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Eugene I. Rivin, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

**The need for vibration isolation of precision and vibration-
**

sensitive objects is increasing continuously. Vibration isola-

tion systems must comply with contradictory specifications,

such as requiring reduced stiffness of isolators for better iso- Object

m

lation, but higher stiffness for better performance of the ob-

ject. Recently, expensive active isolation systems have been

used to resolve these contradictions. This article shows that

a proposed model for vibration isolation of precision objects

together with the use of ‘smart’ constant natural frequency

(CNF) isolators substantially widens the application range of

inexpensive and reliable passive isolators.

Vibration

Isolator

Greater and greater precision and a continuing need to mini-

mize production defects call for improved isolation of sensi-

tive machinery from external vibrations. Vibration isolation

systems have to comply with contradictory requirements such

as stiffness reduction for better isolation and stiffness increase Supporting

for better performance of an isolated object. Surface

Ideal vibration isolation of an object should be based on the

dynamic characteristics of the object, its sensitivity to vibra-

tions in all six coordinates, and spectral characteristics of vi- Figure 1. Uni-axial vibration isolation system.

bration excitations from the floor in all six coordinates. These

are rarely attainable, especially for typical production sites or

R&D establishments where numerous diverse objects, such as

precision production and measuring machines and equipment Mu

are installed next to vibration producing objects. Some of those

that require vibration isolation are themselves vibration excit-

ers (e.g. microlithography steppers and scanners). Such an ideal Xrel km cm

approach would be useless for real-life situations anyway.

Some reasons for this:

1. Vibration levels at installation sites are changing continu-

ously, since they are caused by random factors (loading and

speed of passing trucks/trains, random microseismic vibra- MB

XB

**tions, working regimes of production equipment, etc.).
**

2. Vibration levels are measured before the object and its sur-

rounding equipment are installed. After they are installed (or

replaced) the vibration environment may change.

kv, cv

3. Parameters of vibration isolators, even specially designed

isolators, have a significant scatter.

4. Unless the object has three mounting points, the weight dis-

Xf

**tribution between isolators is uncertain due to static inde-
**

Floor

terminacy of the installation. This leads to uncertainty of

dynamic characteristics of the isolation system.

5. Many objects have variable weight and weight distribution. Figure 2. Uni-axial two-mass model of a precision object.

6. Custom isolator designs for each isolated object are unreal-

istic. Off-the-shelf isolators are available as similar designs, high maintenance especially for systems requiring 3D isolation.

but the stiffness increments between adjacent models range Since active systems are very profitable for isolator provid-

50-100%. Thus, stiffness values can be realized only within ers, passive approaches are often presented as ineffective, low-

a poor approximation. technology devices. However, passive systems can be signifi-

All these factors result in suboptimal performance of vibra- cantly improved by: formulating generic isolation requirements

tion isolation systems and call for large safety factors to reli- for large groups of objects requiring treatment; understanding

ably isolate critical objects. This is important both for preci- that natural frequencies (or isolator stiffness values) can be

sion vibration-sensitive objects and for more numerous adjusted by judicious use of damping; and by using ‘smart’

vibration-producing objects. The “safety factors” are realized constant natural frequency (CNF) vibration isolators.

by using very soft isolators, which are more expensive, more First, let’s briefly survey principles and criteria of “real-life”

bulky, and may cause large undesirable swaying of the objects vibration isolation systems. There are four basic groups of ob-

caused by internal or external excitations. These motions can jects requiring vibration isolation:

be reduced by the use of massive and expensive inertia blocks • Vibration-sensitive machines and devices (precision machine

that disrupt production line flexibility. tools, coordinate measuring machines, or CMMs, electronic

A common solution in many cases is to use active isolators. devices, etc.). The goal of vibration isolation is to reduce

Their performance comes with a high price – increased direct relative vibration amplitudes in the work zone below allow-

costs, reduced reliability, dependence on a power supply, and able levels (between tool and workpiece, between compo-

nents of an electronic device, etc.).

Based on a keynote presentation at ICSV12, the 12th International Con- • Vibration-producing machines and devices (metal forming

gress on Sound and Vibration, Lisbon, Portugal, July 2005. and other impact-generating devices, unbalanced rotors, re-

