Spring 2010(Jan-June) Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior
-4 Credits (Book ID: B1127)Assignment Set-1 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. Answer all the questions. Q.1 Write a note on the characteristics of Management.  Ans. Characteristics of Management Management is a distinct activity having the following salient features or characteristics: 1. Goal-oriented: Management is a purposeful activity. It co-ordinates the efforts of employees to achieve the goals of the organization. The success of management is measured by the extent to which the organizational goals are achieved. It is imperative that the organizational goals must be well-defined and properly understood by the mangers at various levels. 2. Economic Resource: Management is one of the factors of production together with land, labour and capital. It is the most critical input in the success of any organized group activity. It is the force which assembles and integrates other resources, namely, labour, capital and materials. These factors do not by themselves ensure production, they require the catalyst of management to produce goods and services required by the society. Thus, management is an essential ingredient of an organization. 3. Distinct Process: Management is a distinct process consisting of such functions as planning, organizing, staffing, directing and controlling. These functions are so interwoven that it is not possible to lay down exactly the sequence of various functions or their relative significance. In essence, the process of management involves decision-making and putting of decisions into practice. 4. Integrative Force: The essence of management is integration of human and other resources to achieve the desired objectives. All these resources are made available to those who manage. Managers apply knowledge, experience and management principles for getting the results from the workers by the use of non-human resources. Managers also seek to harmonize the individuals’ goals with the organizational goals for the smooth working of the organization. 5. Intangible Force: Management has been called an unseen force. Its presence is evidenced by the result of its efforts-orderliness, informed employees, buoyant spirit and adequate work output. Thus, feeling of management is result-oriented. One may not see with the naked eyes the functioning of management but its results are apparently known. People often remark of the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of management on the basis of the end results, although they can’t observe it during operation. 6. Results through Others: The managers cannot do everything themselves. They must have the necessary ability and skills to get work accomplished through the efforts of others. They must motivate the subordinates for the accomplishment of the tasks assigned to them.
7. A Science and an Art: Management has an organized body of knowledge consisting of well-defined concepts, principles and techniques which have wide applications. So it is treated as a science. The application of these concepts, principles and techniques requires specialized knowledge and skills on the part of the manager. Since the skills acquired by a manager are his personal possession, management is viewed as an art. 8. System of Authority: Management as a team of managers represents a system of authority, a hierarchy of command and control. Managers at different levels possess varying degrees of authority. Generally, as we move down in the managerial hierarchy, the degree of authority gets gradually reduced. Authority enables the managers to perform their functions effectively. 9. Multi-disciplinary Subject: Management has grown as a field of study (i.e. discipline) taking the help of so many other disciplines such as Engineering, Anthropology, Sociology and Psychology. Much of the management literature is the result of association of these disciplines. For instance, productivity orientation drew its inspiration from Industrial Engineering and human relations orientation from Psychology. Similarly, Sociology and Operations Research have also contributed to the development of management science. 10. Universal Application: Management is universal in character. The principles and techniques of management are equally applicable in the fields of business, education, military, government and hospital. Henri Fayol suggested that principles of management would apply more or less in every situation. The principles are working guidelines which are flexible and capable of adaptation to every organization where the efforts of human beings are to be co-ordinate.
the SAT.2 Discuss intellectual abilities in detail.  Ans. The several different intelligences are listed below: 1. inductive reasoning. spatial. numerical. perceptual speed. Intellectual Abilities Intellectual abilities are those required to perform mental activities. For some. For others music might be easy but playing football is difficult. GMAT. Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart") 5. The seven most commonly cited dimensions making up intellectual abilities are: number aptitude. The abilities are categorized in the following table: Table 3. verbal comprehension. Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart") 3. and memory (Dunnette. and perceptual abilities are valid predictors of job proficiency at all levels of jobs. and LSAT.1: Intellectual Ability
Jobs differ in the demands they place on incumbents to use their intellectual abilities. it is relatively easy to understand how an automobile works. 1993). Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart") 7. IQ tests are designed to ascertain one’s general intellectual abilities. Examples of such tests are popular college admission tests such as. 1976). spatial visualization. the theory of multiple intelligences was developed by Gardner (1983. It has been claimed that our intelligence or ability to understand the world around us is complex. A review of the evidence demonstrates that tests that assess verbal. Spatial intelligence ("picture smart") 4. Musical intelligence ("music smart") 6. but it is immensely difficult for some to understand and use a musical instrument. Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
. deductive reasoning. Some people are better at understanding some things than others. Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"): 2. Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart") 8. This theory suggests eight different intelligences to account for a broader range of human potential in children and adults. In this regard.Q.
· The validity rises with increasing complexity of the job. · Combinations of aptitude tests have higher validities than individual tests alone. · Scoring of the tests may be completed by computer scanning equipment.Advantages · Highly reliable. · Lower cost than personality tests.
