here to physical phenomena. that is their values may decrease (or increase) with time. and the restriction sets of the component algorithms. stepping the system through discrete "time steps".ambulance will override this priority and you'll have to wait A challenge-response-contract scheme is common in MAS systems. referred to. . will be available for leaving that same metropolis in the evening. Only the relevant components respond: "I can. if they work. For example: many of the cars entering a metropolis in the morning. e. The main feature which is achieved when developing multi-agent systems. also considering other components. above. Max-Weight-UNIMPORTANT Contract Priority-REGULAR and a weighted response matrix. The MAS components communicate typically using a weighted request matrix. since a multi-agent system can be added to. Finally.g. within the physical constrained world. at this price". a contract is set up. also referred to as "self-organized systems". Another paradigm commonly used with MAS systems is the pheromone. where components "leave" information for other components "next in line" or "in the vicinity". where First a "Who can?" question is distributed. usually due to the heavy redundancy of components and the self managed features. Speed-VERY_IMPORTANT: min=45mph. without the need for detailed rewriting of the application. modified and reconstructed. is flexibility. These "pheromones" may "evaporate" with time. These systems also tend to be rapidly self-recovering and failure proof. Speed-min:50 but only if weather sunny. Path length:25 for sunny / 46 for rainy Contract Priority-REGULAR note .g.  Properties MAS systems. usually in several more short communication steps between sides.
 They are also used for coordinated defence systems. to achieve automatic and dynamic load balancing. and self-healing networks. Agent systems have been used in films. The study of multi-agent systems The study of multi-agent systems is concerned with the development and analysis of sophisticated artificial intelligence problem solving and control architectures for multiple-agent systems. logistics. graphics.  Applications in the real world Please help improve this section by expanding it. Other applications include transportation. These frameworks save developers time and also aid in the standardization of MAS development. GIS as well as in many other fields. high scalability. Topics of research in MAS include: • • • • • • • • • • agent-oriented software engineering beliefs. It is widely being advocated for use in networking and mobile technologies. Further information might be found on the talk page. desires. and intentions (BDI) cooperation and coordination organisation communication negotiation distributed problem solving multi-agent learning scientific communities dependability and fault-tolerance  Frameworks While ad hoc multi-agent systems are often created from scratch by researchers and developers.  See also • • • • • • • • Agent-based model (ABM) Comparison of agent-based modeling software Artificial brain Artificial intelligence Complex systems Distributed artificial intelligence Emergence Evolutionary computation • • • • • • • • • Knowledge Query and Manipulation Language (KQML) Multi-agent planning Pattern oriented modeling PlatBox Project Scientific Community Metaphor Self-organization Simulated reality Social simulation Software agent . some frameworks have arisen that implement common standards (such as the FIPA agent system platforms and communication languages). (December 2008) Multi-agent systems are applied in the real world to graphical applications such as computer games.
ISBN 0-471-49691-X. 2002. 6. ^ Michael Wooldridge. 2005. 4. David and J. 2007 ^ Nathan Schurr and Janusz Marecki and Milind Tambe and Paul Scerri et al. 5. The Future of Disaster Response: Humans Working with Multiagent Teams using DEFACTO. Simulating Organizational Decision-Making Using a Cognitively Realistic Agent Model. 366 pages. ^ Alex Rogers and E. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation. Sean Luke: Cooperative Multi-Agent Learning: The State of the Art. John Wiley & Sons Ltd.R. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 11(3): 387-434 (2005) ^ Massive (software) — Film showcase Software agent Programming paradigms • • • • • • • • • Agent-oriented Component-based o Flow-based o Pipeline Concatenative Concurrent computing Declarative (contrast: Imperative) o Functional Dataflow Cell-oriented (spreadsheets) Reactive o Goal-directed Constraint Constraint logic Logic Abductive logic Inductive logic Event-driven Feature-oriented Function-level (contrast: Value-level) Imperative (contrast: Declarative) o Greater separation of concerns Aspect-oriented Subject-oriented o Array (contrast: Scalar) o Automata-based . Bidding and Minimum Bid Increments within eBay Auctions. Jennings. ^ Ron Sun and Isaac Naveh. ACM Transactions on the Web. 3. ^ Liviu Panait. paperback. The Effects of Proxy 2.Schiff and N.• • Human-based genetic algorithm Intelligent agent • • Swarm Intelligence Artificial life framework  References 1. An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems.