12 SOUND AND VIBRATION/JULY 2006

The source of vibration excitation (e. The mounts weaken dynamic coupling between the source and the object. but many conclusions and techniques are applicable to other groups. If the rocking does not fully decay before the new cutting pass starts. The majority of precision MATERIALS REFERENCE ISSUE 13 . microscopes. The goal is to assure normal functioning of the equipment and to protect very sensitive environments. • General-purpose machinery and equipment. A generalized model of vibration transmission into the work zone of a protected object for each coordinate axis requires at least two degrees of freedom. the partial natural frequency of shown in Figure 3b. cutting chatter. The partial natural frequency of the isolation minish quickly at higher frequencies.) below permis- sible levels. cv to frame/bed of object MB. Relative transmissibility m rel from the bed to the work zone is chine tools. where M u is the generalized Figure 3. etc. required in the above-defined frequency ranges of maximum and f m = ~10 Hz for ultra-precision objects such as microlith. ciprocating mechanisms. Vibration Isolation of Precision Objects Only the first group (vibration-sensitive objects) is addressed here.. (a) Absolute transmissibility of uni-axial vibration isolation system from floor to object frame.). such as machine tools. Isolation is often used together with other approaches. Accord- factor g is different for each coordinate axis). the result is a wavy machined surface.. in vehicles. Absolute transmissibility m of the isola- Stiffness and damping km. turning of non- uniform parts. and simplified installation. This does not occur with stiffer iso- lators. etc. Floor vibrations with amplitude Xf are transmitted through vibration isolators kv. there is no need to measure actual vibration levels if these num- bers are used appropriately. reducing transmission of unwanted vi- bration. neither very sen- sitive nor very dynamic (e. The goal of isolation is protection from excessive ac- cidental vibrations/shocks from the floor. such as precision ma. machine tools of normal pre- cision). etc.’ The gener- alized ‘workpiece’ amplitude XB is then transmitted to the work zone between M u and M B . The actual relative vibrations in the work zone are modified by geometric features of the object design that can system MB – kv is usually much lower – fv = 10-20 Hz for ma- make the object more or less sensitive to vibration (the design chine tools and fv = 1-5 Hz for ultra-precision objects. This is It is clear from the floor vibration analysis that isolation is often much higher for precision objects. Vibration isolation should not impair performance of the object.).) The goal of isolation is to re- duce the intensity of dynamic excitations transmitted to the supporting structure (floor. In many cases.15 mm and horizontal ampli- tudes of 0. the dynamic isolation system and the dynamic structural X rel = g X relm (1) system are only weakly dynamically coupled and can be con- sidered independent. the sup- porting floor for precision objects) and the object to be pro- tected are separated by an auxiliary system comprising vibra- tion isolators or vibration isolating mounts of relatively low stiffness. holding the ‘workpiece. A spec- trum with constant vibration amplitudes of 3 mm for vertical and 2 mm for horizontal vibration in the 3-20 Hz range would conservatively represent a worst case for manufacturing plant floors. Numerous measurements of floor vibration have demon- strated that maximum vibration amplitudes and their frequency ranges are very consistent for specific types of facilities. such as reduction of excitation intensity.g. foundation. protection of the environment from occasional intense dynamics within the object (stick-slip vibrations. ingly. reasonably designed precision objects.g. For tion system (from the floor to the bed) is shown in Figure 3a. cm represent the object structure. changes of mass and stiffness of structural components. Figure 2.. for ‘model’). dynamic vibration absorb- ers. etc. Vertical amplitudes of 0.’ Floor vibration amplitudes typically decline quickly in the higher frequency ranges. reduction of noise and vibration levels. Figure 1 illustrates the most primitive single-degree- of-freedom isolation system. but protection from floor vibration may become inad- equate. etc. etc. • Objects installed on nonrigid structures having high vibra- tion levels (on upper floors of buildings. (b) relative transmissibility from ob- ‘toolholder’ (relative vibration amplitude Xrelm where m stands ject frame to work zone. displacement amplitudes of the floor since the amplitudes di- ography tools. A surface grinder with a heavy reciprocating table on soft isolators rocks during the table reversal. the structure described by Mu – km – MB is fm = ~30 Hz.05 mm in the 3-12 Hz frequency range conservatively represent the worst vibration environment for microelectronic fabricating facilities ‘fabs.

