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Social Science
CLASS - 7
State Council of Educational
Research & Training
Raipur (C.G.)
FOR THE SESSION 2005-2006
Development by the State Council of Education of Education Research
and Training, Raipur on the basis of the publication of National Council
of Education Research and Training, New Delhi
For Free Distribution.
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Originally Edition
By
National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
Adapted
By
State Council of Educational Research & Training, Raipur (C.G.)
By
C National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi
& State Council of Educational Research & Training, Raipur (C.G.)
Published by : Chhattisgarh Text Book Corporation
Shyam Nagar, Raipur
Printed by : Orient Press Ltd., Tarapur for Chhattisgarh Text Book
Corporation, Shyam Nagar, Raipur
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PREFACE
According to National Education Policy 1986, special emphasis has
been given to determine and achieve the Minimum Learning at different levels
of school education. In the new syllabus, skill based activities have been
included in the books to make learning, interesting and enjoyable. Contents
have been selected by keeping in mind the mental levels and interests of the
children.
Books on languages serve the purpose of developing linguistic
competence as well as national values. Contents of science and social science
are included in order to make the concepts clear. Authors have tried to develop
the contents of the mathematics books in such an interesting way that the
children can master the mathematical competencies in an easy manner.All
these books carry special focus on linking knowledge with the sorroundings.
Chhattisgarh State Council of Educational Research and Training has
revised the contents of the prevailing books by arranging workshops in order
to make necessary correction according to the historical, geographical and
cultural characteristics of the state.
To make the book more appealing, the illustration have been coloured.
I hope that this book will be valuable to the students and teachers. The
Council is obliged to the writers and editors of different books.
Suggestions are invited for the continuous process of improvement
and reforms in education.
Director
S.C.E.R.T.
Chhattisgarh, Raipur
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CONTENTS
Foreward :
HISTORY
Chapter 1 India and the World 1
Chapter 2 Kingdom of the South (A.D. 800-1200) 5
Chapter 3 Kingdom of the North (A.D. 800-1200) 15
Chapter 4 The Delhi Sultanate (A.D. 1206-1526) 27
Chapter 5 The Life of the People during the Sultanate 35
Chapter 6 The Coming of The Mughals
and the Europeans to India 43
Chapter 7 Akbar 54
Chapter 8 The Age of Splendor and Wealth 62
Chapter 9 The Fall of The Mughal Empire 73
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CIVICS
Chapter 1 Our Constitution 78
Chapter 2 Main Characteristics the Indian Constitution 83
Chapter 3 The Fundamental Rights and Duties 87
Chapter 4 Center-State Relationship 90
Chapter 5 The Indian Parliament 93
Chapter 6 The President and the Council of Ministers 97
Chapter 7 The State Legislature 100
Chapter 8 The Governor and the Council of Ministers 102
Chapter 9 Our Judicial System 106
Chapter 10 Our National System 111
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GEOGRAPHY
Chapter 1 Atmosphere 115
Chapter 2 Air and its Temperature 117
Chapter 3 Atmospheric Pressure 119
Chapter 4 Wind Direction and Velocity 121
Chapter 5 Atmospheric Humidity 127
Chapter 6 Weather and Climate 130
Chapter 7 Hydrosphere 133
Chapter 8 Tides 139
Chapter 9 New Terms : Europe 142
Chapter 10 Natural Resources and the People 150
Chapter 11 Three Major countries of Western and Central Europe 161
Chapter 12 The Commonwealth of Independent State 175
Chapter 13 Africa- land, climate, resorces and their utilization 182
Chapter 14 Land of Forests - Zaire 194
Chapter 15 Land of Palm and Palm oil Nigeria 198
Chapter 16 The gift of the Nile - The Arab Republic of Egypt 202
Chapter 17 South Africa Land of Gold and Diamonds 207
India and the world 1
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HISTORY
CHAPTER - 1
INDIA AND THE WORLD
The history of the period falling between the eighth century to the eight-
eenth century is known as the history of the middle ages. Around the eighth
century many changes in the social, economic and political life in India began to
appear. These changes influenced all the aspects of life. Thus, began a new ages
in India which we recognize as the Medieval India. The period falling between
the eighth and the thirteenth century is known as the Early Medieval period and
the period between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries is called the later
medieval period.
The new ideas and the changes that crept into the society of medieval
India were brought in from out-side India by the Turks, the Afghans and the
Mughal royal families. The Turks and the Mughals adopted India as their own
country and became a part of the Indian society. the new ideas and the new
culture brought into India by them, obviously, made the culture of India richer.
During the seventh century Hazrat Mohammad, the founder of Islam united
the Arab tribes. Islam very rapidly spread to many parts of the world. After the
death of Hazrat Mohammad, the highest preceptor of Islam, began to be called
the Caliph, i.e. the representative ruler.
The famous Caliph dynasties were the Umayyids and the Abbasis. Haroun-
al-Rashid was a famous Abbasi Calipha. A good portion of Europe and Africa
had come under his control. He also exercised control over the route connecting
Europe with India and China.
The Arabs were skilled tradesmen. They encouraged the growth of trade
and commerce through the sea route and other routes. Very soon they became
wealthy by establishing business contacts with east and west Africa, China and
India. They made use of their wealth in learning the different arts from China,
Greece, Persia and India and in developing a new civilization. Before long the
Arab Civilization became one of the progressive civilizations. The Arabs
contributed a lot to the advance of different branches of learning. The contribution
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of the Arabs to Geometry, Algebra, Geography and Astronomy cannot be forgotten.
During the eighth century many changes took place in Asia and Europe.
The Roman Empire had flourished during the ancient period but by the fifth
century downfall came to the empire.
After the fall of the Roman Empire a new system of a administration,
known as the Feudal system, came into being. The feudal lords managed to secure
from the king the authority and control over large areas of land on the basis of
their military strength. In return for this they declared, loyalty to the monarch and
provided him with military assistance during the time of emergency.
In medieval India, this very system was in vogue. The condition of the
farmers deteriorated on account of this system. They had to work hard and the
lion’s share of their produce was taken away by the king and the feudal lords.
At the beginning of the middle ages the Europeans were quite backward as
a result of the snapping of trade ties with other countries. Later on when the
Arabs grew rich because of their trade with other countries, the Europeans also
got interested in trade, but they were worried over the spread of Islam. As a
result, most of the Kings and feudal lords of Europe fought long drawn out wars
with the Arabs. Those wars are called the Crusades. Although the Europeans
were not victorious in the wars, they nevertheless came in close contact with the
Arabs and began to take interest in Arab learning. In the development of learning
in Europe in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries the knowledge of the Arabs
played an important part. It is on account of this growing interest that the Europeans
have been able to make such a progress in the field of science today.
In the ninth century the power of the Abbasi Caliphs weakened. As a result,
many a province including Ghazni and Ghor became independent. The rulers of
these provinces were Seluk Turks, who became powerful in western Asia by the
eleventh century. During the thirteenth century their power also declined when
they came under the attack of the Mongols led by Chenghez Khan. The Mongols
established their control over the whole area from Western Asia and Southern
Russia upto China.
The different countries of the world came in contact with one another
during the middle ages. Trade ties were established among them. The Mongols
gave encouragement to this trade. At that time the powerful Chola Kings ruled
over southern India. They had trade ties with South-East Asia and China. This
made them very rich. They spent a lot of money on building beautiful temples.
Art, craft and literature also progressed a lot. The thinkers and philosophers of
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this period influence Indian thought deeply. During the regime of the Chola Kings
in the South, Indian culture was greatly enriched. The Mughals established their
empire in India in the Sixteenth century and it was not in anyway less glorious in
magnificence and power than the Gupta empire in ancient India.
The main sources of the knowledge of the history of the ancient times are
literature and archaeology. The same is true about the history of the medieval
India the literature of this period was written on palm-leaves and copper plates
at the beginning. But later on, during the thirteenth century it began to be written
on paper. foreign travellers continued to visit India from time to time. They have
given an account of the Sultans in their books. Some of the Mughal emperors
have written their autobiographies. Some historians have written about the
happenings during the rule of their contemporary sultans. Historical books are
the chief source of our knowledge about the medieval history. Besides these,
there are some religious and literary books which help us a good deal to gain
knowledge of history of that time. The temples, the mosques, the forts, the minarets,
the mausoleums and the majestic buildings built in the different parts of India
during that period also give us an insight into the arts and culture of the time.
EXERCISES
I. Match the contents of column A with those of column B :
A B
1. The medieval, period of Europe 1. The Pala, the Pratihara
2. The famous kingdoms of the 2. The Delhi Sultanate and
early medieval period. the Mughal
3. The famous ruler of the later 3. is called the Dark Ages.
medieval period.
4. The Seluk Turks 4. The Abbasi Caliph of
Baghdad.
5. Haroun-al-Rashid 5. The powerful ruler of East
Asia in the eleventh
century.
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II. Fill in the banks with the appropriate word or words given in
brackets :-
1. The founder of Islam, Muhammad, Sahib Organised and educated the
............... (Afghans, Turks, Arabs, Mongols)
2. The feudal system began after the fall of the .........empire.
(Mughal, Turkish, Roman)
3. The Arab civilization was the most advanced civilization of the
............age. (ancient, medieval, modern)
4. The Crusades were fought between................
(The Turks & the Afghans, the Muslims and the Chiristians the
Iranians and the Mongols).
III. Write ‘Yes’ against the right statement and ‘No’ against the
wrong ones :-
1. Haroun Rashid was the Abbasi Caliph of Baghdad.
2. The Europeans achieved a great progress in trade and commerce during
the medieval period.
3. The Chola Kings of the Deccan had trade relations with China.
4. Chenghez Khan achieved control of West Asia and the areas of China in
the thirteenth century.
IV. Answer the following questions :-
1. Who was Chenghez Khan ? How far was his kingdom spread ?
2. What was the contribution of the Arabs in the sphere of knowledge and
science in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries?
3. What is meant by the feudal system ? What were the demerits of this
system ?
4. What was the contribution of the Chola Kings of the South to the Indian
civilization ?
5. What are the main sources of knowing medieval history ?
V. Interesting things to do :
1. Find out from the map of India, where the Arabs and Mongols had their
Kingdoms.
2. Show the kingdom of the Chola Kings in the map of India.
Kingdoms of the South
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CHAPTER - 2
KINGDOMS OF THE SOUTH
(A.D.800-1200)
The northern and southern parts of our country came into very close con-
tact in the medieval period. It had many reasons. Firstly, the kingdoms of the
northern Deccan tired to extend their control upto the Ganges valley. Secondly,
the religious movements of the South soon became popular in the north also.
Thirdly many brahmins from the north were invited to settle down in the south.
Thus, the kingdoms of the north and the south came closer to one another.
In the eighth century the chief kingdoms in the South were the Pallava, the
Chalukya, the Pandya, the Cher and the Rashtrakuta.
1. The Pallavas : After the fall of the Andhra Satvahana’s empire the Pallavas
established their control over the southern part of the Krishna river, Kanchipuram
was their capital. Their reign extended from the sixth century upto the ninth
century. Wars continued to be fought over al long period between the Pallava
King Mahendra Varman and the Chalukyas to gain control over the south.
Narasingha Varman, the successor to Mahendra Varman was the first powerful
king of the Pallava dynasty. He not only protected his kingdom from the Chalukyas
but also invaded Vatapi, their capital. Pulakesin, the Chalukya king was killed
in the battle. Narasingha Varman got for himself the title of ‘Vatapi Kond’ on this
victory. The succeeding Pallava kings continued to struggle against the Chalukyas,
the Pandyas and the Rashtrakutas. In 899 A. D. Aprajita Varman, the last king of
this dynasty was defeated by the Cholas. With this came to an end the Pallava
rule.
The administration of the Pallavas was very systematic. During their rule,
Art and Literature flourished a great deal. The city of Kanchi was the seat of
education and learning. It was during this period that Bharati, the Sanskrit Scholar,
and the author of ‘Kiratarjuniam’ wrote ‘Mattavilas’ in Sanskrit. Literature in
the local Tamil language was also produced side by side with Sanskrit during
this period.
The period will be specially remembered for its architecture and sculpture.
Most of the Pallava Kings were shaivas. They had built many temples. The
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Dharamaraja and the
Kailashnath temples stand
even to this day. The
Pallavas exercised good
deal of influence on the
culture of India. Five Rath
temple cut out of rocks
were built on the sea-shore
at Mahabalipuram. The ar-
chitecture rised in this
gradually spread all over
the Deccan. As the Pallavas
carried on trade across the
sea, their style of architec-
ture and art-patterns influ-
enced those of the south-east Asia. At that large settlements of South Indian
traders flourished in countries which today are known as Indonesia and
Kumpuchea.
The Rashtrakutas : Kirti Durg a feudal lord under the Chalukya king Kirti
Varman laid the foundation of the Rashtrakuta dynasty after defeating his master
in 733 A.D. The Kingdom of the Rashtrakutas extended upto South Gujrat, Malwa
and Baghelkhand in the north and Tanjore in the south. While at the peak of their
progress, the Rashtrakutas led many attacks on north India. They had to face
opposition mainly from the rulers of Bengal and Bihar also from the Gurjar
Pratiharas, whose capital was Kannauj.
The fertile land in between the Ganga and the Yamuna was the main theatre
of conflict among the three kingdoms. The continuous wars against the Cholas
and the ceaseless at temples at Maintaining supremacy over north India weakend
the Rashtrakutas. In 973 A.D. the Chalukya ruler, Tailap (Taila) II, defeated the
last Rashtrakuta ruler, Kavark-II and established his control over the Rashtrakuta
Kingdom.
The Rashtrakuta rulers were patrons of art and education. Amogvarsha I
was himself a writer of high calibre. Krishna I got built the famous Kailash
temple at Ellora. This is a rock cut temple and stands as a monument of the
Rashtrakuta reign.
The later Chalukyas :- We have already read that the Chalukya ruler, Tailap
defeated the Rashtrakuta ruler, Kavarka II and brought the kingdom under his
Fig. 2.1 Ratha Temple, Mahabalipuram
Kingdoms of the South
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control. As Tailap belonged to the Chalukya dynasty, historians regard his dy-
nasty as later Chalukya dynasty. The capital of Tailap was at Kalyan (present
Kalyani in Andhra Pradesh). For this reasons they are also known as the Chalukyas
of Kalyani.
Later on, the rulers of the Yadava dynasty established their reign by de-
feating the rulers of the later Chalukya dynasty and continued to rule from Devagiri
(Present Daulatabad in Maharastra.)
On the decline of the Chalukyas at the beginning of the twelvth century, the
rule of the Kakatiya dynasty began in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh Warangal
(in present Andhra Pradesh) was their capital. At that time the authority of the
Hoisalas also began to emerge. The Hoisala dynasty founded its kingdom near
present Mysore.
The Chola empire :- The Cholas belonged to an ancient tribe of South
India. A small
kingdom of the Cholas
had existed for
centuries on the
Coromandal coast. In
the middle of the ninth
century (846-871
A.D.) Vijayamala
Chola extended the
authority and
grandeur of the
dynasty. From his
time upto the end of
the thirteenth century
the Cholas occupied
an important place in
the history of south
India. He conquered
Tanjore from the
Pandyas and made it
his capital. Aditya I
(871-907 A.D.) the
last Pallava King,
Aparajita Varman had
Fig. 2.2
(Based upon Survey of India map with the Permission of the
Surveyor General of India and Goverment of India Copyright 2001.
The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of
twelve nautial miles measured from the appropriate base line.)
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
L
A
K
S
H
Y
A
D
E
E
P
(
I
N
D
I
A
)
SOUTH INDIA IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY
R. Nanrmada
R. Tapi
R. Mahanadi
R. Godavari
R
.
C
o
u
v
e
r
y
Kanchipuram
Mahablipuram
Gangatikandacholapuram
R. Krishna
LATER
CHALUKYAS
ARABIAN
SEA
Devangiri
Y
A
D
A
V
S
Warangal
K
A
K
T
I
Y
A
S
PANDYAS
Madurai
C
H
O
L
A
S
C
H
E
R
A
S
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made the foundation of the Chola Kingdom solid. More eminent than him was
Parantaka I (917-953 A.D.)who conquered the Pandya Kingdom and received
the title of ‘Madurai-Kinda’ which means ‘the conqueror of Madurai.’ But
Parantaka had to accept defeat at the hand of Krishan II, a Rashtrakuta King.
Parantaka was an able commander, administrator and patron of the learned. He
encouraged agriculture in his king-
dom. Large tanks were dug in which
rainwater could be stored. Canals
were constructed to carry water
from the tanks to the fields for irri-
gation.
Among the Chola kings there
was Rajaraja I (985-1016 A.D.)
who was very powerful and ambi-
tious. He invaded kingdoms located
in different directions and extended
his empire. He defeated the Ganga
(Kalinga) and the Cher Kings
(Kerala) and took over the control of Madurai after taking the Pandya King
prisoner. Rajaraja understood the importance of exercising control over the sea.
He knew that if he could exercise control over the coast of south India, the Chola
kingdom would become much more powerful. He, therefore, built up a powerful
navy with a fleet of ships. He led an attack on Sri Lanka and brought under his
control its northern region. A part of the Sri Lankan’s population is of Tamil
origin even today. He invaded the Laccadives and the Maldives. There were
other reasons also for these invasions. The main centre for conducting trade with
the Maldive group of islands was the Chera kingdom and the centre for trading
with West Asia was Sri Lanka. Cloth, spices costly jewels and other articles
used to be exported from India to West Asia. Arab traders used to come to India
from West Asia to deal in these goods. Many of them settled down in the towns
situated on the Western coast of India. So, with the gaining of victories over
these areas, the profits from the trade started coming to the Chola Kingdom.
Thus king Rajaraja proved to be an efficient and successful ruler. He was by far
the greatest south Indian ruler and that is why he was honored with the title of
‘the great’. The walls and ramparts of the Rajarajeshwara temple bear the detailed
account of his victories.
Fig. 2.3 The Kailasha Temple, Ellora
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Rajaraja’s son, Rajendra Chola was more powerful and ambitions than his
father. He ruled for a long period from 1014 to 1044 A.D. He not only consolidated
his father’s empire but also added to its glory with fresh victories. He fought
many campaigns in the Southern peninsula. Two of these were really bold and
daring. One was when his armies advanced along the eastern coast of India, and
reached as far as the river Ganges through Orissa. Before returning to the south
he defeated Mahipala, the King of Bengal and annexed Bihar to his Kingdom
after conquering it. He received the title of Gangai Kond and established the
town, Gangai Kond Cholapuram by name. Here he built beautiful temples and
magnificent places.
The second victorious campaign of Rajendra Chola was that of East Asia.
For many centuries India traders had been trading with many parts of south-east
Asia. This trading extended upto southern China. Indian goods were sent to China
by ships and cargoes were brought from there. The Indian ships were obliged to
pass through the straits of Molucca. These were at the time under the control of
the Kingdom of Shrivijya. The merchants of Shrivijaya and the Pirates created
difficulties for the Indian ships. So, at the request of the Indian traders Rajendra
Chola sent out a powerful navy for their safety. Thus the Cholas fought against
the Kingdom of Shrivijaya which included Sumatra and Java and also some
parts of the straits of Molacca. The Cholas held under control some of the
provinces of the Kingdom of Shrivijaya in 1025 A.D. However, this control did
not last long.
The successors to Rajendra Chola were not so capable and powerful as he
was, secondly they had to enter into a prolonged fight with the Chalukyas of the
West. Internal revolts also weakened the authority of the Kingdom. Many of the
feudal lords set up their own Kingdoms. Thus, by the end of the twelfth century
only a small Kingdom in Tanjore was left in the control of the Chola Kings. The
Chola Kingdom was brought to an end by the attack of Malik Kafur in A.D.1310-
II on Rajendra III, the last ruler of this dynasty.
Administrative system of the Cholas :-
The king was the head of the administration and Government. He had a
council of ministers to advise and guide him. The different branches of Government
had each an officier at the top. The whole empire was divided into provinces
they were called ‘Mandalams.’ Each Mandalam was again divided into
‘Valanddus’(Districts). The lowest unit of administration was the village. Each
village had a village council known as ‘Ur’ The life and the work of the village
were discussed in these council. The councils, was often divided into a number
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of small committees and each committee looked after one aspect of administra-
tion. The members of these committees were elected annually on the basis of
their qualifications. The management of villages was thus done in a democratic
way.
The Economic system :-
The main source of income of the Kingdom was taxes on land. One sixth of
the land produce was realized as land tax. In addition to this taxes were realized
from the weavers, oil producers, goldsmiths, traders etc. Octroi duty was also
levied in the markets. Out of total revenue thus collected, a portion was kept
apart for the king and remaining used to be spent on the works of public utility
like digging of tanks, construction of roads and also on the salary of the state
employees, maintenance of the army and on temple buildings.
The social condition :-
Besides the king and the courtiers, the brahmins and the tradesmen occupied
a place of pride in society during the Chola rule. Brahmins were respected on
account of their learning and knowledge of the Religious scriptures. Great learned
brahmins were gifted land and villages by the king. In this way some of the
brahmins became so rich that even a few generations of them could lead a
comfortable life.
Trade in the Chola Kingdom reached a new height. But the conditions of
the labourers in town and the farmers in villages was far from satisfactory. They
had to work very hard. The shudras were treated as untouchables and were not
allowed to enter temples. These two classes of people remained engaged in the
service of the higher classes. The condition of women in South India was better
than that of the women in the north. Women belonging to the upper classes owned
property also.
Religion, art and literature :-
Most of the Chola kings followed the Shaiva doctrine but were quite liberal
in their religious outlook. they treated all religions Vaishnawism, and Buddhism
Jainism with equal respect. King Rajaraja, although a Shaiva, built temples of
Vishnu and gave Charities to Buddhist monasteries. The Vaishnavas were called
‘Alwars’ whereas the Shaivas were known as ‘Nayannars.’ They were free to
explain and propagate their own religions. During this period some new sects
introduced new ideas into system of worship and devotion and began to propagate
them among the people.
During this period many of the great religious teachers came to the north
Kingdoms of the South
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from the south although, later on, north India also did produce some great teachers
of religion. The best known of the south Indian religious teachers were
Shankaracharya and Ramanuja-charya. Shankaracharaya belonged to Kerala and
lived in the eighth century. His philosophy is known as the Advaita system which
means that there is only one unique and supreme power in the whole of the
universe. He believed in the acquisition of knowledge and held that it was through
knowledge that one could worship God. Shankaracharya, travelled all over India
and preached his philosophy. He held religious discussions with many a learned
men.
