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SIGNAL, SPECTRA AND SIGNAL PROCESSING Classifications of Signals

1. Multichannel and Multidimensional Signals

Course Outline: Multichannel Signals – signals that are generated by multiple

• Introduction sources or multiple sensors.

• Discrete-Time Signal and System Multidimensional Signals – signals are functions of two or more

independent variables.

• Differential Equation for FIR and IIR Filters

2. According to characteristics of Time

• Convolution and Correlation Continuous-Time Signals – are defined for every value of time

• Z-Transforms and they take on values in the continuous interval.

• Transform Analysis of Systems Discrete-Time Signals – are defined only at certain specific

• Fourier Transforms value of time.

• Implementation of Discrete-Time Systems 3. According to characteristics of Amplitude

Continuous-Amplitude Signals – signals take on all possible

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION values on a finite or an infinite range.

Signal – any variable that carries or contains some kind of information Discrete-Amplitude Signals – signal take on values from a finite

that can be used. set of possible values, usually these values are equidistant and

Example of Signals: can be expressed as an integer multiple of the distance

1. Speech/Voice 4. Biomedical between two successive values.

2. Sound and Music Signals 4. According to signal model or Mathematical description

3. Video and Image 5. Radar/Sonar Deterministic Signals – signals that can be uniquely described

Signals by an explicit mathematical expression, a table of data, or a

– defined as any physical quantity that varies with time, space or any well-defined rules.

other independent variable/s. Random Signals – signals that either cannot be described to

Mathematical Description of Signal: any reasonable degree of accuracy by explicit mathematical

• As a function of one independent variable formulas, or such description is too complicated to be of any

o Time practical use.

S1(t) = 5t

Analog and Digital Signals

• As a function of two independent variables Signal Notatio Characteristics

o Function of spatial coordinates n

S(x,y) = 3x + 2xy +10y2 Analog x(t) Continuous-Time (CT) and Continuous-

Amplitude

Types of Signals: Sample xs(n) Discrete-Time (DT) and Continuous-

1. Analog Signals – signals that vary continuously with time and d Amplitude

represent variation of physical quantities. Quantiz xq(t) Continuous-time(CT) and Discrete-

2. Digital Signals – time assume discrete values and amplitudes are ed Amplitude

restricted to a finite number of levels. Digital xq(n) Discrete-time(DT) and Discrete-Amplitude

Guaranteed accuracy where: 3. Digital programmable system allows flexibility in reconfiguring the digital signal processing operations by simply changing the program. xs (n ) =xa (n T ) 2. Quantization – Converts discrete-time continuous-amplitude signal into discrete-time.5 0 5 10 15 t 0 5 10 15 n 0 15 t 0 5 10 15 n Continuous Time Discrete Time 5 10 Quantized Signal Digital Signal 5 1. Perfect reproducibility T = time interval between successive samples = sampling Period or sample interval ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION PROCESS Fs = sampling frequency. Signal Processing 3. Digital Digital-to- Analog Digital Digital Signal Digital Analog Analog Signal Converter Signal Processor Signal Converter Signal Advantages of Digital over Analog Signal Processing: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 n 1.5 2. Digital signals are easily stored on magnetic media (tape or disk) xs(n) = discrete-time signal without deterioration or loss of signal fidelity xa(nT) = analog signal xa(t) at every T seconds 4.5 2. Sampling – Conversion of continuous-time signal into discrete-time Signal Signal 5 levels levels signal obtained by taking “samples” of the continuous-time signal at discrete-time instant. No drift in performance with age or temperature n = an integer sample number 5. reciprocal of sampling period 1 Fs = T xa(t) xs(n) xq(n) 1001011 Sampler Quantizer Coder . 2. 5 5 5 5 2.5 2. discrete-amplitude signal. Coding – each discrete-valued signal is represented by b-bit binary sequences Analog Analog Analog Signal Signal Processor Signal Sampling of Analog Signal x(n) Analog-to.