as in case 2. Since the vibration isolation system and the structural normal working regimes. Line 1 corresponds to installation tors without changing their stiffness reduces the first peak (at of the object on relatively rigid mounts. Figure 5 is drawn with a conservative assumption that fm amplification) as the rigid mounts (line 1).1 mm image motion. and line 3 corre. Allowable frame amplitudes for: (a) detectable motion on 1 mm test line for a microlithography stepper: (b) a projection aligner for f 0. . first of all.Xa/Xf 3 f fv2 fv1 (c) Transmissibility from bed to work area. frequency resulting from the filtering effect of the vibration transmissibility of the vibration isolation system at the struc- isolation system (as in Figure 3a) on the input floor displace. and only the peak at fv1 . For Case 1 (the object on rigid isola. validated by thousands Figure 5c represents transmissibility from the frame to the of precision object installations.5 times (e. for optical microscopes) to about 10 work zone. Vibration isolation for broad spectrum floor excitation: (a) is three to 10 times. a given precision object. Practically. Xref/Xa f fm (d) 1 Relative displacement in Work Area ∆ ∆o 2 3 3 2 Figure 4. is lower than the cut-off frequency of the floor vibration spec- sponds to installation on isolators having the same stiffness kv trum. The second peak is lower due to lower vs. tors). Adding damping to the soft isola- ment spectrum in Figure 5a. (b) frame vibration spectrum. for ultra-precision objects the difference floor excitation spectrum. such an approach is considered as “politically correct” in vi- 14 SOUND AND VIBRATION/JULY 2006 . The above analysis can be summarized by deriving a crite. fv2 fv1 fm and ultra-precision objects are much more sensitive to horizon- tal than to vertical vibrations. times for microlithography steppers in Figures 4a and 4b. Figure 5b shows sponds to the lower sensitivity of the structure MB – km – Mu the vibration displacement amplitude X B of the object frame to the frame vibration. the difference Figure 5.g. Unfortunately. unnecessary. expensive. Xf ao f (b) 2 1 Transmissibility from floor to bed. shows that the vibration iso- relative vibratory displacement in the work zone (as in Figure lation systems of precision objects have resonances within their 3b). the resulting relative vibrations in the work zone exceed rion for vibration isolation of a vibration-sensitive object us. Such 5c. Line 2 is for the object fv2 ) even more. but higher damping. Figure 5a shows the conserva. D 0 at two resonance frequencies fv1 and fm. For machine tools. D 0 is the allowable systems are extremely bulky. (d) spectrum of relative vibration in is from ~1. isolators (Case 2). to isolation of precision objects from floor vibrations (all floor ered independent. In Figure 5d. destabilizing for the amplitude of relative vibration in the work zone specified for isolated objects and. resulting in Figure 5d. this is not the case. The first peak is lower because fv2 corre- amplitude in the appropriate frequency range). Xf (a) Floor displacement. Application of a ‘textbook’ approach dynamic system are only weakly coupled and can be consid. both of the resonance peaks in Figure 5d are tively generalized floor excitation amplitude X f (constant decreasing below D 0 . (c) transmis- sibility from frame to work zone. This analysis. the transmissibility plot from the floor to the vibrations must be reduced by 80-90%) would require ex- work zone is obtained by multiplying plots in Figures 5b and tremely low (fractions of 1 Hz) natural frequencies f v . For adequately soft ing the schematic in Figure 5. fv2 should be considered. tural natural frequency fm. while slightly increasing the second peak (at on relatively soft isolators having the same damping (resonance fm).

