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PORTABLE FLAME THROWER The portable flame thrower, a standard weapon of pillbox assault teams, has not been used extensively by the Japanese. However, the enemy is known to be equipped both with flame throwers and with flame-thrower troops, and must be considered capable of using this weapon extensively in future operations. Thus far he has used them only in isolated instances ever since the start of the present Pacific war. Two types of portable flame thrower are standard throughout the Japanese Army—the Model 93 and the Model 100. However, since there is so little difference between the construction of the two types, they may be regarded virtually as identical weapons. Each model consists of three principal groups: fuel unit, fuel hose, and flame gun. A modification in the construction of the flame gun is the only difference between the two types of flame thrower.

The Japanese flame thrower, showing the fuel and pressure tanks, the flame gun, and the disassembled igniting-cartridge magazine. FUEL UNIT The flame-thrower fuel unit consists of two 15-inch cylindrical tanks, each of which is 6 inches in diameter. Hemisphere-shaped at both ends, the tanks are connected at the top and bottom by a welded pipe which permits fuel and pressure to flow evenly in both tanks so that they may operate as a single unit. The total fuel capacity is 3 1/4 gallons. A third tank, slightly smaller but of the same shape, is included in the fuel unit, and contains nitrogen or air under pressure. This pressure cylinder is attached to the back and center of the two fuel tanks. Air pressure, which forces the fuel from the tanks into the flame gun, is let into the fuel tanks through a tube running from the top of the pressure cylinder to the top of the left fuel tank. This pressure is controlled by a manually operated needle valve, one on the top of each of these two cylinders. The top of the right-hand fuel tank is fitted with a screw cap for filling the containers with fuel.

This three-tank unit is fitted with straps which permit it to be carried on the operator's back like an infantry pack. FUEL HOSE The fuel hose, 45 inches long, is made of reinforced fabricated rubber tubing, with brass fittings on both ends. One end is attached to the bottom of the right-hand fuel tank, and the other is fitted to the flame gun. FLAME GUN The flame gun, which is either 3 or 4 feet long, consists of a fuel tube 1 inch in internal diameter. The fuel ejection handle is located near the fuel hose connection, and the 1/4-inch nozzle with the firing mechanism is attached to the other end of the tube. The firing mechanism is a 10-chamber magazine resembling the magazine of an ordinary revolver. Loaded with 10 rimless cartridges, it rotates around the nozzle, and, when fired, ejects an ignition flash parallel to the spurt of fuel. The cartridges are loaded into the front of the magazine, and are held in place by a threaded retaining cap with holes in line with the cartridge chambers. The fuel ejection handle, which fires the cartridges when it opens the fuel ejection valve, is in the closed position when it is parallel to the fuel tube. When this handle is turned at right angles to the tube, a continuous jet of fuel is released and a cartridge is fired, thus igniting the fuel. When the handle is returned to its position parallel to the tube, the flow of fuel stops, and the magazine revolves to place a new cartridge in the firing position. CHARACTERISTICS AND OPERATION The Japanese flame thrower may be carried easily. When filled, the tank assembly weighs 55 pounds. The fuel tanks will hold 3.25 gallons of fuel—a mixture of kerosene, gasoline, and fuel oil. This fluid can be thrown to a maximum range of 25 to 30 yards. The duration of a continuous discharge is from 10 to 12 seconds. To operate the flame thrower, the operator first opens the valve on the pressure tank. The valve on the left fuel tank then is opened, and the gun is ready for firing. To fire, the operator aims the gun at his target, and turns the fuel ejection handle on the gun 90 degrees to the right. This simultaneously ejects the fuel and ignites it when the igniting cartridge fires. To shut off the fuel, the fuel ejection handle is returned to its original position. JAPANESE FLAME-THROWER TROOPS It is known that flame-thrower companies exist in the Japanese Army, and that Japanese infantry also have used this weapon. Division engineer regiments are equipped with from six to a dozen. Like other armies, the Japanese Army employs flame throwers principally in assault operations against pillboxes and similar fortifications. The Japanese also use the flame thrower as an antitank weapon. Experiments have convinced them that a flame thrower either can temporarily stop a tank and thus leave it vulnerable to

