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Definitions

:
Term Definition
An organization that can respond properly and in a
Adaptive
timely manner to changes in the business
enterprise
environment
A method by which a company generates revenue
Business model
to sustain itself
Computer-based
Information system that includes a computer for
information
some or all of its operation
system (CBIS)
Critical response The major activities used by organizations to
activities counter business pressures
Another name for today’s Web based or Internet
Digital economy
economy
A new business model that uses IT in a fundamental
way to accomplish one or more of three basic
objectives: reach and engage customers more
Digital enterprise effectively, boost employee productivity and
improve operating efficiency. It uses converged
communication and computing technology in a way
that improves business processes
A branch of philosophy that deals with what is
Ethics
considered to be right or wrong
A physical process that supports an organization by
Information collecting, processing, storing and analyzing data
system (IS) and disseminating information to achieve
organizational goals
The technology component of an information
Information system ( a narrow definition); or the collection of the
technology (IT) computing systems in an organization( the broad
definition used in this book)
A corporate information infrastructure that provides
Networked the necessary networks for distributed computing.
computing Users can easily contact each other or databases
and communicate with external entities
An information system that provides real time
Real time system
access to information or data

Definitions:
Term Definition
A set of computer instructions written in a
programming language, the purpose of which is to
Application
support a specific task or business process or
program
another application program

Organizational plans, visions, objectives and
Business problems and the information required to support
architecture them.

A collection of activities performed to accomplish a
Business process clearly defined goal

The director of the IS department in a large
Chief Information organization, analogous to a CEO, COO or CFO also
Officer (CIO) known as chief technology organization

An elementary description of things, events,
activities and transactions that are recorded,
classified and stored but not organized to convey
Data item any specific meaning can be numeric,
alphanumeric, figures, sounds or images

Clerical workers who use, manipulate or
disseminate information, typically using document
Data workers management, workflow, e-mail and co-ordination
software to do so

A collection of stored data items organized for
Database retrieval

Web based public e-marketplaces, where many
Electronic business buyers and many sellers interact
exchanges dynamically

A network of interactions and relationships over
Electronic market which products, services, information and
(e-market) payments are exchanged

Enterprise Web The sum of a company’s systems, information, and

services that are available on the Web, working
together as one entity.

Inter organizational systems that connect
Global information
companies located in two or more countries
systems (GIS)
The use of networks to harness the unused
processing cycles of all computers in a given
Grid computing
network to create powerful computing capabilities

Data that have been organized so they have
Information meaning and value to the recipient

The physical arrangement of hardware, software,
Information databases, networks and information management
Infrastructure personnel

A physical process that supports an organization
by collecting, processing, storing and analyzing
Information
data and disseminating information to achieve
system (IS)
organizational goals

High-level map or plan of the information assets in
Information
an organization; on the Web, it includes the
Technology
content and architecture of the site
architecture
Data and/or information that have been organized
and processed to convey understanding,
Knowledge: experience, accumulated learning m and
expertise.

Knowledge People who create and use knowledge as a
workers: significant part of their work responsibilities.
Systems designed to provide past , present and
Management future routine information appropriate for planning
information , organizing and controlling the operations of
systems (MISs): functional areas in an organization

Mobile commerce Any e-commerce done in a wireless environment ,
(m-commerce, m- especially via the Internet
business)
Information system applications in a wireless
Mobile computing
environment
A system that supports the activities performed by
Personal
individuals in their work or life through the
Information
acquisition, organization, maintenance, retrieval
management (PIM)
and sharing of information
Pervasive Invisible, everywhere computing that is embedded
computing in the objects around us

billing and payroll Unlimited computing power and storage capacity that. An architectural concept that defines the use of services to support a variety of business needs. delivered over the Internet. with an Internet browser being the only absolute necessity Transaction An information system that processes an processing system organization’s basic business transactions such as (TPS) purchasing. like electricity. In Service-oriented SOA. through data mining. DSS.and assign those resources to applications as needed An application delivered on the Internet or intranet Web-based system using Web tools.EIS and web processing applications also referred to as business intelligence Each characteristic or quality describing a Attribute particular entity (corresponds to a field on a record) Data that can be collected automatically using Clickstream data special software from the company’s website Clickstream data Data warehouses capable of showing both e- . enabling disparate systems to share data and services Definitions: Term Definition Analysis of accumulated data. such as a search engine Modular business and consumer applications. water and telephone services. existing IT assets (called services) are reused architecture (SOA) and reconnected rather than the more time consuming and costly reinvention of new systems Also referred to as on-demand computing. Instead of buying Software-as-a and installing expensive packaged enterprise Service (SaaS) applications users’ access applications over a network. Utility computing can be obtained on demand used and reallocated for any application and billed on a pay-per-use basis The separation of business applications and data from hardware resources allowing companies to Virtualization: pool hardware resources-rather than to dedicate servers to applications. utility computing or hosted services. that users can select Web Services and combine through almost any device. frequently by end Analytical users.