Ramanuja-charya was another great religious teacher of south India who
lived in the eleventh century. He preached that one should worship God with
total devotion. His idea was that in, comparison to knowledge devotion and
love are of greater importance in worshipping God. He tried to remove the
distinction on the basis of castes and to bridge the gulf between the high and the
low which prevailed in the society at that
time.
The Cholas made an advance in the
system and tradition of building construc-
tion of the Pallavas. They build many mag-
nificent temples in Tanjore and Gangai-
Kond Cholapuram. The Rajrajeshwara
temple in Tanjore is an unparalleled
specimen of architecture of the time. The
king and the wealthy persons used to do-
nate land and money very liberally for
building temples and for their security. The
royal temples built by the Cholas were
grand and magnificent like the
Brihadeshwara temple of Tanjore.
In the Central Shrine room the image of the God goddess was installed.
These images were made of bronze or stone. The bronze images are famous all
over the world for their art and beauty.
The temples were the centres of social activity and religious functions. the
walls of the temples were beautified with images and variety of scenes, the
court scenes the battle scenes, the scenes of worship and also the scenes of
music and dancing.
Fig. 2.4 The Brihadeshwar Temple Tanjore
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Both Sanskrit and Tamil prospered during the time of the chola kings. The
temples were the centres of education both in towns and villages. Temple priests
worked as teachers also. Schools used to meet in the country yard or in a part of
the temples. Donations were given to these institutions by the kingdom. Gener-
ally education was imparted through Sanskrit and the pupils were brahmins. It
was essential to acquire the knowledge of the Vedas and other scriptures. Many
of the inscriptions of the Chola kings are in both Sanskrit and Tamil. Kamban
wrote his famous work, the Ramayana, in Tamil, Besides this a lot of works in
poetry and drama were composed in Tamil by scholars.
Telugu being the language of the common man, the Ramayana and the
Mahabharata were written in that language Scholars like Nannaya, Tikkanna and
Yaramma produced literary works of high quality on the basis of Mahabharat in
Telugu during this period. Kannada being the languages in the areas around Mysore,
learned men Pampa, Paunna and Ratna produced good-quality literature in
Kannada. Saints also preached in language of the people.
The period between the eighth and the twelfth century, was a period of
development not only from the political point of view, but also from the point of
view of trade and commerce, building construction, religious reformation, arts,
literature and cultural upliftment.
The Pandya Kingdom
The Pandyas were Dravidians and had been ruling in the areas around the
districts of Madurai, Ramnad and Tinneveli of South India. Madurai was their
capital. In the seventh century Pandya King Arikesri Marvarman defeated the
Cheras of Kerala siding with the Chalukyas he defeated the Pallavas and extended
his Kingdom over a small area. For about 150 years thereafter, the Pandya Kings
continued to fight against the Pallava, the Ganga, the Chola and the Chalukya
kings for the security of their kingdom. During the ninth century the Pandyas rose
again. Their king Shrimakhallabha defeated a combined army of the Gangos, the
Cholas, the Kalingas, the Pallavas and the Magadhas. In 920 A.D. the Cholas
disintegrated this kingdom. Thereafter, the Pandya kings continued to try to get
back their kingdom by revolt. About three hundred year later, during the time of
Jatavarman Sunder I (1251-1258 A.D.) The Pandya authority again reached its
peak. He defeated the Cher, the Cholas, the Hoyasal and the Kakatiya kings. He
secured control over Kanchi also. The Pandya kings also built a number of temples
among which the temples of Sri Rangam and Chindambaram are famous. The
Venetian traveler, Marco Polo, visited South India during the reign of Marvarman
Kulashestra Pandya. He has given an account of the political, social and religious
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conditions of the Pandya Kingdom, struggle continued among the successors and
by the end of the thirteenth century this kingdom lost its existence.
The Chera Kingdom :
Like the Cholas and the Pandyas the Cheras were also Dravidians. In their
kingdom were included the modern Malabar, Travancore and Cochin. Chera and
Kerala are synonymous words. IN the first century A.D. There was a king Perunar
by name who was killed in a battle with the Cholas. After some time matrimonial
relations were established between the Cherasand the Cholas. A king named
Senguttavan extended his Kingdom by removing the neighbouring Pandyas and
Cholas. But in the eighth century the Pallavas obtained control over the Chera
Kingdom. In the tenth century the Cholas brought under their occupation the Chera
Kingdom and this went on upto the twelfth century. The thirteenth century saw
the spread of the influence of the Pandyas. By and by the authority of the Cheras
ended completely.
EXERCIES
I. Short-answer Questions:
1. Write down the names of the main royal dynasties.
2. Who were the Rashtrakutas ? How did they establish their Kingdom?
3. Who re-established the Chalukyas ?
4. Who were the chief rulers of the Pallava dynasty ?
5. How far was the Kingdom of Rajaraja I spread ? Why is he called
‘great’?
6. Mention the public welfare items of work of the Chola Kings.
II. Answer the following question in about 200 words each :-
1. Describe the adventure of victorious advance of Rajendra Chola.
2. Given an account of the administration of the Chola Kingdom.
3. Describe the religious condition of the Chola reign.
4. What improvements in literature were made during the Chola reign?
5. Give an account of the society during the Chola reign.
6. Why did Rajendra Chola make an attack on the south eastern Kingdom ?
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III. Fill in the blanks with the word/words given in the brackets:-
1. ..................had a powerful kingdom in the Deccan which tried to
conquer a part of the plains of Ganga.
(The Cholas, The Chalukyas, The Rashtrakuta)
2. The Rastrakutas had to fight many wars with the Powerful kings of
the .............dynasty.
(Kakatiya, Hoyasala, Chola)
3. The Rashrakuta dynasty was established by ..............(Kirti Durg,
Krishna I, Narasingha Varman).
4. The Chola ruler..............received the title of Madurai Konda.
(Aditya I, Parantaka I, Rajraja I)
5. The Kailash temple at Ellora was made by Krishna I who belongs to
the dynasty...............
(Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Chola)
IV. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’ against
the ones that are false :-
1. The Rastrakutas ruled over Dwar Samudra situated near Mysore.
2. Tarantaka defeated Krishna II, a Rashtrakuta king.
3. The Ratha temples in Mahabalipuram were built during the Pallava
period.
4. Warangal was the capital of the rulers of Yadava dynastry.
5. The Chola rulers fought battles again and again against the powerful
Partiharas and the Palas.
V. Things to do :-
Collect the pictures of the ancient temples of India and distinguish between
the different styles of architecture in the construction of temples north and south
India.
Kingdoms of the North
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CHAPTER-3
KINGDOMS OF THE NORTH
(A.D. 800-1200)
The period of about 400 years (AD. 800 to 1200) of the history of India is
known as the Rajput period. The political unity of India had received a setback
after the death of Harsha. Both in the South and the North many a dynasty came
into existence and declined during this period. But none of them was able to
conquer most of the territories of India and unite them into one integrated unit.
Kannauj was the capital of Harsha. From the time of Harsha, Kannauj
acquired as much importance as did Pataliputra during the Mauryas and the
Guptas or as Delhi has at present. Kannauj had become not only the political
capital of India but also her cultural capital Every ambitious ruler desired to
make it his capital It was their conviction that one who ruled over Kannauj
would-be accepted as the emperor of the whole of north India. A hard struggle
took place among the ruling dynasties of the time to gain control over Kannauj.
They were the Rashtra Kutas the Palas and the Pratiharas. The Rashtrakutas
were ruling in the region around Nasik in northern Deccan. Govinda III, Krishan
III and Indra III were the Powerful and influential monarchs in this dynasty. It.
was they who brought fame to the Rashtrakutas. The kingdom of the Palas spread
all over Bengal and a large part of Bihar: The first king of this dynasty was
Gopal. After his death his son, Dharmapala, came to the throne. He was the most
famous king of this dynasty. The word ‘Pala’ occurs at the end of the names of
the kings of this dynasty. So, they are known as the Palas.
The Pratiharas set up an independent kingdom over Southern Rajasthan and
some parts of Malwa. Vatsaraja was the most famous among the Pratiharas and
the second famous king was Nagabhatta II. By the end of the eighth century the
Pratiharas had established their rule over Kannauj. Later on, king Dharmapala
of the Pala dynasty reorganised his army and brought Kannauj under his control
But the Palas could not hold Kannauj for a long time. During the reign of King
Mihir Bhoja the Pratiharas regained their strength and captured Kannauj. At the
beginning of the tenth century, by reorganizing themselves and consolidating their
power the Rashtrakutas brought Kannauj under their control once again. Thus all
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the three dynasties of north India spent their time in fightings and trying to gain
control over Kannauj.
This resulted in the decrease in their military strength and soon all the three
lost their powers. Several small. kingdoms came into being in north India which
had relation with the Rajput dynasties which appeared on the scene later on. The
rule of the Sens was established over the Pala Kingdom. The reins of the
R a s h t r a k u t a .
Kingdom came into
the hands of the
Chalukya Kings.
The Origin of
the Rajputs :
The name of
the Rajasthan, the
present state of the
Indian. Republic,
was Rajputana. On
this part of the
country lived a
majority of the
Rajputs and their
Kings.
The Rajputs
claim to be the
descendants of the
ancient sun-family
(Suryavanshi) or the moon family (Chandra-Vanshi). Another belief is that they
have descended from the fire-family (agni-kula) the Fire-pit (Yagna-Kunda) were
born the Pratiharas, the Pawaras, the Solankis and the Chauhans.
These families set up their kingdoms in the Western India Rajputana and
central India and continued to make efforts to increase the sphere of their influence.
It is undoubtedly true that the Rajputs tried to unite the whole country by
establishing vast empire.
Fig-3.1 The Map of India: India from 800 A.D.to 1200 A.D.
INDIA IN THE PERIOD
A.D.800-1200
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
L
A
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S
H
Y
A
D
E
E
P
(
I
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D
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)
R
.
I
n
d
u
s
R. Mahanadi
R. Godavari
R
.
C
o
u
v
e
r
y
ARABIAN
SEA
R. Ganga
ANDAMAN
& NIKOBAR
ISLAND
(INDIA)
Delhi
CHAUHANAS
SOLANKIS
RASTRAKUTA
Malkhand
R.Krishna
Puri
Kashmir
R.Taongpo
Indore
CHANDELS
PALAS
KAMARUPA
Nasik
Present
international
boundries...
CHOLAS
PRATHARAS
UTKALA
TOMARAS
Bhubanesware
PAWARS
Kingdoms of the North
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They also faced very bravely the raids of foreigners of them the Pratiharas
ruled over Kannauj region about which we have already read. In the central
region of Rajputana was the Kingdom of the Chauhan (Chahamanas). Chahaman,
was the founder of that family. Previously, these kings were the tax-paying lords
under the GurjarPratiharas. Later on, Vigraharaja added to the strength and glory
of the Chauhan family by defeating the Tomars and he laid the foundation of an
independent rule. His son, Sinharaja bore the title of ’Maharajadhiraja’ In the
twelfth century Ajayraja Chauhan founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) and got
palaces and temples built in it. A great and powerful ruler of this dynasty was
king Prithviraja. A description of his deeds of bravery has been given by his
court poet, Chandvardai, in his book entitled ‘Prithviraj-Raso’, He fought against
the Solankis of Gujarat, the Chandelas of Bundelkhand and Jaichand. King
prithviraja III was the most honoured among the Kings of his time. Prithviraja III
had to face the attacks of Sahabuddin Muhammad Ghori. In the end he, was
defeated and Delhi and Ajmer came under the Muslim authority.
The founder of the Solankis (Chalukyas) in Gujarat was Maharaja. This
family had perhaps no connection with the Chalukyas of the South. Mularaja had
to confront the attacks from the Chauhans from the north, Tailap II from the
South, the Parmaras of Malwa and also, the Kalchuri Kings. He, however, managed
to keep up his kingdom. During the reign of Bhima I of this dynasty, Mahamud
Ghaznavi’s’ raids took place. On seeing the might of Mahamud he got so frightened
that without giving any fight he ran away leaving his capital behind The Hindus
fought bravely, but were defeated. Mahamud Gaznavi ransacked temples; broke
the idol of the temple of Somnath, killed thousands of Hindus and returned to
Gazni with immense wealth. The succeeding kings of this family were not so
worthy and therefore its decline began.
The Parmara (Pawar) family which claimed to have come out of the Fire-
Pit (agnikunda) was founded by Upendra (Krishnaraja) who had been a subedar
of Malwa and had owed allegiance to the Rashtrakutas. A ruler of this family,
Harsha, was very powerful and established an independent kingdom in Malwa
by defeating the Rashtrakutas. He made Dhar, which is near Indore, his capital.
His successor was Munja, who was the greatest army commander of his
age and was a powerful king. Munja expanded his kingdom by defeating almost
all the Kings around him. He was a lover of art and literature and was himself a
poet. Magnificient temples were got built by him in the main towns of his kingdom.
The Munja-Sagar lake near Dhar, which exists even to day, was built by him.
King Bhoja was another great king of the Paramara family. He was extremely
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18
ambitious and powerful. During his reign the city of Dhar reached the peak of its
glory. King Bhoja was a highly learned man and connoisseur of art. He founded
a university at Dhar. He was a devotee of Lord Shiva he built a lot of temples in
his kingdom. He set up a town named Bhojpur, a place to the south of present
Bhopal. After King Bhoj a rulers of the Paramar family continued to rule for
about two hundred years. At last, in 1305 AD Alauddin Khilji conquered Malwa
and brought it under the control of the Delhi Sultanate.
In addition to these prominent Rajput kings there were many small royal
families all over India who had begun their rule under the protection of the
Pratihara and Rashtrakuta kings but later on who became independent ruler after
revolting against, their protectors. These kings may be grouped under two catego-
ries. (I) Those kingdoms which had connections with the history of the Rajputs.
They were the rulers of central India and Rajasthan e.g. the Chandelas of
Bundelkhand and the Guhelots of Mewar who ruled over the region to the south
of the Chauhan Kingdoms. The Tomars ruled over the region north-east of the
Chauhan kingdom, which is Present Haryana, and around the areas of Delhi. It
was these Tomars who founded the city of Delhi in A.D. 736 Later on the Chauhans
defeated the Tomars and annexed their Kingdoms within their territory (2) Some
other kingdoms were either in the hilly areas or had no connection with the
Rajputs. Among these were Nepal, Kamraup of Assam, Kashmir’ and Utkal in
Orissa. Among the hilly Kingdoms in the Punjab, Chambal Jammu and Kulu
were” notable. These kingdoms used to fight against one another to show their
might or to expand their territories. Those battles reduced their strength gradually.
The whole country was divided into, small and big kingdoms. They could never
unite together to face any external aggression on account of their disunity. Thus
they could not protect themselves when there was an invasion of the Turks from
the North-Western of India. The first attack of the Arabs had taken place on
Sindh in 643 A.D. For about three hundred years, thereafter several attacks of
the Arabs and Turks continued to take place. Of these the raid of Mahmud of
Ghazni caused a severe loss to India.
Mahmud of Ghazni:
Subugtagin was the ruler of Ghazni, a very small princely state in central
Asia. After his death, his son Mahmud (AD.998) came to the throne. He was the
worthy son of a worthy father. He was very brave, ambitious, daring and religious.
He had all the qualities of a brave soldier and an able commander. After his
accession to the throne he chalked out a plan for a vast empire and was successful
also in translating it into reality. He was extremely greedy and idiot. To plunder
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wealth and to spread. Islam in non-islamic areas of the world with the power of
the sword, were the aims of his life.
He drew up a plan to secure unlimited wealth and to spread Islam in India.
He raided the land between A.D. 1000 and AD. 1026. Every year he would raid
India, ransack the cities and the palaces and go back honoured with the titles of
“idol breaker” and “conqueror’.
The first raid of Mahmud was made in 1000 A.D. He got control over some
of the border forts. Next year he attacked the old king Jaipal of Peshawar. The
king was defeated. The army of the sultan looted as much wealth as would be
hard to count. He carried out raids on Multan three times, conquered it, imprisoned
the king and made the conquered territory apart of his empire. King Jayapala’s
son Anandpala requested the rulers of Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj, Ajmer and
Ujjain to unite and give a fight to Mahmud. Many kings joined this fight. But due
to lack of expertise in military science and army movement of the Indian side,
Mahmud was victorious Mahmud’s last raid was on Somnath temple situated on
the coast of Kathiawar. It was the most magnificent of the temples in medieval
India. The vast wealth of the temple was looted by Mahmud.
Although Mahmud’s attacks were like raids, his chief objective was not to
set up a kingdom but to plunder wealth. Although he went back after plundering
his raids. But left the Indian kings weaker in their military power. Foreigners
came to know about the political and ‘military weaknesses of India the destruc-
tion of the ancient temples gave a severe jolt to the architecture and a vast quantity
of wealth went out of the country.
Muhammad Ghori :
Indian king took no lessons even from the destructive raids of Mahmud.
They continued to fight among themselves as before and the country grew weaker
and weaker. At the end of the twelfth century Muhammad Ghori’s invasion took
place. Muhammad was the son of the ruler of Ghor, a small kingdom in
Afghanistan.’ Gradually the power or the ruler of Ghor increased so much that
he captured Ghazni permanently. Muhammad was appointed ruler of Ghazni.
The objective of Muhammad Ghori’s invasion was not merely to plunder,
but he also desired to add to his kingdom the northern part of India by conquering
it. His first attack was on Multan. Here he defeated the ruler of the Karmayee
community. Then he captured Sindh, In 1178 A.D. he tried to penetrate into India
through Gujarat, hut the Solanki king Mularaj II defeated him. So he concentrated
his attention on the northern kingdoms. By 1186 AD. he brought under his control
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the forts of Peshwar, Lahore and Sialkot. Thus he became the master of the
whole of the border areas and the Punjab.
After the victory of the Punjab, the border of Muhammad’s Kingdom began
to touch those of Ajmer and Delhi which were ruled by Prithviraja Chauhan
Muhammad attacked the fort of Bhatinda in 1191 A.D. Having come to know this
Prithviraja advanced with a large army. Fierce fighting took place at Tarain
between the two armies. Muhammad was defeated and he managed to escape in
a badly wounded condition. Returning to Ghazni he collected a large army
consisting of daring and ferocious men belonging to the hilly kingdoms of Central
Asia and the very next year came down to attack India again. This time he had
brought with him about one lac twenty thousand soldiers. King Prithviraja
appealed to the other, kings for help. It is said that about a hundred and fifty big
and small kings rallied under Prithviraja’s flag. Only the Gaharwar king Jaichand
of Kannauj, did not side with the Chauhans in this battle. Both the armies came
face to face on the plains of Tarain again in A.D.1192. Although the Rajputs
fought with exemplary courage and bravery, they were defeated on account of
the absence of able leadership and fighting skill. Prithviraja was taken prisoner
and later on put to death. By this victory the Turks came to control Ajmer, Delhi
and Hansi (a town situated to the north-west of Delhi). Prithviraja was the most
powerful king in north India. With his defeat easier for Muhammad Ghori to win
over India.
Muhammad Ghori had generally to face difficulties in Afganistan. He,
therefore went back to Ghazni leaving his slave and able general Qutb-ud-din to
rule over the conquered territory as his representative. In A.D. 1205 a fighting
race, the Khokhars, revolted. Muhammad Ghori came to suppress them. The
revolt was put down but while he was returning to Ghaini, a young Khokhar
murdered him.
Social life :
Although the political and economic authority of kings during this period,
weakened, they did live in pomp and show. Much of their income was spent in
building palaces and temples and also to maintain the pomps and show of their
courts. The courts were attended not only by feudatories but also by the wealthy
brahmins and traders. The status of Brahmins and Kshatriyas in society was
high. Brahmins conducted religious ceremonies and rituals of worship. Some of
them wrote biographies of the king and histories of the kingdom and verses in
praise of the king. Some of them were also appointed to high posts. Kshatriyas
were also learned and good warriors. Brahmins and Kshatriyas got subdivided
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into many sub-castes and sects, among whom the feelings of high and low began
to deepen. The Rajputs acquired a separate entity on account of the their bravery
and courage.
Among the other classes in society were farmers, craftsmen, businessmen
and labourers. Of all ‘the classes in society the life of the Shudras’ was the most
difficult. They had no rights and they were looked down upon. Most of them
were cultivators and labourers. Those who did the lowly work were treated as
untouchables.
Many far-reaching changes in the condition of wormen took place in this
age. Among the Rajputs the system of Swayamvara was prevalent. Marriages
took place at an early age among the ordinary classes. Polygamy was in vogue
among the higher classes. The custom of Sati began to grow widerspread. The
life of the Rajput women was also full of bravery and courage like that of their
men-folks. On the death of their husbands in battles or in foreign attacks, women
would take to “Jauhar” i.e. they would burn themselves to death rather than fall
into the hands of the enemies.
Economic life :
In this age village-folks remained engaged in rearing animals and doing
agriculture. The important change that took place in agriculture, was with regard
to land measurement and realization of land tax. Previously, there was no system
of payment of salary in cash. Instead of the payment of salary the authority was
given to realize the land revenue in a particular village or a piece of land. This
revenue used to be equal to the amount of money he would normally receive as
salary. In such a case the authorized person did not have any rights of ownership
over the land. But with the coming of the medieval period many such persons
began to claim the ownership of the land. Persons authorized to collect land
revenue came to be called ‘rai’ or ‘thakur’. They kept a large portion of the land
revenue for their own use and credited the rest into the treasury of the king. They
were also required to maintain troops which the king could demand whenever
he wanted. Thus they remained under the control of the king. Besides these, the
Brahmins and learned men were also granted lands as gifts. The land revenue
pertaining to the gifted land was fully utilised by those who were granted the
lands.
As the number of such persons increased, the amount of revenue which
came to the king decreased. Many of the officers who had many villages and
large areas of land, in turn would grant the right to their subordinates for the sake
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of convenience. Thus a number of intermediaries came into existence between
the king and the peasant. This led to the fast growth of feudalism one result of
this was that those who had large grant of land often behaved like independent
rulers. The peasants who cultivated such lands started paying more attention to
the feudatories. So the king gradually began to be quite away from the peasants.