. · May be administered in group settings where many applicants can be tested at the same time. · Verbal reasoning and numerical tests have shown high validity for a wide range of jobs.
and so on. dynamic. Ectomorphy focused on the nervous system and the brain (ectoderm) – the tendency towards slightness. He called this a person’s somatotype. has the tendency toward plumpness. William Sheldon (1898-1977) was an American psychologist who devoted his life to observing the variety of human bodies and temperaments. like "saber tooth tiger" for extreme mesomorph. cited in Phares. and he turned this talent to good effect by becoming an avid people-watcher.universities and is best known for his series of books on the human constitution. Sheldon created his very interesting Atlas of Men (Macmillan Pub Co. risk taker. Mesophorphy – focused on musculature and the circulatory system (mesoderm). Sheldon identified three main somatotypes: Table 5. William Sheldon. has the tendency towards muscularity. assertive. 1991) classified personality according to body type. with 4 as average). particularly the stomach (endoderm). and is given a comical or descriptive name. corresponds to Viscerotonia temperament tolerant. and out of his observations he gradually elaborated his typology. 1970) in which all possible body types are graded in a scale from 1 (low) to 7 (high). corresponds to the Somatotonia temperament courageous. On this scale. energetic. 1942. introvert. aggressive. and ectomorphy. extravert. corresponds to Cerebrotonia temperament artistic. Each type is represented by a series of photos. He taught and did research at a number of U.1 Sheldon’s Classification of Personality Types. love of comfort and luxury. "Baluchitherium" (the largest prehistoric land mammal) for mesomorph and endomorph.
Somatotypes In the 1940s.  Ans. Endomorphy – focused on the digestive system.3 Explain the classification of personality types given by Sheldon.Q. the extreme or pure mesomorph has a score of
. based on the degree to which they matched these types. "Male Mosquito" for the extreme ectomorph. 1940’s William Sheldon (1940. Sheldon proposed a theory about how there are certain body types ("somatotypes") that are associated with certain personality characteristics. mesomorphy.S. He was a keen observer of animals and birds as a child. On this basis. sensitive. active.He claimed that there are three such somatotypes: endomorphy. apprehensive.
muscular body overly mature appearance rectangular shaped thick skin upright posture
Associated personality traits:
• • • • • • •
adventurous desire for power and dominance courageous indifference to what others think or want assertive. Mesomorphic Body Type:
• • • • •
hard. and the pure ectomorph 1-1-7. the pure endomorph 7-1-1. a. Most people of course are a combination of types. bold zest for physical activity competitive
. Endomorphic Body Type:
• • • •
soft body underdeveloped muscles round shaped over-developed digestive system
Associated personality traits:
• • • • • • • •
love of food tolerant evenness of emotions love of comfort sociable good humoured relaxed need for affection
Ectomorphic Body Type:
• • • • • • • •
thin flat chest delicate build young appearance tall lightly muscled stoop-shouldered large brain
Associated personality traits:
• • • • • • • •
self-conscious preference for privacy introverted inhibited socially anxious artistic mentally intense emotionally restrained
Sheldon measured the proportions of hundreds of juvenile delinquent boys and concluded that they were generally mesomorphs (Ornstein.
. 1993). thoughts.•
love of risk and chance
c. therefore. Possession of a trait is. or behaviors. The use of somatotyping (using different taxonomies) is used more often in alternative therapies and Eastern psychology and spirituality. a matter of degree. Body types have been criticized for very weak empirical methodology and are not generally used in psychology. Traits are underlying tendencies to behave in a consistent and distinctive style and they describe the frequency or intensity of a person’s feelings.
Contrast Effects : Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation. ethnicity. 1996). 2. For example. or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived.Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively. Generalization is not without advantages (Hilton & Hippel. is when we inaccurately stereotype. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen . students may give prominence to a single trait. Halo Effect : The halo effect (Murphy & Anhalt. 1. not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. while appraising the lecturer. and when the perceiver is judging traits with which he or she has had limited experience.
. Their reaction to one person is influenced by other persons they have encountered recently. First impressions are lasting impressions. 4. and even weight. In organizations.Q. For example. 5. Stereotyping : Stereotyping–judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which he or she belongs. When managers engage in projection. First-impression error :Individuals place a good deal of importance on first impressions. race. We tend to remember what we perceive first about a person. but. if people expect to see these stereotypes. they compromise their ability to respond to individual differences.4 What are the different barriers to perception?  Ans. object. Primacy effects can be particularly dangerous in interviews. age. Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speedread” others. Selective Perception : Any characteristic that makes a person. It is a means of simplifying a complex world. that is what they will perceive.Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. such as. 1992) occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. They tend to see people as more homogeneous than they really are. enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person. From a perceptual standpoint. 3. The problem. when the traits have moral overtones. and it permits us to maintain consistency. an interview situation in which one sees a pool of job applicants can distort perception. we frequently hear comments that represent stereotypes based on gender. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation. Distortions in any given candidate’s evaluation can occur as a result of his or her place in the interview schedule. Research suggests that it is likely to be most extreme when the traits to be perceived are ambiguous in behavioral terms. 6. whether or not they are accurate. Firstimpression error means the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on initial perceptions. and sometimes we are quite reluctant to change our initial impressions. of course. Projection : This tendency to attribute one’s own characteristics to other people – which is called projection – can distort perceptions made about others. given that we form first impressions quickly and that these impressions may be the basis for long-term employment relationships. Barriers to Perception.
