Material and Method

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Excavation and Embankment:
The foundation are of a damn is the valley floor and terraces on which the embankment will be constructed. Excavation :
It is the process to remove soil from the ground.

Embankment :
It is the process to fill a hole in the ground with soil and rocks.

Rocks :
Rocks must be protected against both CHEMICAL and MECHANICAL erosions. Rock surface must be clean of all loose rocks. loose rocks can be removed by hand wedging = they are called rock knobs ( its all the pieces that extend beyond the surface of the rock). Blastering with light charges : this option should be used only as a last resort becouse it creates disturbance. Exposed cracks and crevices should be cleared of soil or loose rocks by using water jets or air jets. Fissures should be filled with GROUT ( its made of cement, sand and water). Mortar = Grout. Grout is thinner than Mortar. Mortar contains less water than Grout. As a conclusion mortar is used to construct things where as grout is used to fill in fissures or cracks. Grout = Cement + sand + water. Concrete = Grout + gravel.

Cut-Off or Seepage barrier :
It is the process to prevent leaking. An excavated trench cut through the Previous strata and backfilled with compacted Imprevious strata. Previous Starta : It allows the water to flow through. Like for example Sand and Clay. Imprevious strata : It doesnt allow water to flow through. Like for example Rock.

Excavation Equipments :
Power Shovel :
It is used to excavate and load trucks. It has a tractor tires. Tractor tires are better than ruber tires because it gives a better grip and it can go anywhere no matter the composition of the surface ( rocky , sandy...)

Printed by Mathematica for Students

Printed by Mathematica for Students . Side Delivery loaders : It is used mainly to load trucks.2 Materials and method notes1. It is very effective in removing soil under water. Its a machine that can perform both excavation and hauling unit ( push material from one place to another) and backfilling . Draglines: A dragline is very similar to a clamshell but it can only be used in soft materials like for example Sand. it has a small shovel at the bottom and a container on its back used to fill the soil removed. The side delivery loaders have robber wheels which give them more speed on flat areas. Some side delivery holders have a backhoe holder ( its a shovel in the back) used to excavate narrow trenches. It is a sort of big shovel dragged on the surface of the ground by a crane in order to collect soil. Scrappers : It is also called a Bulldozer.nb Draglines and Clamshell : Clamshell : A clamshell is also called an orange peal. This machine can be used in excavation but only in flat areas with a soft soil. It is used mainly to remove rocky materials like for example rocks.

Hauling equipment : They are equipment that can move materials from one place to another. Printed by Mathematica for Students . Like for example : Scrappers : they push earth and rock away by scrapping the surface. Its a machine used to construct tunnels. side. it is generally used for long tunnels. It is placed on tracks and pushed into the mountain to dig a tunnel through. When the disks rotates. Hammer : It breaks rocks. The layer of its head is made of diamond ( anti-scratch ). Bottom. the unit rotates and cuts.Materials and method notes1. Maximum truck capacity may reach 60 m3 . end dump trucks. It can be placed instead of a shovel.nb 3 Gradders : Its similar to a scrapper but it has a flat shovel used to grade the soil at the same level. with tunneling trucks up to 230 m3 . Gradders can't excavate. Tunnel Boring Machine : Also called Disc cutter or Discs. The excavated volume can be estimated from counting the number of filled trucks.

.4 Materials and method notes1.5 It creates more pressure. Its speed range between 1. It requires 4 passes per 30 cm lifts. It is faster than the sheepsfootroller and it requires fewer passes. Vibrating steel-wheeled roller : It is used after the passes of the sheepsfootroller. It performs more pressure on the soil than the steel wheel roller. Printed by Mathematica for Students . Dexpan Powder : It is a powder mix. It can do any sort of work like for example : excavate small trenches. hammer some rocks. Sheepsfoot roller : The Sheepsfootroller is better than the steel wheel roller because it has sharp edges that can break down large pieces of soft soil. Pneumatic-tired roller : Its pressure range between 345 to 1380 KPa KN m2 ).. The main objective of the compaction equipment is to decrease the settelment and stabilize the soil.. Bobcat is generally used in thight locations. move materials. A bobcat or also called a skid steer loader : this equipment is a combination of both excavation and hauling unit.nb The excavated volume can be estimated from counting the number of filled trucks. On a Excavation site water is used to reduce the dust. Compaction Equipments : Most common are the sheepsfootroller also called the tamping roller and the pneumatic-tiredroller. It is only used on asphalt. Km h . Its speed range between 5 to 8 Km h KN m2 ..6 to 2. after mixing it with water it expands and create pressures that can break concrete and rock. Its pressure range between 690 to 3450 KPa or ( ). It requires 10 passes per 30 cm lift.