On account of the decrease in the king’s revenue, the expenses on security also
decreased and it became hard to maintain a large and powerful army. This was
one of the primary reasons why the kingdoms of north India could not protect
themselves from the attacks of the Turks. There was rivalry and jealousy among
the feudatories. ‘Even small disputes were settled through a fight. Most of their
time and money were spent on such, futile wars. If any feudatory felt that he had
become sufficiently strong, he would proclaim himself, independent and set up
an independent kingdom. Often the king was too weak to restrain the feudatories
from taking such steps. Thus the Rastrakutas who had been feudatories of the
Chalukyas became the independent rulers. The Chandelas ruling under the
Pratiharas also became independent. The Cholas of the South had also began as
feudatories.
The peasants had to suffer most in these circumstances. They not only paid
the revenue to the lord but had to do free labour also for him. Often the feudal
lord would realize from them extra taxes on roads, mills, water for irrigation
etc. They were fated to toil hard and remain poor.
The inhabitants of towns and cities remained engaged in different trades
and industries. Like those in the South the different traders had organized
themselves into various groups. Cotton, Woollen and silk cloth, ivory goods,
ornaments and utensils of gold and silver, statues and idols of cast bronze, play-
things and earthen pots were produced in large quantities in the country.
Goods within the country were transported by roads and rivers. Patliputra,
Ayodhya, Ujjain, Kannauj, Mathura and Kashi were big business centers. Because
of the settlement of the Arab traders on the west coast of India, trade with the
Mediterranean countries and western Asia flourished. Cotton and Woollen clothes,
precious stones, sandalwood, Coconut, cloves, nuts ivory goods and Keshar
were exported outside and horses, dates and wine were imported in large
quantities from outside.
Religious life :
On account of the patronage of the Rajput Kings, Hindu religion became
very popular. Buddhism which had started declining during the reign of Harsha
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now remained confirm to east India. Jainism had its influence on Rajasthan,
Gujarat and among some royal families of the south. At the beginning of this age
a number of such learned men and philosophers were born who had deep faith
in the Vedic rituals. As such the realization of self-attainment through rituals
became a part of Hindu religion. Hindu religion included the Vaishnawa, the
Shiva and the Shakta sects. Gradually tantra-mantra and inhuman ritual practices
got into these sects.
When the religious thought began to get distorted in north India, then saints,
like Shankaracharya and Ramanuja in the south brought a sense of reawakening
in it. Both of them belonged to the south and you have already read about them.
Vishnu was worshipped in his two incarnations-as Rama and as Krishna. Temples
of a number of Gods and Goddesses were built in this age. The legends about the
lives of Ram a and Krishna were depicted on the: walls of the temples with the
help of images and pictures. Festivals were celebrated with fun fare. It was
during this age that Opposition to the complicated rituals began and stress began
to be given on simple Bhakti (devotion). This very feeling gradually developed
into the “Bhakti movement” later on.
Education and Literature :
Education spread well during this age. The temples were the main centres
of education where children of the higher castes were taught. Buddhism played a
notable part in the field of education. The famous monastery at Nalanda was still
in existence. Kashi, Kannauj etc. were principal centres of learning. King Bhoja
had a university built at Dhar.
The interest in science and astronomy that was taken in the Gupta period
started decreasing now, For example, the discoveries of Aryabhatta instead of
being used to make further discoveries about the sun, the Earth and the Universe,
were mixed up with astrology on account of ignorance and superstition. Indian
medical system of Ayurveda was famous the world over but now further progress
in’ this area too stopped.
This period has its importance in the field of literature also. Even now the
language of literature was Sanskrit. Among the famous poetic works were Magha’s
Shishupal Vadh; Bhavabhuti’s ‘Uttar Ram Charit’ and Bharavi’s ‘Kiratarjuniyam.’
The most popular literary work of the period was ‘Katha Sarit Sagar’ a collection
of stories. Biographies of kings were also written. Of them Vilhan’s Vikramank-
Dev-Charit’ and Kalhan’s “Raj Tarangini” and famous history books. In northern
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India Krishan Worship spread and many poetic works based on the love-legends
between Radha and Krishan were produced. Jaideva’s ‘Geet-Govinda’ is one of
them.
Architecture and Painting :
The famous kings and the powerful feudatories built temples in this age
which are living examples of architecture. There are hundreds of temples which
were built in this period. The temples at Puri and Bhuvaneshwar and the Sun
temple at Konark in Orissa are the most famous among these.
The Chandella kings built the Khajuraho temples in Bundelkhand. These
temples have style different from the style of the Orissa temples. The group of
Jain temples on Mount Abu in Rajasthan with white marble is a creation of this
period. The art of building forts also developed in this period. The forts at
Chittor, Ranthambhor, Gwalior etc. were also built in this period.
Alongwith architecture, sculpture and painting also made much progress
during this period. Under the patronage of the Pala Kings many idols of Gods
and Goddesses were made of bronze, black stone. Moral paintings continued to
Fig. 3.3 The Shiv Temple of Khajuraho
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be used to decorate the walls of temples and palaces. Another type of painting
which became-very popular during the Mughal period later on, began in this
period. It was the art of miniature painting. Artists began to draw pictures to
illustrate books. These pictures drawn on the books made of palm-leaves are the
ideal specimens of art. Afterwards more, Subtitles and colours came to be used
in them.
EXERCISES
I. Fill in the blanks with a word from those given in the brackets:
1. Many battles were fought in north India to gain control over the city
of:............(Kannauj, Delhi, Agra)
2. King Bhoj was a powerful king belonging to the............. dynasty.
(Chandela, Pratihara, Parmara)
3. Delhi was founded by the rulers of the............... family.
(Chauhan, Tomar, Gaherwar)
4. The famous temples at Khajuraho were built by the.............rulers.
(Chandela, Pala, Gurjara)
5. Mahmud of Gazni attacked India...........times.
(Fifteen, Seventeen, Three)
II. Match the contents of column A with those of column B.
A . B
1. The Rashtrakuta kings. 1. Ruled over Avanti and some
parts of southern Rajasthan
was
2. The Pratihara Kings 2. Raj Tarangini.
3. The aim of the invasions of 3. Ruled over the northern area
Mahmud of Gazni. around Nasik in the Deccan.
4. Kalhan’s famous historical 4. were in a large number in north
book. India.
5. The followers of the Shiva 5. was to obtain money and
and the Vaishnawa’ sects wealth by plunder.
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III. Answer the following questions :-
1. Which powers struggled among themselves to obtain control over
Kannauj?
2. How did the Gurjar Pratiharas expand their Kingdom?
3. What Were the main causes of Mahmud of Ghazni’s attacks on India?
4. What are the beliefs prevalent today about the origin of the Rajputs?
5. What is the importance of the battle of Tarain in Indian history?
6. What changes in the economic system were made during the Rajput
period?
7. What was the condition of women during the Rajput period?
8. Give an account of the social life in the reign of the Rajputs?
9. What progress was made in architecture and painting during the
Rajput period?
IV. Something to do:-
1. Show the areas in the map of Asia which were attacked by Mahmud
of Gazni and-Muhammad Ghori.
2. Show the areas of rule of the major north Indian dynasties in map of
India.
The Delhi Sultanate
27
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CHAPTER 4
THE DELHI SULTANATE
(A. D. 1206 TO 1526)
The period of Indian history from AD. 1206 to AD. 1526 is known as the
period of Delhi Sultanate. Five different dynasties ruled over Delhi during this
period.
The Slave dynasty (A/D. 1206-1290) :
All the rulers of this dynasty were either themselves slaves or the sons of
slaves. That is why this dynasty is called the Slave Dynasty. The first ruler of
this dynasty was Qutub-ud-din Aibak, the general of Muhammad Ghori. After the
death of Muhammad Ghori, he became the Sultan of Delhi. He was a Turk ruler.
The second big ruler of this dynasty was Iltutmish. The credit far establishing the
turks in India goes to him. He put down the revolt of the Turkish noblemen and
Tatars and also defeated those Rajputs who
were trying to regain their lost freedom. It
was during his reign that the Mongols, under
the leadership of Chenghez Khan, established
their control over the area along the Indus.
Thus he had to spend his time in facing all
sorts of troubles Iltutmish got the unfinished
Qutub Minar completed which had been
started during the time of Qutab-ud-din. The
son of Iltutmish proved to be of no worth.
So the reigns were taken over by his
daughter, Raziya. But the Turkish Generals
of the time look it to be a matter of dishonor
to work under Raziya a woman. They,
therefore, revolted. But Raziya did not lose
her courage even in these circumstances.
She herself led the army in the fight and
tried to suppress the revolt. In the meantime
the conspirating generals got her murdered.
Fig. 4.1 The Qutub Minar
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Raziya was an able, intelligent and brave ruler.
The last ruler of the slave dynasty was Balban. He stationed an army on the
border in order to put in check the Mongols. Very hard punishment was given to
the disloyal ones and at last he was able to enforce his unfettered authority.
The successors to Balban were incapable. The slave dynasty, therefore,
came to an end. Kekubad was the last ruler of this dynasty.
The Khilji Sultan (A.D.1290-1320) :
Jalaluddin Khilji occupied the throne of Delhi after putting to death the last
ruler of the slave dynasty. He laid the foundation of the Khilji family. The attack
on devagiri in the South by his nephew, Alauddin was a notable incident during
his time. Alauddin murdered his uncle, Jalaluddin and then occupied the throne
of Delhi himself. He reorganized the army and conquered Gujarat, Ranthambhor,
Chittore, Ujjain, Mandav and Chanderi. He sent out his reliable general, Malik
Kafur, to conquer the South. Thus, he succeeded in spreading his empire from
the North to the South.
A vast sum of money was needed to maintain a large army. Alauddin raised
the land taxes on the fertile land between the
Ganga and the Yamuna (theDoab). During his
time farmers had to pay half of their produce as
taxes. He fixed the prices of articles and
appointed officers to keep a watch on the
markets so that the soldiers were not required
to spend a large amount on buying essential
commodities and they could maintain
themselves with their low salary. During his
reign articles of daily use were very cheap.
Those traders who did not sell goods at
the prices fixed or who played false in weight,
were given hard punishment.
The succeeding rulers of the Khilji family
were also weak and incapable. As a result, soon
the rule of this family also come to an end.
The Tughluq family (A.D. 1320-1413) :
The first ruler of the Tughluq family was Gayasuddin Tughluq, but the
famous sultan of this family was Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. He ruled for about 26
Fig 4.2 Raziya Begum
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years. During his reign an Arab traveller, Ibn-
Batutah came to India. He has written highly about
Tughluq. He had noted that among all the Sultans
of Delhi, he was the most intelligent and able ruler.
His ideas were very noble but he committed many
errors in implementing them. As a result, all his
plans failed.
First of all Muhammad Tughluq drew up a
plan for extending the boundaries of his empire by
organising a large army. He required a vast amount
of money for this. He therefore, raised, the taxes
on the farmers of the Doab area. But unfortunately
a famine broke out at the time. The farmers not
only refused to pay the taxes, but also revolted
against him. At last the order to raise the taxes had
to be withdrawn by the people at the Sultan.
The second plan of Muhammad Tughluq was to transfer his capital from
Delhi to Devagiri. After making Devagiri his capital he named it Daulatabad.
Daulatabad being situated, in the South, it was easier to exercise control over
the South. He ordered all the officers of Delhi and the subjects to shift to
Daulatabad. Proper care about the conveniences on way to Dautalabad was
taken. But it proved to be really matter of great misery for the people to leave
their native places and move to a place about 1100 Kilometers away. They
became annoyed with the Sultan. For the Sultan also it was very difficult to
control the North while remaining in Daulatabad. He again issued orders to shift
the capital back to Delhi from Daulatabad. These movements caused him heavy
losses, with the terms of money and manpower. This plan also failed.
In order to make good the wastage of money and wealth caused by the
shifting of the capital and the famine, Muhammad Tugluq drew up a plan to issue
token coins of copper. The face value of these value of token coins was equal to
the value of the real gold coins.
Gold or silver could be obtained in exchange for the coins from the royal
treasury. This scheme of Muhammad Tughluq also proved unsuccessful because
he could not exercise proper control on their minting. As a result, token coins of
copper began to be minted in many a household. Tughluq was, thus, obliged to
discontinue the scheme of token coins. As gold and silver had to be given in
exchange for the token coins already issued the royal treasury became almost
Fig 4.3 Alauddin Khilji
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empty. As a matter
of fact people at the
time did not have
any faith in the main
currency these days.
Firoz Tughluq,
the nephew of
Muhammad Tughluq
ascended the throne
after him. He did
many acts of general
welfare for the
benefit of the
oppressed people.
Arrangements for
irrigation were
made to increase
agricultural Prod-
uce . Many tanks
were dug and canals
constructed during
these very days. He
founded new townships like Firozabad, Hissar and Jaunpur. Many works in
Sanskrit were translated into Arabic and Persian during his time.
After the death of Firoz Tughluq there was no powerful ruler in this family.
In 1398 TaimurLung invaded India. He plundered Delhi to his hearts content and
returned to his native place, Samarkand. Before returning, he appointed Khizr-
Khan as the Governor of the Punjab.
The Syed family (A.D. 1414-1451) :
Khizr-Khan laid the foundation of the Syed family. There were in all four
Sultans in this family. The last Sultan occupied the throne of Delhi by the name
of Alauddin Alamshah. He was also an incapable ruler. He was, therefore, re-
moved by Bahlol Lodi, who captured the throne of Delhi.
The Lodi Dynasty (A.D. 1451-1526) :
Lodi Sultans were Afghans. All the previous Sultans of Delhi were Turks.
Fig 4.4 The Kingdom of Alauddin Khilji
Present external Boundary of India
EMPIRE OF ALLAUDDIN
KHILJI 1320 A.D.
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
L
A
K
S
H
Y
A
D
E
E
P
(
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N
D
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)
ARABIAN
SEA
Andaman &
Nikobar
Island
(India)
Delhi
Kashmir
Chittor
Deogiri
Ajmer
Ranthombor
Ghodi
Kada
Banaras
Lahore
Yarangal
Gulbarg
Dwar
Samudra
Madurai
,
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The main Sultan of the Lodi dy-
nasty were Sikandar Lodi and
Ibrahim Lodi.
Ibrahim Lodi was very
proud, hot-tempered and head-
strong. His behaviour with his
officers and the subject was not
good. That brought about dissat-
isfaction and revolt all over the
kingdom. Oppressed by the tyr-
anny of Ibrahim Lodhi, Daulat
Khan, the governor of Punjab, in-
vited the ruler of Kabul, Babur, to attack India. A fierce battle took place at
Panipat in 1526 between Babar and Ibrahim Lodi. Lodi was defeated in the
battle and thus came to an end the Lodi dynasty.
The Administration of Sultanate :-
The Sultan was supreme in the administration of the sultanate. In military
and judicial affairs also, the Sultan had the final say. The Turk Sardars of the
time were very powerfu1. They used to conspire against the Sultan and, at times,
they were successful even in occupying the throne of Delhi with their conspiracy.
There was no definite system of succession during this time. Some of the
sultans inherited the throne where as some occupied it with their intelligence,
skill and bravery.
The main source of income for the kingdom was land revenue. About one
third of the land-produce was realized as revenue. During the rule of some of the
Sultans, this proportion reached up to a half of the produce. The officers ap-
pointed in villages and districts used to realize the revenue. The post of Mukaddam
(head of the village) continues to exist even today. The major portion of the
income was spent on the army, the personal expenses of the Sultan and on building
magnificent buildings and forts.
For the convenience of administration the Sultans of Delhi divided the
Kingdom into a number of provinces. There, used to be a subedar in every suba
(Province). He would be either a relative or a favourite of the Sultan.
The Rise of the New Kingdoms :
As a result of the decline of the Sultanate a number of new Kingdoms
came into existence in different parts of the country. Many of these kingdoms had
Fig 4.5 The Tomb of Firoz Tughluq at Hauskhas Delhi
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been the provinces
of the sultanate and
now become inde-
pendent Kingdom.
The Chief among
these were the
kingdoms of
Bengal, Gujarat,
Malwa, Mewar,
Marwar, Jaunpur,
Vijayanagar and
Bahamani.
The kingdom
of Gujarat was
founded by Ahmed
Shah. He also
founded the city of
Ahmedabad. The
ruler of Malwa
was Husangshah.
He founded
Mandavgarh By
this time two of the Kingdoms of the Rajputs-Mewar and Marwar-had become
quite powerful, although there existed some sort of rivalry between them. Rana
Kumbha of Mewar was a man of Versatile genius. Besides being a ruler he was
a good poet and musician, Jodhpur and Bikaner kingdoms also came into exist-
ence around this time.
The Kingdom of Kashmir had also become important during this period.
Zainat Abedin was the popular ruler of it. He encouraged the study of Sanskrit
and Persian and also did many, acts of general welfare. In the eastern India the
two important Kingdoms were those of Jaunpur and Bengal. Jaunpur was later to
become a centre of Hindi literature and learning.
In the Deccan the Bahamani Kingdom and the Kingdom of Vijayanagara
were important. The Bahamani Kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu, an officer
of Muhammad Tughluq. He belonged to Bahamanshah family of lran. So the
Kingdom founded by him came to be known as Bahamani Kingdom. Firoz Shah
Delhi
INDIA IN THE LATE
14th & 15th CENTURIES
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
L
A
K
S
H
Y
A
D
E
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P
(
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ARABIAN
SEA
Andaman &
Nikobar
Island
(India)
Kashmir
Chittor
Deogiri
Ajmer
Ranthombor
Ghodi
Kada
Banaras
Lahore
Yarangal
Gulbarg
Dwar
Samudra
Madurai
Sindh
Agra
Bengal
Ahmedabad
Khandesh
R.Ganga
R. Mahanadi
R. Krishna
Fig 4.6 India In The Late 14th & 15th Centuries
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was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty. Vijayanagara Kingdom-Two broth-
ers named, Harihar and Bukkas founded this kingdom which was situated to the
south of the Bahamani Kingdom. The rulers of the Bahamani and the Vijayanagara
Kingdoms were very ambitious and wanted to bring under their control the whole
of the peninsula. They, therefore were always at war. As a result of their mutual
jealousy and warfare they could not make their position strong. But even then
they continued to hold their sway for two hundred years. As they remained unaf-
fected by the turmoils in the north India, they made useful contribution to the
development of the Indian culture and civilization. Notable progress was made
in art, architecture and the regional languages during their time.
EXERCISES
I. Match the contents in column A with those in column B.
A B
1. Qutub-ud-din Aibak 1. Battle with Babar in Panipat.
2. Iltutmish 2. Founder of the slave dynasty.
3. Alauddin Khilji 3. Attack of Chenghez Khan.
4. Mohammad-bin-Tughluq 4. Control on market price.
5. Ibrahim Lodi 5. Use of token currency.
II. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in the brackets :-
1. Most of the ruler the, Delhi, Sultanate were................. (Afghanis,
Turks, Mongols, Mughals)
2. ...................stationed his army on the borders to stop attacks by
Mongols.(Balban, Raziya, Iltutmish, Alauddin)
3. Arab traveller, Ibn-battutah has given a description of the reign of
.................. (Firoz, Tughluq, Mohammad-bin-Tughluq, Alauddin
Khilji, Ibrahim Lodi).
4. Bahmani and Vijayanagar were the two main kingdoms in .............
...........India. (South, east, north, central)
5. .........................sent an army towards the deccan under the command
of Malik Kafur. (Balban, Raziya, Alauddin, Iltutmish)
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III. Short answer questions :
l. Why did the Turk nobles oppose Raziya?
2. Mention about the land tax and the price control policies of Alauddin
Khilji.
3. Mention three of the important events of Mohammad Turghluq’s time.
4. Describe the system of administration of the Delhi Sultanate.
5. How did Alauddin Khilji expand his kingdom?
IV. Essay-type questions:
1. Muhammad Tughluq’s policies failed although they were well thought
why ?
2. Which kingdoms rose in India after the fall of the Sultanate?
3. Give a description of the Bahamani and the Vijayanagara Kingdoms.
V. Things to do :
1. Make a list of the Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate according to the
families and write against each the duration of their rule in the
Christian years.
2. Draw the outlines of the Chief Kingdoms during the Sultanate in the
map of India.
The Life of The People During The Sultanate
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35
CHAPTER-5
THE LIFE OF THE PEOPLE DURING THE
SULTANATE
We have already read that India had become a house divided against itself.
As a result of the prevailing disunity and want of the spirit of nationalism,
conspiracies and revolts began to take place. In such a situation some powerful.
foreign ruler attacked our country captured and then began to rule over it. Thus,
from the very ancient times there came to live in Indian people belonging to
different culture patterns and religious beliefs.
During the early medieval period the Arabs came to Sind and the South as
traders. The Turks and Afghans came to the north from the central Asia as invad-
ers. Some of them founded their Kingdoms in India, expanded them into empires
and gradually settled down here. Whenever a foreign people conquer a country
and settle down in it, they bring with them new ideals of life as also new patterns
of living. Not only is the conquered country influenced by these new patterns,
but the life of the conquerors also gets influenced by the culture of the conquered
people.
The Turks and the Arabs, who came to India, brought with them the ideas,
the cultures and the patterns of living of Iran and central Asia. Indian society got
influenced by them. And with their settling down in India, the Indian culture and
patterns of living also influenced them. Thus, Indian gradually developed as
new type of culture which was a fusion of a variety of living pattern and thoughts.
Social life:
Indian society was divided into four major groups during the period of the
Sultanate. The aristocracy and the priesthood held the highest position. The general
townmen and the peasants belonged to the other groups. The aristocracy was the
ruling class which consisted of the Sultan, the nobles, the Hindu princes and the
Landholders. The Sultan lived a life of Splendour in Delhi. Whenever a new
Sultan was enthroned the Khutba or sermon was read in his name and new coins
bearing his name were minted and issued. Following the footsteps of sultan, the
nobles and the wealthy lived a life of pomp and show, full of luxury. The Brahmins
and the Ulemas were an important part of society as teachers of religion. Those
among them who acted as advisers to the Sultan exercised a tremendous influence.
Social Science-7
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36
Some of them were exceptionally wealthy and had received grants of land. The
people living in towns were generally the merchants traders and artisans, and
some nobles and officers. Most of the towns were trading centres. Some of the
towns were administrative and military centres and some towns were places of
religious pilgrimage. The artisans lived in a special locality of the city according
to their crafts. Even today we find that some localities and areas of cities are
called after the type of artisans and merchants who lived there at one time. The
life of the peasants continued much as before. The changes brought about by the
coming of the Turks and Afghans remained limited to the upper levels of society.
The caste system was an important feature of society during the time. The status
of women declined gradually. Among the royal families and the wealthy families
polygamy was practised. The Purdah system and the custom of child marriage
got wider acceptance. These customs resulted into a decline in the status of
women.