Promotions provide opportunities for personal growth. and because of this success. Job satisfaction is the sense of fulfillment and pride felt by people who enjoy their work and do it well. iv) Supportive working conditions: Employees prefer physical conditions that are comfortable and facilitate doing a good job. in clean and relatively modern facilities and with adequate tools and equipment. and termination. vi) Whistle blowing: Whistle-blowers are employees who inform authorities of wrongdoings
. having friendly and supportive co-workers and understanding supervisor’s leads to increased job satisfaction. they have a greater probability of achieving high satisfaction from their work. employees prefer working relatively close to home. v) Supportive Colleagues: Employees have need for social interaction. absenteeism. Temperature. satisfied work force ensures commitment to high quality performance and increased productivity Job satisfaction helps organizations to reduce complaints and grievances. more responsibilities and increased social status. Mr. Chandan. for creating an environment that increases job satisfaction?  Ans. Batra is the General Manager. HR of a leading Automobile company. Job satisfaction is also linked to a healthier work force and has been found to be a good indicator of longevity. and industry pay standards. most employees will experience pleasure and satisfaction. ii) Personality-Job Fit: People with personality types congruent with their chosen vocations should find they have the right talents and abilities to meet the demands of their jobs. Chandan. thus protecting the "bottom line (Brown. 1996). listen to employees’ opinions and show a personal interest in them. unambiguous. When pay is seen as fair based on job demands. employees seek fair promotion policies and practices. iii) Equitable Rewards: Employees want pay systems and promotion policies that they perceive as being just. Assume that you are Mr. Batra.5 Mr. What suggestions will you give to Mr. Similarly. Therefore. noise and other environmental factors should not be extreme and provide personal comfort. satisfaction is likely to result. Batra is concerned about creating an environment that helps in increasing job satisfaction among employees. Individuals who perceive that promotion decisions are made in a fair and just manner are likely to experience job satisfaction. light. For an organization. Most employees want their immediate supervisor to be understanding and friendly. individual skill level. a leading HR consultant.Q. the HR consultant. it has also been found that satisfying or delighting employees is a prerequisite to satisfying or delighting customers. and in line with their expectations. And although only little correlation has been found between job satisfaction and productivity. Under conditions of moderate challenge. freedom and feedback on how well they are doing. those who offer praise for good performance. It is important. The most important factors conductive to job satisfaction are: i) Mentally Challenging Work: Employees tend to prefer jobs that give them opportunities to use their skills and abilities and offer a variety of tasks. turnover. therefore to fit personality factors with job profiles. Further. He is having a meeting with Mr.
of their companies or co-workers. etc. supporting social issues.
. Managers must encourage both individual ethical behaviour and organizational social responsibility. Socially responsible actions are expected of organizations. Whistle blowing is important because committed organizational members sometimes engage in unethical behaviour in an intense desire to succeed. Clearly delineating wrongful behaviour and the appropriate ways to respond are important organizational actions. Current concerns include protecting the environment. vii) Social Responsibility: Corporate social responsibility is the obligation of an organization to behave in ethical ways in the social environment in which it operates. Organizations can manage whistle blowing by communicating the conditions that are appropriate for the disclosure of wrongdoing. investing in the community. promoting worker safety.
and self-actualization are classified as higher-order needs. Lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied. from the basic to the complex. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory According to this theory. 3. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally. includes growth. What all aspects does it take care of. according to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy?  Ans. acceptance. sex. esteem. batch mates and relatives. It offers cash rewards for staff members 2. maybe their friends. It promotes the culture of employee referral and encourages people to refer people they know. and other bodily needs · Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm · Social: Includes affection.6 Given below is the HR policy glimpse of “iMagine”. status. and attention · Self-actualization: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. The needs are arranged in order of importance. It recognizes good performances and gives fancy titles and jackets to the people who perform well and also felicitates them in the Annual Day of the company.
Fig. such as. belongingness. recognition. satisfied needs cannot. The further they progress up the hierarchy. humanness and psychological health a person will show. ex. and external esteem factors. proposed by Maslow (1943). achieving one’s potential. only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Social.2: Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Pyramid The five needs are: · Physiological: Includes hunger. The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied. colleagues. and achievement. Physiological and safety needs are described as lower-order. self-respect. thirst. whereas. externally.Q. autonomy. the more individuality. such as. human beings have wants and desires which influence their behaviour. ------------------------------------------------------
. shelter. and friendship · Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors. an advertising company 1. and self-fulfillment Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders.
The early Emotional Intelligence theory was originally developed during the 1970s and 80s by the work and writings of psychologists Howard Gardner (Harvard).”