Definitions : Sand = has a high frictiton. Embankment stabilization : Required where steep slopes exists that are subjected to heavy storm water runoff. . . Silt = sedimentary fine mineral particles.sand has high friction and in non cohesive. Saturated clay = its clay with a degree of saturation equal to 100 %.5:1 d) Compacted clay 1.002mm < Θ < 0. Organic material = It is material that contains carbon. Saturated clay is not a good material it is considered as a poorly graded soil and its not good to use it in embankment. Its diameter ranges from 0. the surface of contact is very small so this will create more pressure on the soil. This kind of material is harmless to the environment and it can disapear with time.05mm< Θ < 2mm. silt and organic material . because destroying the shores can cause the loss of many things. Slopes : From the steepest slope to the lowest slope : a) Gravel 1:1 b) Dry sand 3:1 c) Loam 2. Its diameter varies between 0 < Θ < 0. Loam = It is formed of sand. which means clay can block and reserve the water more than the sand.Clay has low friction and is cohesive.Materials and method notes1. is non cohesive ( ne colle pas a d'autre materiels ) .nb 5 Portable impact or also called compactor : Segmented-steel-wheel roller : Segments go through the soil and break pieces of rock. The higher the friction the better the material is less cohesive ( se colle les uns aux autres ). Just to protect the environment it is beter to take the sand from mountains rather from the beach. Clay < Silt < Sand. Clay is more impermiable than sand.25:1 Printed by Mathematica for Students . All plants live in clay. clay. Clay = also called hydrated silicates of aluminium.05mm. has low friction and is cohesive.002mm. Its diameter varies between 0.

3. 0. On the top layer of the fabric we find weep pores which allow the water to flow through. The main function of the fabric is to protect the soil and to prevent it to move. The cement with water will harden. Its function is to stabalize the soil. This fabric allows water to flow through. This method of protection is often used when there is water involved its way stronger than the stone method.2. 0. Cement will dry and harden under any circumstance. General case = a:b Stabilization method : 0. On top of the rip-rap we construct a cap ( CAPITAL ) to hold the cement bags together and to make the system stronger.6 Materials and method notes1. Reinforcing geo-grids : The company that construct them is called TENSAR. High Strength fabric filled with pumped concrete ( armor form ) : Its is formed with two layers of fliter fabric filled with concrete.25:1 e) Saturated clay 5:1 In order to protect the natural slope we should cut in stepped manner. Rip-Rap protection with sand-cement bags : It is often used near culvert crossing ( big pipe made of cement ).nb d) Compacted clay 1. 0.1. Rip-Rap protection : Its a way to place stones one above the other.5.4. Articulated concrete block : Its a block of concrete allowed to move. Printed by Mathematica for Students . It reinforces the soil and it is also called plastic reinforcment. Under the articulated concrete block we place a filter fabric. 0.

Soil nailling is a rapid and economical way of constructing excavations support systems and retaining wall.There is two types of gabions : . This system is like constructing a wall on the soil.8.nb 7 0.6. Any array of soil nails which are passive inclusions are installed in a grid that functions to create a stable mass of soil. Soil Nailling : It is in situ reinforcing of the soil while it is excavated from the top down. Gabion : Its rocks protected by steel grids.7. It is done on the side of roads. . The nails hold the filter fabric placed on the soil then we spray concrete on top of the filter fabric. Foundations : Footings : Foundations are used to support buildings.Rectangular basket stocked on top of each other.Stepped stacking method.Materials and method notes1. It is this type of concrete that we use in soil nailling. Printed by Mathematica for Students . There are 2 types of foundations : .Footings : element that have a large area that support a lot of load. Shot creet : It is the concrete sprayed at high pressure. In order to make it stronger we place reinforcing stell bars on the fabric. Shot creet is generally used when we construct something temporary. 0. 0.