Religious life :
Islam came to India with the turks and the Afghans. This resulted in many
things. Although there was some bitterness at the outset, both Hindus and Muslims
were influenced by each other and each borrowed some religious ideas-from the
other. This gave rise to two religious trends-the Sufi movement and the Bhakii
movement.
The Sufis :
Along with the Turks, a number of saints and religious preachers came to
India. Among them were some Sufi saints. They settled down in different parts
of India. They preached love and devotion and Bhakti as the means of coming
nearer to God. They believed that man could gain access to God if he bore real
love for him in his heart. These Sufi saints did not give much importance to
prayer, fasting rituals of worship etc. They had a broad outlook and were-tolerant
of other communities and their religions. Many Hindus became the followers of
these Sufi saints.
Moin-ud-din Chisti was a great sufi saint of his time. He lived at Ajmer for
a long time and also died there. He was convinced that bhakti (devotional) music
was also a path leading to God-Urs is held every year on his mansoleum even
today. Another famous saint of this very community was saint Nizamuddin Auliya
who lived near Delhi. He was honoured by both the sultan and the common man.
Love and war were include into Islam on account of the Sufi Saints.
The Life of The People During The Sultanate
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37
The Bhakti Movement :
Many saints who tried for the Hindu muslim unity were born in the four-
teenth and the fifteenth centuries. All such saints laid greater emphasis on love
as the means of coming closer to God, rather than on ritual. That is why it is
called the Bhakti Movement.
Mahaprabhu Chaitanaya preached religion in Bengal. He was a devotee of
Lord Krishna. He composed many couplets on Krishna-Lila and sang them in
chorus. Sant Gyaneshwara in Maharashtra preached Bhakti. He wrote the Gita
in Marathi and brought it within the reach of the common man. Sant Namdeo and
Sant Tukaram also were born in Maharashtra. Both of them preached that love
was the means of developing devotion to God. In Banaras Kabir spread Bhakti
through the language of the people. He tried to remove the discrimination between
the Hindus and the Muslims. He held that god is one and is called by different
names. He rebuked both the Hindus and the Muslims for the unnecessary ritual
the show and the bigotism. The disciples or Kabir set up different community by
the name. Kabir-followers (Kabir-Panth.). Kabir was a social reformer and
symbol of communal unity. His teachings areas valuable and relevant today as
they were during his time. Vallabhacharya was a Telgu brahmin of the South. He
travelled on places of Pilgrimage like Mathura, Vrindaban and Varanasi etc. In
the north and preached devotion to the service of Krishan. The group of the eight
Chief disciples of his is called
“Ashta-Chhap”. Suradasa was
the main poet belonging to this
group.
Nanak was another
important preacher of religion.
He founded the Sikh religion.
Later on his followers became
very powerful in north-India. His
teachings have been compiled in
a book called “Granth Sahab.”
Nanak said emphatically that all
men are equal and therefore there
should be no differences based
on castes. He laid emphasis on
Fig. 5.1 Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chistie’s
Mausoleum at Ajmer
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38
the purity of mind and character. He held that the
restrictions with regard to eating based on caste
differences were of no avail and insisted that
everyone of his followers should eat in a common
kitchen (Langar). The Chief canons of his
teaching were one God, one Guru, and one name
to worship.
Influence on the people :
The Bhakti Movement widely influenced the
society of the time. All the saints had laid
emphasis on devotion to God and purity of
character in their teachings. They preached that
for the devotion to God one need not give up this
world, and that rituals are not necessary. One
can realise God through love. This led
to the strengthening of the sense of
devotion to God among the common
man as also among the people of the
low classes. The preachers preached in
the language of the people. Avery
important advantage that occurred from
it Was the development of literature in
Hindi and the regional languages the
most important aspect of the Bhakti
Movement was that it tried to bring
closer the followers of Hinduism and
Islam by removing their differences and
bridging the gulf between them.
The Economic life :
The raiders that had come to India
before the Turks and the Afghans e.g. Mahmud of Ghazni and Taimur Lung,
plundered the country and took away with them unlimited wealth and money. But
when the Sultans of Delhi established their Kingdom in India, the wealth and
property of the country were put to use within the country itself. The Sultans of
Delhi tried their utmost to improve the economic condition of the country.
The Sultans and the noblemen gave encouragement to business and industry
in order to meet their needs. Many cooperative factories were also opened.
Fig 5.2 Kabir
Fig 5.3 Guru Nanak
The Life of The People During The Sultanate
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39
Trade reached a new height during this period. Every town had a market place.
Big fairs were also held in which traders would assemble to buy and sell goods.
Indian traders carried on their trade with Malaya, China, Central Asia, Iran,
Afghanistan and many European countries. Foreign traders brought gold to India
and in exchange took away with them cotton and silk cloth, herbs, utensils of
metal ivory goods etc. to their countries.
An African traveller, Ibn-Batutah came to India during Muhammad Tughluq’s
reign. Giving the account of his travels he has recorded that the magnificent city
he ever visited was Delhi. The main cities and ports were Broach, Khamobat,
Multan, Lakhnoti, Sortargaon (Bengal) etc. On Account of the extensive rise of
money in trade and business, coins in a large quantity were minted and circu-
lated. The silver coins were called tank and these were started by Sultan Iltutmish.
It was on the lines of the tankah that the silver rupees were issued later on. It was
during this time that the system of weights by tolas was started which continued
till the modern adoption of the metric system.
The main occupation of the common people was agriculture. The village
folks earned their living by agriculture and small scale crafts. The common man’s
life was full of wants and poverty. Although the Sultans in Delhi drew up, many
a plan for the improvement of agriculture, that did not bring about any change in
the traditional agricultural work. The life of the peasants in villages remained as
it had, been before. Food stuff was in abundance and its price was also low.
The source of income of the state was the land tax. It was something between
a half to one third of the land produce and was realized in cash coins or in kind.
Jajia tax used to be realized from the Hindus. It was a tax imposed on the non
muslim citizens. Zakat (a religious Tax) was collected from the Muslims and the
whole income from this was utilised for helping the poor. In addition to this
octroi on commodities of trade, irrigation tax, tax on the mineral wealth, house
tax, pilgrimage tax etc. were the other sources of income of the state.
Language and Literature :
Regional languages developed in this age and literature was produced in
them. The two forms of Hindi-Braj and Avadhi were used. Persian was the court
language in several parts of the country. Persian, therefore exercised its influence
on many languages in the country and many Persian words found their way into
the different Indian languages. A new language, Urdu, came into existence as a
result of the mixture of Persian with Hindi. The grammar of Urdu was the same
as that of Hindi but its vocabulary was drawn from Persian, Turkish as well as
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40
Hindi. Gradually Urdu began to be used mainly in the towns. In the same way,
Punjabi in the north, Gujarati in the west, Bengali in the east, Marathi in the
South. Many of the popular literary works in Sanskrit viz. the Puranas, the
Ramayana and the Mahabharata were translated not only in the regional languages,
but also in Arabic and Persian. Over and above the works of translation, there
were many poets and writers who produced original works in various languages
in the forms of epic poems, lyric poems, plays etc. Famous among such poets
and writers were the Telegu poet, Srinadha, Malik Muhammad Jayasi, Maithil
poet, Vidyapati etc. Amir Khushrau was famous poet and learned man of this
age. He wrote in the language of the common people in addition to creating
works in Arabic and Persian. Khusrau’s puzzles are still prevalent among the
community.
Education and Literature Loving Sultans open many maktabs and Madarassas
for muslim students. The maktabs and schools attached to mosques and temples
were the centres of learning.
Architecture:
The Turks and Afghans brought with them new styles and techniques of
architecture. These got merged with the ancient Indian styles and new type of
architecture developed. Two of the very important architectural forms of this
period were the arch and the dome. Both of these forms were based on advanced
mathematics and engineering skill.
After the coming of these new styles, both the arch and the dome were
widely use in mosques, tombs and a little later, in private residences as well.
The construction of the tall, slender tower was another style of this period.
The coming together of the two styles of architecture resulted into the
construction of some very beautiful buildings. The Qutub Minar built during the
reign of the Mamluk sultans and the nearby mosque were the earliest of these
constructions.
Painting and Music :
The artists of the time were engaged in decorating books -belonging to the
rulers and the courtiers. So they lived under the royal patronage. Sometimes they
painted the portraits of their patron kings and sometimes they illustrated the
events described in the books with their paintings.
The inclusion of new forms enriched the art of music also. The musical
instruments like the Sitar, the Sarangi and the Tabla became very popular during
this time.
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The coming of the Afghans and the Turks resulted into many experiments
with new patterns of living. As a result there took place the development of
religious movements, languages, painting, architecture and new and beautiful
styles of music.
EXERCISES
I. Match the names in column A with contents in column B.
A B
1. Nanak 1. Preached Bhakti in Maharashtra
2. Chaitanya 2. Preached Bhakti in the peoples
languages in Banaras.
3. Kabir 3. Founded the Sikh-religion.
4. Gyaneshwara 4. Preached Krishan-Bhakti in Bengal.
II. Fill in the blanks with the correct word/words given in the brackets:
1. ..............was the court language in a large area of the country during
the Sultanate Period. (Urdu, Hindi, Persian, Sanskrit.)
2. A new language born out of mixture of Hindi and Persian was.........
............. (Braj, Awadhi, Urdu, Bengali)
3. A famous poet...............wrote puzzles in the people’s language during
the Sultanate rule. (Kabir, Sur, Amirkhusrau)
III. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’ against
the ones that are false:
1. In the Sultanate period Indian traders travelled within local and
foreign countries.
2. The Chief source of income for the state was trade.
3. The life of common people was full of wants and poverty.
4. During this period the main occupation of the people was agriculture.
5. The rulers of Ahmednagar built beautiful buildings on the hills of
Mandu.
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IV. Short answer questions :-
1. Describe the condition of the peasantry during the Sultanate period.
2. Throw light on the condition of women during the Sultanate period.
3. What were the contributions of the Sufi saints to Indian society?
4. Describe the main characteristic of the society during the Sultanate
period.
5. Give an account of the development in language and literature during
the Sultanate period.
6. What were the influences of the Sufi saints and the Saints of the
Bhakti movement on the society at that time?
7. How did the Turks and the Afghans influence the architecture &
music in India?
8. Give an account of the following in 3 sentences each -
Nanak, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Kabir, Vallabhacharya
V. Things to do:
Collect interesting details about Nanak, Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Kabir and
Vallabhacharya.
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CHAPTER 6
THE COMING OF THE MUGHALS AND THE
EUROPEANS TO INDIA
The political situation in India was in disarray before the attack of the
Mughals. The whole country was divided into small kingdoms. Sultan Ibrahim
Lodi was the last emperor of the Sultanate in north India. Lodi, Sultans depended
more on the patriotism and loyalty of the Afghan Chiefs. Ibrahim Lodi could not
keep them under his control on account of his incapability. So, many of the Afghan
chiefs revolted against the Sultan and declared themselves independent rulers of
so many kingdoms
In such a situation many of the Afghan Turkish chiefs took to conspiracy. In
order to capture the throne of Delhi, They plotted with Babur, the ruler of Kabul,
to get rid of the Delhi Sultanate. Rana Sanga of Mewar also wanted to exercise
his control over Delhi.
The Lodi also agreed to
help Babur against
Ibrahim Lodhi, the Sultan
of Delhi. Babur had
Previously raided as far
as the border of India. He
knew that India was a
rich country and hence
when he was asked for
military aid by the chiefs
of lndia, he agreed in no
time and reached Punjab
with his army.
Babur (1526 to 1530
A.D.)
Daulat Khan, the
Afghan Chief of Delhi,
surrendered to Babur
without giving him a Map 6.1 India at the time of the Mughal Victory.
INDIA ON THE EVE
OF MUGHAL
CONQUEST
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
L
A
K
S
H
Y
A
D
E
E
P
(
I
N
D
I
A
)
ARABIAN
SEA
Andaman &
Nikobar
Island
(India)
Delhi
Kashmir
Gujrat
Khandesh
Mewar
Sind
Bihar
Agra
Bundel
Khand
Punjab
Golcomba
Bijnor
Vijaynagar
Madurai
Orissa
Berar
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fight. With the desire of becoming the Sultan of Delhi, he also helped Babur
against Ibrahim Lodi by providing him with military aid. Babur had brought his
artillery with him which was a novel thing for the Indian army. He had also a
small but well trained expert cavalry. Babur himself was a brave and expert
general. He knew how to plan an effective strategy and use his army to the best
advantage.
In 1526 A.D. Babur attacked Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi. A fierce
battle took place on the famous plain of Panipat. This was the first battle of
Panipat. The battle was won by Babur.
Babur died in 1530 A.D.
Babur was not only brave warrior and able general but also a superb literary
figure. He was well versed in the Turkish language and a poet and writer too.
Humayun (1530 to 1540 A.D.)
After Babur’s death his son, Humayun, ascended the throne of Delhi. Babur
founded the Mughal rule in India, but he could not live long to make it secure
against the enemies,
Therefore Humayun had to
face a lot of difficulties
immediately after coming
to the throne. The Afghan
chiefs were determined to
turn the Mughals out of the
country. Sultan Bahadur
Shah of Gujrat was
planning to capture the
throne of Delhi. Humanyun
succeeded in conquering
Gujrat and Malwa, but he
could not establish his
authority over Western
India. Being preoccupied with all these revolts and having had to face the enemies,
Humayun could not find time to look after the administration. On the other hand,
Sher Shah was making efforts to re-establish the influence of the Afghans.
Sher Shah (1540 to 1545 A.D.) :
Sher Shah was the son of a Chief who was the owner of a small estate in
Bihar. In his childhood he was called ‘Farid’ but after having killed a lion, he
Fig. 6.2 Humayun’s Tomb, Delhi
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was recheristened Sher Khan’. Sher Shah organized a powerful army with the
help of which he became an independent ruler. He was very much influenced by
the policies of Alauddin. By defeating Humayun he became the ruler of India.
Administrative reforms of Sher Shah:
First of all, Sher Shah organized his army. He began the system of paying
salaries to the officers in cash the administrative officers and the workers could
make a complaint directly to the emperor. He began to tour the Kingdom in order
to inspect the work of the officers. On account of all these things he became very
popular among his subjects. Like Sultan Alauddin, he fixed up the land revenue
after measuring the land. He took care to collect the revenue but he also took
pain to see that no injustice was done to the peasants. The peasants were not
required to pay taxes for nothing.
Emperor Akbar, later on, adopted the land reforms of Sher Shah as they were.
Sher Shah got many roads constructed in his kingdom in order to facilitate
transportation. On both the sides of the roads shady trees were planted; wells
were dug and at short districts rest houses were built for the comfort of the
travellers. He repaired the road stretching from north India to Bengal, Which
was built during the Maurya period. The same road from Peshawar to Calcutta
is now known as the ‘Grand Trunk
Road’, He built roads in the south
upto Burhanpur and to Jaunpur in
the east to link the borders of his
kingdom with Delhi. With the
construction of these roads it
became easy for the officers, the
workers and the traders to move
from one place to another. It was
Sher Shah who first started the use
of the one-rupee coin.
Sher Shah could rule only for
five years. Unfortunately, he was
killed in an explosion in the
explosive store during the raid of Kalinjar in 1545 A.D. Sher Shah’s death proved
to be boon to Humayun because Sher-Shah’s successors were weak and incapable.
On account of this the position of north India weakened. Humayun desired to be
the ruler of Delhi once again. He, with the help of the Shah of Persia, conquered
Kandhar and Kabul. After conquering Punjab in 1555 he took possession of
Delhi and Agra. In this way, the Mughal rule was established in India once
Fig. 6.3 Sher Shah’s Tomb at Sasaram
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again. Humayun, like his father, Babur, could not enjoy the fruits of his victory
for long. After only one year, while coming down from the stair-case of the
library he fell down and died. His son, Akbar, who is counted among the great
kings of India, succeeded him.
The Bahmani Kingdom :
The political situation of south India was also affected when the mughals
came to power. Hasan Gangu, one of the officers of Muhammad-bin- Tughluq,
founded the Bahmani Kingdom in the fourteenth century. As he received the title
of ‘Alauddin Bahman Shah’, this kingdom came to be known as the ‘Bahamani’
kingdom. In south India, this kingdom extended upto the river Krishna. The most
powerful ruler of the Bahmani dynasty was Firoz Shah Bahmani He was a good
poet and had special interest in Science, Mathematics and logic. The Bahmani
Kingdom progressed a great deal in the fifteenth century. The credit for this
goes to its able and wise minister named Mahamud Gavan. He was a Persian
businessman. After coming to India, he took up employment under the Sultan.
Making progress gradually he became the Chief Minister of the Bahmani
Kingdom. With his skill and prudence
Mahamud Gavan advised the Bahmani
Sultan rule justly for nearly twenty five
years. In matters of collecting taxes, he
committed no atrocities on the subjects.
He conquered Goa from Vijayanagar so
that the profit on trade therefore began to
be received by the Bahmani Kingdom.
All this increased the popularity of Mahamud Gavan among the subjects
but, on the other hand, some other people began to be jealous of him. They began
to conspire against him. In 1481 A.D. these people with the consent of the Sultan
got Mahamud Gavan murdered.
The succeeding rulers could not exercise control over their chiefs. Besides
this, the frequency of attacks from the neighbouring Kingdom of Vijayanagar was
increasing. Therefore the Bahmani Kingdom got divided into five independent
Kingdoms.
The Vijayanagar Kingdom :
By the end of the fifteenth century when the Bahmani Kingdom started
declining after the death of Mahamud Gavan the Vijayanagar Kingdom rose to
power again. At that time Krishna Deva Rao, the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar
Kingdom, ruled it. His reign continued for about twenty-one years. He defeated
Fig. 6.4 Coins of Krishna Deva Rao
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the rulers of Orissa and Bijapur on the battlefield. He took possession of the
Doab of Raichur from the Bahmani Kingdom. On the Western coast he established
friendly relations with all the local kings. The boundaries of his kingdom extended
upto south Konkan in the west, Vishakhapattanam in the east and upto the end of
peninsula in the south.
Krisnha Deva Rao made friendly relations with Portuguese also. He gave
them lots of facilities. He permitted the Portuguese Governor, Albubuerque to
construct a fort. Another Portuguese, Payes by name, lived in his court for many
years. He has given a description of the administrative system prevailing during
the reign of Krishna Deva Rao. Krishna Deva Rao introduced a large irrigation
scheme for the agricultural development in his kingdom. He issued orders to his
officers with regard to the welfare of his subjects. Krishna Deva Rao constructed
many temples and palaces. He was interested in literature and was proficient in
Telegu and Sanskrit languages. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’, a long poetic com-
position in Telegu. Krishna Deva Rao died in 1530 A.D.
The Three kingdoms of South:
The decline of the Vijayanagar Kingdom began just after the death of Krishna
Deva Rao, in 1565 A.D. Vijayanagar came under the combined attack of the
forces of the neighbouring states-Bijapur, Golconda and Ahmednagar, and was
defeated on the battlefield of Taliketa. In this way Vijayanagar lost it glory.
India and Europe:
At the end of the fifteenth century the Portuguese were the first to come to the
Western sea coast of India. In 1408, the first ship of Vasco-de-gama reached India
to trade. They were so much benefited by their trade that they felt encouraged to
settle in India. By and by they commanded over small Indian territories and
established their factories there. By the side of the factories the Portuguese built
their settlements. In these settlements lived their missionaries whose main objective
was to propagate Christianity. Goa had already become a colony of the Portuguese.
Before the coming of the Portuguese traders some Europeans had also come
to India who travelled various parts of the country e.g. Marco Polo from Venice
and Nikitan from Russia visited South India. But both of them had come along.
In the sixteenth century traders came to India from Some other parts of
Europe, Such as England, France, Denmark, Holland and Spain, to trade and
established their settlements. These European countries wanted to establish trade
relations not only with India but with other Asian countries also.
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The Renaissance .:
After the long spell of the Dark Ages, a new movement took place in Europe
which gave rise to such tendencies as have direct bearing on our modern thinking
and living. This movement is called the Renaissance. First of all, it began in
Italy in the fifteenth century and in the next two centuries it spread to the whole
of Europe. This movement revived interest among the people in the ancient culture
and civilization of Europe. People’s attention was drawn to the Greek and Roman
cultures and civilizations that were in existence before the beginning of
Christianity. Learned men studied seriously about the artistic achievements, the
literature, the philosophy and the history of those ancient cultures. Consequently,
new ways of thinking developed. The whole atmosphere began to be pervaded
with a spirit of enquiry. Many rules of small kingdoms and wealthy merchants
began to take an interest in this. Due to long standing trade contacts with the
Arabs, their learning reached Italy and Spain. This added to the curiosity of the
Europeans. By and by, the influence of the church began to wane on the learned
persons. People were not inclined to accept whatsoever was told by the Church
about the universe, God and human life. People were not inclined to accept
everything blindly. Now the basis of thinking was what man could perceive and
feel. Science was born through this process. People did not believe that knowl-
edge was given by God. They came to believe that one could gain knowledge by
wisely observing the world around him. The Renaissance thinkers emphasized
that knowledge should be used for human welfare. Man should do good, not
because it is God’s command but because all men are human beings.
In the fifteenth century, a Polish philosopher, Copernicus, tried to prove that
the sun is the centre of the universe and the earth and other planets move around
it. This idea of Copernicus prevented a revolutionary thought before the scholars
of the world because upto that time it was taught by the church that the earth was
created by the God and thus it was the centre of the universe. Centuries before,
the theory of Copernicus was attempted to be proved by Aryabhatta in India. In
the beginning of the Seventeenth century Galileo, an astronomer and scientist of
Italy, proved this by his observation and experiment. He invented the telescope
and through it studied the sun and other planets. To prove his theory he used his
scientific methods. The knowledge gained by his experiments began to spread to
other European countries and thus new scientific discoveries began to be made.
The new thoughts of the Renaissance were enthusiastically accepted by the
merchants and the middle class people in the cities because they were against
the church and feudalism. Leonardo-da-Vinci was another scientist and artist of
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Italy. In his paintings, he beautifully depicted the feelings of an average human
being. The Monalisa portrait made by him was an incomparable piece of paint-
ing. Being interested in science, he invented a number of machines out of which
the ‘flying machine’ was the most exciting of his experiments. In the field of
literature Shakespeare was a great dramatist of the later Renaissance period and
he gave expression to human hopes and aspirations, ‘pleasure and pain very
effectively in his dramas.