or—if the weapon is used to full effect against the air intakes—can put the tank and crew permanently out of commission. Each successive model has represented an attempt to provide a less cumbersome weapon without decreasing its effective range.6 gallons and a flame range of 25 yards. Model 42.html destruction by explosives. which was in use at the start of the present war. 16 inches long and 1 1/2 inches in diameter. The various models are discussed in the following paragraphs.lonesentry. Figure 1 illustrates the Model 41. is mounted on the flame gun. MODEL 35 The German portable flame thrower.5 gallons. Fuel capacity. are equipped with flame guns of two different types. 2.2 lb 1 1/2 gal 368 lb/sq in 218 cu in 28 1/2 cu in Model 42 25 yd 40 1/2 lb 29 lb 1 1/2 gal 368 lb/sq in 218 cu in _____ The flame gun of the Model 41 is the same as that used in the earlier types of German portable flame throwers. The flame range is approximately the same as that of the Model 35. introduced about August 1942. 3. the German portable flame thrower has undergone a number of modifications. charged Total weight. the portable flame thrower. and its later modification. The following table supplies basic information.http://www. is a modified version of the 1918 German flame thrower. It has a fuel capacity of 2. Its fuel capacity is only 1. which itself is ignited by a batteryactuated electric device. Model 41. This weapon weighs 79 pounds. Fuel ejection and ignition are controlled by a trigger lever on top of the flame gun. The jet of fuel is ignited by a hydrogen flame. MODEL 40 This so-called "Lifebuoy Type" portable flame thrower has a fuel unit consisting of two concentric ring-shaped containers. and flame range of the two most recent models do not differ much from those of the Model 40. and figure 2 illustrates the Model 42. Maximum range Total weight. which has an inside diameter of approximately 1 . 1. MODEL 41 The German portable flame thrower. The rest of the equipment is the same for both models and can be used with either type of flame gun. The hydrogen cylinder. empty Fuel capacity Fuel pressure Nitrogen capacity Hydrogen capacity Model 41 25 yd approx 47 lb 32. Portable Flame Throwers (German) Since the beginning of the war. The rubber fuel hose. which are carried flat on the operator's Model 35. The fuel container is a commercial-type pressure cylinder which also holds the compressed nitrogen used to propel the jet of fuel. weight. The total weight of this flame thrower is 47 pounds.

each charged with compressed nitrogen. In the Model 42 flame gun. The breech and the firing rod cartridge-ejection mechanisms are at the forward end. The tank carrier consists of a fabric-covered quadrangular frame. The fuel tank and the pressure cylinder are held on the cradles by a metal band fitted with a quick-release clasp and cotter pin. is wire-braided on the outside. an ignition device. The fuel valve. Figure 1. The fuel-discharge valve is controlled by a trigger lever. this equipment is the same as the Model 41. the fuel tube. Each cradle consists of a horizontal bar with a semicircular metal strip at each end. The principal parts of the flame gun are a fuel tube with a fuel-discharge valve at the rear. the flame gun of the Model 42 is otherwise similar in appearance to that of the Model 41. The magazine holds 10 blank 9-mm (0. Although shorter. This consists essentially of a tubular spring-loaded cartridge magazine. The tank carrier is provided with two shoulder straps. is so placed that the operator can rotate the hand wheel with his left hand. their diameters being 7 inches and 5 rimless cartridges. The fuel tank and the pressure cylinder. in a horizontal position and with the pressure cylinder placed above the fuel tank. The essential difference between the two models is in the ignition method.html inch. Both containers are carried on the operator's back. which controls the flow of fuel to the flame gun. 4. are 13 inches long.lonesentry. The protective dust cover is a steel tube. the fuel jet is ignited by the flash from a blank cartridge. and a removable protective cover for the ignition. MODEL 42 Except for the flame gun. which can be folded flat when not in use. mounted above.http://www. 1 1/2 inches in diameter. fitted with two metal cradles. and constitutes the forward outside part of the flame gun. instead of by a hydrogen flame. Removal of this cover discloses the ignition device. and parallel with. . respectively.