In very weak soils and limited land area. Combined footing : It is when we combine two colomns and support them by one footing. 6. Wall footing = Continuous footing. Steeped or Pedestral footing : It is the strongest type of footing.The construction procedure for footings requires more available equipment than the procedure for piles. 5. 2. Refer to photo (g) page5. It is the best type of footing in case of an earthquake.Footings support loads by bearing pressure.8 Materials and method notes1. 1 footing = 2 colomns. Refer to photo (a) page5.Bulidings and bridges may be supported by piles or footings. It is one foundation for the entire building. Refer to photo (b) page5. piles should be used. Refer to photo (d) page5. It is generally constructed under a wall. 4. .Piles : vertical members that is shoved in the soil. Its the type of footing to use. Refer to photo (e) page5.nb . 1. . It prevent punching of the footing by the colomn because of its thickness.The weaker the soil the wider the footing is because it reduces stresses on the soil.A pile exists that supports a building by both bearing pressure and friction. . Refer to photo (c) page5. 3. It supports more than one colomn. Printed by Mathematica for Students . piles support load by friction. Many true statments about footings and piles : . . Spread footings = Individual footings. . It supports only one colomn.Footings : element that have a large area that support a lot of load. Matt Footing = raft foundation. Slopped footing : It is a normal footing but with slopes. .

.1. Precast Concrete : They have generally a square or octogonal cross-section. The advantages of precast concrete piles : .They can be cut at any desired lenghts. Its the type of footing to use.3. load bearing piles may be classified as follows : 7.It is difficult to reduce or increase the lenght.A pipe can be installed along the center of a pile to facilitate jetting.They are suitable to be used as friction piles but they are not suitable to be used as end-bearing piles under heavy loads.It is difficult to drive them into hard formations. 7. . 7.2. 7. Sheet piles : Sheet piling is used primally to resist the flow of water and loose soil. Strap footing = Grade beams : It looks like a beam and it connects two coloms. The material from wich they are made may be classified as steel. Composite General Infos on piles: Timber Piles : The advantages of timber pile are : . when we have a spread footing we always have strap footing because it connects the building together and make the whole system more resistant. Refer to photo (d) page5. Steel : a) H-section. .Materials and method notes1. Refer to photo (f) page5. . . They are driven into the soil. . Piles page6 : Pile foundation = Large colomns.Concrete precast pile can be cast in any desired size or lenght. Piles may be classified on the basis of their use or the materials from which they are made.4.It is difficult to splice them and increase their lenght.. cofferdamns. wood and concrete.The are economical in cost.bulkheads. b) Steel pipe. b) Cast in Place. then we place a pile cap and we construct a colomn on it. . 6.The lenght of life is short unless if treated good.The more opular lentghs and sizes are available on short notice. On the basis of use there are 2 major classifications. . Piles : On the basis of the material from which they are made and the method of constructing and driving them. Typical uses include cutoff walls under damns. Printed by Mathematica for Students .Hight strenght. Concrete : a) Precast. Timber 7. The disadvantages of precast concrete pile : .sheet and load bearing piles. It is a very powerfull method in region where there is a lot of earthquake. .Large sizes require heavy and expensive handling and driving equipment. The disadvantage of timber piles : .nb 9 Slopped footing : It is a normal footing but with slopes.They are handled easily aith little danger of breakage.trenches.High resistance to chemical and biological attack.

The water keeps the soil arround the pile in agitation thereby reducing the resistance due to skin friction. Vibratory pile drivers : They are effective in speed and more economical in driving piles into certain soils. They are choosed according the type and size of the pile. Drainage : Printed by Mathematica for Students .Driving a mettalic shell. leaving it in the groung. and filling it with concrete. Cast in Place : There is 2 principal method of constructing: .nb . .10 Materials and method notes1.The mattalic shell is generally corrogated because a pile with a corrogated surface creates more friction with the soil. It may find some difficulty in driving piles into soil that does not respond to vibration like dry sand.Large sizes require heavy and expensive handling and driving equipment.Its construction can delay the project. The part that drills is called an augre. The concrete inside the shell is called mandrel.Driving a mettalic shell and filling it with concrete as the shell is pulled from the ground. Pile hammers = PUSHER : The function of pile hammer is to furnish the energy required to drive a pile. Jetting pile : The use of water jet assist in driving piles into sand or fine gravel frequently will speed the driving operation. . . It is more effective when the pile is driven into water saturated non-cohesicesoils. . after pouring the concrete we relieve the steell which will lead to the compaction of the concrete. Prestressed concrete : It is a precast concrete with steell bars stressed. Equipment used in Pilling : Drilling machine : The machine drill a hole in the ground and then the pile is placed in that hole.possibility of breakage of the pile while handling.