The period of Discoveries and
Inventions:
The thoughts of the Renaissance
period spread fast from one city to another
all over Europe. At the same time an
incident took place in Europe. It was the
capture of Constantinople by the Turks in
1453 A.D. Previously, a great portion of
western Asia was under the control of theTurks. On having taken possession of
Constantinople by the Turks, the trade relations between Europe and Asia came
to an end. Trade between Europe and
Asia was necessary for many reasons.
For example, Europe had the need of
Asian Spices and many European cities
were dependent on this trade. Had that
trade stopped, these cities would have
declined. The simplest and easiest
route from Europe to Asia was through
Western Asia which was now closed.
The European kings and the merchants
encouraged old and adventurous sailors
to discover new sea-routes to Asia in
order to gain the advantage of direct
trade with Asia.Till then, the Europeans
had no knowledge of the other parts of
the world. The scientists of the
Renaissance period were ready to help
these sailors to hunt for new sea-
routes. As a consequence many
European sailors set out on sea-
expeditions towards different directions to discover new sea-routes. Thus the
Fig 6.7 Vasco-de-Gama
Fig 6.6A Specimen Ship of the 16 th Century
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period of new discoveries began.
First of all, the Portuguese came forward in this direction. Bartholomew
Diyaz travelled along the Western Sea-Coast of Africa in 1488 AD. And he
sailed up to Cape of Good Hope, the tip of Southern Africa. Another Portuguese
sailor was Vasco-de-Gama.
Queen Isabela gave him help. Following Diyaz, he continued his journey
along the eastern coast too. Crossing the Arabian sea he reached the harbour of
Calicut on the Western Sea-Coast of India in 1498 A. D. Thereafter the Portuguese
merchants started coming to India. Prior to this the Indian trade was dominated
by the Arabs. So they opposed the Portuguese, but by making attacks on the Arab
trade settlements, the Portuguese brought under their control the Arab trade.
They built trade houses at Calicut, Cochin and Cannanor. Before long, their
position became strong in India. Like the, Portuguese, the Spainiards also did
not lag behind in this sphere. Under the leadership of Columbus, a Spanish sailor
a sea-expedition started. The Spanish kings bore all the expenses of it. Columbus
wanted to reach India by the Western route. He, therefore, sailed towards the
West and reached the islands of West Indies, which
he took to be a part of India. This was in the year
1492 A.D.
Amerigo Vespucia was successful in reaching
America in 1497 A.D. By this time, geographers
had come to know that it was a new continent.
Therefore the continent was named America, after
the name of Amerigo. When Magellane went around
the world in 1519 A.D. The existence of the
continent of America was proved. The Spainiards
met with no success in respect of Asia, but they
discovered two great civilization in America. These
were the Ajtex civilization of Mexico and the Incas
civilization of Peru. They conquered these areas,
destroyed these civilization and took away the gold and silver from there to
Spain.
Scientists and geographers helped the sailors immensely in the discovery
of new trades and new countries. First of all, progress and improvements were
made in the drawing of maps. Whenever a ship went to a new country it returned
with new information and knowledge. Geographers would effect changes
according to the new knowledge in their records. The invention of the ‘Mariner’s
Fig 6.8 Columbus
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compass’ proved to be a boon for the sea voyages. It lessened the danger of
getting the ships lost in the sea. Now ships could sail, across the sea. The compass
was invented in China and it reached Europe through the Arabs. The Portuguese-
invented the movable sails which could be adjusted according to the direction of
wind. The Portuguese were also the first to fit good quality guns in their ships
and thus they increased their fighting power.
In this adventure of hunting new searoutes and discovering new lands, other
European countries joined in later on.
The Reformation and its reaction:
From the ‘Dark Ages’ upto the Renaissance, Christianity was the dominant
religion in Europe. By now Christianity was divided into two groups. One of
them was the Roman Catholic and the other was the Greek orthodox Christianity.
Constantinople was the centre of the greek orthodox religion. They held that their
religious outlook was the order and more orthodox one. Rome was the centre of
the Roman catholics. Their version of Christianity was of a later date and was
accepted from all over northern and Western Europe. The biggest leader of the
church was called the Pope. Pope means ‘father’. During this period the Pope
was the most powerful authority in both political and religious matters. The au-
thority of the Pope was unlimited and uncontrolled. None could challenge it. He
could punish those who opposed the accepted beliefs and practices in the field of
religion.
Gradually the rights of the Pope and those of the church began to be chal-
lenged. People began to express their indignation at the interference of the Church
in secular matters like politics. Till then, the church had a right to collect taxes of
various kinds from the public. But now people began to object to these taxes also.
Feelings of the people grew stronger against the Roman catholic church and at
last they broke away from it. Christian theologians like Martin Luther, Erasmus,
John Kelvin etc. denounced the church. At the beginning of the sixteenth century
persons denouncing the church organized themselves, into a new group of Chris-
tians called the “Protestants” This movement is known as the reformation move-
ment in religion. On account of this division of Christianity a lot of blood was
shed because the Catholics and the Protestants continued their fight against each
other for along lime. In many northern countries of Europe; the property of the
Church was snatched away and the taxes collected by the Church began to be
deposited in the royal treasury. Trading was encouraged. By and by, the gov-
ernments in these countries began to take interest in trading with Asia. These
countries were, at last successful in setting up their dominions in Asia and Africa.
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The Portuguese in India:
The Portuguese came to India to trade. Their first objective was to take
over the control of the spice trade from the Arabs. They succeeded in their aim
by even resorting to piracy. To snatch away the spice trade they had to establish
their settlements in west Asia, India and later on, in Southeast Asia.
The Portuguese had another interest in India. They wanted to convert into
Christianity as many Indians as possible. They did’ not hesitate even to compel
the people to become christians. They established the inquisition also in India.
Christianity was not a new religion for India. The Syrian Christians had been
living peacefully in India for many centuries before that. Yet the Portuguese
were not satisfied with that situation. They tried their allmost to convert as many
Indians to Christianity as possible.
The Mughals in India :
The Mughals came to India to establish their empire and they did get suc-
cess in it. The biggest difference with them and the earlier invadors was that the
Mughals made India their home, settled down here and became a part of the
Indian population. They always kept the welfare of India in view. Leaving aside
Aurangzeb, other Mughal rulers were liberal in their religious outlook and policy.
The result of the Mughal rule was the laying of the foundation of a powerful
empire in which almost the whole of India was included. India got the opportu-
nity to witness the era of a new civilization. Akbar was the symbol of this new
civilization.
EXERCISES
I. Match the contents of the column A with those of column B.
A B
1. After defeating Humayun 1. The Kingdom of Vijayanagar
Sher Shah, became powerful.
2. Mahmud Gavan helped the 2. Came from Venice and visited
Bahmani kings south India.
3. At the end of the fifteenth 3. Declared himself the ruler of
century when the Bahmani India.
Kingdom declined
4. Marco Polo 4. Came from Russia and
travelled in the Deccan.
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5. Nikitin 5. Rule wisely and justly for
twenty five years.
II. Fill in the blank with the right word or words from those given in
brackets.
1. In 1526 a battle was fought on the famous plains of...................when
Babur defeated the Lodi army. (Talikota, Tarain, Panipat)
2. It was possible that ............... might have become as great..............a
sultan as Akbar if he had more time to rule.
(Babur, Humayun, Sher Shah)
3. ......... was an able chief minister of the Bahmani.....................
Kingdom. (Mahamud Gavan, Ibn Batutah, Al Beruni)
4. ....................discovered that the earth moves round the sun.
(Copernicus, Galileo, Leonardo-da-Vinci)
5. ...............was the first European who reached America.
(Magelane, Columbus, Amengo Vespucia Vasco-de-Gama)
Short answer questions:
1. Give three reasons for the first battle of Panipat.
2. Who was Sher Shah? Why did he get success?
3. How did Humayun regain his lost Kingdom?
4. Who established the Bahmani Kingdom?
5. Who was Krishnadeva Rai? Why is he remembered?
6. Who were the first Europeans to come to India and why did they come?
7. What is meant by ‘Renaissance’? What was its influence on Europe?
8. Write two sentences on each:
Copernicus, Galileo, Leonardo-da- Vinci.
9. What do you understand by the Reformation?
Essay- type questions :
1. Give an account of Sher Shah’s administration.
Things to do:
Find out the routes in the world map through which the Arabs and the
Europeans came to India.
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CHAPTER -7
AKBAR
Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was born on 23rd November, 1542. A,D. in
the palace of Veersal a Hindu King of Amarkot (Sind). At that time Humayun had
taken refuge at Amarkot after being defeated by Sher Shah. He did not know that
the son born in such adverse circumstances, would one day become a great
emperor of India. Akbar’s childhood was spent in misery. When he became five
years old, arrangements for his education was made, But his heart was not in
studies. He was staying with Bairam Khan in Punjab when he got the news of his
father’s death. Bairam Khan held Akbar’s coronation at that very place on February
14,1556 and declared him the emperor of Delhi. Akbar was thirteen years old at
the time. Akbar was very young, his guardian, Bairam Khan looked after the
affairs of the state.
At the beginning Akbar had to face a lot of dif-
ficulties. Delhi and Agra were under the control
of Adil Shah Sur and his Chief Minister was
Hemu. The Rajputs also were seeking an
opportunity to regain their lost power. Sikandar
Shah Sur was creating trouble in Punjab.
Kabul was in Mirza Hakims Possession.
Besides this, there were a number of
small Kingdoms. Akbar was short of money
and the economic conditions of the
country was in a shambles.
Akbar’s first conflict was with Hemu. A fierce battle took place on the
historical plains of Panipat on November 15, 1556.A.D. between the two armies.
Hemu was a general of proved merit and he had a large army. But on being
pierced by an arrow suddenly in the eye, he fell down. On his removal from the
battlefield confusion and stampede took place among his soldiers. The Mughal
army was victorious. Hemu was taken prisoner and later on, put to death. As a
result of the victory in the second battle of Panipt. Akbar regained his control
Fig 7.1 Akbar
Akbar
55
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over Delhi and Agra. Once again the authority of the Mughals was established in
northern India.
When Akbar came of age he took the reign of administration into his own
hands from Bairam Khan. After establishing his authority on a sound footing in
Delhi and Agra, he decided to extend the area of Mughal domination. He advanced
to conquer the important forts of Gwalior, Ajmer and Jaunpur. He sent his army
under the command of Adham khan and Pir Muhammad to gain control over
Malwa. The ruler of Malwa, Baj Bahadur was given to luxury and was a lover
of music. Mandu was his capital. Getting defeated Baj Bahadur showed his back
but later on surrendered himself.
Akbar set him free and took him into his army.
Akbar sent one of his generals Asaf Khan to attack on Gondwana. This
kingdom was situated in the areas around Jabalpur and Mandla of the present
Madhya Pradesh. In those days the widow queen Durgawati used to rule there on
behalf of her minor son, Vir Narayan. She faced the army squarely taking a
sword in her hand but when she had no hopes of victory she put an end to her
life. Vir Narayan also died fighting like hero. Asaf Khan plundered the limitless
wealth of the Kingdom.
Akbar was convinced that to rule over
India could be possible only with the support
of the Hindus as well as the Muslims. He put
this principle into Practice firstly by establishing
friendly relations with the Rajputs. He made
many pacts and alliances with the Rajputs. He
cemented this friendly relations with marriage
alliances between his family and those of the
Rajputs. He himself married a number of Rajput
princesses. He also appointed many Rajputs on
high offices of his administration. The result of
this was that the Mughal Administration was
benefitted by the services of many Rajput Chiefs.
The son of the king of Amer, Mansingh was one
of his most prominent and efficient generals.
With the help of his Rajput friends Akbar
was successful to annex to his empire such forts
as Chittore and Rartthambhor. Nevertheless, the
ruler of Mewar, Udaisingh did not accept defeat
Fig 7.2 Queen Duragwati
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Fig 7.3 Maharana Pratap
and after his death his son, Maharana Pratap
carried on his struggle against Akbar. A very
fierce battle took place in 1577 A.D. on the
plains of Haldi Ghati between the armies of
Rana Pratap and Akbar.
The Army of Rana Pratap taught the
Mughal army a good lessons of life. Finally,
the Mughal army was victorious. Rana Pratap
was taken away to a safe place. Rana Pratap
underwent a lot of hardships, wandered from
forest to forest, ate bread made out of grass,
but kept up his dignity, honour and glory. Upto
the end of his life, he did not accept Akbar’s
domination and continued to struggle for his
motherland. Prior to his death, he did regain
his control over the whole of Mewar except Chittore.
Akbar’s desire was to exercise control over the whole of India. He
conquered Gujarat and Bengal. Since there areas were connected with the sea,
they were Important trade centres. Traders in Gujarat traded with the Arabs and
the Europeans. Likewise Bengal traders traded with south-east Asia and China
in spices and cloth. The profits from the trade in both these provinces went to the
Mughal treasury.
Akbar also annexed to his empire the Kingdoms of Khandesh, Ahmednagar,
Bijapur and Golconda. In those days Chand Bibi ruled over Ahmednagar as the
guardian of the minor nephew. When the Mughal army attacked Ahmednagar,
Chand Bibi faced the Mughal onslaught very boldly. She did not accept defeat
till the end. After the death Chand Bibi, the kingdom of Ahmednagar was merged
with the Mughal empire.
Akbar conducted attacks on Orissa and also on the places of military
importance in the North-Western border provinces like Kabul, Baluchistan and
Kandhar and expanded his empire.
The Administration of Akbar
Akbar was an unbriddled aristocrat. He built up a vast empire and applied
a uniform system of administration throughout the country. He brought about the
following improvements in order to reinforce the administration :-
Akbar divided the whole empire into 15 Subas (Provinces) and every Suba
was divided, into Sarkars and every Sarkar into Parganas. The highest officer of
Akbar
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every Suba was a Subedar who was responsible for the maintenance of law and
order in the Suba. The Dewan kept the record of land revenue. The Bakshi met
the needs of the army and sent necessary information regularly to the Capital.
The administration of a city was the responsibility of the Kotwal. The system of
transferring the officers from one place to another from time to time was also
started.
The Mansabdari system was established in order to strengthen the adminis-
tration. Under this system each noble was given a mansab (rank). The rank of a
mansab was valued high or low according to the number of mounted soldiers
one was authorized to keep. These were from 10 to 10,000 in number. The
emperor could deploy the army of a mansabdar as he liked. The emperor had a
select band of soldiers and an artillery. Therefore, there was not the fear of any
Mansabdar’s using his army against the emperor.
The land-development carried out during Akbar’s time were of great im-
portance and the credit for this goes to his Dewan, Todarmal. He executed ten
year settlements. First of all, land was divided into categories measure the fields
chains made of bamboos were introduced. The land revenue was fixed at one-
third of the annual produce calculated on a ten year average. The cultivator
could credit the revenue either in cash or in kind; according to his convenience.
The officers in charge of land development were paid handsome salaries so that
they did not trouble the farmers.
The sources of Income of the State :
The sources of income were the mint inheritence, presents, monopoly trade,
self tax, octroi duty and land tax. The chief sources out of these was the revenue.
The trade system:
Agriculture was the main occupation. Fishing, saltmaking, making opium
and liquor were the other common occupations. The useful trades of cloth -
making, paper making, production of equipments for war, making utensils of
different metals were in a state of development; cotton cloth making made a
great progress. Trade both internal as well as external made a good progress.
The religious policy:
At the beginning, Akbar was a staunch muslim. But gradually religious
liberation and tolerance came to him. He adopted a policy of equality, freedom,
tolerance, liberalism and compromise with regard to all religions. Akbar himself
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was intelligent He could analyse and test the other Scriptures in the light of
reason. He built a place of worship (Ibadat Khana) at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575
AD. where he would hold discussions with the saints and learned men belonging
to different religions. He studied the basic principles of all religions and came
to the conclusion that the fundamental principles of all religions were the same.
Although the paths of realization were different. He made no discrimination
among Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Parsis, Jains and Buddhists and showed an
attitude of respect towards all religions. In order to attain compromise and ad-
justment. among the different religions and to establish a new religion he started
a new sect called the Din-i-Ilahi. Akbar accepted the principles of conduct and
behavior of the Hindu religion. He used to put’ on a ‘tilak’ on his forehead and
performed worship also. He stopped realizing the Zazia tax from the Hindus.
Pilgrimage tax imposed on the Hindus was abolished. Hindu women used to
worship different Gods and goddesses in his palace.
The consequences of Akbar’s Religious Policy:
1. The fanaticism and bigotism of Islam were turned down by Akbar’s’
religious policy.
2. Akbar’s state authority was strengthened by the support of the Hindus.
As a result, the successors of Akbar could rule peacefully for about
150 years after him.
3. Akbar’s liberal policy brought about a coordination and cohesion in
the society.
4. The non-muslims gave up opposing the Mughal rule.
5. On account of his policy it became possible to establish peace and
strengthen the economic position of the country.
6. A fusion between the Hindu and the Muslim cultures took place on
account of the coming together of the Hindus and the Muslims.
Development of Fine Arts and Literature:
(1) Literature: Tremendous progress was made during the reign of Akbar
in the fine Arts and Literature. Famous poets and literary men like Surdas, Tulsidas,
Abdul Rahim Khankana, Raskhan, Birbal, Keshav das, Abul fazal, Faizi, Badayuni
etc. lived during Akbar’s rule. ‘Sursagar’ of Surdas, ‘Ram Charit Manas’ of
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Tulsidas, ‘Ramchandrika’ of Keshav Das, ‘Akbar-Nama’ of Abul Fazal and also
‘Aine Akbai’ were very famous in literary works. Akbar got Sanskrit books
translated into Persian. He himself however was not lettered.
(2) Music and Painting : Music made progress during Akbar’s time.
Emperor of Music, Tansen, was a
famous singer of his court. Akbar
partronised painting also. He invited
artists from overseas to teach painting.
A fusion of the Indian and the Persian
styles of painting began to be made
during Akbar’s time. Bright colours
were used in the paintings of the time.
Paintings of trees,
rivers,mountains, animals and human beings used to be done very attractively.
(3) Architecture: A mixing of the Indian and the Persian style of
architecture was done in the buildings built during Akbar’s time.
Akbar got forts built in Agra, Lahore, and Allahabad. The fort of Agra is a
fine specimen of architecture. Akbar built a city Fatehpur Sikri by name. The
buildings of importance here were the Diwan-e-Khas, the Diwan-e-Aaam, the
palace of Mariam, the palace of the Turk Sultan, Jodhabai’s palace, Birbal’s pal-
ace. Jama Masjid, the tomb of Sheikh Saleem Chistie, the Buland Darwaza etc.
Akbar a great National Emperor:
If we consider things from a wider angle, all of Akbar’s actions go to prove
him to be a national emperor. He laid the foundation of a secular state by giving
the freedom of religion to all. He treated the Rajputs with honour. He tried to
remove the evil social customs. He established political unity in the country by
conquering the largest areas of the country. Discrimination was done away with
while making appointments to the posts under the Government. He encouraged
inter-caste marriages. During his reign great advancement was made in the fields
of literature, music, painting and architecture.
Fig 7.4 Akbar’s mausoleum at Sikandara
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EXERCISES
Essay-type Questions:
l. What were the primary difficulties during Akbar’s accession to the
throne?
2. What were the battles fought by Akbar for the expansion of his
Kingdom?
3. Explain Akbar’s Rajput policy?
4. Explain Akbar’s administrative system?
5. Explain the taxation system of Akbar?
6. What was Akbar’s religious policy? What was its influence on the
society of that time.?
7. Explain the development in literature and Arts during Akbar’s time.
8. “Akbar was a great national emperor” Elucidate.
Short-answer question :
9. Describe the second battle of Panipat and mention its results.
10. How and why did Akbar free himself from his guardian, Bairam
Khan?
11. Mention the incident of queen Durgawati’s sacrifice.
l2. How did Maharana Pratap struggle to save his motherland?
13. How did Chand Bibi struggle against the Mugha1s?
14. What was the influence of Akbar’s Rajput policy on the minds of the
people?
15. Mention the characteristics of the mansabdari system of Akbar.
16. Give any five results of Akbar’s religious policy.
17. Make a mention of the famous buildings of Akbar’s time?
18. Choose the correct alternative and write it:
Akbar
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(a) The most important result of the battle of Panipat was that :
(1) Hemu was killed.
(2) Akbar got control over Delhi.
(3) The Mughals struck roots in India.
(4) It facilitated Akbar to win other victories.
(b) The main result of Akbar’s Rajput policy was that :
(1) It brought about Hindu-Muslim Unity.
(2) Akbar got reliable persons to help him.
(3) Akbar secured the faith of the people.
(4) Akbar made himself free from treacherous courtiers.
(c) Among Akbar’s measures of improving the strength of the army,
the most important was :
(1) to abolish the Jagir system.
(2) to pay the salary in cash
(3) to start the Mansabdari system.
(4) to keep the navy.
(d) Akbar is considered a national emperor because :
(1) he expanded the Mughal empire in India.
(2) he abolished evil social customs.
(3) he brought about improvement in literature and art.
(4) he ruled as a secular ruler.
(e) Collect the pictures of the famous buildings of Akbar’s time.
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CHAPTER 8
THE AGE OF SPLENDOUR AND WEALTH
Akbar established a vast empire with his strength and made arrangement
for its efficient administration. In reality it was Akbar who was the founder of
the Mughal empire because he put it on a permanent footing. This made it
sufficiently easy for his successor, Jehangir and for the two later rulers, Shahjahan
and Aurangzeb to rule. During their reigns the area under Mughal control was
expanded and its revenue increased. Life at the court went on becoming more
and more luxurious. That is why this age came to be known as the age of splendour
and wealth.
Jehangir :
After the death of Akbar in 1605 A.D. his eldest son, Salim, ascended the
throne by the name of Jehangir. Before that he was the Subedar (Governor) of
Awadh and Bengal. In the beginning he managed the administration well and
made no changes in the religious and administrative
policies of Akbar.
Jehangir was educated and learned. He had a very
good knowledge of Turkish and Persian. He wrote his
reminiscences in
“Tuzuki-Jehangiri” in
which persian style can
be seen. This work of
Jehangir provides us
with a lot of information
about his reign.
He had a great attachment for painting and
was himself a painter of a high order. During
Jehangir’s time the art of Painting reached its zenith.