and mobile agents (agents that can relocate their execution onto different processors). but activate themselves. Related and derived concepts include Intelligent agents (in particular exhibiting some aspect of Artificial Intelligence. The idea is that agents are not strictly invoked for a task. autonomous agents (capable of modifying the way in which they achieve their objectives).• • • • • • • • • Object-oriented Class-based Prototype-based o Procedural Structured o Role-oriented o Scalar (contrast: Array) Iterative (contrast: Recursive) Metaprogramming o Attribute-oriented o Automatic Generic Template Policy-based Language-oriented Grammar-oriented Dialecting Intentional o Reflective Modular Nondeterministic Parallel computing o Process-oriented Programming in the large and programming in the small Recursive (contrast: Iterative) Tree Value-level (contrast: Function-level) o This box: view • talk • edit In computer science. a software agent is a piece of software that acts for a user or other program in a relationship of agency. such as learning and reasoning). Such "action on behalf of" implies the authority to decide which (and if) action is appropriate. multi-agent systems (distributed agents that do not have the capabilities to achieve an objective alone and thus must communicate). distributed agents (being executed on physically distinct computers). Contents .
2 Intuitive distinguishing agents from objects o 2.6 Fuzzy agents 2 What an agent is not o 2.4 Data mining agents o 4.2 User agents (personal agents) 4. functions.2 Autonomous agents o 1.4 Distinguishing intelligent software agents from intelligent agents in artificial intelligence 3 History 4 Examples o 4.1. The concept of an agent provides a convenient and powerful way to describe a complex software entity that is capable of acting with a certain degree of autonomy in order to accomplish tasks on . similar to OOP terms such as methods. and objects.1. or a concept.1.2 Other examples 5 Design issues 6 Notes 7 External links  Definition Nwana's Category of Software Agent The term "agent" describes a software abstraction.1 Intelligent software agents 4.1 Buyer agents (shopping bots) 4.3 Distributed agents o 1.4 Multi-agent systems o 1.1 Distinguishing agents from programs o 2.5 Mobile agents o 1.1 Intelligent software agents o 1. an idea.3 Distinguishing agents from expert systems o 2.[hide] • • • • • • • 1 Definition o 1.3 Monitoring-and-surveillance (predictive) agents 4.1.
behalf of its user. • ability to learn Learning may proceed through trial-and-error.  Autonomous agents Autonomous agents are software agents that claim to be autonomous. which are defined in terms of methods and attributes.  The concepts mentioned above often relate well to the way we naturally think about complex tasks and thus agents can be useful to model such tasks  Intelligent software agents See also: intelligent agent The design of intelligent agents (or intelligent software agents) is a branch of artificial intelligence research. The Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements is a hardware solution to the . This can be achieved through the choice of alternative problem-solving-rules or algorithms. then it implies a capacity to abstract and generalize. an agent is defined in terms of its behavior. monitor and continually modify their behavior. such as recruiting processor or storage resources. But unlike objects. goaldirected behaviour. decision-making without human intervention) social ability (agents are able to engage other components through some sort of communication and coordination. or through the discovery of problem solving strategies. Adaptation may also include other aspects of an agent's internal construction. and shut them down when necessary. they may collaborate on a task) reactivity (agents perceive the context in which they operate and react to it appropriately). Various authors have proposed different definitions of agents. being selfcontained and capable of making independent decisions. then it implies a capability of introspection and analysis of behaviour and success. learning may proceed by example and generalization. prioritization. not as a prescription. All software agents in important applications are closely supervised by people who start them up. Capabilities of intelligent agents include: • ability to adapt Adaptation implies sensing the environment and reconfiguring in response. and taking actions to satisfy internal goals based upon their perceived environment. these commonly include concepts such as • • • • persistence (code is not executed on demand but runs continuously and decides for itself when it should perform some activity) autonomy (agents have capabilities of task selection. Alternatively. The Agent concept is most useful as a tool to analyze systems.