ownership (who in the organization is responsible for maintaining the data). relational. It is essentially the link between the logical and physical views of the database Stores definitions of a data elements and data characteristics such as usage. sort. manage them system (DBMS) efficiently and provide access to the stored data by application programs The language used by programmers to specify the Data definition types of information and structure of the language (DDL) database. This language contains commands that Data manipulation permit end users and programming specialists to language (DML) extract data from the database to satisfy information requests and develop applications. correctness and validity of data A problem caused by faulty file organization Data isolation leading to difficulty in accessing data from different applications The language used with a third or fourth- generation language to manipulate the data in the database. Data quality (DQ) relevance. physical Data dictionary representation. authorization and security The actual values across various copies of the data Data inconsistency no longer agree or are not synchronized Data integrity The accuracy. object relational. display and delete the contents of a database A subset of the data warehouse. timeliness. completeness and other characteristics that describe useful data The same data duplicated in several files as Data redundancy applications and their data files are created by different programmers over a period of time Tables that represented the physical view of the Data tables data Data warehouse A repository of historical data. object-oriented. hypermedia and multidimensional model A measure of the accuracy. usually originated Data mart for a specific purpose or major data subject Defines the way data are conceptually structured. The DML provides users with the ability to retrieve. business activities and the non-Web aspects of a warehouses business in an integrated fashion A collection of stored data items organized for Database retrieval The program (or group of programs) that provides Database access to a database. subject-oriented and organized so as to be easily accessed and . Examples of model forms include the hierarchical. The DBMS permits an Management organization to centralize data. Data model network. accessibility.

updated and sorted The logical description of the entire database and Schema the listing of all the data items and the relationships among them Fields in a database that have some identifying Secondary keys information. such as indices or summaries Specialized data stores that organize facts by Multidimensional dimensions such as geographical region. mission critical . voice word processing Document documents and other complex documents through management their entire life cycle within an organization from initial creation to final archiving Systems that provided decision makers with Document information in an electronic format and usually management include computerized imaging systems that can systems (DMSs) result in substantial savings Diagrams that represent the logical view of how Entity-relationship the data diagrams (ERDs) are organized Keys that provide relationships between two Foreign keys tables Indexed A method that uses an index key fields to locate sequential access individual records method (ISAM) The user’s view of a database program represents Logical view data in a format that is meaningful to a user and to the software programs that process those data Marketing An interactive database oriented toward targeting transaction marketing messages in real time database (MTD) Metadata Data about data. time database . physical arrangement and location of data in the Physical view direct access storage devices (DASDs). short term oriented store applications A view of a database that deals with the actual.product line or sales person A database that provides a clean data to the Operational data operational . In direct or random file . but typically do not identify the file with complete accuracy Sequential file File organization method in which data records organization must be retrieved in the same physical sequence in which they are stored. spreadsheets. page images. Database specialists use the physical view to make efficient use of storage and processing resources The identifier of a field of a record so that the Primary key record can be retrieved. manipulated for decision support Direct file access Method of keeping records that uses the key field method to locate the physical address of a record The automated control of electronic documents.

com Corporate The gateway for entering a corporate website. The most distinctive feature of BitTorrents is that they were designed to handle huge files A server used in the communication between BitTorrent tracker peers using the BitTorrent protocol A personal Web site. without regard to actual physical order on the storage medium A data definition and management language of Structured query relational databases. which allows for communication. Broadband comes from the word broad bandwidth Wireless communication protocol used with most CDMA(Code 2. digital two-way radio frequency High-speed networks can be wireline. short-range. in which Blog the owner expresses his or her feelings or opinions Chip technology that enables voice and data communications between many wireless devices Bluetooth through low power. users can retrieve records in any sequence. organization.5G and 3G systems that separates different Division Multiple users by assigning different codes to the segments Access) of each user’s communications Gateways to the Internet that offer content for broad and diverse audiences. TV and video. open to the public. wireless or Broadband both. It front-ends most relational language (SQL) DBMS Definitions: Term Definition 3GSM (Third generation Global 3GSM enables mobile multimedia services such as system for mobile music. these are the most Commercial popular portals on the Internet such as yahoo. It is (enterprise) portal usually a home page. rich entertainment content communication and Internet access services) A protocol designed for transferring or sharing BitTorrent files. collaboration and access to diversified information .com portals and msn.

Interoperability A corporate network that functions with Internet Intranet technologies. such as browsers and search engines. an “electronic bucket brigade” moves the . they are converted into digital (IP) packets based on the and sent via computer networks or LANs Internet telephony Technology that makes it possible to talk long (voice over distance on the Internet without paying normal Internet Protocol) long-distance telephone charges Connectivity between devices. A portal that provides team members with models Decision portal they can use to evaluate decision criteria. where each mote “wakes up” or activates for a fraction of a second when it has data to transmit and then relays that data to its nearest neighbor. using Internet protocols Mesh network A type of wireless sensor network composed of motes. objectives and alternatives from their desktops A qualitative forecasting methodology using Delphi method anonymous questionnaires EDGE A technology that significantly increased the network( Enhance capacity of GSM networks to enable data speeds d Data rates for of up to 384 kilobits per second(Kbps) GSM Evolution) A technology that offers the potential of cutting much of the complexity accumulated in Enterprise search applications and internet sites throughout an organization A fast wireless broadband access(3G) that does EV-DO (Evolution not need a Wi-Fi hotspot Data Optimized) A secured network that allows business partners to Extranet access portions of each others’ intranets. continual reinforcement of an idea Groupthink by group members GSM (Global system for mobile GSM is a digital mobile telephone system that is communications widely used in Europe and other parts of the world services) Software agents that exhibit intelligent behavior Intelligent agents and learning Protocol used to prepare data and documents for Internet Protocol transmission. It is usually Internet based Any work being performed by more than one Group work person In a meeting. So instead of every mote transmitting its information to a remote computer at a base station.