Marriage with Nur Jahan :
In 1611 A.D.Jehangir married NurJahan. She,
was a beautiful and intelligent woman. Jehangir
was very deeply influenced by her beauty and
Fig 8.2 Nur Jahan
Fig 8.1 Jehangir
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ability. Nur Jahan’s influence continued to grow on the administration and Jehangir
displayed growing indifference in the affairs of the state and sank into a life of
luxury. He also fell ill for a long period and during that time, Nur Jahan shouldered
his responsibilities and carried on the administration of the empire. Nur Jahan
appointed her kith and kin to the high posts of administration and this gave rise to
dissatisfaction among the courtiers.
The main events of Jehangir’s reign :
On the whole the reign of Jehangir was peaceful. Not many battles were
fought in his time. He consolidated the authority of the Mughals in Bengal. The
struggle that had started between Akbar and the king of Mewar, Rana Pratap,
came to an end with Pratap’ s son, Amar Singh’s entering into a treaty Jehangir
continued his father’s policy of matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs. He sent
his army to the hills of Punjab and took control of Kangra. The clash with the
Ahmednagar Kingdom was a source of trouble. Jehangir sent a large army under
the command of Prince Khurram for an attack but having got frightened Malik
Amber, the ruler of Ahmednagar, made a treaty and the struggle ended then and
there. Thus Jehangir made the Mughal empire more powerful.
During Jehangir’s reign the king of Iran recaptured the Kandhar Province.
This was a loss to the empire.
Jehangir had to face internal revolts also. His son, Khurram (Shah Jahan)
revolted against him because Nur Jahan wanted Shaheryar to be the successor of
Jehangir. However, this revolt was put down.
Jehangir’s general, Mahawat Khan also revolted but Nur Jahan managed to
crush it with her insight and he fled towards the south.
The European traders had started arriving during Akbar’s reign itself. During
the reign of Jehangir the king of England sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador.
He tried to execute a trade agreement with Jehangir, but failed. Sir Thomas Roe
as his ambassador. He tried to execute a trade agreement with Jehangir, but
failed. Sir Thomas Roe lived in Agra for three years. He has given a lively
account of the life in the Mughal court.
Jehangir is specially remembered for the chain of justice. He had a golden
chain with bells tied to it hung by the wall of his palace. Any person was free to
appeal against injustice by pulling that chain.
Shah Jahan :
The reign of Shah Jahan, the builder of the World famous ‘Taj Mahal’ was
the period of highest glory for the Mughals.Shah Jahan was Jehangir’s son.
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After the death of his father 1628 AD.
He succeeded to the throne. In the ca-
pacity of a prince, he had participated
in a battle in which he displayed the
qualities of an efficient general. He had
his marriage with Arjumand Banu, who
was very beautiful and was the daughter
of Asaf Khan. Shah Jahan confirmed on
her the title ‘Mumtaj Mahal’. It was on
her grave that the world famous ‘Taj Mahal’ was built.
Soon after his coming to the throne Shah Jahan had to face the revolts of the
Rajputs of Bundel Khand and the Mughal Governor Khan-e-Jahan Lodi, the
Deccan. The revolt in Bundelkhand was suppressed easily, but the Deccan had
by this time become an area of trouble for the Mughals. Shah Jahan paid his
attention to this problem. Ahmednagar was made a part of the Mughal empire
1636 A.D. He forced Bijapur and Golconda also accept the Mughal supremacy.
Shah Jahan made his son, Aurangzeb the Governor of the Deccan. Aurangzeb
tried his utmost to conquer Bijapur and Golconda and annex these to the Mughal
empire. But he could not get complete success. Another group in the south to
oppose the Mughal authority was that of the Marathas. We shall learn about them
in detail later on.
After sorting out the problems in the Deccan, Shah Jahan concentrated his
attention on the north west In order to secure- the defence of the north-western
border he sent his armies to Balkh and Badak Shan in central Asia. He recaputred
Kandhar from the Shah of Iran in 1688 A.D. but this victory did not last long
because Kandhar again went out of his hands.
By this time the Portuguese had become quite powerful on the eastern coast.
They had established a business settlement at Hugli. Using it to do piracy in the
Bay of Bengal.
The Mughal armies cleared them out of Hugli. Then the armies advanced
towards the north-east and annexed Kamrupa in Assam.
Shah Jahan was taken ill in 1657 A.D. The war of succession ensued soon
after amongst his four sons Dara, Shuja, Aurangzeb and Muravd. Ambitious
Aurangzeb defeated all his brothers and captured the throne. He also imprisoned
his father, Shah Jahan had to spend his last days in great misery. He used to look
at the Taj Mahal from the fort and remember his queen, Mumtaj Mahal. At last
Fig 8.3 Mumtaj Begun and Shah Jahan
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Shah Jahan died as a prisoner in
1666 A. D.
Shah Jahan’s reign was a
period of great splendor. He built
a city “Shah Jahanabad” in his
name and made it his capital. It is
a part of Delhi at present. It was
here that he erected the Jama
Masjid and the Red fort.
The “Takhit-i-Taus” i.e. the
Peacock throne, which was
studded with costly jewels was placed in this very fort and Shah Jahan used to
sit on it. The world renowned diamond, ‘Kohinoor’ was studded into this throne
and it was later looted and taken away by Nadir Shah.
At present this diamond is lying safe in the British Museum.
Aurangzeb became the Mughal emperor in 1658A.D. He ruled for nearly
fifty years. The greatest expansion of the Mughal empire was made during his
reign.
Aurangzeb, on account of his policy of religious fanaticism gave up Akbar’s
policy of religious tolerance. He imposed a lot of restrictions on the non-muslims.
On account of this policy the loyalty of the Hindus towards the Mughal rule came
to an end, The Jats, the Rajputs, the Sikhs and the Marathas revolted against it;
one after the other. Most of Aurangzeb’s time was consumed in putting down
these rebellions. This adversely affected the administration.
The Jat Rebellion:
The Jats of Mathura rebelled under Gokula’s leadership against the
attrocities of Aurangzeb. Twenty thousand Jats confronted the Mughal army, but
Gokula was taken prisoner and, later on; he was sentenced to death and executed
in Agra. The enthusiasm of the Jats did not, however, weaken at this. They carried
on the rebellion under the leadership of first, Rajaram and then Chudaman. These
rebellions took place in the life time of Aurangzeb and continued even after that
and helped the decline of the Mughal empire.
The Sikh Revolt:
Aurangzeb was unhappy with the Sikhs. After the death of the Seventh Guru
he tried to take advantage of the differences over the succession of the Guru’s
throne. In the meantime, the power of the Sikhs was increasing. The ninth Guru,
Teg Bahadur, built a fort at Anandpur. In order to put an end to the increasing
Fig 8.5 Taj Mahal Agra
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power of the Sikhs, the Mughal administration ordered the execution of Guru
Teg Bahadur in 1675 A.D. This, naturally created a deep anger among the Sikhs,
His son, Guru Govind Singh, organised the Sikhs and made them militant.
Henceforth the expression ‘Khalsa’ which meant ‘the pure’ began to be used for
the Sikhs. To bring about uniformity among the Sikhs it was made compulsory
for everyone of them to have the five characteristics: Kesha (hair), Kangha
(Comb), Kara (Iron bracelet), Kripan (dagger), and Kachcha (underwear). With
these measures Guru Govind Singh turned to Sikhs into a powerful organization.
Which made Punjab a serious danger spot for the Mughal authority. Under the
leadership of Guru Govind Singh the Sikhs carried on their struggle against the
mughals for long time.
The Rajput Rebellion:
The Rajputs had contributed a lot to the strengthening of the foundation of
the Mughal empire; but Aurangzeb hated them. He was afraid of the powerful
courtier, Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur. After his death in 1678 AD. Aurangzeb tried
to annex his kingdom, Jodhpur (Marwar). At this the Rajputs, under the leadership
of Durgadas Rathore, revolted. Aurangzeb sent his son, Akbar to crush it. but the
Rajputs won him over their side. Afterwards Aurangzeb made a treaty with Rana
Jai Singh of Mewar. But the struggle of the Rathores continued unabated till the
last days of Aurangzeb’s life.
The Maratha Rebellion:
The Marathas were the small, chieftains under the control of the Deccan
Kingdoms. They were strong in the hilly region around Pune (Poona) and the
Konkan. The strength of the Marathas was continuously increasing under Shivaji’s
leadership. Seeing the weakening of the Bijapur Kingdom Shivaji tried to make
himself an independent ruler. The King of Bijapur sent his general, Afzal Khan
to fight against Shivaji but Shivaji killed him. Then Aurangzeb got purturbed. He
sent the governor of the Deccan, Shaista Khan to fight against. Shivaji, but on
Shivaji’s making a sudden attack, Shaista Khan had to flee for his life. In 1665
AD. Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh to lead an attack on Shivaji. Although Jai
Singh did not get success in it, he made Shivaji agree to go to the Mughal court
by the treaty of Purandar Shivaji came to the court at Agra along with Jai Singh.
He was not received with due honour and dignity which annoyed him. Aurangzeb
put him under confinement in Agra, With great shrewdness Shivaji slipped out of
the confinement. On reaching Deccan Shivaji declared himself to be the
independent ruler of the Maratha Kingdom. Shivaji sat on the throne in 1674
A.D. During the six years of his reign he was successful in establishing a powerful
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Maratha Kingdom. His death occurred in the year 1680 A.D.
Shivaji’s administration was of high order, which was inspired by the
ideals of public welfare. The reins of the Maratha Kingdom were in the hands of
the king, but there was a committee of eight persons called Ashta-Pradhan to
advise him on the affairs of the State. The main-source of income was the tax on
land which amounted to two-fifths of the land produce. In addition to this, taxes
called ‘Chauth’ and ‘Sardesmukhi’ were also levied on those living outside the
Maratha Kingdom (the areas under the Mughal empire and the Deccan). ‘Chauth’
was one fourth of tax which the farmers paid to the other kingdoms of the Deccan
or to the Mughal empire.
‘Sardeshmukhi’ used to
be over and above the
above mentioned tax and
was one tenth of the total
revenue. The areas from
where these taxes were
realized, where kept free
from the Maratha looting
and attacks.
Shivaji’s character
was unique. He was an
able administrator. He
was inspired by the
feeling of public welfare
in his rule. He consoli-
dated the scattered
power of the Marathas
and organized it in the
form of a powerful na-
tion. He was a highly re-
ligious man but he also
maintained an attitude of
tolerance towards other
religions. He had a deep
respect for women. He issued strict standing orders to his army not to do any
harm to the women and children of the enemies and to the standing crops. Shivaji’s
name will always be remembered as an uplifter of the nation.
Map 8.9
Map of India : The Kingdom of Shivaji-India 1680 A.D.
Present external Boundary of India
INDIA 1680 A.D.
KINGDOM OF SHIVAJI
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
ARABIAN
SEA
Trichunapalli
Baroch
Machchalipatnam
Pondichery
Madras
Tanjore
Karwar
Burhanpur
Bombay
Elichpwar
Nagpur
Satara
Pune
Kolhapur
Beleari
Mysore
INDIA
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The Bijapur & Golconda Kingdoms :
In the Deccan the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were a problem for
the Mughal rulers. Being an orthodox Sunni Aurangzeb harboured enmity towards
these princely states right from the time of his father, because their rulers were
Shia Muslims. The seige of Bijapur and Golcunda continued for years together.
At least, both were merged with the Mughal empire although, later on, both these
kingdoms went out of the control of the Mughals.
Social and Cultural life in the Mughal Period:
The Society: The society during the mughal period was feudal. It was divided
into three classes the high, the middle and the low, The emperor occupied the highest
status. He lived a life of luxury and splendor among the feudatories were Iranians,
Turanis, Indian Muslims and Amirs as well as kings. Their dresses and interests
exhibited high splendor and glory. The Jagirdars and the Zamindars were very rich
and lived a luxurious life.
They spent money freely
on hunting, fights of
animals and birds, music
and songs, drinking,
gambling and throwing
lavish parties. The
officers of the state and
the middle class. People
of this class whose
number was
comparatively less, lived
a peaceful and contented
life. In the lowest class
were included the
farmers, artisans and
labourers. Their number
was a legion. Their life
was full of
discontentment and
poverty because their
wages were very low an
whereas the taxes and, the
prices were quite high.
Map 8.10
Map of India : Aurangzeb’s Empire in In India 1700 A.D.
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
ARABIAN
SEA
Delhi
Kashmir
Khandesh
Ahmadnagar
Ajmer
Gujrat
Bihar
Rajput
Allahabad
L
a
h
o
r
e
Golkunda
Berar
Hydrabad
Madurai
Present external Boundary of India
INDIA 1700 A.D.
KINGDOM OF
AURANGZEB
Malva
Agra
Orissa
INDIA
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Villages had little contact with the towns and cities. Their modes of living,
their mores were as they had been before. There was not, much of a difference in
the dresses of the Hindus and the Muslims. Things like practising magic and
Magical spells, consideration of omens, holding the gurus, pirs and mendicants
and fakirs in reverence bowing heads at the mausoleums and dargahs etc were in
vogue equally was among the Hindus and the Muslims. People belonging to both
the communities participated in the festivals of each other.
Economic Progress
The Mughal period was a period of prosperity in agriculture and trade. The
measures of land reforms introduced by Akbar brought about improvement in the
condition of the farmers. In addition to food grains, canes, cotton, indigo, tobacco
and silk were grown in large quantities. Different kinds of industries also
flourished. The cloth industry prospered a lot during this period, Mulmul of
Dacca, Zari-work of Banaras, cotton, cloth of Bengal, Bihar and Gujaral, Woollen
cloth of Kashmir were the items of world-renown. Factories were run by the
Government in which thousands of workers and - labourers were employed. The
trade of the time was chiefly in the hands of the Hindus. The chief centres of
trade during this period were Delhi, Agra Lahore, Banaras, Surat, Machchlipattam
ete. India’s foreign trade was done with countries like Perisa, China, East Africa,
Russia and Western Europe. The country was getting prosperous by the income
from the trade.
Literature and Education:
Many a Mughal emperor was either himself learned or patronized learned
men. As a result, in addition to the production of original literary works in Persian
and Hindi Works of translation also were done.
Babur himself wrote his autobiography, ‘Babur-nama’ in the Turkish
languages. Humayun’s sister, Gulbadan wrote Humayan in Persian. Humayan
himself was lover of literature. During Akbar’s reign translation of the
Mahabharata, the Ramayana, the Atharvayeda, Nal-Damayanti, Tuzuk-i-Babri,
the Bible, the Quaran etc. were made into Persian. Books of historical importance
like ‘Akbar-nama’ and ‘Ain-e-Akbari’ were written by Abul Fual. Emperor
Jehangir wrote his autobiography ‘Tuzk-i-Jehangiri,’ The ‘Bhagwat Gita’ and
the Upanishads were translated into Persian during Shah Jahan’s time. Muhammad
Sadiq wrote a book entitled .’Shah Jahan nama. ‘Aurangzeb compiled a treatise
‘Tatwah-e-Alamgiri’ with the help of some muslim books.
On account of the Bhakti movement during the Mughal rule, Hindi literature
made an unprecedented advancement. Akbar had, in his court, high-ranking poets
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like Mansingh, Birbal, Abdul-Rahim Khankhana etc. It was during the time of
Akbar that Surdas wrote ‘Sursagar’ and Raskhan and Meera composed literary
works in devotion of Krishan. Tulsi Das also produced his famous poetic work,
‘Ramcharit Manas’ during this very period. Senapati, Bhushan Dev, Bihari etc.
were the other poets of repute who produced poetic works in Hindi.
There was no formal government arrangement for public education during
the Mughal period. The nature of education was chiefly religious, and the schools
situated in the temples and the mosques were the main centres of education.
There were madrsas and school for higher education in which there was’
arrangement for the study of Mathematics, Astrology and Medicine. Girls had
their education at home. The main centres of muslim education were Agra, Delhi,
Jaunpur, Lahore and Ahmedabad. Banaras and Nadia in Bengal were the Hindu
centres of higher learning. The court language of the Mughals was Persian, but
people used Urdu and Hindi in villages and towns. Lucknow and Delhi became
the centres of Urdu poetry during the eighteenth century.
Architecture:
Architecture received a special encouragement during the Mughal period.
We find an admixture of the Central Asian, South-east Asian and Indian styles in
the architecture of this period.
The process of building construction started primarily during Akbar’s time.
He got built many buildings in Agra, Lahore, Allahabad and Fatehpur Sikri. The
buildings of Fatehpur. Sikri are of a high quality from the artistic point of view.
A special mention deserves to be made of the Diwan-e-Aam, the Diwan-e-Khas,
the palace of Mariam, the Jama Masjid, the Buland Darwaza among them. All
these buildings are made of red stone. During Jehangir’s time marble stone began
to be used. The tomb of Akbar in Sicandara built during Jehangir’s time is a
famous building.
The reign of Shah Jahan is considered to be the golden period of architecture
on account of the magnificent and attractive buildings constructed during the
time. He built magnificent buildings, forts, mosques, tombs in Agra, Lahore,
Delhi, Kabul, Kandhar, Ajmer, Ahmedabad etc. The Diwan-e-Aam, ,the Diwan-
e-Khas and the Moti Masjid and the fort of Agra are his famous bui1dings. He
changed his capital from Agra to Delhi and laid the foundation of the city of
Shahjahanabad. Of the buildings erected, here the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid
are the main ones. The most famous building of Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal. It is
a building made of white marble stone. From the artistic point of view no other
building is comparable to it.
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Painting: The most important painting technique of the period was the tech-
nique of miniature painting. The art of painting reached its zenith during Jehangir’s
time. He himself was a painter and connoisseur of art. He could recognize the
artist by just looking at the painting of the painters of his time Farooq Beg, Ustad
Mansoor and Bisan Das were very high class painter, Painting did not receive
any special encouragement during the time of Aurangzeb.
Music: The Mughal emperors had an interest in music Babur himself knew a
lot of about art. Humayun loved music. Akbar himself was a good singer. He had in
his court many musicians of repute. Tansen was one of his nine jewels in the court
on whom was conferred the title of “The emperor of music.” There were many
singers in Jehangir’s court also. Sahah Jahan’s voice was very sweet. Ramadas and
Mahapatra were the famous singers of his court. Aurangzeb was against music.
Consequently, many musicians left the Mughal court and went away to the courts of
the provincial governors, the Rajput kingdoms of Rajasthan and the Kingdoms on
the hills. That caused the growth of interest in music in these areas. Later on, many
gharanas (schools) of music were established.
The Mughal rulers were lovers of nature. They got the famous gardens built in
Kashmir and they also beautified their buildings by having gardens around them.
EXERCISES
I. Select the most appropriate words from the brackets and fill in
the blanks :
1. During Jehangir’s time the greatest progress was made in the art of
.................(painting, music, writing)
2. Shah Jahan got the Red Fort built in..................(Delhi,Lahore,
Agra).
3. ....................came to the court of Jehangir as the ambassador of the
king of England. (Hawkins, Columbus, Sir Thomas Roe)
4. Vir Durgadas fought against the Mughals for the safety of the Kingdom
of..............(Mewar, Marwar, Khandesh).
5. Shivaji sat on the throne in the year ....................(1574, 1674, 1680).
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II. Match the contents of column A with those of B :
A B
1. Humayun-nama 1. Abut Fazal
2. Akbar-nama 2. Muhammad Sadiq
3. Sur sagar 3. Humayun
4. Shah Jahan-nama 4. Gulbadan
5. Ramcharit Manas 5. Surdas
6. Tulsidas
III. Answer briefly the following questions :-
1. Describe the Major events of Jehangir’s reign.
2. Describe Noor Jahan’s influence on the Government.
3. Which rebellions had Shah Jahah to face in the beginning?
4. Describe the relations of Aurangzeb with Shivaii.
5. What do you know about Shivaji’s administration?
6. What were the results of the policy of religious fanaticism of
Aurangzeb?
7. Name the famous buildings of the Mughal period.
8. Why did the Sikhs revolt during the time of Aurangzeb?
9. Describe the economic condition of the Mughal period.
10. Give an account of the progress made in literature during the Mughal
period.
11. Describe the condition of the society during the Mughal period.
12. Give an account of the war of succession for Shah Jahan’s throne.
IV. Interesting things to do:
1. Prepare an album of the buildings built in the Mughal period. Write
the name of the person who constructed it against each building.
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CHAPTER 9
THE FALL OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE
Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal emperor. His empire spread all
over India, from the north to the south. Before him no other emperor had such a
vast empire. But after his death in 1707 A.D. the Mughal empire became very
weak. New powers came into existence in the form of Kingdom.
During the Mughal reign there used to be fighting’s on the question of suc-
cession. After Aurangzeb’s death such as infighting took place among his sons.
The son victorious in this fight acceeded to the throne by name of Bahadur Shah.
The four years of his rule were full of problems and difficulties.
During Bahadur Shah’s reign, the Rajputs and the Sikhs took to rebellion.
Bahadur Shah could do nothing to suppress them. After his death again the battle
for succession ensured and several rulers came on the throne for a short period.
But all of them were incapable and powerless. Taking advantage of the weakness
of the administration Banda Bairagi led the Sikh rebellion and decided to set up
an independent Sikh Kingdom in the Punjab. The Afghans settled in Ruhelkhand
also revolted against the Mughal rule. Taking advantage of the weakness of the
Mughal rule the governors of Hyderabad, Bengal and Awadh established
independent Kingdoms in their respective provinces.
While the Mughal rulers were already facing and suffering from the internal
rebellions. Nadir Shah, the king of Iran and Ahmed Shah Abdali, the king of
Kabul invaded India.
Nadir Shah plundered Delhi to his heart’s content and took away with him
the famous. ‘Takht-i-Taus’ of Shah Jahan and the Kohinoor diamond to Iran. On
the other side after, consolidating their strength, the Marathas were extending the
sphere of their influence to northern India. As a result, the famous third battle of
Panipat took place between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Marathas
were defeated in this and they had to go away from the north. But on account of
these attacks the Mughal empire remained restricted just to the areas around
Delhi. They remaind just nominal rulers. Real power passed into the hands of
the newly established kingdoms.
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The European
Traders:
There was a great
demand of lndian cloth
and spices in Europe.
That is why the traders
of Europe decided to
trade with India. They
took full advantage of
their increasing sea
power.
First of-all, a
Portuguese sailor,
Vasco-de-Gama reached
Calicut through a new
Sea route. The
Portuguese carried on
their trade with India for
a long time. In the
seventeenth century, the
Dutch, the English and
the French also came to
India to trade. They
established trade companies. There was competition among these companies.