. None of us is perfect in using all of the emotional competencies. If they have little self-awareness. for managing emotions well in ourselves and in our relationships. and that the strengths are spread across all four areas of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence skills and cognitive skills are synergistic top performers have both? The more complex the job.Spring 2010(Jan-June) Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 1 MB0038 – Management Process and Organization Behavior -4 Credits (Book ID: B1127)Assignment Set-2 (60 Marks) Note: Each question carries 10 Marks. they will be oblivious to their own weaknesses and lack the self confidence that comes from certainty about their strength. the ingredients for outstanding performance require only that we have strengths in a given number of these competencies (at least six or so). job profiling. "Emotional intelligence is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others. Answer all the questions. We inevitably have a profile of strengths and limits.1 What is emotional intelligence? Explain Goleman’s model of emotional intelligence. Q. (For example) if they are deficient in social skills. rising to prominence with Daniel Goleman’s 1995 Book called ‘Emotional Intelligence’. for motivating ourselves. they will be inept at persuading or inspiring others. When the CEO of Johnson & Johnson read that article. it attracted a higher percentage of readers than any other article published in that periodical in the last 40 years. management styles. the more emotional intelligence matters… Emotional competencies cluster into groups… each is based on a common underlying emotional intelligence capacity. Emotional Intelligence is an important consideration in human resources planning. at leading teams or catalyzing change. 2001) Vitello – Cicciu (2002) : “Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage ourselves and our relationship effectively. Peter Salovey (Yale) and John ‘Jack’ Mayer (New Hampshire). Emotional Intelligence is increasingly relevant to organizational development and developing people. emotional intelligence has become one of the hottest buzzwords in corporate America. Emotional Intelligence: Emotional Intelligence – EI – is a relatively recent behavioural model. However. management development. and potential. Each capability is composed of a set of competencies. because the EI principles provide a new way to understand and assess people’s behaviours. and more. For instance. attitudes." (Snow. Ever since the publication of Daniel Goleman’s first book on the topic in 1995. The underlying emotional intelligence capacities are vital if people are to successfully learn the competencies necessary to succeed in the workplace. recruitment interviewing and selection. interpersonal skills.  Ans. he was so impressed that he had copies sent out to the 400 top executives in the company worldwide. customer relations and customer service. when the Harvard Business Review published an article on the topic two years ago.
History of Emotional Intelligence When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence. by which he meant affective. In the 1940s. under the direction of Hemphill. personal." which was first used in the private sector at AT&T in 1956. are admissible as factors of general intelligence. they focused on cognitive aspects. Unfortunately. and interpersonal skills. which make it possible for employees to express feelings of empathy and caring
. 1943) Wechsler was not the only researcher who saw non-cognitive aspects of intelligence to be important for adaptation and success. the Ohio State Leadership Studies suggested that "consideration" is an important aspect of effective leadership. it follows that we cannot expect to measure total intelligence until our tests also include some measures of the non-intellective factors [Wechsler. Furthermore. was writing about "social intelligence" in the late thirties. Now let us switch our historical lens to I/O psychology. David Wechsler defined intelligence as "the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully. creating empathy and facilitating better conversations with customers · A mastery of fear and anxiety and the ability to tap into selfless motives. to take another example. The contention has been that such factors are not only admissible but necessary. the Office of Strategic Services developed a process of assessment based on the earlier work of Murray that included the evaluation of non-cognitive. this research suggested that leaders who are able to establish "mutual trust. abilities. as early as 1943 Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective abilities are essential for predicting one’s ability to succeed in life. This process evolved into the "assessment center. promoting constructive responses to the challenges of work · An awareness of your own and other people's feelings. However. as well as cognitive. such as memory and problem-solving." Gardner proposed that "intrapersonal" and "interpersonal" intelligences are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests. As early as 1940 he referred to "non-intellective" as well as "intellective" elements. sensitivity. More specifically. If the foregoing observations are correct. to think rationally. there were researchers who recognized early on that the non-cognitive aspects were also important. and a certain warmth and rapport" with members of their group will be more effective. and to deal effectively with his environment". and social factors. I have tried to show that in addition to intellective there are also definite non-intellective factors that determine intelligent behaviour. Emotional Intelligence in Organization Based on Goleman's work. He wrote: The main question is whether non-intellective. respect. Many of the dimensions measured in assessment centers then and now involve social and emotional competencies such as communication. Robert Thorndike. At about the same time. that is affective and cognitive abilities. the work of these early pioneers was largely forgotten or overlooked until 1983 when Howard Gardner began to write about "multiple intelligence. For instance. initiative. which together helps employees to make decisions right on the spot if that should be necessary · A positive outlook. intelligence in business settings typically manifests itself through four intertwined characteristics: · A strong sense of self-empowerment and self-regulation.