Â k x i ay i = 0. it is equivalent to the central position of CG in the model of Figure 6a. y c.25 of the maximum rocking amplitude. neglected in Eq. equilibrium of the object in vertical planes X-Z and Y-Z. For Eq. Isolators are and/or Y-Z planes of the object. This also improves resistance to rocking mo. Iz – mass and moments of inertia of the object. y. When the symmetry condition ax1 = ax2 for kz1 = kz2 (or kz1 ax1 = kz2ax2 for kz1 π kz2) is satisfied. Iy .7 it is 0.6/6. since different stiff- ness values of the isolators can be simulated by shifting the CG position. resonance of the rocking vibration appears at the frequency f z m. (6) where d v is the log decrement of the vibration isolators and F v is the “isolation criterion” guaranteeing that the maximum then Equations 5 are satisfied. or b directions. at k z1 ax1/kz2 ax2 = 1. ultra-precision g) are uncoupled. A = const. 7. fied. 6c. coupled equations for coordinates x-b and y-a.7 ª 0.12 and at kz1ax1 /kz2 ax2 = The system of Eq.g. y. zc – vibratory displacements of the CG.5 ª 0. x c. bf . if vertical stiffness of ith isolator/mount is propor- = Fv (3) tional to W i. 5 for coupling in the vibration isolation system. g f of the maximum resonance amplitude of the rocking vibration. z f. ral’ coordinate frames (vertical z. fv < fv 80% A natural way to comply with Eq. Â kzi ay i = 0 (5) i i with floor vibration is required. z. ay. Coordinates x and/or y can also installed in one horizontal plane (their vertical coordinates az be uncoupled if angular stiffness values of isolators in a and/ = const) with their principal stiffness axes parallel to the x. a f. Â k z i ax i a y i =0 (8) Reduction of Coupling in Vibration Isolation Systems i It is very important that more intense vertical vibrations of then the system in Eq. This z coordinates – angular stiffness of the isolators is neglected. isolators whose stiffness constants are proportional to the frac- lytical expressions for transformations illustrated in Figure 5 tion W i of the total weight acting on the ith mounting point.5 it is 1. then Eq. the natural frequency fv of the then vertical z vibration of the system is not coupled with mo- isolation system should be less than a certain limit. and 6d show amplitude/frequency characteristics of this system at various a x1 /ax2 = 1. if each kzi in Eq. Conditions in Eq. assumed that kx1 /kx2 = kz1 /k z2 = k1 /k2. the excitation force acting in the x direction does not excite vibration in the z direction. and two pairs of the object. kx . xf. tions in other translational or rotational coordinates. comes an identity.g. for all isolators. coordinates z and x-b and/or y-a. z. The rocking (x-b) vibration has two resonances at frequencies fxb Here ax . ay are measured from the fv CG Thus. plitude of this vibration at kz1ax1 /kz2ax2 = 1.. 6. it is all six coordinates. (vertical natural frequency). Then the equations of motion become: Coupling is most important between the vertical and hori- zontal rocking modes. since they reflect the moment amplitude in the work zone does not exceed D 0.95/8 ª 0. fied if the object has at least one plane of symmetry. 4 separates into two independent equa- the floor do not excite objectionable horizontal vibrations of tions corresponding to coordinates z and g. the third frame with its origin at the center of gravity (CG) of the object. When the symmetry condition is not satisfied. This requires analysis of the complete six-degrees. a. Â k y i ax i = 0 (7) ing damping (e. If the stiffness of each mount is proportional to its (4) weight load.0-2. Isolator stiffness may be increased by increas. a typical planar (x. then vibrations both along and about axis Z (coordinates z and tions due to internal excitations (for example. if the following conditions are sat. and intense vertical vibration of kz – stiffness constants of the isolators along the coordinate the mass m (caused by the horizontal excitation) develops. The results are analo- isfied: gous in cases when the excitation force is vertical or when there MATERIALS REFERENCE ISSUE 15 . 5 be- each coordinate axis) for precision objects. 4 is still characterized by coupling between 2. 5 were replaced by W i. Ix . 7 are satisfied if. Eq.05 g – rotations of the object around axes x. in addi- and vibration-sensitive microlithography tools have heavy tion to Eq. az are coordinates of the isolators in the coordinate and fbx. i i lation element). k y. yf .35/6. e. or The full set of six equations of motion for a vibration isola- tion system is quite complex. 5 is to find the object (2) weight W distribution between the mounting points and to use providing 80% reduction of vibration transmission. and 8 are satis- modes. However. Fig- ure 6b. The stiffness constants of both elastic mounts in this model are identical. A com- tions for decoupling of vertical and two horizontal/rocking plete decoupling is achieved if Equations 5. Use of ana. b) vibration isolation system in Figure 6a has been studied. simply prevents angular vibrations from developing. since distances ax.bration isolation applications and is universally used. 8 is satis- of-freedom vibration isolation system and formulating condi.2 is 0. dv kzi = AWi . by using high damping material as the iso. fore-and-aft x and side-to-side or if the isolators are supported by brackets at the CG level. 9 can be realized if the object is attached to a massive “in- a majority of real-life precision objects analyzed in their ‘natu. results in formulation of the isolation criterion (different for Indeed. but it represents a general case. ertia block” and then placed on isolators at the new CG level. If also: stages reciprocating at a high rate of speed). Besides result. The system in Figure 6a was simulated for the object with geometric and inertia parameters of a typical production ma- chine excited by a horizontal force acting at the CG level. this the following conditions are satisfied: approach allows one to modify and improve performance of the isolation system. azi = 0 (9) tional and angular coordinate axes dynamically coupled. b. If also ing in much more practical and economical installations. To find the importance of deviations from strict adherence to Eq. ky /kz = const. 4. ratios kx /kz . with motions along all transla. If the 80-to-90% reduction of frame vibration as compared Â k z i ax i = 0. – translational and angular components of the floor motion. This y translational axes) the system can be significantly simplified effect can be also achieved with inclined isolators in the X-Z if products of inertia of the object are neglected. Am- directions. all isolators are located in the same plane as the CG. are made very high.5.