Search engine and respond to tens of millions of queries per day The protocol and industry standard that provide SIP (Session easy and intuitive access to the network from any Initiation Protocol) device. anywhere. involve little Publishing portals content customization but provide extensive online search in a specific area Various standards of Web feed formats that automate the delivery of Internet content. aggregates content and services for mobile users A social network that started as a site for fans of MySpace independent rock music Nominal group A simple brainstorming process for non electronic technique (NGT) meetings A technology that converts voice. high-speed network – eliminating the need for separate network Podcast (pod) Audio or video files sent over the Internet Podcaster An author of a podcast A way to distribute or receive audio and more Podcasting recently video files (pods or podcasts) over the Internet A mode of SMS in which a message is sent to Point-to-point SMS another subscriber Web-based personalized gateways to information Portals and knowledge in network computing A function that allows users of e-mail or instant Presence messaging to communicate their current functionality availability to associates Gateways to the Internet that are intended for communities with specific interests. video and data into packets that can be transmitted together over Packet technology a single . any time. seamlessly Short messaging Technology that allows for sending of short text service (SMS) messages on some cell phones Internet-enabled cell phones that can support Smart phone mobile applications . They index billions of pages. data mote by mote until it reaches a central computer where it can be stored and analyzed Information that influences the description of a Meta-tags web page in crawlers A gateway to the Internet accessible from mobile Mobile portal devices. They RSS (Really Simple are an easy way to receive newly released Syndication) information customized to a person’s interests and needs Web sites designed to help people find information stored o other sites.

They have a Tablet PCs (pen. stylus to write handwritten notes on the screen. connection- Control Protocol oriented method of packet delivery over the (TCP) Internet User Datagram Internet protocol that allow video streams to be Protocol (UDP) compressed and sent as IP packets B2B portals that focus on a single industry or Vertical Portals industry segment (vortals) A Web site with audio interface. delete or change content An immensely content-rich. Tablet PCs typically work with Wi-Fi. multilingual wiki that Wikipedia collects knowledge by consensus A programming language and an international XBRL standard for electronic transmission of business and financial information A simplified version of the general data description language. any one may add. Social network post pictures. Bluetooth and EDGE TDMA (Time A technology for delivering digital wireless service Division Multiple using time-division multiplexing such as the GSM Access) digital cellular system Transmission A protocol that provides a reliable. SGML. accessed by a Voice portal standard or cell phone call A piece of server software available in a Web site Wiki that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content using any Web browser A blog that allows everyone to participate as a Wikilog peer. based computing) usually about 12 inches. or homepage on which they write blogs (Web logs). videos or music share ideas and link to other Web locations they find interesting Spider-based search engines that use automated Spiders (crawlers) software agents that scour the Web every few minutes searching for information on Web pages A popular device for professionals. A place where people create their own space. used to improve XML (eXtensible compatibility between the disparate systems of Markup Language) business partners by defining the meaning of data in business documents .

A special type of intra business e-commerce in employees (B2E) which an organization delivers products or EC services to its employees Brick and mortar Organizations in which the product. E-commerce in which an individual sells products consumer (C2C) EC or services to other individuals (not businesses) E-commerce in which consumers make known a Consumer-to.commerce in which both the sellers and the E-commerce (B2B buyers are business organizations EC) Business-to- E-commerce in which a business sells to a business-to- business but delivers the product or service to an consumers individual consumer (B2B2C) EC E-commerce which the sellers are organizations Business-to- and the buyers are individuals also known as e- consumer (B2C) EC tailing B2B model in which organizations buy needed Buy-side products or services from other organizations marketplace electronically often through a reverse auction The alienation of existing distributions when a Channel conflict company decides to sell to customers directly online Click-and-mortar Organizations that do business in both physical organizations and digital dimensions Collaborative E-commerce in which business partners commerce (c- collaborate electronically commerce) Consumer-to.Definitions: Term Definition A competitive process in which either a seller solicits consecutive bids from buyers or a buyer Auction solicits bids from sellers. and prices are determined dynamically by competitive bidding Business-to. the process organizations and the delivery agent are all physical Business-to- business E. particular need for a product or service and business (C2B) EC suppliers compete to provide the product or service to consumers an example is Priceline.com Various banking activities conducted electronically Cyber banking from home. a business or on the road instead of at a physical bank location .

EC) business conducted online A collection of individual shops under one Internet Electronic mall address The direct sale of products and services through Electronic retailing electronic storefronts or electronic malls. transferring or Electronic exchanging products. inter organizational business and e-commerce. with its own storefront Internet address. including the Internet. services. information and (e-market) payments are exchanged E-procurement Purchasing by using electronic support A software component in which a user stores E-wallets (digital secured personal and credit card information for wallets) one-click reuse Electronic The electronically supported exchange of goods or bartering services without a monetary transaction The process of buying. the highest bidder wins the items Government-to. usually (e-tailing) designed around an electronic catalogue format and/or auctions Electronic The Website of a single company. Ecommerce in which a government provides citizens (G2C) EC services to its citizens via EC technologies Government-to- Ecommerce in which government units do government (G2G) business with other government units EC Group purchasing The aggregation of purchasing orders from many . business partners and E-government suppliers of government entities and those working in the public sector A network of interactions and relationships over Electronic market which products. Ecommerce in which a government does business business (G2B) EC with other governments as well as with businesses Government-to. many use the term interchangeably with e-commerce The use of e-commerce to deliver information and public services to citizens. the broadest definition of E-business e-commerce. at which orders can be placed An auction that sellers use as a selling channel to Forward auction many potential buyers. selling. (e-commerce. Effective for technological forecasting and for forecasting involving sensitive issues A company that performs most of its business functions electronically. including intra business. services or information via commerce computer networks. E-procurement method in which supplier’ s Desktop catalogs are aggregated into an internal master purchasing catalog on the buyer’s server for use by the company’s purchasing agents The elimination of intermediaries in EC: removing the layers of intermediaries between sellers and Disintermediation buyers.