When the trigger is released. The normal position of the breech is such that the mouth of the cartridge is about 0. the breech of the firing mechanism swings back into line with the magazine. . and engineer elements are frequently attached to small infantry units.http://www. Ejection of the spent cartridge takes place. and the striker pin is withdrawn. so that the flash is directed into the fuel jet. Percussion takes place with the fuel valve wide open. a fresh cartridge is inserted by spring the fuel-discharge valve closes. HOW THE GERMANS USE THEM Only the engineers carry and employ flame throwers. When this trigger is moved to the rear.4 inch from the fuel jet and inclines at an angle to it. The firing mechanism is operated by the same trigger lever that controls the fuel-discharge valve. the fuel discharge valve begins to open. and the firing mechanism is again ready. At the same time. However. the engineers in the German army are regarded as combat troops.html Figure 2.lonesentry. thereby allowing the breech to swing forward into an inclined position. but is very complex and requires a number of expensive small parts. 5. It is cleverly designed. or about 2 1/2 pounds less than the Model 41. The Model 42 flame gun weighs 5 1/2 pounds.

FmW 41. it should be noted that for special missions the number of flame throwers may be increased. Moreover.lonesentry. the men carrying the equipment are good Flamethrower. Experience has shown that casualties in German flame thrower detachments are high.) The effect of the flame thrower is chiefly psychological.http://www. Tactics of Personnel Carriers Mounting Flame Throwers Keywords: Flammenwerfer. Flame-Throwing Pz. They are used most of all against pillboxes. preferably in inclosed spaces. Flame throwers are used only against static targets. or single tanks. These elements may be anything from an engineer platoon attached to an advance guard[1] to two engineers with a flame thrower supporting a raiding party. In such instances the flame-throwing detachment begins the final assault on the pillbox itself by engaging the embrasures at close range after infantry detachments have cut any communication wire. [1] Although the German tables of organization represent such a platoon as consisting of 60 men with 2 flame throwers.html down to the smallest assault detachments. FmW 42 . 3. once they have been spotted. Flammenwerfer mit Strahlpatrone 41. Kw. (The flame throwers usually advance to within effective range under cover of smoke or of fire from machine guns. FmW 41P. See Also: Flame Throwers (Italian). antitank guns. FmW 41W.

Portable. The M1 flamethrower was modified for use with napalm in 1942. the 1st Marine Division received some M1-1 flamethrowers just prior to the New Britain campaign. The early models were undependable and cumbersome. This weapon was used in the Pacific campaigns of 1943— early 1944. tightened the flame stream. This caused too-rapid burning of the fuel. Another problem was that the flame tended to roll off the target. called napalm. which was mostly consumed just beyond the nozzle and meant the operator had to approach to within 10-15 yards of the target. and increased target effect. observed a demonstration of the new flamethrower. improved the range. This weapon was first used in combat by Marines of the 2nd Engineer Battalion on Guadalcanal in January 1943. Testing continued on improved delivery methods for flame weapons. Though it was better then its predecessor. the M1-1 was still not a completely satisfactory weapon. LtCol Lewis "Chesty" Puller. In 1942. he asked. Testing continued and the M1 flamethrower was introduced into service in early 1942. This The legendary Marine. The M1 used gasoline or a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel and used hydrogen as its propellant.http://www. the Chemical Warfare Service developed a revolutionary concept–a thickening agent for gasoline.lonesentry. The improved model was standardized as the M1-1. M2-2 Empty weight: 43 pounds Filled weight: 68 pounds Fuel capacity: 4 gallons Range: 20-40 yards Fuel type: Gasoline Propellant: Nitrogen Burn time: 10-20 seconds Flamethrowers were first developed by the US Army Chemical Warfare Service in 1940-41.html WEAPONS OF THE WORLD WAR II GYRENE Flamethrowers The Flamethrower. "Where do you put the bayonet on the damned thing?" . Afterward. In late 1943.

