44 views

Uploaded by sarakaram

save

- Syllabus CHE341 Wint2012 Modified
- Advanced Fluid Mechanics
- assAs
- Fluid Mechanics Syllabus
- FE Other CBT Specsa
- fluid flow and bernoulli
- Gomez et al 2000 Prediction of slug liquid holdup.pdf
- Chapter 5-Concepts of Momentum in Fluid Flow
- Shaft Pressurization
- Syllabus of Basic Chem
- Fluid mechanics note
- Appendix
- Abutment
- PHY 171B Lab 2.docx
- Annexure - I
- Slug Flow
- A Precise Method for Determining the CO2 Content of Carbonate Materials
- The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America
- Yes Please
- Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution
- Dispatches from Pluto: Lost and Found in the Mississippi Delta
- Elon Musk: Tesla, SpaceX, and the Quest for a Fantastic Future
- Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America
- John Adams
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- The Emperor of All Maladies: A Biography of Cancer
- A Heartbreaking Work Of Staggering Genius: A Memoir Based on a True Story
- This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate
- Grand Pursuit: The Story of Economic Genius
- The New Confessions of an Economic Hit Man
- Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
- Smart People Should Build Things: How to Restore Our Culture of Achievement, Build a Path for Entrepreneurs, and Create New Jobs in America
- The Hard Thing About Hard Things: Building a Business When There Are No Easy Answers
- Rise of ISIS: A Threat We Can't Ignore
- The World Is Flat 3.0: A Brief History of the Twenty-first Century
- Bad Feminist: Essays
- Steve Jobs
- Angela's Ashes: A Memoir
- How To Win Friends and Influence People
- The Sympathizer: A Novel (Pulitzer Prize for Fiction)
- Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close: A Novel
- Leaving Berlin: A Novel
- The Silver Linings Playbook: A Novel
- The Light Between Oceans: A Novel
- The Incarnations: A Novel
- You Too Can Have a Body Like Mine: A Novel
- The Love Affairs of Nathaniel P.: A Novel
- Life of Pi
- The Flamethrowers: A Novel
- Brooklyn: A Novel
- The First Bad Man: A Novel
- We Are Not Ourselves: A Novel
- The Blazing World: A Novel
- The Rosie Project: A Novel
- Bel Canto
- The Master
- A Man Called Ove: A Novel
- Beautiful Ruins: A Novel
- The Kitchen House: A Novel
- Interpreter of Maladies
- The Wallcreeper
- The Art of Racing in the Rain: A Novel
- Wolf Hall: A Novel
- The Cider House Rules
- A Prayer for Owen Meany: A Novel
- My Sister's Keeper: A Novel
- The Perks of Being a Wallflower
- Lovers at the Chameleon Club, Paris 1932: A Novel
- The Bonfire of the Vanities: A Novel
- Torsión Mecánica de materiales
- Lista 3 Resolvida Termodinâmica
- API - Instrumentation for Operators - Unit 1 Measuring Instruments [Section 1,2,3,4,5].pdf
- Forca e Inercia
- informe 2 de mesa sismica.docx
- BoeTMFormeln
- Resumo Física II
- Malla de Puesta a Tierra Def Ult3 Jesus Marquez 3
- biental de ruidos molestos Centro HistÃ³rico de la ciudad de Trujillo en el mes de abril 2010 por el Servicio de GestiÃ³n Ambiental de Trujillo - SEGAT
- Modulo de Vectores y Fisica Quinto 2018
- Ginlong PMG 500W 1000W
- definiciones de palabras para termodinamica
- Laboratorio de La Ley de Ohm y La Ley de Kirchhoff
- LS EMPR
- Operating Instructions Vented Stationary Lead Acid Batteries Italian 08 03
- TS·3 Ciclosde Potencia
- Portafolio de Maquinaria 1
- ceramic capacitor - wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- Actividades Unidad 1
- Calculo de La Presion de Alta p Arranque de Molinos
- megometro
- Direct Inverse Proportion Notes and Worksheets
- Transformer Design
- Diapositivas Torre de Enfriamiento Por Tio Inducido
- 3.2_Pressure in a Fluid (Pascal's Law, Variation With Depth)
- Informe 1 Granulometria, Pe Cemento, Pe Agregados
- m d Inst. Electricas
- Guias de Lab-Fisica 2 2017-1
- PIEAS Admission Test1
- Online Assignment(1)