short-range. also called organizations pure-play organizations Definitions: Term Definition Still-experimental device that would automatically Automatic crash notify police of the location of an ACN equipped car notification (ACN) involved in an accident Chip technology that enables voice and data communications between many wireless devices Bluetooth through low power. yet the charges are made to the credit card Organizations in which the product. digital two-way radio frequency Capturing a broad range of contextual attributes to better understand what the consumer needs and Context what products or services he or she might possibly awareness be interested in . buyers so that a volume discount can be obtained Intra business (intra E-commerce in which an organization uses EC organizational) internally to improve its operations commerce Method of marketing that asks consumers to give Permission their permission to voluntarily accept online marketing advertising and e-mail E-marketplace in which there are many sellers and Public exchange many buyers and entry is open to all. the process Virtual and the delivery agent are all digital. frequently (exchange) owned and operated by a third party Occurs where intermediaries such as brokers Re intermediation provide value-added services and expertise that cannot be eliminated when EC is used B2B model in which organizations sell to other Sell-side organizations from their own private e- marketplace marketplace and/or from a third-party site A payment mechanism that allows a buyer to shop with an ID number and a password instead of with Virtual credit card a credit card number.

an “electronic bucket brigade” moves the data mote by mote until it reaches a central computer where it can be stored and analyzed A gateway to the Internet accessible from mobile Mobile portal devices. everywhere computing that is embedded Pervasive in the objects around us computing Radio frequency identification Generic term for technologies that use radio waves (RFID) to automatically identify individual items Short messaging Technology that allows for sending of short text service (SMS) messages on some cell phones Internet-enabled cell phones that can support Smart phone mobile applications Telematics The integration of computers and wireless communications to improve information flow using the principles of telemetry . aggregates content and services for mobile users Multimedia The next generation of wireless messaging. where each mote “wakes up” or activates for a fraction of a second when it has data to transmit and then relays that data to its nearest Mesh network neighbour. which messaging service will be able to deliver rich media (MMS) Personal digital A small. also known as wireless wallet A type of wireless sensor network composed of motes. at specific times commerce) Technology that enables cardholders to make M-wallet (mobile purchases with a single click from their mobile wallet) devices. handheld wireless computer assistant (PDA) Invisible. Messaging Service tiny pictures and short tunes (EMS) Geographical Computer-based system that integrates GSP data information onto digitized map displays system (GIS) Wireless devices that use satellites to enable users to detect the position on earth of items (e.g. cars or Global positioning people) the devices are attached to with reasonable systems (GPS) precision Location-based M-commerce transactions targeted to individuals in commerce (l- specific locations. So instead of every mote transmitting its information to a remote computer at a base station. Enhanced An extension of SMS capable of simple animation.

16) for making broad- WiMax band network connections over a large area A set of communications protocols designed to Wireless enable different kinds of wireless devices to talk to a Application server installed on a mobile network. accessed by a standard or cell phone call Mobile wireless computing devices for employees Wearable devices who work on buildings and other difficult-to-climb places A wireless standard (IEEE 802. the network can determine information such as the direction a person is moving. or the amount of rainfall over a field of crops with great accuracy . anytime. battery-powered. Wireless sensor The motes provide information that enables a networks (WSNs) central computer to integrate reports of the same activity from different angles within the network. which Wireless encrypts communications between the device and a Encryption wireless access point Protocol (WEP) The standard on which most of today’s WLAN fun. Wireless fidelity developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and (Wi-Fi) Electronic Engineers). Therefore. and radio frequency sensors and antennas. Also known as 802. Each mote collects data and contains processing. so users can Protocol (WAP) access the Internet Built-in security system in wireless devices. storage. used to transmit and Wireless LAN receive data over the airwaves. computing) anywhere Networks of interconnected. the weight of a vehicle. but only from short (WLAN) distances Wireless 911 (e. wireless sensors called motes (analogous to nodes) that are placed into specific physical environments.11b LAN without the cables. Voice portal A Web site with audio interface. Calls from cellular phones to providers of 911) emergency services Wireless mobile Computing that connects a mobile device to a computing (mobile network or another computing device.