monitoring network throughput or to check resources availability and moderating the resource utilization of system by checking the services running on system.  Multi-agent systems When several agents (inter)act they may form a multi-agent system a. including its execution state. data is decentralized and execution is asynchronous. Also.org/wikipedia/en/5/5f/Network_monitor_agent.wikimedia. they can be designed to be very loosely coupled and it becomes easy to have them executed as independent threads and on distributed processors. to continue execution there. Agents can be used to gather system information. Characteristically such agents will not have all data or all methods available to achieve an objective (this can be referred to as "limited viewpoint") and thus will have to collaborate with other agents. As with distributed agents.  Distributed agents Since agents are well suited to include their required resources in their description. related fields include Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI) and distributed problem solving (DPS).  Mobile agents Main article: mobile agent Agent code that moves itself. Earlier. Thus they become distributed agents and the considerations of distributed computing apply. on to another machine.supervision problem. This is also referred to as mobile code. http://upload. which in principle prevents the execution of critical instructions without entering a suitable mode (such as System or Super-user mode). there may be little or no global control and thus such systems are sometimes referred to as swarm systems.JPG analysis of packets . multipleagent system.k. taking back-up of files by copying them in client-server paradigm. Agent code is particularly easy to implement in a distributed fashion and should scale well.a.
proactive. interactive and concurrently-executing object. communities of human beings (such as firms) or anything that is capable of goal directed behavior. (Wooldridge. Expert systems are not designed for reactive. they may also be machines. This software entity interacts with its environment through an adaptive rule-base and can therefore be considered as a type of intelligent agent. 2002)  Distinguishing agents from expert systems • • • Expert systems are not coupled to their environment. possessing internal state and communication capability. autonomy. Agents have flexible behaviour. human beings.  Intuitive distinguishing agents from objects • • • Agents are more autonomous than objects.  What an agent is not It is not useful to prescribe what is. Agents have at least one thread of control but may have more. (Russell & Norvig 2003)  History The concept of an agent can be traced back to Hewitt's Actor Model (Hewitt. reactive. 1977) "A self-contained. Fuzzy agents In computer science a fuzzy agent is a software agent that implements fuzzy logic." . However contrasting the term with related concepts may help clarify its meaning:  Distinguishing agents from programs Franklin & Graesser (1997) discuss four key notions that distinguish agents from arbitrary programs: reaction to the environment. and what is not an agent. 2002)  Distinguishing intelligent software agents from intelligent agents in artificial intelligence • Intelligent agents (also known as rational agents) are not just software programs. social. goal-orientation and persistence. Expert systems do not consider social ability (Wooldridge. proactive behavior.
 User agents (personal agents) User agents. books. John Sculley’s 1987 “Knowledge Navigator” video portrayed an image of a relationship between end-users and agents. 3. and other onesize-fits-all products. MAS evolved from Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI). electronic components.  Examples  Intelligent software agents See also: Intelligent agent Haag (2006) suggests that there are only four essential types of intelligent software agents: 1. These agents. the internet) retrieving information about goods and services. instead of a piece-by-piece. or will shortly perform. the following tasks: • • Check your e-mail. This is because it is assumed the user tastes are relatively similar and they will be interested in the same products. The range of agent types is now (from 1990) broad: WWW. are intelligent agents that take action on your behalf. 2. Distributed Problem Solving (DPS) and Parallel AI (PAI). search engines. At the bottom of the page there is a list of similar products that other customers who did the same search looked at. Buyer agents or shopping bots User or personal agents Monitoring-and-surveillance agents Data Mining agents  Buyer agents (shopping bots) Buyer agents travel around a network (i. Play computer games as your opponent or patrol game areas for you. etc. work very efficiently for commodity products such as CDs. bottom-up approach. Amazon. and alert you when important emails arrive. or personal agents. software agent systems are a direct evolution from Multi-Agent Systems (MAS). . The website will offer you a list of books that you might like to buy on the basis of what you're buying now and what you have bought in the past. Another example is used on eBay.To be more academic.e. this field experienced a series of unsuccessful top-down implementations. In this category belong those intelligent agents that already perform. Being an ideal first. 4.com is a good example of a shopping bot. sort it according to the user's order of preference. thus inheriting all characteristics (good and bad) from DAI and AI. also known as 'shopping bots'. This technology is known as collaborative filtering.