com/articles/japanese-flamethrower/index. They used a technique sometimes called "corkscrew and blowtorch" to destroy Japanese emplacements. By 1944.html (above) Tarawa–22 November 1943 Marines of 1stLt Alexander Bonnyman's assault group on top of the large Japanese bombproof shelter near the Burns-Philp wharf. while we climbed toward the blockhouse." .lonesentry.from Tom Lea's notes US Army Art Collection The Marine Corps realized the tactical value of the flamethrower. small groups of marines fanned out on both sides of the trail to clean them out. Various methods were used in this tactic. I saw our lead man meet a front line detail posted by the blockhouse while the other troops advanced down the hill with the three tanks and the flamethrowers. The M2-2 offered improved reliability and a better ignition system than previous models. spread throughout the division.http://www. The thing was now a great jagged lump of concrete. Each Marine regiment was assigned 81 flamethrowers. BARs would suppress enemy positions with a heavy volume of . The D-series Marine division had 24 flamethrowers. USMC Photo In the summer of 1944 the M2-2 flamethrower was introduced into service. This model used nitrogen as its propellant. Isolated Jap snipers were at work on our slope. assault groups were formed with flamethrowers. demolition men and BAR men. (Left) The Blockhouse by Tom Lea A flamethrower team of the 1st MarDiv on Peleliu "Looking up at the head of the trail I could see the big Jap blockhouse that commanded the height. all organic to the divisional engineer battalion. This weapon was first used in combat on Guam and was subsequently employed in all Pacific campaigns. smoking. the F-series division carried 243 flamethrowers into combat. In combat. It still had drawbacks–it was too heavy and had a high silhouette.

The front grip had the trigger that ignited the fuel. runs under fire on Iwo Jima–February 1945.html automatic fire while the flamethrowers approached to within effective range. 2nd Bn. Since flamethrower operators had to approach very close to enemy positions. The rear grip had a lever that released the fuel from the tanks. E. After the enemy position was neutralized. Jim Laurier (Left) A flamethrower operator of Co. typically a cave mouth. USMC Photo .http://www. 9th Marines. His buddies provide covering fire in the foreground. Corporal Williams (in the right background) mounts a Japanese pill box and fires a stream of flame at point blank range into the aperture. It had two pistol grips.lonesentry. This painting depicts one of his acts that day. Courtesy of the artist. effective suppressing fire by BARs and riflemen was critical. The flame gun can be seen in this Marine's right hand. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions on 23 February Flamethrower operators were extremely vulnerable to enemy fire since they effectively had a napalm bomb strapped to their back. demolition men would use explosive charges to destroy the emplacement. flame was used to wipe out any pockets of enemy resistance. 3rd MarDiv during the Iwo Jima operation. Then. (above) Corporal Hershel Williams (copyright 2000) by Jim Laurier Corporal Williams was a demolition man and flamethrower operator attached to C 1/21.

… Amid our shouts of appreciation. Womack then aimed the nozzle at the opening made by the 75mm gun. then all was quiet. He was a brave. He pressed the trigger. Carrying tanks with about seventy pounds of flammable jellied gasoline through enemy fire over rugged terrain in hot weather to squirt flames into the mouth of a cave or pillbox was an assignment that few survived but all carried out with magnificant courage. flamethrower team operates the M2-2 flamethrower at a public demonstration of World War II tactics. When they got about 15 yards from the target. He was big and husky… [and] I was glad we were on the same side. Womack and his buddy started back to battalion headquarters to await the summons to break a deadlock somewhere else on the battlefield–or lose their lives Stooped under the heavy tanks on his back. B. USMC–HC Photo . carried by Corporal Womack from Mississippi. Some muffled screams. With a whoooooosh the flame leaped at the opening.html (left) Into the mouth of hell. Womack approached the pillbox with his assistant just out of the line of our fire.http://www. goodnatured guy and popular with the troops. we ceased firing. The job of flamethrower gunner was probably the least desirable of any open to a Marine infantryman." With the Old Breed at Peleliu and Okinawa E. The assistant reached up and turned a valve on the flamethrower. A USMCHC flamethower team in action at a public event (2003) USMC-HC Photo "We kept up a steady fire into the pillbox to keep the Japanese pinned down while the flamethrower came up.lonesentry. Sledge (above) A US Marine Corps Historical Co.