In particular. found his close relatives. To win the battle he was supposed to kill those beloved ones. ‘The Hindu View of Life’ (1927) opined that the attitude of the Vedas is one of trust tempered by criticism. According to the bank.To no small degree. as a whole. They like being up on their feet and don't want to sit behind a desk. advises all to balance between intelligence and emotion. Arjuna. According to Lord Krishna. in his book. A concept of “Sthitha-prajna” (emotional stability). companies – particularly those with far-flung networks of thousands or even tens of thousands of employees – can take practical steps to encourage and enhance them. Before the battle started. Emotional intelligence is a measure of the degree to which a person makes use of his/her reasoning in the process of emotional responses (both positive and
." Emotional Intelligence: Indian Perspective: The importance of both emotion and intelligence in making decisions and achieving success in life was well-accepted in ancient India. Even so. Pandavas were fighting against the Kauravas. In this context. plausible the testimonies of the old views may be. Dr. because. can be traced in the second chapter of ‘Srimad Bhagavad-Gita'. the concept of “Sthitha-prajna” (the steady-minded person) talked about a unique interdependence between emotion and intelligence for effective decision-making which was most essential in excelling in every sphere of life. The Gap. however. Due to this hriday-durbalata (heart-non-strength). This view aptly points out the need for emotional intelligence in everyday life to become more emotionally balanced and functional individuals in society. and criticism because. Radhakrishnan. enlightened him about the eternal truth of life. Lord Krishna who played the role as the driver of Arjuna's chariot. and Safeway) outside of financial services. poised and balanced. Evidently. the cousin brothers to restore their kingdom from Kauravas in Kurukshetra. 2003). He also told that an individual achieved his/her goal only when the mind became steady. More than half of the branch managers hired by Bank of America in 2004. Bhagavad Gita is a specific conversation between Lord Krishna and Arjuna (third Pandava prince) in a specific situation of Kurukshetra battlefield. Companies can begin by hiring emotionally intelligent frontline employees in the first place: a business starts with an obvious advantage if it can attract people born or brought up with the right emotional instincts for frontline employment. as mentioned in Bhagavad Gita. Similar views on the role of emotional intelligence as a learning process for achieving a balanced personality in different stages of life on an inter-generational basis has been depicted in the Vedas. ‘Trust. ‘Emotional intelligence is an aggregate of individuals’ cognition of own and others' emotions. may be true. interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence which in turn result in superior performance and better human relationship’ (Bhattacharya. came from retailers (such as Best Buy. Many companies can ride on the coattails of others with first-rate customer-facing skills. "They get the retail mind-set and we get them to understand banking. friends and respected 'gurus' in enemy's side. since the latter have already identified the most suitable type of employee for the work. with deep sorrow and pity. feeling. Gita. similar to the concept of emotional intelligence. whatever the older generation hold. Lord Krishna advised Arjuna to become 'Sthitha-prajna' (the steady minded person). these can be intrinsic features of a human being's personality. it cannot deny the present of its right to enquire and sift the evidence’. for instance. Arjuna suffered from indecisiveness resulting from confusion and a false sense of insecurity. He got confused about his rightful duty. he refused to join the battle.
selfregulation and motivation. whereas social competence determines how we handle our interpersonal relationships. Selfregulation is the ability to control emotions and to redirect those emotions that can have negative impact. Self-awareness is the ability of an individual to observe him/herself and to recognize 'a feeling as it happens' (Goleman. Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves.negative) in a given situation. tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accept change are some characteristics of this ability. The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed towards organizational as well as individual goals. 1995). Goleman’s Model of Emotional Intelligence Daniel Goleman and the Hay Group have identified a set of competencies that differentiate individuals with Emotional Intelligence. It does mean that he / she brings own feelings under control and channels them into productive behaviors.
. integrity. The competencies fall into four clusters: · Self-Awareness: Capacity for understanding one's emotions. one's strengths. · Social Awareness: Capacity for understanding what others are saying and feeling and why they feel and act as they do. Personal competence It comprises of three dimensions of emotional intelligence. such as. The ability to bring out-ofcontrol emotions back into line results in what earlier generations called emotional maturity. Social competence It comprises of two dimensions namely. The hallmarks of this ability are self-confidence. · Self-Management: Capacity for effectively managing one's motives and regulating one's behavior. Social skills are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. ‘Social skill’ is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence assuming that people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can understand and control their own emotion and can emphasize with the feelings of others.assessment and openness to positive criticism. empathy and social skills. take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. and one's weaknesses. Motivation is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through self-control and by moderating impulses as per the requirement of the situation. Trustworthiness. self-awareness. So having high emotional intelligence doesn't mean that the person never panics or loses his/her temper. People with this ability are experts in generating and motivating others. He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences. · Relationship Management: Capacity for acting in such a way that one is able to get desired results from others and reach personal goals. Empathy is the ability to feel and get concerned for others. self. People having this skill are very effective in persuasiveness and team management. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman (1995).
What does the research suggest about the measurement of emotional intelligence and competence? In a paper published in 1998. about 40 percent of the items come from an older instrument. there currently is no research supporting the predictive validity of the ECI. There is some evidence of construct validity. This conclusion was based solely on a review of existing measures purporting to measure emotional intelligence at the point in time when they wrote that paper. These earlier items had been "validated against performance in hundreds of competency studies of managers.S. However. convergent validity. Although the ECI is in its early stages of development. The ECI is a 360 degree instrument.Fig. understand. It was designed to assess those personal qualities that enabled some people to possess better "emotional well-being" than others. & Roberts concluded that there was nothing empirically new in the idea of emotional intelligence. identify. and we know quite a bit about its reliability and its convergent and discriminant validity. The test-taker performs a series of tasks that are designed to assess the person’s ability to perceive. Less is known about its predictive validity in work situations. People who know the individual rate him or her on 20 competencies that Goleman’s research suggests are linked to emotional intelligence.1: Goleman’s emotional intelligence model (1995)
The Assessment of Emotional Intelligence and Competence Assuming that emotional intelligence is important.