"Data mining" is the process of looking through the data warehouse to find information that you can use to take action. The user can sort through this information in order to find whatever information they are seeking. The agents may keep track of company inventory levels. These agents usually monitor complex computer networks that can keep track of the configuration of each computer connected to the network. watch stock manipulation by insider trading and rumors. and scheduling equipment ordering to keep costs down. A data mining agent operates in a data warehouse discovering information. Find information for you on the subject of your choice. For example. based on this relayed information construction . as well as food storage facilities. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has an agent that monitors inventory. etc. 'Classification' is one of the most common types of data mining. service monitoring For example.  Data mining agents See also: Data mining agents This agent uses information technology to find trends and patterns in an abundance of information from many different sources. such as ways to increase sales or keep customers who are considering defecting. which finds patterns in information and categorizes them into different classes. planning.• • • • • Assemble customized news reports for you. usually computer systems. including newshub and CNN. the agent may detect a decline in the construction industry for an economy. A 'data warehouse' brings together information from lots of different sources. Fill out forms on the Web automatically for you. There are several versions of these. Data mining agents can also detect major shifts in trends or a key indicator and can detect the presence of new information and alert you to it. observe competitors' prices and relay them back to the company. storing your information for future reference Scan Web pages looking for and highlighting text that constitutes the "important" part of the information there "Discuss" topics with you ranging from your deepest fears to sports  Monitoring-and-surveillance (predictive) agents Monitoring and Surveillance Agents are used to observe and report on equipment.
. Why? It communicates with the POP3 mail server. how agents can be re-instantiated in different environments. game bots.. and server monitoring tools.companies will be able to make intelligent decisions regarding the hiring/firing of employees or the purchase/lease of equipment in order to best suit their firm. The definition of agent processing can be approached from two interrelated directions: . Search engine indexing bots also qualify as intelligent agents. It even has rule sets that filter mail for the user. or recruit resources. what hierarchies of agents are useful (e.g.  Design issues Interesting issues to consider in the development of agent-based systems include • • • • • • • how tasks are scheduled and how synchronization of tasks is achieved how tasks are prioritized by agents how agents can collaborate. scheduling agents.). resource providers . For software agents to work together efficiently they must share semantics of their data elements. In Unix-style networking servers. and how their internal state can be stored.for browsing the World Wide Web Mail transfer agent .For serving E-mail. • • • • • • • • • • • • User agent . how the environment will be probed and how a change of environment leads to behavioral changes of the agents how messaging and communication can be achieved. thus sparing them the trouble of having to do it themselves. SNMP agent DAML (DARPA Agent Markup Language) Jason (multi-agent systems development platform) 3APL (Artificial Autonomous Agents Programming Language) GOAL Agent Programming Language Web Ontology Language (OWL) daemons in Unix-like systems. httpd is an HTTP daemon which implements the HyperText Transfer Protocol at the root of the World Wide Web Management agents used to manage telecom devices Crowd simulation for safety planning or 3D computer graphics. This can be done by having computer systems publish their metadata. such as Microsoft Outlook. task execution agents. without users having to understand POP3 command protocols.  Other examples Some other examples of current Intelligent agents include some spam filters.