Roof crossection : The slope in the roof should be minimum of 1 %. 7. A manhole : a hole that connects pipes together. it facilitate maintenance of the pipes becouse a man can go in and repare the pipes.5.6. Drainage system is placed on low level on the roof to make sure that all water goes through. We place also a vent to eliminate the odors from waste water. Catch pits or drainage inlet also called a catch bassin : is only function is to catch the water. Printed by Mathematica for Students . A pipe should always have a slope in order to facilitate the water flow. normally rainwater runoff (storm water). For a drainage system in the toilet we construct a trap. A trap is a trap to block water and prevent odors to come through the toilet seat. 2 roofs configurations : 7.Materials and method notes1.nb 11 Drainage : It is the process of water disposal.

This system can only be used when we have pervious concrete or asphalt. but the concrete remains getting stronger even after 5 years or more. The clinker looks like gravel but it is ground into powder to become cement.9. such as that which flows from the outlet of a typical septic tank sewage treatment system. Chemical reaction = crystallization. the French drain technique may be used to distribute water.5cm to 3 cm.12 Materials and method notes1.8. In roadways the slope is 0. sun. this mixing gives us the cement knows today and we call it PORTLAND CEMENT. It is better to have the mixing plant near Curing : Printed by Mathematica for Students .. Cement is packed in 50Kg bags. Magnesium oxide. This system can also be placed accross a roadway or parallel to it. Silica : It is found in sand and clay.. French drains are common drainage systems. Lime ( calcaire ). no matter what circumstances the chemical water should not be stopped or accelerated or even disturbed because it will give us a poor concrete with a strenght less than the design strenght. There is also a cross slope of 2 %.7. 7.nb A manhole : a hole that connects pipes together. The chemical water that occurs right after adding the water. Drainage is important in roofs .3% (slope along the road). roadways . A French drain can have perforated hollow pipes along the bottom (see images) to quickly vent water that seeps down through the upper gravel or rock.11. French. it facilitate maintenance of the pipes becouse a man can go in and repare the pipes.10.).. wind. the concrete will change weight due to water evaporation. it turns into a solid state after about 10 hours and its design strength is gained at 28 days. Whereas the concrete poured under water ( TREMIE concrete) increases in volume. The size of a cement particle should not exceed 0. the humidity will force the reaction to begin while the cement is still in the bags. French drains are also used behind retaining walls to relieve ground water pressure. The time between the mixing of the concrete and the pouring of the concrete should not exceed 1 the construction site or we can add water just before 30 min of the pouring time. Alumina : found in clay. When concrete is poured we face the problem of shrinkage. Structural materials : Concrete : Materials necessary for the manufacture of cement are: 7. 7. under the ocean. 7. drain tile.02mm. All the mixing is burned at 1450°C to form the CLINKER which has particles diameter varies form 0. release heat. perimeter drain or land drain is a trench covered with gravel or rock that redirects surface and groundwater away from an area. Alternatively. Iron oxide ( rust ). This is why we should put water on the concrete after 45 min to prevent the water insude it to evaporate. The finer the cement powder is the stronger the concrete will be because it fills the voids. 7.Drain or exfiltration trench : A French drain. hydration of lime always present. The concrete sets within 45 min. The cement will harden under any circumstances ( rain. 1 2 hours. primarily used to prevent ground and surface water from penetrating or damaging building foundations.. It should be used from 3 months up to maximum 6 months after production because humidity in the air can spoil the cement. Theese ingredients are mixed in proper and closely controlled proportions.