lonesentry. USMC Photo WEAPONS AND EQUIPMENT WW2 GYRENE HOME . Iwo Jima–1945 USMC Photo (above) A flamethrower team in action on Iwo Riflemen provide security for the flamethrower operator while he engages a target.html (above) Flamethrower operators move back up the line after refilling their tanks with fuel.http://www.

making it much easier to handle.30 cartridge) Plated steel Detachable On the "Type 93 Modified" flame thrower. It is very likely that subsequent to the capture of this flame thrower the chambers were enlarged to permit the use of a cartridge improvised from U.S. fuel pipe and other fittings Nozzle outlet tip (6) 47 1/8 in 10 lbs No locking screw Single ratchet No lock No lock 0. Type 93 Overall length of nozzle assembly (1) Weight of nozzle assembly Retaining nut on firing mechanism (inside nozzle outlet) Ratchet track (2) on back of revolving cylinder Nut (3) on firing handle Nut (4) on firing mechanism operating crank Cartridge chambers (5) in revolving cylinder Firing handle." (3) The inclusion of several locking pins offers definite mechanical and safety advantages.484 in diameter (for U. 8. resulting in a failure to fire. operates in the inner track.html JAPANESE FLAME THROWER TYPE 93 (MODIFIED) The Japanese Type 93 modified flame thrower is very similar to the small flame thrower of the same type number (see sketch) described in Tactical and Technical Trends The fuel tanks and rubber hoses of the two models are identical.) . the old Type 93 nozzle would have to be sent to the rear for repair.http://www. caliber . For the sake of simplicity in comparison.lonesentry. the shorter length and slightly lighter weight of the nozzle of the modified model plus other mechanical improvements discussed below indicate that it is probably a later model. and the firing pin and locking pin operate through the outer track. the retaining nut on the firing mechanism came loose. while the part is replaceable in "Type 93 Modified. which actuates the revolving cylinder.30 cartridge cases. (In a recent test of the flame thrower not so equipped. p. The following points tend to indicate that "Type 93 Modified" flame thrower is an improvement or a more recent model of the Type 93 previously reported: (1) The shorter length and slightly lighter weight of the nozzle give it a better balance. cal. It is not known whether this is a later or earlier model of the Type 93 or even an entirely separate type.44 in diameter (for Japanese cartridge) Brass Not detachable Type 93 Modified 35 1/2 in 8 1/2 lbs Has locking screw Double ratchet Has tapered locking pin Has tapered locking pin 0. The differences are found in the nozzle assemblies as shown on the following page. However. the flame thrower described in this article has been designated "Type 93 Modified". 18. the pin. . This feature makes it possible for the slots in each track to be tapered in opposite directions and thereby eliminates some wear on the locking pin and the track itself.S. (2) Should the nozzle outlet tip be damaged.

html (4) The double ratchet design of the revolving cylinder is mechanically better than the single ratchet of Type 93.lonesentry. while not an advantage. may indicate a more recent date of manufacture. most of these features involve added machine work and the present tendency is to simplify rather than complicate design. (5) The replacement of various brass parts with steel. Conversely. .