Definitions: Term Definition Processing system that processes inputs at fixed intervals as a file and operates on it all at once. which analyzes all financial Management(FVC functions in order to provide better financial control M) An inventory scheduling system in which material Just-in-time (JIT) and parts arrive at a work place when needed. stage 3 of the four stage planning model Integration solutions designed. perspective integration instead of from a technical or middleware perspective Sales automation Productivity software used to automate the work of software salespeople . waste. that plans needed to processing (OLTP) execute the master development plan . MRP and JIT into a whole. developed and Process –centric managed from a business-process. created on a Online transaction client/server architecture. Batch processing contracts with online(or interactive) processing A network of the materials and product distribution Channel systems systems involved in the process of getting a product (in marketing) or service to customers Computer- Integrates several computerized systems. minimizing inventory . possibly even in real time A transaction processing system . such as integrated CAD. CAM. in a factory manufacturing (CIM) Employee The use of Web-based applications to streamline the relationship human resources process and to better manage management employees (ERM) Expense management Systems that automate data entry and processing of automation (EMA) travel and entertainment expenses Financial Value The combination of financial analysis with Chain operations analysis. and interruptions Processing system that operates on a transaction as Online Processing soon as it occurs.

The way in which companies control and optimize the money they spend. including intra business. E-CRM CRM) covers a broad range of topic tools. ranging from the proper design of digital products and services to pricing and loyalty programs E-procurement Purchasing by using electronic support A supply chain that is managed electronically usually E-supply chain with Web-based software . management These costs typically show up as operating costs. many use the term interchangeably with e-commerce The use of Web browsers and other electronic touch e-CRM (electronic points to manage customer relationships. the broadest definition of e-commerce. and methods. but also be found in other areas and in other members of the supply chain Strategy used by retailers of allowing suppliers to Vendor-managed monitor the inventory levels and replenish inventory inventory (VMI) when needed. It involves cutting operating Spend and other costs associated with doing business. inter organizational business E-business and e-commerce. management systems-to-systems and systems-to-people interactions CASE tools The use of software tools to assist in the (Computer-aided development and maintenance of software Software Engineering) A company that performs most of its business functions electronically. eliminating the need for purchasing orders A programming language and an international XBRL standard for electronic transmission of business and financial information Definitions: Term Definition Erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply Bull whip effect chain Method for business restructuring that combines workflow systems and redesign methods. covers Business process three process categories-people-to-people.

Software that integrates the planning. Reengineering A flow of material or finished goods back to the Reverse logistics source. the return of defective products by customers The leading ERP software (from SAP AG Corp. It is an activity Process modelling similar to drafting a blueprint for a house. to customers. management. The purpose of modelling business processes is to create a blueprint of how the company works. each task is Supply chain team done by the member of the team who is best capable of doing the task Trust The psychological status of involved parties who . both internally and externally (MDM) Acquiring IS services from an external (outside) Outsourcing organization rather than through internal IS units A Modelling method that includes techniques and activities used as part of the larger business process management discipline. Enterprise resource and use of all resources in the enterprise also called planning (ERP) enterprise systems Enterprise Information system that encompasses the entire (enterprise wide) enterprise. (SCM) This includes ordering. for example. from suppliers. Product lifecycle Business strategy that enables manufacturers to management control and share product-related data as part of (PLM) product design and development efforts The radical redesign of an organization’s business. implemented on a company wide system network A method of managing data with the purpose of Master Data integrating all data in an organization at the management highest level. monitoring and billing A group of tightly coordinated employees who work together to serve the customer. a SAP R/3 highly integrated package containing more than 70 business activities modules Applications programs specifically designed to SCM software improve decision making in segments of the supply chain The management of all the activities along the Supply chain supply chain. to internal logistics management within a company. to distribution.).

report and quickly Agility respond to changes happening in the marketplace The ability to create shared incentives that align Alignment the interests of businesses across the supply chain Back-office The activities that support fulfilment of sales. such operations as accounting and logistics Erratic shifts in orders up and down the supply Bull whip effect chain Cross-border data The flow of corporate data across nation’s borders transfer Networks driven from the front by customer Demand-driven demand. eliminating the need for purchasing orders Collaborative enterprise application that provides Virtual factory a computerized model of a factory Definitions: Term Definition The ability to adjust the design of the supply chain Adaptability to meet structural shifts in markets and modify supply network strategies. Instead of products being pushed to supply networks market. such as sales and Front-office advertising that are visible to customers operations Inter organizational systems that connect Global information companies located in two or more countries systems (GIS) Inter Communications system that allows routine organizational transaction processing and information flow information between two or more organizations . products and technologies An EC firm’s ability to capture. they are pulled to market by customers (DDSNs) The business processes. are willing to pursue further interaction to achieve a planned goal Strategy used by retailers of allowing suppliers to Vendor-managed monitor the inventory levels and replenish inventory (VMI) inventory when needed.

in different locations. can be temporary or permanent Definitions: Term Definition In an organization. and Logistics related information from point of origin to point of consumption All of the activities needed to provide customers with ordered goods and services . the return of defective products by customers Supplier A comprehensive approach to managing an relationship enterprise’s interactions with the organizations management that supply the goods and services it uses (SRM) An organization composed of two or more business Virtual partners. including related Order fulfilment customer services Partner Business strategy that focuses on providing relationship comprehensive quality service to business management partners (PRM) A flow of material or finished goods back to the Reverse logistics source. services. the best methods for solving Best practice problems. systems (IOSs) The operations involved in the efficient and effective flow and storage of goods. These are often stored in the knowledge repository of a knowledge-management system Chief knowledge The director assigned to manage an organization’s officer (CKO) knowledge management (KM) program Communities of Groups of people in an organization with a practice (COPs) common professional interest An electronic document management system that Content produces dynamic versions of documents and Management systems (CMSs) automatically maintains the current set for use at the enterprise level Expert location Interactive computerized systems that help systems employees find and connect with colleagues who have expertise required for specific problems – whether they are across the country or across the . sharing costs and Corporation (VC) resources for the purpose of producing a product or service. for example.