. and work with emotion. However. the question of assessment and measurement becomes particularly pressing. However. the Self-Assessment Questionnaire. in one study the EQ-I was predictive of success for U. Stankov. most of those measures were new. Research now is emerging that suggests emotional intelligence. and discriminant validity. that was developed by Boyatzis. and there was not yet much known about their psychometric properties. executives. which has been around for over a decade. A second instrument is the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale. and particularly the new measures that have been developed to assess it. However. is in fact a distinct entity. Davies. there still is not much research on the predictive validity of such measures. The EQ-I has been used to assess thousands of individuals. This selfreport instrument originally evolved not out of an occupational context but rather a clinical one. 6." Italy. The MEIS is a test of ability rather than a self-report measure. and leaders in North America. Let me briefly summarize what we really know about the most popular ones. The oldest instrument is Bar-On’s EQ-I. and Brazil. Air Force recruiters. but none for predictive validity. and this is a serious lack. A third instrument is the Emotional Competence Inventory.
Schutte. which was designed to measure learned optimism and which has been impressive in its ability to identify high performing students. Malouff. Thus. & Dornheim have developed a 33-item self-report measure based on Salovey and Mayer’s (1990) early work. to name just a few (Schulman. 1995). Golden. scores were higher for therapists than for therapy clients or prisoners. another way to measure emotional intelligence or competence is through tests of specific abilities. There is evidence for convergent and divergent validity. even though it is less well-known than the others. Cooper. salespeople. and athletes. Also. Haggerty. Emotional intelligence scores on this measure were positively associated with first-year college grades and supervisor ratings of student counselors working at various mental health agencies. Hall. To name just one example.Another measure that has been promoted commercially is the EQ Map. Some of these tests seem rather strong.
. it might be helpful to keep in mind that emotional intelligence comprises a large set of abilities that have been studied by psychologists for many years. Finally. Although there is some evidence for convergent and divergent validity. the data have been reported in a rather ambiguous fashion. One other measure deserves mention. there is Seligman’s SASQ.
and attention shifts toward hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Discuss the five stage model of group development proposed by Tuckman. and members are motivated by group goals and are generally satisfied. Sometimes several stages
. At this point. Members of these groups must be able to convene quickly. 2. a. do their jobs on a tight schedule. when its work is accomplished. Members also go through the process of identifying to their expected role requirements in relation to group requirements. the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals while also satisfying individual needs. Performing The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. 1. Groups do not always proceed clearly from one stage to the next. The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. performing is the last stage in their development. Group energy makes a transition from member’s focus on getting to know and understand each other to performing. Forming In this stage the members are entering the group. emotionally. in the 1970). if required. membership expectations tend to get clarified. Storming This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. Models of Group Development The most important models of group development have been cited below. For permanent work groups. their needed contribution the similarity in terms of their personal needs. 4. whenever required. and then adjourn – often to reconvene later. 5. goals and group goals. Adjourning. Norming From the norming stage of group development. close relationships develop and the group shows cohesiveness. Individuals begin to understand and appreciate each other’s interpersonal styles. The Five-Stage Model The Five-Stage Model of group development was proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965 (initially it was a four stage but later he added a fifth stage. 3. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer them. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage. though in itself it may be a painful process for group members.Q. the acceptable normative and behavioral standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group member. The structure is stable.  Ans. Group members will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage. Adjourning A well-integrated group is able to disband. In the process. The main concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members.2.
A transition triggers off major changes. Or. Another problem is that it ignores organizational context. then a period of high performance. as when groups are storming and performing. to use the terminology of the five stage group development. information. replacement old patterns. The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as demonstrating long periods of inertia interspersed with brief and rapid changes triggered mainly by their members’ awareness of time and targets . In summary the punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods of inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes triggered primarily by their members’ awareness of time and deadlines. followed by storming. It is for the groups that do not follow the five stage model. Studies indicate that they have their own unique sequencing of actions (or inaction): 1) Their first meeting sets the group’s direction. which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. For instance. Groups may at times regress to earlier stages. and 6) The group’s last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity. effectively. The group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action. The group is incapable of acting on new insights in Phase 1. Transition – Then a transition takes place when the group has used up almost half its allotted time. within ten minutes. and adoption of new perspectives. 5) A second phase of inertia follows the transition. Temporary groups with deadlines don’t seem to follow the Tuckman’s five stage model. then goes through a period of low performing. Punctuated equilibrium model The punctuated equilibrium model is an alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines. A structure of behavioral patterns and assumptions emerges. This stage is the first inertia phase. The group’s direction becomes fixed and is unlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of the group’s life. 2) This first phase of group activity is one of inertia. the group begins by combining the forming and norming stages. 3) A transition takes place at the end of this first phase. The midpoint seems to set an alarm clock going increasing members’ awareness that their time is limited and that they need to move on fast. The rigid organizational context provides the rules. The group’s last meeting is characterized by a flurry of activities.3 What are the possible sources of organizational conflict? Explain. b.go on simultaneously. Phase 1 – The first meeting sets the group’s direction. task definitions. Q. 
. the group executes plans created during the transition period. a study of a cockpit crew in an airliner found that. and resources required for the group to perform. The transition sets a revised direction for Phase 2. three strangers assigned to fly together for the first time had become a high-performing group. This ends Phase 1 and is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes. In this phase. and finally adjourning. 4) A transition initiates major changes. Phase 2 – It is a new equilibrium and is also a period of inertia.