Consider the analog signal x a (t ) = A cos( 2πFt ) where: A = amplitude F = analog frequency f = digital frequency F cycles / sec ond cycle f = = = Fs sample / sec ond sample .

FN = 2Fmax Example 2: Consider the analog signal x a (t ) = 3 cos( 50πt ) +10 sin( 300 πt ) − cos( 100 πt ) (a) What are the analog signal frequencies? (b) What are the Nyquist frequency for this signal? (c) If the sampling rate is the same as Nyquist rate. sec Time. then the Example 1: signal should be sampled at the rate of at least 2Fmax for the samples to Consider the two analog sinusoidal signals describe the signal completely” x1 (t ) = cos 2π (10 )t FS ≥ 2Fmax x 2 (t ) = cos 2π (50 )t Which is sampled at a rate of Fs = 40Hz. Amplitude F2= 1/8 Hz Time. what is the discrete-time signal? Aliasing – an effect that causes different continuous signal to become indistinguishable when sampled. discrete-time signals. Determine the corresponding Nyquist Rate – minimum sampling rate. “If the highest frequency component in a signal is Fmax. sec 0 F1= -7/8 Hz Fs= 1Hz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sampling Theorem .

in ROUNDING is limited to ∆ ∆ − ≤ eq ( n ) ≤ 2 2 Example 4 Consider the discrete-time signal . Quantization Levels (L) – values allowed in digital signal Quantization Step or Resolution (Δ) – the distance between two successive quantization levels x max − x min ∆= L −1 where: xmex and xmin = the maximum and minimum value of x(n) respectively The quantization error. peak value of 3? 2. Rounding – eliminating the excess digits by rounding the resulting number.Example 3 Consider the analog sinusoidal signal x a (t ) = 3sin( 100 πt ) Quantization of Continuous-Amplitude Signals (a) Prepare a table for the analog signal and graph for Quantization – an approximation process 0 ≤ t ≤ 20 ms x q ( n ) =Q[ x ( n )] (b) The signal xa(t) is sampled with a sampling rate of Fs = 300 samples per second. What is the period of discrete-time signal in milliseconds? Two Methods Used in Quantization” (d) What is the minimum sampling rate Fs in which x(n) reaches a 1. Q[ ] = quantizer operation (c) Compute the sample value in one period of x(n). eq(n). Truncation – eliminating the excess digits by discarding them. Sketch x(n) on x(n) = samples the same diagram with xa(t). Determine the frequency of the discrete-time Where: xq(n) = sequence of quantization samples signal. Quantization Error/Noise [eq(n)] – error introduced in representing the continuous-valued signal by a finite set of discrete-value level.

n ≤ 9 and quantized (by rounding and truncation) the signal by one 2b ≥ L decimal place.1 or (b) Δ=0.9 t with The coding process in A/D converter assigns a unique binary number to Fs = 1 Hz. Prepare a table for the discrete-time signal and graph for 0 ≤ each quantized levels. How many bits are required in ADC in x(n) each case? Determine also the SQNR of the ADC.2 n 0 2 4 6 8 .76 + 6. b ≥ log 2 L Where: b = number of bits n x(n) TRU eq(n) ROU eq(n) NC ND Signal-to-Quantized Noise Ratio (SQNR) 0 – measures the quality of the output of the ADC.6 0. 1 0. which 1 provides the ratio of the signal power to the noise power 2 (quantized error) 3 4 PS SQNR = 10 log = 1.35 cos n is quantized with a 10 resolution (a) Δ=0. 0.4 0.2.02 b in dB 5 PQ 6 7 Example 5 8 9 π The discrete-time signal x(n) = 6. Determine also the Quantization error of the signal.8 0.9 n for n ≥ 0 x(n) 0 for n < 0 Coding of Quantized Samples which is obtained by sampling analog exponential signal xa(t) = 0. Use rounding in quantizing.

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