Unless the object has two vertical planes or a vertical axis of symmetry. the weight dis- horizontal vibrations of the unit due to a vertical excitation (or tribution can be uniquely calculated only for a statically de- vice versa) usually should not exceed ~0. Correlation of Eq. The majority of real-life precision objects are in- above given simulation results. shows the measured weight distribution between the mount- ing points for a turret lathe. it was concluded that the maxi. Figure 7. of planar three-degrees-of-freedom system: (b) z. Figure 7 zontal force excitation through C. Here are some reasons: 1. mum permissible asymmetry factor should be kz1 ax1 /kz2ax2 £ 2. (c) x.1 2 0. with at least ±10-15% error. 6 is critical to satisfy this condition. f z = 20 Hz. Experimental determination of the CG is feasible for small/ light objects but usually not for heavy machinery. stages. Usually. The manu- facturers seldom provide this information. 2 – rubber-metal CNF isolators. (a) Vibration displacements as a function of frequency for hori. By interpolation between the (isolators). (d) b. gantries. Change of weight distribution on mounts due to tool carriage travel in a turret lathe. With the CG position known or assumed. etc. the CG can be determined either experimentally or by calculation using detailed design drawings. Hz Figure 8. masses of workpieces. 0. stalled on more than three supports.) or with widely differing Figure 6. the CG position must be known. 1 – rubber-metal CS isolators (f z = 15 Hz). but it is impossible to achieve with conventional constant stiffness (CS) isolators. To get the weight distri- 16 SOUND AND VIBRATION/JULY 2006 . For production machinery with heavy moving parts (tables. Amplitudes of relative motion between grinding wheel and table of a surface grinder excited by 5 mm amplitude floor motion. For vibration heavy tool carriage.G.2. 1 S kz i fz ª (10) 2p M Stiffness of individual isolators should be proportional to the weight loads acting on them.05 1 10 15 20 25 30 35 Frequency. To determine the weight distri- bution. the CG is located from an “expert judgment” by the user. depending on the position of its is a kinematic excitation from the foundation. isolation of precision equipment the resonance amplitude of 2.2 0. The total vertical (z-direction) stiffness of all isolators is determined by the desired vertical natural frequency. the CG can shift significantly.5 Relative displacement amplitude in Work Zone mkm 0.2 of the resonant termined case when the object is mounted on three supports amplitude of vertical vibrations.

There is a calibrated clearance (gap) D 1 between machine was installed on much (two times) stiffer CNF isola. Figure 10. Even deeper 30 decoupling can be expected for objects having a plane of sym- metry. line 2. the inner surface of lid 5 and the outer surface of rubber ring tors. frequency range of 9-35 Hz. on average ~1. or if the object is not lev- eled properly. immersed in viscous fluid MATERIALS REFERENCE ISSUE 17 . additional con- ditions should be known or assumed.bution in such statically indeterminate cases.5 and 4. side surfaces of rings 1 and 2 are free to bulge.17 ¥ 1. (b) as expressed by Eq. ber rings 1 and 2. the majority with the bulging rubber. At low weight loads. Figure 8 shows amplitudes of rela- tive vibrations between the grinding wheel and the machined surface for installation on five CS isolators with the natural fre.35 mm) when the metal covers. Metal parts 3. deviation of actual weight distri- bution between the mounting points from calculated estimates can be as much as ±50%. After the weight distribution is established. 6. the appropri- ate isolators compliant with Equations 6 and 10 are selected. 2 – with damper. but its core is composed of two quasi-independent rub. Although various materials are bulge on the outer surface of ring 1 touches lid 5. 3.5 ¥ 1. The weight distribution can change if the mounting surfaces of the object and/or the floor are not flat. an additional ±1. The differences in weight distribution between mounting points before and after leveling of the objects may exceed ±35%.26. fvz = 20 Hz. With the increasing weight load. with different dynamic-to-static Figure 9. We could not find any explanation for this effect other 1. Constant Natural Frequency (CNF) Isolators CNF isolators have their stiffness proportional to the applied weight load. Figure 10. Another calibrated gap D2 is between the inner surface of ring than the dynamic decoupling provided by CNF isolators. (a) no weight load. which deform in compression only if ricated with very loose tolerances. 1 – no damper.0.6 or ±1.N. and on five CNF isolators. This statement has been experimentally verified. all four such a decoupling effect. since the critical dimensions they can bulge at the free (unloaded) surfaces. thus the decoupling conditions are automatically satisfied. The rings are bonded to top 3 and bottom 4 tive vibrations are ~30% lower (0. Accordingly. leading to strong coupling between vertical and hori- zontal/rocking modes in vibration isolation systems using CS isolators. CNF isolators may in some cases re. The rela. The accepted tolerance in hard- ness of rubber is ±5 durometer units. quency fvz = 15 Hz (isolator manufacturer’s recommendation). the stiffness scatter of isolators selected in accordance with the calculated/assumed weight distribution (equivalent to the asymmetry factor) is. making a CNF isolator a passive smart element. Deformations inside OB-31 isolator.D 2 are defined by the mold. 40 tion for other modes for asymmetrical objects. stages of the isolator in Figure 9 obtained by compressing a sec- ery was Russian isolator OB-31. the gaps D 1 and D 2 are gradually filled for accommodating the weight load. the most widely used isolators have on the inner surface of ring 1 contacts the bulge on the outer rubber flexible elements which use compression deformation surface of ring 2. usually between K dyn = 1. or if there are reduced stiffness areas on mounting surfaces.25 mm vs. Conservatively. Other causes for indeterminacy of the weight dis- tribution are movements of heavy parts in the object (Figure 7) and wide variation of workpiece weights in machine tools and CMMs. constraining expansion of of CNF isolator designs utilize volumetric incompressibility of the rubber and increasing stiffness. The stiffness values in all directions of a CNF isolator are propor- tional to the load in the direction of its main axis (weight load). and the bulge used in isolator designs.26 ¥ 1. stiffness ratios K dyn. Figure 11. CNF rubber-metal isolator OB-31. CNF isolators from this proportionality does not exceed ±10- 15%. line 1.5 ª ±4 times. 0. They easily satisfy the decoupling condition of Eq. Figure 10 depicts deformation The first mass-produced CNF vibration isolator for machin. equivalent to ±17% varia- tion in their stiffness.15 ¥ 1. 5 are not satisfied even in the first approxi- mation. 5 for fz z direction vibrations and provide a significant coupling reduc. resulting in a place active and low natural frequency pneumatic isolators.0.2 -2. Thus. D 1. Its flexible element tor cut from the isolator and placed between transparent plates is a monolithic rubber block molded in a relatively simple mold (with lubrication) maintaining the initial angle of the sector. the Designs of CNF isolators. conservatively 1. Often “the adjacent mounts in the line” use different rubber blends. Considering all these uncertainties. cavity.5 times variation. Flange 9 has a rubber ‘brush’ 12. Thus conditions in Eq. (c) medium weight load. A precision 20 2 surface grinder having a plane of symmetry and 20 times more 1 15 sensitive to horizontal than to vertical floor vibration was tested on CS and on CNF isolators while the floor was vibrat- ing in the z direction with a constant amplitude 5 mm in the 10 1000 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 20000 P. The deviation of commercially realized low weight load. relatively low stiffness. With 1 and the outer surface of ring 2. Lines of commercial CS vibration isolators have ratios of static stiffness coefficients between adjacent mounts in the line ~1. Load-frequency characteristic of OB-31 isolator. Figure 9. 4 can be fab- rubber-like materials.