You are on page 1of 3

American University of Beirut, Spring 2009 Handout # 2

The Continuum Hypothesis

**1 The continuum hypothesis
**

Fluid mechanics deals with the behavior of fluids on a macroscopic scale large compared

with the characteristic molecular dimensions. For a gas the characteristic molecular di-

mension is the mean free path whereas for a liquid the characteristic molecular dimension

is the average inter-molecular spacing. If we consider the distribution of mass on the

molecular scale, we observe that the density of a small volume varies drastically as the

volume increases to contain an increasing number of molecules (Figure ??). Such a be-

havior is expected since the mass of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus, with the

latter occupying a very small fraction of the total volume of the molecule. Macroscopic

properties such as temperature, pressure, and velocity are defined by averaging over a

large number of molecules contained in a small volume. In the continuum hypothesis it is

assumed that the macroscopic behavior expressed in terms of these macroscopic proper-

ties is such that the fluid behaves as if these properties are uniformly distributed within

the small volume.

**When we experimentally measure a macroscopic property at point in the fluid, the mea-
**

surement in general corresponds to the average (spatial and temporal) behavior of an

aggregate of molecules contained in a small volume comprising the vicinity of that point.

For example, by associating temperature T with point x, we are making the approxima-

tion that T is the average temperature of a large number of molecules contained in a small

volume δV . Any further reduction of this volume, let’s say from δV to δV 0 , should yield

the same temperature measurement as long as δV 0 is still much larger than the charac-

teristic molecular dimension cubed. Therefore the continuum hypothesis is based on the

possibility of the associating with the small volume δV macroscopic quantities that are

considered to be uniform within that volume such that

λ << (δV )1/3 << L (1)

**where L is the characteristic macroscopic length scale of the flow (such as the pipe diam-
**

eter or boundary layer thickness).

**As an example consider the flow of air in a pipe of diameter of 1 cm. If we choose
**

(δV )1/3 = 1 mm, then an instrument with a sensitive volume of δV = 10−9 cm3 would

obviously provide a measurement of a local macroscopic property since L/(δV )1/3 = 1000.

The small volume δV , however, contains 3 × 1010 molecules of air, which is large enough

to guarantee that the average measurement is independent of the number of molecules.

1

One example is air flow at very high altitudes. liquids and gases. At such altitudes the density is so small that the mean free path is of the order of magnitude of the thickness of the boundary layer developing on a solid boundary. the fluid is not in equilibrium anymore and it will take some time before it reaches its new LTE state. In other words the flow macroscopic process must be slow when compared to the time required to adjust to the new LTE state. viscosity) of the continuum fluid that would yield the same behavior as the real fluid. There is still the challenge of determining the physical material properties (such as conductivity. We refer to this time scale as τth . The continuum model described above enables field representation of the fluid.The are cases in which the continuum hypothesis fails. Figure 1: Schematic variation of average density as a function of length scale. Such continuum material properties are usually obtained either from simplified molecular analysis such as the kinetic theory of gases or empirically.e. density. macro- scopic properties are continuous functions of time and space throughout the fluid. The Navier-Stokes equations are valid only when the flow is in a state of local thermodynamic equilibrium. i. Another case is the shock wave where density gradients are so large that it is impossible to find a small volume that contains a sufficiently large number of molecules and within which the density may be assumed to be uniform. then the assumption of LTE is valid. The continuum hypothesis thus enables establishment of equations governing the fluid flow that is independent in its general form from the particular molecular structure of a fluid. If the flow time scale τf l is sufficiently larger than τth . Another assumption is the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Typically τth is of the order of few tens or hundreds of collision time for translational modes and considerably more for other modes. When a fluid in LTE experiences some kind of perturbation such as a pressure gradient. In summary the continuum hypothesis is based on the following assumptions: λ << δx << L (2) τth << τf l (3) 2 . Therefore the same set of equations governs the conservation of mass and momentum for all fluids.