The English companies secured their control over the cloth-trade, The places
where they had established their factories are today known as Madras and Calcutta.
The Portuguese founded the city of Bombay, but on the marriage of the princess
of Portugal with Charles-II, the ruler of England, the Portuguese gave away
Bombay to the English as dowry.
The naval power of the English gradually increased to a great extent. The
traders of Holland and Portugal could not come to their level, but the rivalry in
trade with the English did not end, because now, in 1664 A. D. the French
companies established a trade centre at a place called Pondicherry. Thus, there
was again a stiff competition between the English and the French traders. The
French lost to the English. Now the English companies, not only were able to
Map 9.1
Map of India : India is the beginning of Eighteenth Century.
INDIA IN THE
EARLY EIGHTEEN
CENTURY
INDIAN OCEAN
BAY
OF
BANGAL
ARABIAN
SEA
Andaman &
Nikobar
Island
(India)
Delhi
Kashmir
Gujrat
Khandesh
Jodhpur
Bihar
Agra
Avadh
Punjab
Golcomba
Bijnor
Hydrabad
Cochin
Bengal
Berar
Calicut
Goa
Pondichery
Madras
Bijapur
Marathas
Bikaner
Mewar
Mewar
Jaipur
L
a
h
o
r
e
L
a
k
s
h
y
a
d
e
e
p
(
I
n
d
i
a
)
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control the trade in India but they also began to interfere in the politics of the
new kingdoms in India. This gradually enabled them to establish their rule in
India.
The causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire :
After the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal empire broke up, but its fall had
already begun during his very reign. It had reached- its climax in the eighteenth
century. As we have already seen, the successors of Aurangzeb were weak and
incapable. They did not possess the capacity to rule over such a vast empire.
They remained puppets in the hands of the officers.
Succession wars very often took place during the Mughal period and that
went on reducing the strength of the state. The provincial Governors became
powerful and some of them set up independent kingdoms. Hyderabad, Awadh
and Bengal became independent states on account of this very reason.
The military power of the Mughals had also weakened. The artillery, of
which they were very proud, had become outdated. They paid no attention to the
improvement of the guns and cannons. Instead of training the Indian personnel
for the artillery they began to appoint foreign soldiers to manage it. The Mughals
made no efforts to modernise their army.
Many drawbacks crept into the mughal administration. Their manasabdars
were no more loyal to the Kingdom. They discontinued maintaining mounted
soldier in the required strength. Officers also began, to care more for their personal
interests.
Economic reasons were also responsible for the fall of the Mughal empire.
Foreign attacks, internal rebellions and the wars of succession caused a great
deal of money to be wasted. The number of mansabdars increased reducing the
number of Jagirs. That affected the peasants adversely for the Jagirdars started
realizing more from them. The wasteful and extravagant living of the mughal
emperors also added to the financial crisps.
The pompous and luxurious living of the emperors, the mansabdars and the
wealthy in the eighteenth century caused erosions in the moral and social values
of the people. The aristocrats spend most of the their time in drinking, display of
wealth and ideal enjoyment. They were unable to do anything to save the empire
from the imminent decline. Consequently, the English, who were more advanced,
gradually extended their authority over the whole of India.
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EXERCISES
I. Match the content of column A with those of column B.
A B
1. Banda Bairagi 1. Fought the third battle of Panipat
with the Marathas.
2. Bahadur Shah First 2. Plundered Delhi and took away to
Iran the Takht-i-Taus.
3. Nadir Shah 3. Decided to establish an independent
Kingdom in the Punjab.
4. Ahmed Shah Abdali 4. Was an incapable Mughal ruler.
II. Fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets :
1. Vasco-de-Gama was the first........................sailor who came to In-
d i a
by a new sea-route. (English, Dutch, Portuguese, French)
2. The city of Bombay was obtained by Charles, the ruler of England
as dowry from ........ (India, Portugal, Holland, France)
3. The toughest encounter the English company had to do was with
the....................company . (Dutch, German, French, Portuguese)
III. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’
against the ones that are false.
1. Only Aurangzeb was responsible for the fall, of the Mughal empire.
2. The Mughal rulers paid no attention to increasing the sea-power.
3. The third battle of Panipat was fought between Ahmed Shah Abdali
and the English.
4. The trading companies of Europe, came to India after the death of
Aurangzeb.
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IV. Answer briefly the followoing questions:-
1. Which were the new kingdoms that came into existence in the
eighteenth century?
2. Which defects got into the Mughal administration?
3. What was the result of the Mugha1 emperor’s policy of not paying
attention to the importance of the sea power?
4. What were the reasons that compelled the Mughal rulers to face
economic stringency?
5. Write down the four main causes of the fall of the Mughal empire.
V. Something to do:
1. Make a list of the present day important centres of textile industry.
2. Prepare a list of important Indian Sea-ports.
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78
CIVICS
CHAPTER-1
OUR CONSTITUTION
The meaning of Constitution:
Constitution is a collection of those rules through which a country is
governed. In our constitution the rules have been framed on the basis of the
cultural values of India. The ideals of democracy, secularism and socialism
have been enshrined in it. The rights and duties of the citizens of India have also
been anuciated in this constitution.
According to our constitution, there are three chief organs of the Government
of India.
1. The Legislature 2. The Executive 3. The Judiciary.
The Legislature: The law-making organ is called the legislature. The In-
dian Parliament makes laws for the whole country. It has two Houses-The Lok
Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.
The Executive:- That part of the Government which enforces law is called
the Executive. The President, The Council of Ministers and the Public Services
Constitute the Executive.
The Judiciary:- The disputes arising out of the encroachment of laws, are
settled by the Judiciary. The Indian judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, the
High Courts, the Subordinate Courts the Lok Adalats and the Nyaya Panchayats.
The above three organs of the Government work independently. Along with
the division of powers, these organs co-operate with one another. Therefore, no
conflict of any type arises and the balance is evenly maintained.
A short History of the Development of the Constitution :-
We celebrate 15th August, and 26th January as National Festivals each year.
Our country became independent on 15th August, 1947. Therefore, this day is
Our Constitution
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79
called the Independence Day. This independence was achieved after a long and
hard struggle by the Indian people. Before independence our country was gov-
erned by the laws of the British Government. Since long, we were being exploited
by the British Government. Due to their dual policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ there
was great unrest among the Indians. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi,
many movements were started, one after another by the Indian National Congress.
In order to crush these movements, a reign of terror was unleased by the British
Government. As a result, there was a demand for freedom from every nook and
corner of the country. Thus the pressure was increasing to grant freedom to India
on the British Government.
In 1939, the second world war brokeout. The British Government got en-
tangled in it. In India the freedom movement was gathering momentum. Indians
were not in favour of helping the British Government in the war. Indian, soldiers
were considered to be very brave. Therefore, the British Government wanted
them to fight for it in the war. In order to please the Indians by giving them some
sort of freedom a goodwill mission was sent to India. The mission is known as
the “Cabinet Mission.”
The Mission recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to
frame a constitution for India. According to this recommendation, election was
held in July, 1946 to elect a Constituent Assembly of India. The members were
elected not by the people directly, but by the members of the Provincial Legislative
Assemblies.
Members of the Constituent Assembly
The first meeting of the Constituent As-
sembly was held on 9th December, 1946. The
members were drawn from different
communities and regions of India. It also had
members representing different political
parties. Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Pandit Jawahar
Lal Nehru, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel,
Maulana-Azad, Dr. Shyama Prasad
Mukherjee, Sardar Baladev Singh were some
of the members. Shrimati Vijayalakshmi
Pandit, Shrimati Sarojini Naidu and
Rajkumari Amrit Kaur were important women
Fig 1.1 Dr. Rajendra Prasad
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80
members. Some constitutional experts such as Shri Alladi Krishan Swamy Ayyar,
Dr. B.R Ambedkar and Shri K.M. Munshi were.
Why Republic Day on 26th January?
The Constitution was passed on 26th November, 1949 by the Constituent
Assembly but it was enforced on 26th January, 1950. There is a reason for this.
In its Lahore session in December, 1929, the Indian National Congress had
decided to fight for complete independence of India and 26th January, 1930 was
celebrated as the complete Independence Day. More than 30 members belonged
to the Scheduled Castes. The Anglo-Indian and Parsess were represented by
Shri Frank Anthony and Dr. H.P. Modi. Dr. Hari Singh Gaur, Seth Govinddas,
Pandit Ravishankar Shukla, Shri Gopikrishna Vijayavargiya, Shri Ram Sehciya,
Shri Sitaram Jajoo, Shri H. V. Kamath, Shri Kusumkant Jain, Shri Radhavallabh
Vijayavargiya were some of the members from the present Madhya Pradesh. The
Chairman of the Constituent Assembly was Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Pandit
Ravisankar Shukla who belonged to Chhattisgarh was a member of the constituent
assembly.
The Drafting Committee :-
The Drafting Committee was formed to
prepare the draft of the constitution. Dr.
Bhimrao Ambedkar was its Chairman. The
Constituent Assembly took about three years
to prepare the Indian Constitution. All the
sessions of the Assembly were open to the
press and the people. The views and the
opinion of the people were also expressed
freely in newspapers. Thus, the people of India
were indirectly involved in the making of their
constitution. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru had said
that they did not want colonial independence.
They wanted complete independence. In order
to commemorate this date, the Indian
Constitution was enforced on 26th January, 1950. This day was declared as the
Republic Day, because the constitution made India a Republic. The Supreme
ruler, the President, is elected by the people.
Fig 1.2 Pandit Nehru
Our Constitution
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81
Lord Mountbatten was the Governor General of India in 1947. After him
Shri C. Raj Gopalachari became the first Governor General, of free India. He
was the first Indian to hold this office. General Election was held in the country
for the first time in 1952. Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first elected President
of India.
Fig 1.3 Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar Fig 1.4 Vallabh Bhai Patel
Fig 1.6 Sarojini Naidu Fig 1.5 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
Fig 1.7 Vijaylaxmi Pandit Fig 1.8 Rajkumari Amritkaur
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EXERCISES
I. Why was the Indian Constitution needed?
2. What is the meaning of the Constitution?
3. How was our constitution made?
4. Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly?
5. Why was our constitution enforced on 26th January?
6. Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution?
7. Give the name of a member of the constituent assembly who belonged
to Chhattisgarh ?
8. Clarify the meaning of the following :-
The Constituent Assembly the Drafting Committee.
9. Name the persen who represented Chhattisgarh as a member of
Constituent Assembly.
Practical :-
Meet some old man in your locality and collect information about
the Indian freedom movement.
Think over :
If you are asked to preside over some meeting, how will you discharge
your duty?
Main Characterstics of The Indian Constitution
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CHAPTER 2
MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIAN
CONSTITUTION
Before knowing the main characteristics of the Indian constitution, it is
essential to know about its preamble. The constitution of every country in the
world has its own preamble. The preamble reflects the views and the objectives
of the constitution makers and also the basic values of the country and the
constitution. We waged a
long battle for freedom. The
makers of the constitution
had a dream of an ideal
society which was stated in
the following preamble :
We, the people of
India having solemnly
resolved to constitute India
into a sovereign,
socialistic, secular
Democratic Republic and
to secure to all its citizens;
Justice, social, economic
and political.
Liberty of thought,
expression, belief, faith
and worship.
Equality of status and of opportunity, and to promote among them all
Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the, unity and integrity of
the Nation.
In our Constituent Assembly this 26th day of November, 1949, do hereby
adopt, enact, and give to ourselves this constitution.
Fig 2.1
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¬-i¬(i(| ·i- l·º¤·i ¬i¬n¤i--¬ nºiºi·¤ (·i· ¬ l¬¤
n·ii ¬¬¬ ¬--n ·inlº¬i ¬i ¬i-il¬¬ ¬il·i ¬ ¬i º ºi¬·|ln¬
·¤i¤ l(¤iº ¬l·i·¤l·n l(’(i¬ ·i- ¬iº ¬¤i¬·i ¬| -(n ¤ni
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·¤l·n ¬| nlº-i ¬iº ºi·- ¬| ¤¬ni n·ii÷¬ªiº÷ni ¬l·l’¤n
¬º· (i¬| (··ini («i· ¬ l¬¤ (« ¬¬~¤ ri¬º ¬¤·| :¬
¬l(·ii· ¬·ii - ¬i¬ nº|ªi zs ·((º ·s«s :. (l-n| -in’i|·i
’i ·¬ ¬·n-| ¬ (n zaas l(¬-|) ¬i ¤n( ¤iºi :¬ ¬ l(·ii· ¬i
¬n|¬n ¬l·il·¤l-n ¬iº ¬i--il¤n ¬ºn r+
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The preamble as given above clearly states that our country is now sover-
eign in all matters. The ultimate source of an power is the people.
Democracy, secularism and socialism are the basic principles of our con-
stitution. There are also some other features of constitution.
Sovereignty : This is the main feature of the Indian Consitution. India is
completely independent state now. We are not subordinate to any country in
external or internal matters. We the Indians run our own government. Our people
is now capable of making its own government. Our Government is now capable
of making its own decision in internal and foreign affairs.
Democracy : Democracy means a Government which is run by the
representatives of the people who are elected on the basis of adult franchise.
This means that each adult, man and woman, elects a representative of his or her
own choice. The representatives are elected after every five years. These
representatives together, form the Government.
Secularism : The State gives equal treatment to all the religions. It does not
favour any particular religion. The constitution given complete freedom to its
citizens to practise and preach their own religion.
Socialism : The achievement of socialism based on economic and social
equality is one of the chief goals of our constitution. It has been provided in it to
give equal opportunities in education, employment, justice etc. to all. Special
facilities have been given to the backward and the downtrodden people. The
directive principles have been incorporated for the establishment of a welfare
State. Presently, economic disparities create unrest in the country. Under such
condition the country cannot make any progress. Therefore, efforts have been
made to create a society based on social and economic equality. Socialism is
one of our National Goals.
Federal system of Government :
The Federal System of Government is that system where the powers of the
central government and the state government are well defined in the constitution.
Our constitution sets up a federal system of government. In our Country, there are
28 states and 7 union territories. There are separate Governments at the centre
and in the states. The division of powers between the Central and the State
Governments has been made according to the three lists in the constitution.
Main Characterstics of The Indian Constitution
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1. The Union List 2. The State List 3. The Concurrent List.
1. The Union List :- Railways, Post and Telegraph, Armed Force, External
Affairs etc. are some of the subjects included in this list.
2. The State List :- The subjects of local, importance like Police, Jail,
Education, Agriculture, Health etc. are enumerated in this list.
3. The Concurrent List :- Both the Parliament and the State Legislature
can make laws on the subjects given in this list.
Single Citizenship:- our constitution provides for a single citizenship of
this country. The citizen of each state is a citizen of India. We do not have the
system of double citizenship in India. A person may be living in Madhya Pradesh
or Maharashtra but he is called only the citizen of India.
The Parliamentary System:- Like Britain there is the parliamentary sys-
tem of Government in India. The real power is vested in the Parliament. The
ministers in the Central Cabinet are members of the Parliament. The Prime Min-
ister and other ministers are answerable to the Parliament for their actions.
The Directive Principles of State Policy :
To bring about economic and social welfare in the country, the directive
principles of State Policy have been stated in our constitution. The purpose is to
bring social ‘equality’ in the country. Special direction have ‘been’ given for the
uplift of the backward communities and the weaker sections of our society. There
is a provision to make special laws for women. The directive principles direct
the Government to work for the social well-being, security, economic and social
prosperity of the nation. There is a Directive Principle which aims at achieving
free, and compulsory education for all children up to the age of the 14 years. The
directive principles also provide equal pay for equal work to both men and
women.
The Fundamental Rights and Duties :
The fundamental rights are the necessary condition for the development of
the personality of an individual. These help in promoting democratic values.
There are six fundamental rights guaranteed in the constitution, so necessary for
the development of the personality of the citizens.
The rights and duties are inter-related, One man’s duty is another man’s
right Neglect of duties is a curse for humanity and it hampers the growth of
society. When the citizens forget their duties there is lawlessness in the society.
Therefore, proper balance should be maintained between rights and duties.
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EXERCISES
1. Throw light on the main aims of the Indian Constitution.
2. Explain three main characteristics of the Indian Constitution.
3. Write a short note on anyone of the following :-
(a) Democracy (b) Single Citizenship (c) The Directive Principles of State
policy.
4. Fill in the blanks :-
(a) India is completely a.................state.
(b) The fundamental rights help in the development of the.....................of
a man.
(c) Neglect of duties is a.............................for humanity.
Practical :
Learn the prayers of all the religions.
Think over :
How do all religions promote humanity?
Fundamental Rights and Duties
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CHAPTER 3
FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES
In the last Chapter you have read that fundamental rights help in the
development of the personality of every citizen. In almost all the democratic
countries, some rights are guaranteed to the citizen in the constitution. The Indian
Constitution has guaranteed some important rights. Even the Parliament or the
Legislative Assemblies cannot make any law which encroaches upon these rights.
Any law which interferes with the fundamental rights can be set aside by the
Supreme Court. It is only during an emergency that the fundamental rights can be
suspended
Our Constitution has guaranteed six types of rights to the citizens as given
below:-
Our Fundamental Rights
1. Right to Equality : Our constitution gives equal treatment to all the
citizens. The State cannot discriminate on the basis of religion, caste, creed, sex,
language, place of birth etc. The state gives equal opportunities to every
individual, on the basis of abilities, in the field of education, employment,
profession and earning a livelihood. Untouchability has been abolished. Scheduled
castes and Scheduled Tribes have been given special facilities. Due to their
backwardness, some seats have been reserved for them in schools, colleges and
Government services so that they may come at par with other sections of the
society.
All the titles, awarded before independence have been abolished. In free
India such distinctions as ‘Bharat Ratna’ and ‘Padmashri’ are conferred for
outstanding service to the country.
2. Right to Freedom :- Every citizen has the right to read and write, speak,
hold public meeting peacefully and form any association or union. He is free to
go to any part of the country and settle there. He can take up any job or trade any
where in India. He is also free to acquire any property anywhere in the country.
3. Right against Exploitation :- The purpose of this rights is to prevent any
exploitation in society. It is an offense to buy or sell men, women and children.
The constitution prohibits forced labour of beggar’. Nobody can be asked to
work against his wishes. No child under the age of 14 years’ can be employed to
work in any factory or mine.
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4. Right to Freedom of Religion :- Every citizen in India has the freedom
to practise his own religion. People of different religions have also the freedom
to preach their religion in a peaceful manner. They can also form any religious
association for religious purposes.
5. Cultural and Educational Rights :- Every Indian citizen has the right to
preserve his own language, script and culture People in different part of the
country speak different languages. They take pride in their language and culture.
They have the right to establish their own educational institutions.
6. Right to Constitutional Remedies :- Each citizen has the right to approach
the court in order to protect his fundamental rights. If the fundamental right are
curtailed or taken away by any law of the Government the citizens, can approach
the court and challenge the action of the Government. That is why the courts are
described as the protectors of citizens rights.
Fundamental Duties :- Our constitution was enforced on 26th January,1950.
But nothing was said about the duties of the citizens in the constitution. In order
to make people conscious about their duties, the constitution was amended in
1976 and the fundamental duties of the citizens were incorporated in it. These
are as Under :
Fig 3.1 Our Fundamental Rights
Organization
Right To
Liberty
Speech
Writing
Right of
Equality
Occupation
THE
FUNDAMENTAL
RIGHT
Right
Against
Exploit-
ation
Right To
Education
Culture
Right To Liberty of Religion
Right To
Constitutional
Remedy
Fundamental Rights and Duties
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1. To show respect to the Indian Constitution, the National Flag and
the National Anthem.
2. To have faith in the ideals of National Freedom Movement.
3. To protect the Integrity and Unity of the Country.
4. To Defend and Serve the Country.
5. To Develop the Spirit of Goodwill and brotherhood.
6. To Inculcate Scientific Attitude among people.
7. To Preserve the Ancient Culture.
8. To Protect Forest, lakes and Wild-life.
9. To Protect the Property of the nation.
10. To strive individually and collectively for the achievement of
National Goods.
There is a great relationship between fundamental rights and duties’ as
enshrined in the constitution. The right and duties are complementary to each
other. You cannot think of the one without the other. The rights and duties are
inter related. Both are concerned with the development of a sense of responsibility
among the citizens. By doing so, our National character is developed.
EXERCISES
1. Why are the fundamental rights essential for the citizens of the country?
2. Under the right to freedom, what types of freedom have been granted to
Indian Citizens?
3. Under the right against exploitation, which evils in society have been
prohibited?
4. What facilities have been provided to the weaker section of society in
the Indian Constitution?
5. What rights have been given to the citizens to prevent the encroachment
of the ‘Fundamental Rights?
Practical:-
Make a list of some evils in the society.
Think over :-
What steps will you take to remove social evils?
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CHAPTER-4
CENTRE-STATE RELATIONSHIP
Our Constitution makers have envisaged a federal system of government for
our country. Ours is a vast country. People of different religions, castes, languages
and communities live here. The federal system of government is more suitable
for such big countries. This system of Government has been adopted in India.
According to this system there are two set of Governments. At the National
level, there is a Central Government which includes the President, the Prime
Minister, the Council of Ministers and the Parliament. There is another
Government at the State Level which includes the Governor, the Chief Minister,
the Council of Ministers. the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council.
This dual type of government is called the Federal System of Government.
The Division of Powers between the Centre and the States
According to the constitution, the powers of the central and the state
government have been clearly defined in writing, in their respective areas. These
powers have been divided into three lists.
THE UNION THE STATE
Fig 4.1 Distribution of powers between the
Center and the State
Center - State Relationship
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I. The Union List 2 The State List 3 The Concurrent List.
The Union List :- All the subjects of National importance are included in
this list. These subjects relate to the whole country, e.g. Post and Telegraph,
Railway, Foreign Relations, Armed Forces, Currency etc. In all 97 subjects,
only the Parliament is entitled to make law in these subjects.
The State List :- All the local
or regional subjects like Education,
Health, Agriculture, Jail etc. are
included in this list. They are 66 in
number. The State Legislature are
empowered to make laws on these
subjects for the states.
The Concurrent List:- This list
contains 47 subjects. Both the
Parliament and the State Legislatures
are empowered to make laws on
these subjects. If there is any dispute
regarding these laws. The laws made
by the Parliament will prevail.
Fig 4.2 Subjects in the Union List
SUBJECTS
IN THE
UNION LIST
Foreign Affairs Metereology Navy
Army
Air Force
U
.