the load-natural fre- have a low sensitivity to production tolerances regardless of quency characteristic is presented by line 1 in Figure 12. thus allowing expansion of the applica. kz /kx. lbs eling bolt 7. at which point deformation of the flexible element is indicating lower values of fz for the same load than for the lin- D min . axial compressive load for rubber torus allowing its vertical displacements during leveling. fz = 20 Hz ±15% within the rated load range 30 from P min = 3.5-0. Hz 25 higher natural frequencies.8 mm. This is not signifi- range P min-P max . (rubber durometer H = 30.000 N. Figure 12. and by washer/flange 9 to top cover 3 and to the rubber block. while the weight load range shifts. When the weight load is increasing within the CNF load same. the ratio between vertical kz 5 and horizontal kx. 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 The weight load from object 6 is transmitted by nut 8 to lev. rubber low weight loads. Load. Spring 11 attaches leveling nut 8 to top cover 3. cross-sectional diameter d = 12.7. As a result. Packaging of streamlined rubber elements by foam matrix 15-20% to d = 0. At design features of their flexible elements (coil springs. thus generating a three-dimensional damping effect for the isolator.000 N. ear CNF characteristic. and its natu- quency of a CNF isolator is determined by its geometry. Since at this point the flexible element can still be con. This increases the effective damping of the isolator by Figure 14. 3. etc. the linear region is represented by line 2 at P min. since the rated (nominal) natural fre. Sensitivity of CS (I) and CNF (II) vibration isolators to pro- duction variations.7 mm). P < Pmin where P min is the lower pression deformation reaches D min (at the load P min. including numerous tor is determined by deformation D min of the flexible element vibration-sensitive objects.000-40. tion range of the isolator in accordance with the criterion F from Eq. For ral frequency fz decreases with increasing load. and the CNF characteristic would begin at a higher weight where kz is the stiffness of the flexible element on the linear load but again at the same D min and fz0 = f znom determined by (constant stiffness) segment of its load-deflection characteris. since the load range is usually very to: broad. Although the production line for at which the load-deflection characteristic becomes a nonlin- rubber flexible elements in Russia was not “the best in indus. ear region of line 1. weight load P’min. 18 SOUND AND VIBRATION/JULY 2006 . The load-natural frequency f z characteristic is 35 shown in Figure 11. the natural frequency remains the tic. Since smaller objects usually need vibration isolation with Natural frequency. the CNF characteristic thus begins at a lower plication direction is: load but at the same D min and fz0 = f znom determined by the 1 kz 1 kz g 1 g value of D min.y stiffness is quite constant in the whole load range. the natural frequency in the weight load ap. Bottom cover 4 has a thin metal ring 10 welded to it. 1 P’min Pmin P’’min Figure 12.000 units a year) The nominal natural frequency associated with the CNF isola. For the CNF isolator manufactured without any deviation within about ±3%. try. the linear region fz0 ª = = (11) represented by line 3 would indicate higher fz values than line 2p m 2p Pmin 2p Dmin 1. when the limit of its weight load range. Several millions of these isolators have been produced and used for installation of various objects. the value of D min. The ring 15 provides the flexible element with resistance to lateral forces.” the natural frequency of the isolators was very consistent. for a harder rubber. This conclusion about robustness of the natural fre- fznom ª fz0 (12) quency values provided by CNF vibration isolators was vali- dated by monitoring mass-produced (~700. CNF isolator OB-32 before and after leveling. Thus. 10 especially due to compression of the rubber between ring 10 and lid 5 in Figure 9. the isolator has constant stiffness (no touch- flexible elements. ing between the rubber rings 1 and 2 in Figure 9). As the com- small loads on the isolator. without bonding. This led to a discovery that CNF isolators from the nominal design dimensions. The deformation Dmin occurs at a lower sidered as linear. The CNF characteristic starts softer than specified. fz ____ fz 3 nom I II 1 2 Figure 13. or effectively with 20 P max:P min = ~20:1. If the rubber is be assumed to be linear. Similarly. Figure 15. vibration isolators in Figure 9 for two years of production.). the isolator was successfully used in the load range of 2. 13. median diameter of the torus D = 50. the CNF region begins.200 N to P max = 40. the natural frequency is constant and equal cant for most applications. Natural frequency vs. the flexible element usually can rings start touching).5 ±20%.y = 2. or P max:P min = ~13:1.