) Intellectual capital The valuable knowledge of employees (intellectual assets) Data and/or information that have been organized Knowledge and processed to convey understanding . See personalization strategy Knowledge management approach that attempts to Process approach codify organizational knowledge through formalized controls. procedures.. disseminate. room –in order to solve specific. policies. it is highly personal and hard to formalize . represent and share it through its personnel The process of capturing knowledge and making it Organizational available enterprise-wide learning Organizational That which an organization “knows” memory The practice approach toward knowledge management focuses on building the social environments or Practice approach communities of practice necessary to facilitate the sharing of tacit understanding. experience. cognitive and experiential learning. documents. critical business problems in seconds The knowledge that deals with objective.g. and transfer Knowledge important information and expertise that are part management (KM) of the organization’s memory and that may reside in unstructured form within the organization Knowledge The software system that is a collection of both repository internal and external knowledge in a KMS Knowware A name for knowledge management (KM) software Another name for explicit knowledge due to the Leaky knowledge ease with which it can leave its source after it has been documented An organization capable of learning from its past Learning experience. processes and technologies Another name for tacit knowledge because it may be Sticky knowledge relatively difficult to pull away from its source The knowledge that is usually in the domain of Tacit knowledge subjective.including data mining The process that helps organizations identify . select. software. accumulated learning m and expertise Knowledge The process of extracting knowledge from volumes discovery in of data in databases(e. etc. organize . in data databases (KDD) warehouses). implying the existence of an organization organizational memory and a means to save. rational Explicit knowledge and technical knowledge (data.

analyzing it through comparison to management standards and planning how to improve it (BPM) Tracking what competitors are doing by gathering Competitive sources of materials on their recent and in-process intelligence (CI) activities The process of searching for unknown information or relationships i n large databases using tools Data mining (DM) such as neural computing or case-based reasoning Visual presentation of data and information by Data visualization graphics. or problems and provides monitoring (BAM) collaboration tools to address these issues system The application of models directly to business data. animation or any other multimedia Geographical Computer-based system that integrates GSP data information onto digitized map displays system (GIS) Geographical See global positioning system . in Business analytics assisting decision-makers. especially models. Business analyzing it through comparison to standards.Definitions: Term Definition Any query that cannot be determined prior to the Ad-hoc query moment the query is issued Analytics The science of analysis Method that evaluates the overall health of organizations and projects by looking at metrics in Balanced finance. Scorecard (BSC) internal business processes and ability to change and expand A BPM tool that alerts managers in real time to Business activity opportunities. and intelligence (BI) planning how to improve it Business A methodology for measuring organizational performance performance. storing. Using MSS tools. Essentially it is an OLAP (BA) decision support Category of applications for gathering. threats. customer’s view of the organization.

presenting and analyzing data by Multidimensionalit several dimensions. y by sales person and by time(four dimensions).by product.The result is generated in seconds Performance Visual displays used to monitor operational dashboards performance Performance Visual displays used to chart progress against scorecards strategic and tactical goals and targets Tools that help determine the probable future outcome for an event or the likelihood of a Predictive situation occurring. such as by region . while at Online analytical a PC. conduct an analysis processing (OLAP) and so on . They also identify analytics relationships and patterns Methodology that delineates the relationships among the key organizational objectives for all Strategy map four BSC perspectives.positioning system Organizing. to query the system. An information system that enables user. The application of data mining analysis to non Text mining structured or less-structured text files and documents A pseudo-3-D interactive technology that provides a user with a feeling that he or she is physically Virtual reality present I a computer generated world The application of data mining techniques to Web mining discover meaningful and actionable patterns from Web resources Definitions: Term Definition A subfield of computer science concerned with Artificial symbolic reasoning and problem solving Intelligence (AI) Artificial Neural A computer technology attempting to build .

and procedures. rules. related to a specific problem. implemented on a company wide system network Executive System specifically designed to support information information needs of executives system (EIS) A comprehensive executive support system that Executive support includes some analytical and communication system (ESS) capabilities A computer system that applies reasoning methodologies or knowledge in a specific domain Expert system (ES) to render advice or recommendations – much like a human expert The process by which companies automate Frontline decision decision processes and push them down to making frontline employees An interactive. organized in one place . computers that will operate like a human brain. computer based system that Group decision facilitates finding solutions to semi-structured support system problems by using a set of decision makers (GDSS) working together as a group The component of an expert system that performs Inference engine a reasoning function Software agents that exhibit intelligent behaviour Intelligent agents and learning Knowledge base A collection of facts. ANN program can work with ambiguous Network (ANN) information Systems that are rule based systems that Automated automatically provide solutions to repetitive decision support managerial problems (ADS) A computer based information system that Decision support combines models and data in an attempt to solve system (DSS) semi structured problems with extensive user involvement Enterprise Decision See automated decision support (ADS) Management (EDM) Enterprise Information system that encompasses the entire (enterprise wide) enterprise.