A measure of the degree of applicability of the continuum hypothesis is the Knudsen number. defined as the ratio of the mean free path to the the flow characteristic length scale: λ Kn = (4) L 3 .

- Syllabus CHE341 Wint2012 ModifiedUploaded bycheifXmaster
- Advanced Fluid MechanicsUploaded bymmilyas
- assAsUploaded byMukesh Bisht
- Fluid Mechanics SyllabusUploaded byjohn@gmail.com
- FE Other CBT SpecsaUploaded byAdrian Gallegos
- fluid flow and bernoulliUploaded byapi-3702623
- Gomez et al 2000 Prediction of slug liquid holdup.pdfUploaded byFrancisco Opps
- Chapter 5-Concepts of Momentum in Fluid FlowUploaded bydzikryds
- Shaft PressurizationUploaded byAditya Suardi
- Syllabus of Basic ChemUploaded byElsa Try Julita Sembiring
- Fluid mechanics noteUploaded bykatakgoreng
- AppendixUploaded byRoy Christian Coarita Tintaya
- AbutmentUploaded bySuryadi Djambak
- PHY 171B Lab 2.docxUploaded byjames
- Annexure - IUploaded byJayanta Hazra
- Slug FlowUploaded byMarimuthu Ayyamperumal
- A Precise Method for Determining the CO2 Content of Carbonate MaterialsUploaded bypanimugil

- Torsión Mecánica de materialesUploaded byMax Muñoz Vigo
- Lista 3 Resolvida TermodinâmicaUploaded byRenata Pieroni Goulart
- API - Instrumentation for Operators - Unit 1 Measuring Instruments [Section 1,2,3,4,5].pdfUploaded byImtiaz Ali
- Forca e InerciaUploaded byDeise E Jennifer
- informe 2 de mesa sismica.docxUploaded byLisbeth Cisneros Mirano
- BoeTMFormelnUploaded byResul Hamzić
- Resumo Física IIUploaded bygabriel
- Malla de Puesta a Tierra Def Ult3 Jesus Marquez 3Uploaded byjesus marquez arvaez
- biental de ruidos molestos Centro HistÃ³rico de la ciudad de Trujillo en el mes de abril 2010 por el Servicio de GestiÃ³n Ambiental de Trujillo - SEGATUploaded byWalter Narcizo Guzman
- Modulo de Vectores y Fisica Quinto 2018Uploaded byMercedes Mendez Rojas
- Ginlong PMG 500W 1000WUploaded bywescool
- definiciones de palabras para termodinamicaUploaded byMiguel Duran Gomez
- Laboratorio de La Ley de Ohm y La Ley de KirchhoffUploaded byMariela Livia Morales
- LS EMPRUploaded byChan Wailoon
- Operating Instructions Vented Stationary Lead Acid Batteries Italian 08 03Uploaded byBOLFRA
- TS·3 Ciclosde PotenciaUploaded byヴィン サラテ
- Portafolio de Maquinaria 1Uploaded byMishel' Vasqes
- ceramic capacitor - wikipedia, the free encyclopediaUploaded byManit
- Actividades Unidad 1Uploaded byjamendozao
- Calculo de La Presion de Alta p Arranque de MolinosUploaded byAnonymous TsKN7XZB
- megometroUploaded byHenry Felices
- Direct Inverse Proportion Notes and WorksheetsUploaded byDon Wilson
- Transformer DesignUploaded bySuhail Ahmed
- Diapositivas Torre de Enfriamiento Por Tio InducidoUploaded byJoel
- 3.2_Pressure in a Fluid (Pascal's Law, Variation With Depth)Uploaded byKitz Derecho
- Informe 1 Granulometria, Pe Cemento, Pe AgregadosUploaded byjoel chavez pinazo
- m d Inst. ElectricasUploaded byJorge Thor
- Guias de Lab-Fisica 2 2017-1Uploaded byKarina Leon
- PIEAS Admission Test1Uploaded byNaul Nbn
- Online Assignment(1)Uploaded bykdeepa483