. it is impossible to establish job responsibilities once and for all. 5. They must somehow resist the constant urge to view the organization in terms of their narrow self-interests. changes in external environment. creative. Thus. Such conflict may be overt or hidden from view. 2. attitudes. the conflict between the organization and the individual centres around the individual’s failure to fulfil the organization’s expectations regarding productivity or compliance with rules. and so on. warehousing shipping. Overlapping Responsibilities: Organizations constantly change in response to personnel turnover. abilities and personality traits are often the cause of conflict. Line and Staff Competition: The growth of highly specialized. Perhaps. As a result. Organization-Individual Disagreements: From one perspective. Conflict in most organizations persists between line and staff because it is virtually impossible to define precisely the responsibility and authority relationships between the two. another retrenches and still another tentatively assumes responsibility for certain functions without knowing definitely who should be performing them. 7. but they are dependent upon production schedules. A bottleneck at any point can prevent the line supervisors from being effective and is quite naturally an occasion for interpersonal conflict.
Q. an even more common source of conflict is the clash of the personal goals of managers and employees with the goals of the organization. Faced with a growing dependence on staff.Ans. one person reaches out to assume more responsibility. 4. Disagreement over Goals: Conflict among managers is often caused by the fact that there is poor agreement over goals. the conflict is often seen as resulting from excessive organizational demands. When a change occurs. Two managers may learn to despise each other thoroughly for reasons totally unrelated to their work. the stage is set for conflict. such as sales. Sources of Organizational Conflict: Prominent among the sources of conflict in organizations are: 1. From another. line managers must adjust to a reduction in organizational power and prestige. well-educated staff poses unique problems for line managers. expansion or contraction.4 The environmental stressors have a great impact on work performance and adjustment of the individual in an organization. The sales department is at odds with manufacturing because quality is too low or prices are too high to meet the competition. accounting and manufacturing are commonplace. 3. depending on the perception each side has of the power of the other. the adoption of new policies. Discuss the different categories of environmental stressors. Personality Clashes: Individual differences in such personal qualities as values. Although departments are separated on the basis of function. but their performance on the job may suffer because of it. Functional Interdependence: Conflicts between an organization’s functional units. they can never function as completely autonomous units. and others for effective performance. Bottlenecks in the Flow of Work: Line supervisors in manufacturing must meet production deadlines. 6.
The Abrasive Person: May be an able and talented employee. a. Role ambiguity may be caused by not understanding what is expected. Environmental Stressors: Environmental and internal conditions that lie beyond an individual’s control are called environmental stressors. Lack of control is a second major source of stress. Employees expected to behave in ways that violate personal values. For example. Task Demands: Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. Person-role Conflict: Ethics violations are likely to cause person-role conflicts. Such stressors can have a considerable impact on work performance and adjustment. especially among employees with a high social need.
. Role ambiguity is the confusion a person experiences related to the expectations of others. education and skill development. a lack of predictability in a person’s daily tasks and activities and may be caused by job insecurity related to difficult economic times. requiring adjustments in training. and the physical work layout. Abrasive personalities. Inter-role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to two separate roles. We can organize environmental stressors into the following categories: 1. Inter-personal Demands: are pressures created by other employees. such as employee and parent. especially in work environments that are difficult and psychologically demanding. For example. intra-role or person-role conflict. the employee with a major sales presentation on Monday and a sick child at home is likely to experience inter-role conflict. The conflict may be an inter-role. or to exercise direct action to affect the work outcomes. or not knowing the result of failure to do it. working conditions. Change leads to uncertainty. 3. Changes and lack of control are two of the most stressful demands people face at work. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization.Ans. b. Role conflict results from inconsistent or incompatible expectations communicated to a person. to select tools or methods for accomplishing the work. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress. 2. Intra-role Conflict: is caused by conflicting expectations related to a single role. They include the design of the individual’s job. to make decisions that influence work outcomes. a. such as employee. The lack of control may be caused by inability to influence the timing of tasks and activities. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and the employee is not sure what he or she is to do. Technology and technological innovation also create change and uncertainty for many employees. beliefs or principles experience conflict. The second major cause of role stress is role ambiguity. but one who creates emotional waves that others at work must accommodate. Role Demands: The social-psychological demands of the work environment may be every bit as stressful as task demands at work. Role conflicts create expectations that may be hard to reconcile or satisfy. sexual harassment and the leadership style in the organization are interpersonal demands for people at work. c. the manager who presses employees for both very fast work and high-quality work may be viewed at some point as creating a conflict for employees. not knowing how to do it.
. as well as for others. directive leadership may be anxious with an open. Workers subject to family demands related to marriage. Sexual Harassment: The vast majority of sexual harassment is directed at women in the workplace. create stress for different personality types. depending on their compatibility with the person’s work and family life and their capacity to provide alternative satisfactions for the person.5 Given below are certain instances observed by a summer trainee – Ritu. while doing an observational study at Phoenix consultants. c. Leadership Styles: Whether authoritarian or participative. In addition to family demands. Employees who feel secure with firm. people have personal demands related to non-work organizational commitments such as religious and public service organizations. An organization dealing with recycling of plastic products waste etc. creating a stressful working environment for the person being harassed. Those comfortable with participative leadership may feel restrained by a directive style. 4. She makes the following observations about two key people in the organization. participative style. which carry over into the work environment or vice versa. Physical Demands: Non-work demands create stress for people. These demands become more or less stressful. child rearing and parental care may create role conflicts or overloads that are difficult to manage.