retrieval management (PIM) and sharing of information Sensitivity Study of the effect of a change in one or more analysis input variable on a proposed solution Speech The ability of a computer to recognize spoken recognition words The ability of a computer to understand the Speech meaning of sentences. a test designed to measure if a computer is . fast retrieval of Neural computing large amounts of information and the ability to recognize patterns based on experiences An approach used by management science to find Optimization the best possible solution Organizational (Institutional) A network system that provide decision support for decision support organizational. can be used to perform virtual experiment (in decision and analysis making) Model-based A software program to establish. Symbolic combined with rules of thumb (or heuristics) to processing process information and solves problems Turing test Named after the English mathematician Alan Turing. Management The application of any type of decision-support support system technology to decision-making (MSS) A simplified representation or abstraction of Model reality. group and individual tasks or system (ODSS) activities. in contrast with merely understanding recognizing individual words The use of symbols. maintenance. organization. update and use a management model base system (MBMS) Using a natural language processor to interface Natural language with the computer base system processing (NLP) The technology that attempts to achieve knowledge representations and processing based on massive parallel processing. rather than numbers. The ability of a computer to classify an item to a Pattern predetermined category by matching the item’s recognition characteristics with that of a stored category A system that supports the activities performed by Personal individuals in their work or life through the Information acquisition.

approved IS projects that Application are consistent with an organization’s long range portfolio plan An IBM top-down planning model that starts with business strategies and uses business processes Business systems and data classes to define organizational planning (BSP) databases and identify applications that support model business strategies A business framework devised by Michael Porter. alliances. The technology that transforms computer output Voice synthesis to voice or audio output Definitions: Term Definition The competitive strategy of working with business partners in partnerships.g. joint ventures Alliance strategy or virtual companies The collection of major. depicting five forces in a market (e. services or product features than those strategy offered by competitors Electronically supported IT planning that touches on EC infrastructure and mostly deals with uncovering business opportunities and deciding on E-planning an applications portfolio that will exploit those opportunities The competitive strategy of creating barriers to Entry-barriers entry of new market entrants strategy . bargaining Competitive forces power of customers) used for analyzing model competitiveness The competitive strategy of producing products Cost leadership and/or services at the lowest cost in its industry strategy group Those few things that must go right in order to Critical success ensure the organization’s survival and success factors (CSFs) The competitive strategy of offering different Differentiation products. intelligent.

speed or cost in that market Developing the hardware. data communications. also shows the support activities Definitions: Term Definition Behaviour oriented Accounting system that sets IT service costs in a . personnel and financial Resource plans needed to execute the master development allocation plan. software. acquiring more customers or selling more Growth strategy products The competitive strategy of introducing new Innovation products and services. that all organizations seem to experience in Stages of IT implementing and managing an information growth system from conception to maturity over time Model developed by Michael Porter that shows the primary activities that sequentially add value to Value chain model the profit margin. putting new features in strategy existing The organized planning of IT infrastructure and applications portfolios done at various levels of the IT planning organization The competitive strategy of selecting a narrow- Niche strategy scope segment (niche market) and being best in quality. suggested by Nolan. facilities. stage three of the four-stage planning model A planning methodology for dealing with an Scenario planning uncertain environment by examining different scenarios. The competitive strategy of increasing market share. a what-if analysis Six commonly accepted stages.

usually where Offshore labour is inexpensive. of the processing performance ratio power of a computer The seeming discrepancy between extremely large Productivity IT investments in the economy and relatively low paradox measures of productivity output Reach and An economic impact of EC: the trade-off between richness the number of customers a company can reach (called reach) and the amount of interactions and . computed by multiplying the Expected value size of a possible future benefit by the probability (EV) of its occurrence Benefits those are hard to place a monetary value Intangible benefits on (e. greater design flexibility) A specific. usually on a per.mips(millions of Price-to instructions per second) basis. charging organizational subunits Chargeback for IT services with the objective of recovering IT expenditures Study that helps in decisions on IT investments by Cost-benefit determining if the benefits (possibly including analysis intangible ones) exceed the costs A weighted average. to do programming or other outsourcing system development tasks Acquiring IS services from an external (outside) Outsourcing organization rather than through internal IS units The relative cost.g. often Benchmarks available from industry trade associations A written document that is used by managers to justify funding for a specific investment and also to Business case provide the bridge between the initial plan and its execution System that treats the IT function as a service bureau or utility. measurable standard against which Metric actual performance is measured Use of vendors in other countries. even though the charges chargeback may not respond to actual costs Objective measures of performance. way that encourages usage consistent with organizational objectives.

decision making. gathering information. negotiating. management systems-to-systems and systems-to-people interactions A methodology for introducing a fundamental and Business process radical change in specific business processes. reengineering(BPR usually supported by an information system ) The use or development of information systems by End user the principal users of the system’s outputs or by computing their staffs End-user See end-user computing development Information High-level map or plan of the information assets in Technology an organization. on the Web. it includes the architecture content and architecture of the site . monitoring the exchange of goods and legal fees Definitions: Term Definition Company that provides business Application service applications(standardized or customized) over the provider (ASP) Internet for a per-use or fixed monthly fee A collection of activities performed to accomplish a Business process clearly defined goal Method for business restructuring that combines workflow systems and redesign methods. covers Business process three process categories-people-to-people. information services it can provide to them (richness) An approach for calculating the payoff of an IT investment by calculating both the tangible and Total benefits of intangible benefits and subtracting the costs of ownership (TBO) ownership: TBO_TCO_Payoff Costs that are associated with the distribution (sales)and/or exchange of products and services including the cost of searching for buyers and Transaction costs sellers.