These CNF isolators are easy to tailor to specific needs of equipment manufacturers and users. Similar characteristics have rubber flexible elements with P max:P min = 6-20:1. ~5. and (stiffness variation ±25%).vibration mounts. ~6.S. Patent 3.5-8 Hz for D = 37. P max:Pmin rubber element. of course. Users quickly observed good performance results. using identical isolators for both light and heavy machin- ery with no need for any calculations. OB-31 isolators often were able to provide the necessary vibration protection.000 per year for over 15 years. Wheel caster with CNF shear-disc suspension. of Designatronics. result in variations of fznom. the damper is not used. Due to use packaging of rubber and rigid (metal) components of the isola- of a different rubber blend. shaped as spheres.934. rating can easily be realized. Dimensional variations of the iso. and their nonlinear load-deflection characteristics result in quasi- CNF load-natural frequency characteristics. the military-industrial complex was using the best production equipment having state-of-the-art preci- sion.7 mm) made from H = 30 ral frequencies fznom = 10.475) were developed in the former USSR in the 1960s. Inc. while Figure 16. The author was witnessing a success- ful installation of precision grinders and jig borers on the 10th floor of a 25-story high rise building using OB-31 iso- lators. They covered a range of natural frequencies = ~5:1.5 Hz for D = 64 mm. 20. Spheres. are very uniform and are two to three times lower for the same compression loads/deformations than for rubber elements Variation of the natural frequency did not exceed ±3%. thus resulting in a vertical natural frequency of 15 Hz instead of 20 Hz. of CNF isolators.. 15. Isolators for nominal natu. Variable-stiffness device using two CNF isolators.653 using rubber cords and other streamlined rubber elements have been fabricated and successfully tested. three similarly designed vibra- tion isolators (Figure 13) with external diameters of 100 mm and 146 mm with an overall load range of 400-8. Obviously. Commercial Source for CNF Isolators The CNF isolator in Figures 9 and 13 (U. cross sectional diameter d = 12. rubber blends. The nominal natural frequency fznom = 12 parts but different D 1 and D 2. OB-31 isolators were used in stacks of two each.442. from vibration-sensitive precision machine tools and impact producing stamping presses to meat cutters. where the connection between the leveling nut and and other shape distortions resulting in stress risers and reduc- the top cover is provided by the rubber membrane. Also. not possible with machines grouted to the floor. Stresses under load Figure 17. Patent 5. tor without bonding can be achieved by using a foam matrix. relatively simple molds. Currently. and 30 Hz had the same metal durometer rubber.5 mm. instead of D = 140 mm for OB-31. better fatigue resistance. toruses. lower creep rates. the measured values Our extensive research of performance characteristics of of natural frequency are fz = 7. practically any natural frequency and/or load consistent.3 Hz streamlined rubber flexible elements led to simplified designs for D = 51 mm. ing the advantages of the ideal shape elements.000 lbs are available from Advanced Antivibration Compo- nents (Div. This isola. For very soft rubber. and height of the Hz ±5% is maintained in the load range of 50-240 lbs. It quickly became very popular for all kinds of ma- chinery. This results in smaller sizes. requiring quick relocation of the produc- tion equipment.y for ideal shape rubber elements are in MATERIALS REFERENCE ISSUE 19 . In cases when the isolation was inadequate. Many prototypes of CNF pads/mats and mounts per U. The specified tor is easier to produce and has a better appearance. www. but the di. Still.com). Production of such elements requires lator would. By changing dimensions/shapes and mensions are determined by the mold and usually are quite rubber blends. design concept was a line of CNF isolators providing for four Figure 15 shows the load-natural frequency characteristic of fznom in broad load ranges and having a smaller D = 100 mm a rubber torus in a foam matrix (outer diameter D = 51 mm. while bonded to metal plates. The biggest users were military-industrial facilities for sev- eral reasons. since bonding requires cutouts Figure 13. These elements must not be A later modification of the isolator in Figure 9 is shown in bonded to metal components. loaded cylinders are naturally nonlinear in compression. floor vibration levels in such build- ings are much higher than in single-story buildings. ellipsoids. 20 to 25% of newly built manufacturing plants were located in multistory buildings). Military production plants were frequently changing both designs and manufacturing processes for their products. and radially Stiffness ratios k z/kx. but still retaining their CNF characteristics. the pro- duction rate for these isolators was 700. Yet another reason was a wide use of multistory pro- duction buildings (by some estimates.S. thus allowing larger compression de- variation of the rubber durometer was observed within ±7 units formations. The next generation of CNF vibration isolators based on this Figure 14. As a result.