12.http://www. Finnish military had no flame-throwers when Winter War started.0 . Its basic structure in all its simplicity: Three containers. During World War 2 all major players had portable flame-throwers among weaponry used by their engineer corps. but were in extensive combat use during Continuation War. Flame-thrower M/40 (Italian Lanciaflamme Spalleggiabile Model 35) PICTURE: Finnish Army flame-thrower M/40. but they proved also somewhat suitable as antitank weapons.Finnish "field grey" was probably Maximum range: Flame: Weight: Working pressure: Liquid capacity: 20 metres 20 .0 kg empty 20 at 12. Don't seem to have seen any use yet in Winter War. Flame-thrower operators were hated priority targets to their adversaries. Only 28 of those 176 flamethrowers arrived during that war and the rest only after it. two of them contained fuel and third one had flammable pressurised gas (usually nitrogen). but inside its short range it proved brutally effective.30 burst of 1 second 20 sec of constant flame 25. Originally portable flame-thrower was designed as a weapon to be used against fortifications. Colours are the best guess .5 litres Finnish use: 176 bought from Italy during Winter War. When Winter War started at end of November 1939 Finnish military didn't have any flamethrowers. Flame tube connected with hose to containers was used to aim the flame. Drawing based to drawings in military manuals.lonesentry. The weapon was dangerous also those carrying it and had short range when compared to other infantry weapons.html Portable Flame-throwers Modern portable flame-thrower was German pre World War 1 invention. Finnish Army .5 kg in action 10. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (70 KB). Drawing based to drawings in Finnish military manuals. but because of its treaty with the Soviets it was unwilling to deliver weaponry to Finland. but to what extent is difficult to say. So. At the time Germany was still leading the development of flame-throwers. but soon that changed. During World War 1 portable flame-throwers become more common and gained popularity as one of the most feared and hated weapons.

As a result the Finns bought 176 portable flame-throwers type Lanciaflamme Spalleggiabile Model The remaining 148 arrived during the peacetime between Winter War and Continuation War. Mainly due to low working pressure the maximum range of flame was only about 20 metres or so. The empty fuel tank weighted about 10 kg.lonesentry. The Italians had portable flame-throwers in large-scale use (some 1.12.5-volt batteries connected in series or two 9-volt batteries connected in series) or highvoltage inductor.5 litres of flame-thrower fuel. as usual with portable flame-throwers weight of the weapon was an issue and slowed movement of the flame-thrower . The nitrogen gas in upper chambers of its containers could be loaded up to 20 at. because the pressure would leak from the tank if it was storaged for a long time. from which the upper chamber contained nitrogen gas and lower chamber contained fuel. According manuals filling of the flamethrowers tanks had to be just before use. which was beyond average for portable flame-thrower of World War 2 era. Nitrogen and fuel filling vents and nitrogen pipe connecting the two cylindrical containers were on top of the fuel tank. This powerpack containing batteries or high-voltage inductor was integral part attached to this flame-thrower.  Lighter system. Earlier Italian flame-throwers had used fling-system for igniting the fuel. Also.nitrogen provided pressure for spraying the fuel and once this was ignited it produced a considerable flame. The fuel tank consists two cylinder shape containers. The basic system used in this flame-thrower was the typical to flame-throwers of that era . which was powered with electricity.  Flame tube with its hose. The fuel tank contained 12 .html decided to acquire its first flame-throwers from Italy. These were divided by horizontal inner wall to two chambers. These flame-throwers were issued to Engineer Battalions of Finnish Army for Continuation War and saw extensive combat use during it. four 4. which Finnish military named as liekinheitin M/40 (flame-thrower M/40). The main parts of flame-thrower M/40 were:  Fuel could do as many as 20 30 bursts with one fill. From those 176 flame-throwers ordered from Italy only 28 arrived during Winter War and likely didn't see any combat-use during it. PICTURE: Flame tube of Finnish Army M/40 flame-thrower. However range-wise it wasn't quite as effective. This electric lighter could be powered by either with dry batteries (one 18-volt battery. but the model delivered to Finland had been equipped with a lighter system. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (37 KB). Hose leading to the flame tube was attached low to right hand side container. Drawing based to drawings in military manuals. Flame tube was obviously the part from which the flame burst out.500 being used by Italian Army at 1940) and were quite willing to do business with the Finns. The typical way of using portable flame-thrower in combat were short (about 1 second) bursts of flame and in this M/40 proved quite good .http://www.