It should be clean ( should not contain clay because clay absorbs the water ).nb 13 Curing : is the process of letting the concrete sets : we let water inside the concrete to react with the cement and then we will have solid and strong concrete.It should be free of clay. This type of concrete is known to have a low number of cracks. Type 3 : High early stremgth : It gains strenght rapidly. it sets very fast. The concrete poured in winter is way stronger than the concrete poured in summer. silt or any organic materials.For every 50Kg of cement we need 34 Kg ( 34 L ) of water.Air entrained concrete : is the concrete that includes air bubles.NON entrained concrete : is the regular concrete that we use.It should be sharp ( with edges which will create more friction between the particles ).It is better to buy ready mixed concrete because they control very good the water cement ratio. As an efficient method from preventing the evaporation of water we place hessan cloths on top of the concrete and we spray water underneeth and above it. This type of concrete resists freezing and snowing. During summer concrete will set faster but will not gain its ultimate strenght. . In general. . more durable concrete. .Materials and method notes1. . . The concrete temperature is very low in order to reduce shrinkage. Type 2 : Moderate heat and moderate sulfate resisting Portland cement. lower watercement ratios produce stronger. If not it will contains impurities which is not good to the concrete. . Printed by Mathematica for Students . Importance of concrete constituants : Water : water used in concrete should be potable ( drinkable ). In summer we can add ice cubes to the mix in order to cool the concrete. this type of concrete is used in foundations because it set slowly and the volume of shrinkage is very small.It should be well graded in order to fill in all the voids. The concrete takes a long period to set during the winter because the temperature is less and the reaction will become slower ( water takes a long period to evaporate ). Water cement ratio : -The water-cementratio is a convenient measurement whose value is well correlated with concrete strength and durability. Its a lighter concrete in weight and strenght. . Types of Portland Cement : Type 1 : Ordinary Portland cement. We can also leave the forms in place or we can cover the surface with a liquid curing compound which forms a wtertight membrane that prevents the escape of the initial water. Sand : . We keep on watering the concrete for 7 days because sun radiation alows the water to evaporate.

Ground blast furnace slag ( ashes from steel ). Silica fumes ( dust that comes from sand ). This test is called DESTRUCTIVE STRUCTURE. other type of cement ar being manufactured.fr = 1. This type of cement is generally not stocked by manufacturers but some might consider a large special order. In 3 days = 70% f 'c is gained whereas for type 1 it takes 7 days to gain 70% f 'c .10 * f 'c < fct < 0. . White cement : White Portland cement differs physically from the gray form only in its color.33 f 'c ( tensile strenght of concrete ). the proportions of the ingredients are then adjusted to keep a concrete batch consistent. ASTM Type I. Slump test : In construction and civil engineering. flowable. . called COMPOSITE CEMENT having a new chemical composition and include special additives like : Fly Ash ( small in size which reduces the voids. Lime ( Calcaire ). II and/or III). It is better for the concrete to be firm. and as such can fall into many of the above categories (e. this type is very similar to type 1 cement but it cost twice more. Micro silica is highly actice pozzolan. If the concrete didnt settle a lot this means that the concrete is good. This homogeneityimproves the quality and structural integrity of the cured concrete. the Concrete slump test (or simply the slump test) is an in situ test or a laboratory test used to determine and measure how hard and consistent a given sample of concrete is before curing. which have a low surface to volume ratio. A change in slump height would demonstrate an undesired change in the ratio of the concrete ingredients. Rice hull ash. it sets very fast. Type 5 : is used where sulfate resistance is important.09 * fct ( rupture ). However. the slump should be consistent. pozzolan ( it acts as a binder. in essence.14 Materials and method notes1. micro silica. However. The test sample should show strengths greater than the required strength after 28 days. This test tests the workability of the concrete whether it firm. All those material increase the compressivestrenght ( f 'c ) of the concrete. For a particular mix.fct = 0. The slump test doesnt give us the % of water in the concrete. it has the property of adhesion ). The concrete slump test is.nb It gains strenght rapidly. a method of quality control.0. such as dams.This type is used in concrete that is to be exposed to alkali soil and ground water sulfates which react with (C3A) causing disruptive expansion. This cement is used for very large concrete structures. Cementitious material = cement. and is treated separately. In general this type of cement is poured under water. In this type we get less cracks and shrinkage so we can use this type in foundations. it binds sand and gravel together ). It is better to do all testing after 7 days because if something is wrong it can be easily destructed. soft or plastic. Micro silica = Silica fumes : it increases the strenght of concrete and extends its durability. as a consequencethe strength of the concrete develops slowly.g. . Ground blast furnace slag . Concrete testing : The concrete should be tested in order to make sure that the material proportions are controlled. The core samples should be taken from place located away from the steel.20 * f 'c ( roughly tensile strenght of concrete ). Printed by Mathematica for Students . Fly Ash. its manufacture is significantly different from that of the gray product. After one or two years the strength is higher than the other types after full curing. Composite cement : Today. Type 4 : Portland cement is generally known for its low heat of hydration : This causes the heat given off by the hydration reaction to develop at a slower rate.