If a linear suspension were used. stops and the stiff. The highest noise levels were 5. Passive Vibration Isolation. E.3 Hz. thus justifying the rela. I. as well as for adaptive and other actively formation of the outer layers. supporting surfaces. 5¢ then 5≤. weight-distribution cal- loaded trailer (6800 N per caster) f z3 = 9. The author may be contacted at: rivin@eng. Each shear disc 4 consists of two-three sembly is varied by adjusting the preload force applied to iso- rubber layers 5 sandwiched between metal discs 6. with compliant increases with the increasing weight load. These values can be reduced if the lat. but would complicate connecting (hitching) of dif. If the load is excessive. ferently loaded trailers in a train. to 60 Hz was observed with the changing preload (turning the ers 5 are progressively smaller towards the ends of axle 3. Effective stiffness of this as- two “shear discs” 4.5 Hz.5 Hz for the empty trailer it would exhibit fz ª 3. If two CNF isolators are assembled as shown in Figure 17. With a 10-fold reduction of eral deformation of the elements is restrained by rigid inserts failures of the axle bearings and wheel treads. etc. 4. The holes lators 1 and 2. The proposed model of vibration isolation of precision ob- vehicle. shear de. Axle 3 of wheel 2 is connected to caster 1 via independent of the weight load. in-plant trail. feature is important for in-plant trailers which can be used in 2.edu. and smaller nomenclature and reduction of dynamic loads on the wheels and on the trailer size of CNF isolators results in lower production costs. Rivin. Layers 5 are designed in accordance with the desired Conclusions payload range and dynamic characteristics of the suspended 1. expensive active isolation systems can be re- a storage mode with supported weight much greater than the placed with inexpensive ‘smart’ passive systems.y = 5-9. creasing stiffness. 3. ASME Press.wayne. Use of ‘smart’ CNF isolators results in many performance. controlled isolation systems and dynamic vibration absorbers. culations are not required and identical isolators are used acteristic resulted in more than a decimal order of magnitude under all mounting points. the intended embedded in the foam.g. with static deformation over 20 mm. Such variable stiffness inner surfaces of holes in metal discs 6 will successively land isolators are useful for experimental optimization of vibration on the axle surface as the shear deformation of rubber layers 5 isolation systems with complex excitations.the range of hx. Figure 16. Such low f z would not lead to further dynamic loads/noise reduction. Variation of the natural frequency fx from 20 Hz and outer diameters of metal discs 6 and respective rubber lay. noise can reach 110 dBA). and in a 16-18 dBA noise reduction (without suspen. ness of the suspension increases (hardening nonlinear charac- teristic). noise abatement has also become a money-saving project. Gradually. sion. CNF isolators are natural ‘snubbers’ due to progressively in- observed from a moving empty trailer. A different design of CNF vibration isolator is used for sus. The nut). maximum payload. structure. pension of caster wheels for small vehicles (e. This CNF char. equivalent to ~9:1 stiffness ratio. for a heavily sitivity to production uncertainties. with fz = 8. tively low fz1 . In many cases.. and cost advantages since: they have low sen- fully loaded trailer (3400 N per caster) fz2 =7. the load along the z-axis can be adjusted by preloading the bolt ers).2 Hz.5 Hz for the Bibliography heavily loaded trailer. bushings 7 land on axle 3 thus jects leads to improved performance while using stiffer iso- preventing excessive shear deformation of the shear discs. 2003. for a application. This lators with higher damping. For an empty trailer (1100 N per caster) fz1 = 8. CNF isolators can be used as variable stiffness isolators.. 20 SOUND AND VIBRATION/JULY 2006 .

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