This helps HR to decide about giving a bonus or promotion to employees. Now explain what base of power Mr. Explain the type of power they use often  Ans. demote another assuming that the job is valuable to the person on whom power is being unleashed. Bases of Power Power can be categorized into two types: Formal and informal A. equipment purchases. 2. or even recommend the firing of a subordinate who does not act as desired. Thus this type of power has the following elements:
. He frequently loses his temper. compliments. promotions. In an organization one can exercise power over another if they have the power to dismiss. or enriched jobs. the boss may have the formal authority to approve or deny such employee requests as job transfers. Formal Power: It is based on the position of an individual in an organization. Legitimate Power: The third base of “position” power is legitimate power. Parhi belong to. demote. It is based on the application. Parhi-He is an aggressive person. Mr. or the threat of application. personal time off. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by subordinates. The availability of coercive power also varies across organizations. Examples of such rewards include money. 2. Mr. Coercive Power: The coercive power base is being dependent on fear. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager has because subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right to command. success in accessing and utilizing rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager. For example. of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain. or overtime work. Reward Power: The opposite of coercive power is reward power. Shah and Mr. Shah – He is a very friendly person and encourages his team members by giving them recommendations and appreciation. or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. Although all managers have some access to rewards. For example. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/ her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. suspend. Such coercive power is the extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards or administer punishments to control other people. or formal authority . the generation of frustration through restriction of movement. Formal power may be categorized into four types which are as follows: 1. Ritu observes that he frequently punishes the non-performers and also gives them warnings regarding suspension etc. or to transfer. Reward power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. a manager may threaten to withhold a pay raise.1. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly.It stems from the extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the “boss” has a “right of command” to control their behavior. 3.
through the individual’s efforts. perceive. Information Power: This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. not absolute. In this age of technology driven environments. the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the juniors for technologically oriented support. Q. Three bases of personal power are expertise. B. demonstrate follower sensitivity. the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. because the subordinate likes the boss personally and therefore tries to do things the way the boss wants them done. etc. A subordinate obeys a supervisor possessing expert power because the boss ordinarily knows more about what is to be done or how it is to be done than does the subordinate. they frequently call meetings of employees. Rational persuasion is the ability to control another’s behavior. They also decide the redefine the policies and culture of “Window to Truth” To start implementing this change. Referent power is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Expert power is relative. When people have needed information. a subordinate obeys the boss because he or she wants to behave. Followership is not based on what the subordinate will get for specific actions or specific levels of performance.· It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy.
. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes. but needs. In a sense. Personal Power Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. This obedience may occur.6 “Window to Truth’ is a famous and old magazine. or judgment that the other person lacks. Charismatic Power is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. Normally the higher the level. for example. (For example. and reference. managers have access to data that subordinates do not have). Expert power is the ability to control another person’s behavior by virtue of possessing knowledge. others become dependant on them. however. the more information would be accessed by managers. the subordinate attempts to avoid doing anything that would interfere with the pleasing boss –subordinate relationship. It encompasses the acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization. However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills than his/ her boss. 4. In this case. or believe as the boss does. The top management decides to start the e-edition of the magazine. since. · Legitimate power. They have also formed groups at different levels to clarify doubts and explain the perspective of change. is not limited to the power to coerce and reward. but on what the individual represents – a path toward lucrative future prospects. Others follow because they can articulate attractive visions. take personal risks. experience. · Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. rational persuasion.
The undermining and destruction of social support. which maintain the status quo in the organizational behavior. etc. Compliance or force occurs when individuals are forced to change whether by reward or by punishment.1: Change Process
Changing/Moving This stage involves a shift in behavior of organizations by modifying system.  Ans. 14. Schien has suggested some measures which are quite helpful in undertaking unfreezing process. This phase can be explained in terms of compliance. 2. and social relationships. The consistent linking of reward with willingness to change and of punishment with lack of willingness to change. The physical removal of the individuals being changed from their accustomed routines. process. 4. sources of information. Internalization occurs when individuals are forced to encounter a situation that calls for new behavior. identification and internalization (Rao and Hari Krishna 2002). the forces. technology and people. Identification occurs when individuals recognize one among various models provided in the environment
. are reduced by refuting the present attitude and behavior to create a perceived need for something new. declining productivity and performance. felt need to improve the style of work. These are as follows: 1. Force Field Analysis theory Lewin (1951) proposed a three step sequential model of change process: Unfreezing At this stage. Demeaning and humiliating experiences to help individuals to see their old attitudes or behavior as unworthy and think to be motivated to change.Analyze the situation in the context of organizational change and elaborate why the top management is following the discussed practices and what approach is most evident in the context.
Fig. It is facilitated by environmental pressure such as increased competition. 3.
. which they were displaying before the change. actions are taken to sustain the drive for change and to facilitate the institutionalization process of the change even in a day-to-day routine of the organizations. reinforcement is necessary for the internalization of new behavior. Therefore. Here. Refreezing At this stage. There is a tendency that individuals revert back gradually to their old behaviors.that is most suitable to their personality. in the absence of suitable reinforcement. the desired outcomes are positively reinforced and extra support is provided to overcome the difficulties.