also known as a Swiss hammer or a rebound hammer. Dry-mixed : all material is mixed in a stationary mixer and water is added at the site. whereas if we increase the water and sand (that contains clay ) content the strength will decrese and we will have a poor concrete. Concrete properties : If we increase the cement and gravel content the strength will increase. the sand will tend to fill the voids and push the gravel away from each other. mainly surface hardness and penetration resistance. auger = rotary drilling Printed by Mathematica for Students . The Schmidt hammer is an arbitrary scale ranging from 10 to 100. 1 MPa = 145 psi = 10. When conducting the test the hammer should be held at right angles to the surface which in turn should be flat and smooth.09 * fct ( rupture ). The test hammer will hit the concrete at a defined energy. A disadvantage to transit-mixed concrete. limerock base = crushed surfacing course. is a device to measure the elastic properties or strength of concrete or rock. Additionally. a pneumatic-tiredroller is used to compact roadways only. because the sand fills in the voids. Concrete mixing : Ready mixed : mixing completley the concrete in a stationary mixer and transporting it in a truck mixer called also an agitator. Gradeall = flattening embankment modular channel = inlet. Its rebound is dependent on the hardness of the concrete and is measured by the test equipment. 20 days per months 7 hrs per day.. is that the truck capacity is smaller than that of the same truck containing ready-mixed concrete. can be stronger is U-shaped. The proportions in a concrete mixed is very important because we dont want shrinkage and cracks.butthey cant replace cylindrical piles. Sheet piles can be made out of plastic. the concrete is partially mixed in transit and mixing is completed at the jobsite. Frequently. Shrink-mixed or also called transit-mixed : materials are batched at a central plant and are completely mixed in the truck in transit. More cement will lead to more cracks. The rebound reading will be affected by the orientation of the hammer. when used in a vertical position (on the underside of a suspended slab for example) gravity will increase the rebound distance of the mass and vice versa for a test conducted on a floor slab. The hammer measures the rebound of a spring loaded mass impacting against the surface of the sample. fluted shell = taper section. trenchless technology = placing pipe.nb 15 . transit-mixing allows concrete to be hauled to construction sites further away from the plant. Important questions : Filter fabric is a special type of fabric placed arround a french drain. however. This method avoids the problems of premature hardening and slump loss that result from potential delays in transportation or placement of central-mixed concrete. if we add a lot of sand.Materials and method notes1. can resist lateral soil pressure. By reference to the conversion chart. wall footing = continuous foundation. Transit-mixing keeps the water separate from the cement and aggregates and allows the concrete to be mixed immediately before placement at the construction site. This will lead to a poor concrete. can replace soil nailing.. A dragline can perform similar function as a bull dozer. the rebound value can be used to determine the compressivestrength. can be vertical placed along a river. If we get strong gravel we will get strong concrete. are connected to each other.19 Kg cm2 Schmidt hammer : A Schmidt hammer.fr = 1. 1 short ton = 0.9072 metric tons. The strenght of the concrete depends on the type of gravel. The quantity of sand is very important in concrete mixed.

Runnway = rigid pavment Printed by Mathematica for Students . mechanical trawel = helicopter. Articulated concrete block are permeable.. the subbase is the existing grade ( transportation ). help release the pressure due to water behind them. The logitudinal slope of a roadways is maximum equal to 2%. The common item between a septic tank and an exfiltration trench is they are both used to dissipate a flow.16 Materials and method notes1. Caissons may be drilled while the shell driven arround it at the same time.nb auger = rotary drilling vibratory soil densifier = compaction. A screed is a layer of concrete placed to drain the slab. Rigid pavement should be used when the traffic count is high. are connected by steel cables. A fieldstone drywell is a bassin that dissipates the runoff. A rammer compactor is used to compact small surfaces like trenches. are method of soil stabilization.. A segmented steel wheeled roller is used to compact weak soils. A catch basin is used to drain roadways and yards. A hydrolic pile hammer perform similar fumctions as a pusher. Drop hammer = H-pile. A power shovel can perform similar functions as a loader. A mat foundation can be used in the case we have a weak soil.

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