Captured M/41-R flame-throwers remained in combat-use with Finnish Engineer Corps to the end of World War 2.0 litres During Continuation War Finnish troops also captured Soviet ROKS-2 portable flame-throwers.  Flame tube.lonesentry.0 kg empty 115 at 10. Finnish Army named these flame-throwers as liekinheitin M/41-R (flame-thrower M/40 Russian). which were then adapted to Finnish use.0 kg in action 15. Main parts of M/41-R flame-thrower:  Fuel tank and small nitrogen tank. Maximum range: Flame: Weight: Working pressure: Liquid capacity: 30 metres 6 .  Hose connecting flame tube to fuel tank. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (71 KB).8 burst of 1 second 5 .6 sec of constant flame 25. Drawing based to drawings of military manuals. Because of this purpose the flame tube was shaped to remind rifle and fuel tanks had been attached to frame made from thin steel plate. The Finns presumably captured most if not all ROKS-2 during their advance at year 1941.http://www. Later the Italians also developed Lanciaflamme spaglleggiabile Model 1940 (which had electric lighter with high-voltage inductor) and Lanciaflamme spaglleggiabile Model 1941 portable flame-throwers. Due to weight and location of valves operating of the flame-thrower M/40 demanded crew of two men. Flame-thrower M/41-R (Soviet ROKS-2) PICTURE: Finnish Army flamethrower M/41-R (ROKS-2). .com/articles/japanese-flamethrower/index. The speciality of ROKS-2 was that the Soviets had tried to camouflage it as M/91-30 military rifle and a backbag.html team in combat. which covered them somewhat hiding their structure. but according Finnish documents none of them were acquired for Finnish military.

PICTURE: Flame tube of flame-thrower M/41-R.http://www. The lighting system contained two special cartridges. Like with M/40 also M/41-R demanded crew of two men to operate it. Each fuel container had filling valve on top of it. CLICK THUMBNAIL TO SEE LARGER PIC (36 KB). Length of the flame tube was 111 centimetres and it weight 3. Typically each Continuation War era Finnish Army . And once the flame was ignited the true nature of weapon must have been quite obvious.45 metres). Finnish military used two kinds of flame-thrower fuel mixes during World War 2: Summer-mix:  66 % heavy fuel oil  33 % burning oil Winter mix:  55 % heavy fuel oil  30 % burning oil  20 % gasoline Flame-thrower fuel was readily mixed for 50-litre tanks.6 kg.1. These special cartridges had been made in cartridge cases of standard Soviet 7. During World War 2 flame-throwers remained rather rare weapons for Finnish military.8 kg.8 litres of nitrogen gas packed to pressure of 115 at. Pipe connecting nitrogen tank to fuel tank was at the left-hand side. in which it was both transported and storaged. Typical Finnish Continuation War era Engineer Battalion had first separate Liekinheitin joukkue (Flamethrower Platoon).5 kg. Using working pressure this high had its ups and downs: The range with Finnish flame-thrower fuel was 30 metres (with Soviet developed flame-thrower fuel up to 36 . Each of these platoons had 12 flame-throwers.äkaripioneeri joukkue (Jaeger Engineer Battalion) in September of 1943. The flame-throwers needed to be re-fueled only after also the 2nd flame-throwers had run out of fuel. Drawing based to drawings of military manuals.8 short (1 second) bursts of fire without refill.html Like in M/40 also fuel tank of this flame-thrower had two cylindrical vertical containers. but the high pressure also used lot of fuel real fast. The empty fuel tank weight 8.lonesentry. The hose containing fuel tank to flame tube was attached low at right hand side fuel container.62 mm x 25 Tokarev pistol/submachinegun cartridge. The weapon could only produce 6 . they could simply take their second flame-thrower and continue fighting. Each of these platoons had each had 6 flame-thrower crews (with 2 men each crew). Effectiveness of camouflage used with ROKS-2 in real battles is highly The nitrogen tank was not covered by steel frame and hose leading from fuel tank to the flame tube was still in plain view. which started the flame and could be fired by pulling trigger of the rifle-shaped flame tube. which was replaced with J&aum. The nitrogen tank placed vertically under the fuel tank contained 1. so once some flamethrower crew run out of fuel in their first flame-thrower.3 . However in this flame-thrower the containers were in metal frame and had smaller cylindrical horizontal nitrogen tank under them. The nitrogen tank weight 2.