The agent makes use of a user-access method to deliver that message to the user. the agent may use another piece of its machinery to do a more detailed search on the content. or using a spider to walk the Web.• • internal state processing and ontologies for representing knowledge interaction protocols . the agent may decide to take an action based on the new content. The agent next may use its detailed searching or language-processing machinery to extract keywords or signatures from the body of the content that has been received or retrieved. This process combines the event content with the rule-based or knowledge content provided by the user.Data employed by the machinery in Reasoning and Learning Agent Access . Electronic commerce From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from E-commerce) Jump to: navigation. If this process finds a good hit or match in the new content. These access methods may include setting up news stream delivery to the agent. • • • • Agent Machinery . which support the varying degrees of intelligence Agent Content . The content that is retrieved in this way is probably already partially filtered – by the selection of the newsfeed or the databases that are searched. for example. This abstracted content (or event) is then passed to the agent’s Reasoning or inferencing machinery in order to decide what to do with the new content. augmented by a few special concerns related to agents The agent uses its access methods to go out into local and remote databases to forage for content.Engines of various kinds. to notify the user that an important event has occurred. Finally. or retrieval from bulletin boards. the agent may also employ its learning machinery to increase its weighting for this kind of event. search Part of a series on Electronic commerce Online goods and services Streaming media Electronic books Software Retail services . This action is verified by a security function and then given the authority of the user.Concerns related to distributed computing. If the user confirms that the event is important by acting quickly on the notification.Methods to enable the machinery to perceive content and perform actions as outcomes of Reasoning Agent Security .standards for specifying communication of tasks Agent systems are used to model real world systems with concurrency or parallel processing.
although it can encompass a wider range of technologies such as e-mail as well. Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses and consumers. spurring and drawing on innovations in electronic funds transfer.g. consists of the buying and selling of products or services over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks. electronic data interchange (EDI). commonly known as (electronic marketing) e-commerce or eCommerce. Internet marketing.com.1 Early development . and automated data collection systems. is referred to as business-to-consumer or B2C. A large percentage of electronic commerce is conducted entirely electronically for virtual items such as access to premium content on a website. supply chain management. inventory management systems. Contents [hide] • 1 History o 1. but most electronic commerce involves the transportation of physical items in some way. The use of commerce is conducted in this way. Modern electronic commerce typically uses the World Wide Web at least at some point in the transaction's lifecycle. B2B can be open to all interested parties (e. on the other hand. It also consists of the exchange of data to facilitate the financing and payment aspects of the business transactions. Electronic commerce that is conducted between businesses is referred to as businessto-business or B2B. online transaction processing. pre-qualified participants (private electronic market). Electronic commerce is generally considered to be the sales aspect of e-business. The amount of trade conducted electronically has grown extraordinarily with widespread Internet usage. Almost all big retailers have electronic commerce presence on the World Wide Web. commodity exchange) or limited to specific.Banking · Food ordering Online flower delivery · Blu-ray Disc or DVD rental Travel Marketplace services Trading communities Auctions · Online wallet Advertising Price comparison service E-procurement Purchase-to-pay This box: view • talk • edit Electronic Commerce. This is the type of electronic commerce conducted by companies such as Amazon. Online retailers are sometimes known as e-tailers and online retail is sometimes known as e-tail.
 Although the Internet became popular worldwide around 1994. WorldWideWeb. . electronic commerce meant the facilitation of commercial transactions electronically. 1992: J. And by the end of 2000. it took about five years to introduce security protocols and DSL allowing continual connection to the Internet. Originally.• • • • • • • o 1. automated teller machines (ATM) and telephone banking in the 1980s were also forms of electronic commerce. St. Another form of e-commerce was the airline reservation system typified by Sabre in the USA and Travicom in the UK. a marketplace for used computers launched in 1982. including online consulting. a lot of European and American business companies offered their services through the World Wide Web. ISBN 0312063598. The earliest example of many-to-many electronic commerce in physical goods was the Boston Computer Exchange. using technology such as Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT). data mining and data warehousing. commercial enterprise on the Internet was strictly prohibited. Online shopping was invented in the UK in 1979 by Michael Aldrich and during the 1980s it was used extensively particularly by auto manufacturers such as Ford. using a NeXT computer.H. electronic commerce would additionally include enterprise resource planning systems (ERP). Martin's Press. These were both introduced in the late 1970s. General Motors and Nissan. another preInternet[clarification needed] online system introduced in 1991. allowing businesses to send commercial documents like purchase orders or invoices electronically.  Timeline • • 1990: Tim Berners-Lee writes the first web browser.2 Timeline 2 Business applications 3 Government regulations 4 Forms 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links  History  Early development The meaning of electronic commerce has changed over the last 30 years. Snider and Terra Ziporyn publish Future Shop: How New Technologies Will Change the Way We Shop and What We Buy. From the 1990s onwards. Until 1991. Since then people began to associate a word "ecommerce" with the ability of purchasing various goods through the Internet using secure protocols and electronic payment services. was likely the American Information Exchange. The first online information marketplace. The growth and acceptance of credit cards. Peugeot-Talbot.