usually where Offshore labor is inexpensive. delivered over the Internet. Instead of buying and installing expensive packaged enterprise Software-as-a applications users’ access applications over a Service (SaaS) network. water and telephone services. to do programming or other outsourcing system development tasks Acquiring IS services from an external (outside) Outsourcing organization rather than through internal IS units Also referred to as on-demand computing. like electricity. Use of vendors in other countries. utility computing or hosted services. that users can select Web Services and combine through almost any device. enabling disparate systems to share data and services Definitions: Term Definition It is the policy that informs users of their responsibilities. can be obtained on demand used and reallocated Utility computing for any application and billed on a pay-per-use basis Modular business and consumer applications. outputs and processing Rebery malicious software which is programmed to come to life when computer owners visit one of a Banking Trojan number of online banking or e-commerce sites Biometric control An automated method of verifying the identity of a . their inputs. An AUP serves two main Acceptable use purposes:1) Helps to prevent misuse of information policy(AUP) policy and computer resources & 2)It reduces exposure to legal liability Security controls designed to protect specific Application applications controls Audit (of ISs) A regular examination or check of systems. with an Internet browser being the only absolute necessity Unlimited computing power and storage capacity that.

or changing and deleting true data . based on physiological or behavioural characteristics Bot Computer stealthily infected and controlled by a cyber criminal A network of bots Botnet A comprehensive plan for how a business and IT Business systems will operate in case a disaster strikes continuity plan An exercise that determines the impact of losing the support of any resource to an organization and establishes the escalation of that loss over time. coordination and recovery mechanisms in simulated cyber attacks Cyber storm against critical infrastructures launched US DHS in 2006 Data tampering Deliberately entering false data. person. discovery and recovery of e-evidence forensics A computer crime involving money Computer fraud A malicious hacker Cracker Occurs when a Trojan encrypts the data on a user’s computer then. Business Impact identifies the minimum resources needed to Analysis (BIA) recover and prioritizes the recovery of processes and supporting systems Text that is unreadable because it has been Ciphertext encrypted or disguised in some way Framework that helps managers and other professionals gain greater value from IT and COBIT mitigate IT-related risk exposure Committee of Sponsoring An IT security body that defines internal control as Organizations of a process designed to provide reasonable the Treadway assurance of effective operations and reliable Commission financial reporting (COSO) Computer The search. the attacker offers to Cyber-blackmail decrypt it for $300 or more The first wide scale government-led IT security exercise to examine response.

See Business community plan Disaster recovery plan Electronic Cyber trails left by laptop computers.Internal control(IC) is a process designed to achieve: (1) reliability of financial reporting. PCI Data Security Industry (PCI) Data Standard is required for all members. merchants or Security Standard service providers that store . process or transmit cardholder data. Plaintext Text that is readable by humans Programming Criminal use of programming techniques to modify . MasterCard . evidence DVDs. See computer fraud fraud) A network code consisting of both hardware and software that isolates a private network from a Firewall public network Security controls aimed at defending a computer system in general rather than protecting specific General controls applications People who illegally or unethically penetrate a Hackers computer system Software agents that exhibit intelligent behaviour Intelligent agents and learning The work atmosphere that a company sets for its employees. Fraud that occurs when a person uses his or her occupation for personal gain through deliberate Occupational fraud misuse of the organization’s resources or assets Standard created by a coalition of self-regulating industry group including Visa. PDAs. environment (3) compliance with laws. iPods. and Discover . Payment Card American Express. Internal control (2) operational efficiency. digital cameras and cell phones (e-evidence) Electronic fraud(e. (4) regulations and policies and (5) safeguarding of assets See two-factor authentication Multifactor Two-factor authentication: Method of authentication: authentication where other information is used to verify the user’s identity such as biometrics.

passwords. a computer program. examples are computer worms. The elapsed time between when vulnerability is exploitation discovered and the time it is exploited The name given to a variant of a Trojan program Trojan-Phisher. points (Aps) customer information and intellectual property from legitimate users Getting around security systems by tricking computer users into providing information or Social engineering carrying out actions that seem innocuous but are not Time-to. that was suspected to have been used to steal Rebery tens of thousands of identities from people in 125 countries Method of authentication where other information Two-factor is used to verify the user’s identity such as authentication biometrics Two-tier See two-factor authentication authentication Wired equivalent An encryption algorithm that uses a poor or weak privacy (WEP) cryptographic technique Wireless access points Backdoor into a network (APs or WAPs) Wireless packet Tools that can capture and analyze the contents of analyzers packets sent over a network A software program that runs independently. viruses and denial attack of service attacks. including logins. consuming the resource of its host in order to Worm maintain itself. that is capable of propagating a complete working version of itself onto another machine Attacks through previously unknown weaknesses Zero-day incident in their computer networks . Servers that provide direct communication to a Remote access company’s LAN servers (RAS) The degree of risk to which a digit asset is exposed Risk exposure Risk exposure A model for assessing reasonable levels of model protection for digital assets Unauthorized wireless Aps deployed by malicious users to gain access to sensitive information stored Rogue access on client machines. either directly or indirectly.