4.html engineer battalion had one of these platoons. (Printed 1942) Jatkosodan historia. (Printed by Otava in 1941) Military manual: Liekinheitinopas. text and graphics): Jaeger Platoon Website.1975 Last updated 1st of May 2009 Webmaster: JTV jtvalias@hotmail. part 1 Brassey’s Infantry Weapons 1950 . liekinheitin (1940) Military manual: Liekinheitinopas (M/40).considering that by the book TO&E strength whole Finnish Engineer Battalion of that time was close to 600 men and only 12 of these were armed with flame-throwers. Copyrights (pictures. One could say that flame-throwers played relatively small role as weapon of Finnish engineers durign World War 2 . .com/articles/japanese-flamethrower/index. SOURCES: Military manual: Aseopas V. kalustot m/40 ja M/41-R.lonesentry.

in November production was increased to 3. The weapon was made by the Borsigwalde Works.M. In October 1944. When fired the explosive cartridge provided the gas pressure to project a single burst of flame to a distance of about 30 to 40 metres for half a second.lonesentry. a 9 mm nozzle and a holder for the propellent cartridge. By the time it came into service in 1944 it was being used by regular army assault units and it was also assigned to the Volksturm.W.500.http://www. 1. a handle with trigger at the forward end. there were still 3. On 1 March 1945. The projector was then disgarded. of the D. This light and easily produced weapon consisted of a long cylindrical pressure tube with two rings for a carrying belt. History ****** The origins of this weapon date to a request for a light portable assault weapon for the Fallschirmjagertruppe.000 of these "wonder weapons" were . Company. W.html Einstossflamenwerfer 46 or Defensive Flamethrower 46. 46" in the Wehrmacht's inventory. Fm.000. and in December 1944 to 7.580 "Abw.

Das Gerät bestand aus einem 500 mm langen rohrförmigen Behälter von 70 mm Außendurchmesser und 1 mm Stärke. The Einstossflammenwerfer is not related to the "Flammfaust" Panzerfaust-project.7 Liter Anzahl der möglichen Feuerstöße: 1 effektive Schussweite: 27 m größte Schussweite: 40 m . Unter der Düse war eine Druckkammer zur Unterbringung der Patrone für den Einstoßflammenwerfer 46 angeordnet.8 kg Druckgas: Stickstoff Flammölmenge: DEUTSCH:Dieser Flammenwerfer wurde als Einstoßflammenwerfer für den Einsatz durch Fallschirmjäger und Angriffstruppen entwickelt und wurde nach einmaligem Gebrauch weggeworfen.2 cm Höhe: 21 cm Gewicht: 1. to a range of up to 30m.http://www. Die Düse endete durch ein Düsenrohr am hinteren Behälterende und war durch einen Gummistopfen verschlossen.64 kg Dimensions: 600 mm x 75 mm x 190 mm A very interesting design (with many parallels to the Panzerfaust as being a single-use weapon for the common infantryman) was the Einstossflammenwerfer 46 that was inspired by a request from the airborne troops. the complete weapon weighed 3. it weighed even less .7 Liter. a total number of 30. Der Ölinhalt betrug 1.lonesentry. many of them were used in the defense of Berlin. it fired a fire burst that lasted for 0. durch welchen das Flammöl durch das Düsenrohr aus dem Gerät herausgestoßen wurde.5 sec.html Data: ***** Weight full: 3. It was a one-shot disposable weapon to be utilized by assault groups.6 kg Weight empty: 2. The SS developed it's own disposable one. An SS design for a more conventional bigger flamethrower that developed it's propelling pressure with tablets was lighter (14 kg) and easier to build than the FmW 41. The FmW 46 was a tube with a length of 60cm and a diameter of 7cm. Die Zündung erfolgte gleichzeitig und entzündete das Flammöl beim Heraustreten aus dem Flammenrohr. welche mittels Abreißzünder durch den Handhebel aktiviert wurde.6 kg and proved to be very effective and popular.shot flamethrower. Bezeichnung der Waffe-Specification: Einstossflammenwerfer 46 verschiedene Hersteller Länge: 60 cm Breite: 7.8 kg .2. Nach der Zündung der Patrone entwickelte sich ein Druck.700 was produced in late 1944 and early 1945.and used almost no critical raw materials but again internal rivalries with the army's weapons bureau prevented.