as do cars and bikes. ATG Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online. Donnelley for $345 million. These activities include the use of commercial e-mails. Adult materials also becomes commercially available. Using its authority under Section 5 . and states that advertising must be truthful and non-deceptive.com sold for US $7. rather than a central portal.com and the first commercial-free 24 hour.com posts first yearly profit. 2002: eBay acquires PayPal for $1. 2000: The dot-com bust. eBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb. 2007: Business. Netscape 1. Attempts to offer flower delivery and magazine subscriptions online. online advertising and consumer privacy. The Federal Trade Commission Act regulates all forms of advertising. 2003: Amazon.• • • • • • • • • 1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla.5 billion .com acquired by R. Pizza Hut offers pizza ordering on its Web page.000. internet-only radio stations. Dell and Cisco begin to aggressively use Internet for commercial transactions. The first online bank opens.  Business applications Some common applications related to electronic commerce are the following: • • • • • • • • • • • Email Enterprise content management Instant messaging Newsgroups Online shopping and order tracking Online banking Online office suites Domestic and international payment systems Shopping cart software Teleconferencing Electronic tickets  Government regulations In the United States.5 million to eCompanies. some electronic commerce activities are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). 1995: Jeff Bezos launches Amazon. 1999: Business.H. 1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. The peer-to-peer filesharing software Napster launches. Niche retail companies CSN Stores and NetShops are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains. The CAN-SPAM Act of 2003 establishes national standards for direct marketing over e-mail. Radio HK and NetRadio start broadcasting.0 is introduced in late 1994 SSL encryption that made transactions secure. 2008: US eCommerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach $204 billion. an increase of 17 percent over 2007. which was purchased in 1997 for US $149. including online advertising.
handling customer service. Contents [hide] • • • • • 1 Subsets 2 Models o 2.business-to-business electronic commerce (B2B) or business-to-consumer electronic commerce (B2C): o internet shop o supply chain management o online marketing o offline marketing . Internal business systems: o customer relationship management o enterprise resource planning o document management systems o human resources management 2. extranets. the Internet. or some combination of these.1 Classification by provider and consumer 3 See also 4 References 5 External links o 5. e-commerce involves the application of knowledge management systems. Enterprise communication and collaboration: o VoIP o content management system o e-mail o voice mail o Web conferencing o Digital work flows (or business process management) 3. and cooperating with business partners. E-business software solutions allow the integration of intra and inter firm business processes. electronic commerce . Often. E-business involves business processes spanning the entire value chain: electronic purchasing and supply chain management. Special technical standards for e-business facilitate the exchange of data between companies. processing orders electronically. intranets.seeks to add revenue streams using the World Wide Web or the Internet to build and enhance relationships with clients and partners and to improve efficiency using the Empty Vessel strategy. E-business can be conducted using the Web.1 Wikibooks Subsets Applications can be divided into three categories: 1.
The following is a list of the currently most adopted e-business models such as: • • • • • • • • • • • • E-shops E-commerce E-procurement E-malls E-auctions Virtual Communities Collaboration Platforms Third-party Marketplaces Value-chain Integrators Value-chain Service Providers Information Brokerage Telecommunication  Classification by provider and consumer Roughly dividing the world into providers/producers and consumers/clients one can classify e-businesses into the following categories: • • • • • • • • • business-to-business (B2B) business-to-consumer (B2C) business-to-employee (B2E) business-to-government (B2G) government-to-business (G2B) government-to-government (G2G) government-to-citizen (G2C) consumer-to-consumer (C2C) consumer-to-business (C2B) It is notable that there are comparably less connections pointing "upwards" than "downwards" (few employee/consumer/citizen-to-X models). and the source of revenues and benefits for suppliers and customers. The concept of e-business model is the same but used in the online presence. . Models When organizations go online.  A business model is defined as the organization of product. service and information flows. they have to decide which e-business models best suit their goals.
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