N
.
O
.
I
n
t
e
r
n
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
R
e
l
a
t
i
o
n
N
a
t
i
o
n
a
l
H
i
g
h
w
a
y
s
A
i
r
w
a
y
s
S
h
i
p
i
n
g
R
a
i
l
w
a
y
s
Fig 4.3 Subjects in the State List
SUBJECTS
IN THE
STATE LIST
Agriculture Irrigation Fisheries Roads Forests
P
o
l
i
c
e
Jail
Courts
Hospitals
Sanitation
V
e
t
e
r
i
n
a
r
y
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EXERCISES
1. What do you understand by the Federal System of Government?
2. How is the division of Powers made between the centre and states?
3. Why has ‘Defence’ been included in the Union list and ‘Police’ in the
State List?
4. Practical:
Find out the subjects of the ‘Concurrent List’ and Prepare a list of them.
Think Over:
Whose decision is final when there is a dispute between the Central
Government and a State Government? And Why?
The Indian Parliament
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CHAPTER -5
THE INDIAN PARLIAMENT
The Indian Constitution provides for a dual Government. The Union
Government runs the administration of the whole country specially in regard to
the subjects given in the Union list. The President, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya
Sabha form the Parliament in India. The Parliament is the supreme law making
body in our country.
There are two Houses of Parliament.
1. The Lok Sabha 2. The Rajya Sabha.
The Lok Sabha :- The First House of the Indian Parliament is called the
Lok Sabha. It is the house of the people. Its members are elected directly by the
people.
Composition :- The
number of elected members of
the Lok Sabha may be upto 545.
They are elected by the people.
Term : The members of the
Lok Sabha are elected for a
period of 5 years.
Election :- For the election
of the members of the Lok
Sabha, the whole country is divided into constituencies. Every Indian Citizen
who is not less than 18 years of age has a right to vote. This is called Adult
Franchise. The election is held through the secret ballot system.
Qualifications :- The following qualifications are necessary for the candidates
of the Lok Sabha.
1. He must be a citizen of India.
2. He should not be insolvent, mentally unsound or a convict.
Fig 5.1 The Parliament House
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94
3. He should not hold any office of Profit under the Government.
4. He should have completed 25 years of age.
Office-bearer :- There is one speaker and one deputy Speaker for the Lok
Sabha. They are elected from amongst the members themselves. The speaker
presides over the sessions of the Lok Sabha. He controls the proceeding and
maintains discipline in the house.
The Rajya Sabha:- The Second House is called the Rajya Sabha.
Composition :- There are in all 250 members in this house. Out of these, 12
members are nominated by the President. These persons are well-known in the
fields of Literature, Art Science, Social Service etc.
Election :- The members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected. They are
elected by
members of the
L e g i s l a t i v e
Assemblies. The
age of the
members of this
house should be
30 years or more;
The other
qualifications are
the same as those
of the members of
the Lok Sabha.
Term :- The
Rajya Sabha is a
permanent house.
It is never dissolved. One third of the members of the Rajya Sabha retire after
every two years and at the same time an equal number of new members are
elected. A member is elected ordinarily for a period of six years.
Chairman:- The Vice President of India is the Ex-officio Chairman of the
Rajya Sabha. At present Shri Bhero-Singh Shekhawat is the Vice-President of India
Fig 5.2 How Laws are made
The Indian Parliament
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and Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. In this way the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabba
together, make the Indian Parliament. Some special facilities have been given to the
members of the Parliament. They get monthly pay and allowances. Every member
is provided with a living accommodation in Delhi. Besides this, he is entitled for
free Telephone,Free First Class Travel by rail to any part of India.
Functions:- The following are some of the important functions of the Lok Sabha :-
(a) Legislative Powers :- The Parliament is the Supreme law-making body
in the country. It makes laws for the whole country. Every bill, which is intro-
duced in any of the houses of the Parliament has to go through three readings. In
the first reading, copies of the bill are given to the members. Any member who
introduces the bill, explains the purpose of the bill. In the second reading, clause
by-clause discussion of the bill takes place. Some members support the bill while
some other members criticise it. The suggestions given by the members are either
accepted or rejected. In the third reading, the bill, as a whole is finally discussed
and put to vote. If the majority of the members are in favour, the bill is passed.
The same procedure is repeated in the other house. After having passed by the
other house also, it is sent to the President for his consent and signature. It
becomes an Act after his signature.
(b) Passing the Budget :- The budget is approved by the Parliament. With-
out the approval of the Parliament, the Government can neither in any taxes, nor
can spend any amount. Thus, the Parliament keeps control on them in-come and
expenditure of the Government.
(C) Control over the Executive :- The Parliament exercises control over
the Executive. The Prime Minister and his Ministers are responsible to the
Parliament for their work. The Lok Sabha can remove them by passing a No
confidence motion against them.
(d) Amendment of the Constitution :- It is only the Parliament which has
the power to amend the constitution, if there is a need for it. Some provisions of
the constitution can be amended only after getting the approval of the State
Legislative.
(e) Impeachment :- Through the process of Impeachment, the Parliament
has the power to remove the President, the Vice-President and the Judges of the
Supreme Court and the High Courts.
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EXERCISES
1. How is the Lok Sabha formed?
2. How are the members of the Lok Sabha elected?
3. What is the minimum age-limit for voting in the General Election in
India? Write the correct answer.
(a) 25 years (b) 30 years (c) 18 years (d) 21 years
4. Write about each of the following in one sentence :
(a) Adult Franchise (b) The Speaker of the Lok Sabha
(c) The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
5. Describe the functions of the Parliament.
Practical :-
Find out the name of the member of Parliament in your constituency.
Think Over :-
Why is the Parliament a Supreme body?
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CHAPTER-6
THE PRESIDENT AND THE UNION CABINET
The office of the President is the symbol of National Dignity and Unity. The
administration of the whole country is run on his behalf. He is supreme commander
of the three wings of the Armed Forces. According to the Indian Constitution the
whole Executive Power of the Central Government is vested in the President but
the real powers are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers.
The President is only the Constitutional head. The Constitution has provided for
a Council of Ministers to help the President. The Prime Minister keeps the
President informed of all the decision of the Cabinet.
The Election of the President : The President is elected indirectly by the
people. Members of both the houses of the Parliament and the elected members
of the State Legislative Assemblies take part in the election of the President. At
Present Shri A.P.J. Abdul Kalam is the President of India.
The Functions and Powers of the President :
The President is the head of the Executive of the Indian Union. He appoints
the Prime Minister, other Ministers,
the Governors, the Ambassadors, the
Judges etc. He summons and adjourns
Parliament sessions. He also
inaugurates the Budget Session of the
Parliament. Money bills are presented
with his consent. Every bill becomes
an act after his signature. The President
has also some emergency powers. He
has also the power to grant pardon.
The Central Council of Minis-
ters :- We have already read that there
is a Council of Ministers to help the
President. The Prime Minister is the
leader of the Council of Minister. The
Fig 6.1 Election of the President
President
Lok Sabha Rajya Sabha
Vidhan Sabha
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leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is appointed as Prime Minister by
the President. On the advice of the Prime Minister other ministers are appointed
by the President.
There are three categories of ministers
1. Cabinet Ministers 2. State Ministers 3. Deputy Ministers. The Council of
Ministers is made up of all the three. Each minister must be a member of either
the Rajya Sabha or the Lok Sabha. If he is not a member of either of the two
houses, he must become so within a period of six months from the date of taking
office.
The Function of the Cabinet :- For the smooth running of the administration,
different departments are allotted to the members of the Council of Ministers.
Very often a minister is allotted more than one department. Each minister is
responsible for the work and administration of his department. The Council of
Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament of its actions. Before
assuming office, each minister is administered an oath of secrecy.
The Prime Minister :- The Office of the Prime Minister is very important
in the Indian Constitution because the Prime Minister is the leader of the Majority
party in the Lok Sabha. All the ministers work in a co-operative manner under
his leadership. The Prime Minister distributes the department among the ministers.
The Prime Minister is the Chief advisor of the President. All the important
appointment made by the President are made in consultation with the Prime
Minister. Thus the Prime Minister is the leader of the Parliament, the Council of
Ministers, the country and the people. It is mainly the Prime Minister who runs
the administration of the country.
THE CIVIL SERVICES
The cabinet decides the major issues and the policies. The concerned
minister has a major role to play in the execution of these decisions.. The minister
formulates the policies of his ministry. The execution of their policies is the
responsibility of the Civil Servants. The Civil Servants are called Government
Servant. They execute the laws at the public level.
The Civil Servants are recruited by the Public Service Commission. The
success of the Government depends upon the work of the civil servants. Education,
Health, social welfare, construction of roads, the upkeep of the means of transport
and Communication etc. require the services of a large number of civil servants.
The civil servants should not be members of any political party.
The President and The Union Cabinet
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EXERCISES
1. Throw light on the importance of the office of the President.
2. Write the powers and functions of the President.
3 How is the Central Council of Ministers formed?
4. Describe the functions of the Council of Minister?
5. Why is the office of the Prime Minister of India so important?
6. Write short notes on the followings :
(a) Civil Services (b) Election of the President.
7. Fill up the blanks :
(a) The office of the President is the..................... of National dignity
and unity.
(b) The President is only a constitutional .................
(c) The Prime Minister is the.....................of the majority party in the Lok
Sabha.
(d) The Civil Servants are called.....................servants.
Practical :
Find out the functions of the present Prime Minister of India.
Think over:
If you were the Prime Minister of the country what would you do for its
development?
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CHAPTER-7
THE STATE LEGISLATURE
In the last chapter you have read about the Parliament, the President and the
Central Council of Ministers. Our country is so vast in size and population that it
is difficult to control it from the centre. Therefore, in order to run it properly, our
country has been divided into many states. The administration of these states is
run by the State Governments.
The laws of the states are made by the state legislatures. At the centre there
are two houses of parliament. The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Likewise, in
the state legislature there may be two houses, the Legislative Assembly and the
Legislative Council. In our country a few states have Legislative Councils. Most
of the state have Legislative Assemblies only. In Madhya Pradesh there is only
one house i.e. the Legislative Assembly. Like the Lok Sabha this house represents
the people of the state.
The Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)
The whole of Chhattisgarh is divided into 90 Assembly Constituencies.
Thus, there are 90
members of the
Legislative Assembly
in our state. The
buildingof Chhattisgarh
Legislative Assembly
is located in Raipur. In
the same way there is
a legislative Assembly
in each state.
The term of the
Legislative Assembly
is five years. But it can
be dissolved even
earlier than five years by the Governor.
The qualifications of a member of the Legislative Assembly are the same as
those of the members of the Lok Sabha. The election of the Speaker and the
Fig 7.1 The Vidhan Sabha Bulding C.G.
The State Legislature
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101
Deputy Speaker is made by the members of the ‘Legislative Assembly. The
members of the Legislative Assembly also take part in the election of the President
of India and the members of the Rajya Sabha.
Our constitution has given some special powers to the Legislative Assem-
bly. Under the legislative powers, the Legislative Assembly makes necessary
laws for the state on the subjects in the state list and the concurrent list. Under
the financial powers, it controls the finances of the State. It passes the budget of
the State. It exercises control over the Council of Ministers in a variety of ways.
The Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) : There is a different procedure
for the election of the Legislative Council. One-third of its members are elected
by the members of the Legislative Assembly. Another one-third is elected by the
local bodies of the State e.g. Municipal committees, Municipal corporations and
Zilla Parishads. Some members are elected by the university graduates and
teachers constituencies. The rest of the members are nominated by the state
Governor. Their qualifications are the same as those of the members of the Rajya
Sabha. This house co-operates in the working of the Legislative Assembly.
EXERCISES
1. Fill up the blanks :-
(a) There are.................. houses, in the state legislature.
(b) There is ................house in the state legislature of Chhattisgarh
(c) There are ..................Assembly constituencies in Chhattisgarh
(d) The term of the Legislative Assembly is............years.
2. Who elects the Speakers and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly?
3. What are the powers enjoyed by the Legislative Assembly?
4. How much of the population is represented by a member of the Legislative
Assembly?
5. What is the procedure of election for the Legislative Council?
Practical:
Observe the proceedings of any session of the Legislative Assembly in your
state.
Think over:
If you are made the members of the Legislative Assembly, what would you do
for the Welfare of the people?
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CHAPTER 8
THE GOVERNOR AND THE STATE COUNCIL OF
MINISTERS
The Governor is the head of the state. The administration of a state is carried
on in the name of the Governor. The Governor is appointed by the President. He
holds office for five years but he can be removed before the completion of his
term and his term can also be extended by the President of India.
A citizen of India who has completed the age of 35 years can be appointed
Governor of the state. A Governor should not be a member of the Parliament or
the state legislature nor he should hold any office of profit.
The powers and functions of a Governor are like those of the President of
India. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister, other ministers, the top officers
of the state like the Chairman and the members of the Public Service Commission
and the Advocate General. The budget session of the Legislative Assembly be-
gins with the Address by the Governor. The Governor has the power to summon
and adjourn the sessions of the Legislative Assembly. All the bills passed by the
Legislative Assembly become Acts after the signature of the Governor. Sometimes
when the Assembly is not in session, the Governor can himself pass some orders.
These orders are called ordinances. These are the legislative powers of the
Governor. The Governor can reduce the punishment awarded under a state law
and he can also grant pardon. If the Governor feels satisfied that the Government
of the state is not running according to the provisions of the constitution, he can
recommend to the President to declare emergency in the state. In such a situation
‘President’ s rule can be promulgated in the state. Money bills require the approval
of the Governor before they can be introduced in the Assembly. This is to be
remembered that the Governor acts only on the advice of the Chief Minister.
The State Council of Minister and the Chief Minister :
The State Council of Ministers is the real executive of the State. The Chief
Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers. The Governor appoints the
leader of the majority party in the state legislature as Chief Minister. Other
The Governor and The State Council of Ministers
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103
ministers are appointed by the Governor and then departments are allotted on the
advice of the Chief Minister. The Chief Minister and other ministers must be the
members of the Legislative Assembly.
The Chhattisgarh Council of Ministers Consists of Cabinet Ministers state
Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries. All these together make the state council
of Ministers. The number of Ministers in the cabinet is not fixed in the constitution.
Their Number is at the discretion of the Chief Minister.
The Council of Ministers is the executive of the state. It Formulates the
policies of the state and gives advice to the Governor on administrative matters.
The business of the Legislative Assembly is approved by the Council of Ministers.
The Council also decides upon the nature of the bills to be presented in the
Fig 8.1 The State Goverment of Chhattishgarh
STATE GOVERMENT
OF
CHHATTISHGARH
THE
GOVERNOR
THE
CHIEF
MINISTER
THE
HIGH
COURT
TAHSIL
DISTRICT
ADMINISTRATION
DIVISIONAL
COMMISSIONER
DEPARTMENTAL
ADMINISTRATION
THE
CABINET
THE
LEGISLATIVE
ASSEMBLY
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Legislative Assembly. It also formulates the economic and taxation policy of the
state. It also makes plans for the welfare of the state. The budget of the state is
presented in the assemblies after the approval of the Council of Ministers.
THE CHIEF MINISTER
The Chief Minister has a major role to play in the politics and the Govern-
ment of the state. He presides over the meetings of the cabinet. He can demand
the resignation of any minister. He informs the Governor about the decisions of
the cabinet. The appointments to the important posts are made on his advice. The
whole cabinet is dissolved if the Chief Minister resigns. Hence the Chief Minister
occupies an important place in the state.
The State Civil Services
The State Council of Ministers lays down the policies of the state. Each
minister is responsible for the function of his department. But the minister is not
expected to implement the decisions of the government and do all the work
himself. The civil services therefore play an important role in this regard. The
minister is the head of his department. To help him there are many officers like
the Secretary, the Special Secretary, the Deputy Secretary and other Government
servants. Above all the secretaries, there is a Chief Secretary. All these taken
together are called the civil service, The polices of the government are executed
into action with the help of the civil services.
The head office of all the department is called the secretariat. The Secretariat
of Chhattisgarh is situated at D.K.S. Mantralaya Bhawan, Raipur. It is the
Secretariat which implements the decisions of the Government. The Budget of
the Government is prepared by the finance, department in the secretariat.
There are a number of department in the state Government, Some of the
important departments are General administration, Finance, Education, Health,
Agriculture, Law, Irrigation, Home, Public works, Forests, Information and
Publicity, Excise, Revenue, Cooperation, self-government, industries, Jail etc.
Almost all the departments have their head-quarters at Raipur. It is from the
secretariat that orders are sent to the divisional and district places. We have in
our State 3 Division and 16 Districts.
The Governor and The State Council of Ministers
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105
The head of the ‘division is called the Commissioner and the head of the
District is called the Collector. The Divisional Commissioner hears, the appeals
regarding land and revenue of the lower courts. He supervises the relief work of
the Government during natural calamities like, drought, floods and famine. He
gives orders to the Collectors and inspects their work. He is a senior member of
the Indian Administrative service.
EXERCISES
1. Write the correct Answer :
(a) The Governor is appointed by ..............
(The President, The Prime Minister, The Chief Minister).
(b) The Chairman of the State Public Service Commission is appointed by
.............(The Chief Minister, The Governor The Speaker).
(c) The leader of the State Council of Ministers is ............
(The Governor, The Chief, Minister, The Prime Minister).
2. What are the powers enjoyed by the Governor?
3. Write any four functions of the state council of Ministers.
4. The Chief Minister has an important place in the State Government.
Write any four duties of the Chief Minister in support of your answer.
5. Describe main duties of the Divisional Commissioner.
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CHAPTER-9
OUR JUDICIAL SYSTEM
When children quarrel among themselves at home, for various reasons,
the elderly people settle their disputes. In the same way whenever there is a
dispute or a controversy between two persons or institutions, they go to the
court of law for justice.
The Supreme Court :- Our constitution has provided for a free and unitary
judicial system. The highest and most prominent court is the Supreme Court
in our country. This is located in Delhi.
Organisation :- The Supreme Court has one Chief Justice and 25 other
judges. The Chief Justice is appointed by the President. The other judges are
also appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice.
The qualifications for the post of a judge of the Supreme Court are as
follows :
1. He should be a citizen of India.
2. He should have worked as a judge for at least five years or must be an
advocate for at least 10 years.
Term : The judges of the Supreme Court can work up to the age of 65 years.
Removal of the Judges :
Once appointed the judges cannot be removed easily from their posts.
They can be removed only by the President on grounds of proven misbehav-
ior and incapacity. For this the Parliament must pass a resolution by a two
third majority. No judge of the Supreme Court has so far been removed from
his post.
Functions and Powers :
I. Original Jurisdiction :- This court has the original jurisdiction to hear
cases for the first time. Such cases are of two types :
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(a) Such cases where
there is a dispute
between the Union
Government and a
State Government,
one side and one or
more state Govern-
ment on the other side.
(b) Such cases which
relate to the funda-
mental rights of the
citizens of India. Here
the protection of the
fundamental rights is
involved, Any citizen
of India can move the
Supreme Court, if his
fundamental rights
have been encroached
upon by the
Government.
2. Appellate Jurisdiction :
(a) The supreme Court hears appeals against the decision of the State High
courts.
(b) Civil suits involving the amount of at least Rs. 20,000/ - can be heard as
appeal in the Supreme Court.
(c) The Supreme Court hears appeals in such criminal cases where the death
sentence has been awarded by a State High Court.
(d) The permission to appeal is given when it is certified by the High Court
that the case, civil or criminal, is fit for appeal. The Supreme Court can also
grant special permission to appeal in some cases.
Fig 9.1 The Judiciary
Chief Justice
Supreme Court
Sub Ordinate Court
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3. Advisory Powers
The President of India can seek advice from the Supreme Court on any
legal issue. But the President is not bound by the advice given.
4.Protection of the Fundamental Rights :
The laws which violate any clause of the Constitution may be declared
null and void by the Supreme Court on a writ. Any citizen of India can move
the Supreme Court for the protection of the fundamental rights granted in
the constitution.
5. The court of records :
The Supreme Court is also the court of records. All the Judgements given
by the Supreme Court are used like laws in the other courts. They are cited a
precedents in the lower courts
The High Courts
The constitution provides for a High Court in each state.
The High Courts :- The High Court of Chhattisgarh is located in Bilaspur.
Composition :- The High Court has one Chief Justice and some other Judges.
The President of India appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges in consul-
tation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Qualifications :- The following are the qualifications of the judges of the
High Court -
1. He should be citizen
of India.
2. He must have
worked as a judge in
any court in the state
for five years or must
have been an advocate
for at least 10 years.
3. He should be a dis-
tinguished jurist in the
opinion of the Presi-
dent of India. Fig 9.2 The High Court Building of Chhattishgarh
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Functions and Powers :
I. Judicial Powers :- The High Court has both original and appellate
jurisdictions. It has the power to hear, for the first time, civil and criminal
cases and cases regarding the fundamental rights.
2 Power to Pass orders :- The High Court can take necessary action regarding
the protection of the fundamental rights granted in the Indian constitution. It
is binding on all the subordinate courts to obey the orders of the High Court
regarding the protection of the fundamental rights.
3 Control over the Subordinate Courts :- The High Court has the power to
Inspect and control all the courts of the state. It has the power to appoint,
promote and transfer the judges of the subordinate courts. It has also the
power to decide the election petitions. The appeals against Its decision can
only be made in the Supreme Court.
The Subordinate Courts
The Court of the District Judges is the highest civil court in the district.
You have already read about it in the 6th class. This court has the power to
hear civil cases. Civil judges are appointed in the district courts. The cases of
lesser amounts are heard by the Sub-judges and the Munsifs.
The Sessions Courts :- There are sessions courts to hear the criminal cases.
The cases involving fighting, looting, murder are heard in these courts. These
courts work under the high court of the state.
Lok Adalats : In the existing system the Indian courts take a long-time to
decide cases. The parties in dispute have to spend a lot of money. To reduce
the time and expenditure, a system of Lok Adalat has been started in this
country. Under this system, cases are decided speedily and without much
expenditure.
The Nyaya Panchayat : The minor cases in the rural areas are settled by the
Nyaya Panchayats at the village level. You have already read about it in
earlier classes.
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EXERCISES
1. Why do we need a court ?
2. Who appoints the judges of the High Court?
3. What are the qualifications of the judges of the Supreme Court ?
4. What types of cases are heard in the Supreme Court ?
5. Describe the composition and powers of the Supreme Court ?
6. How is the High Court in our state organised ?
7. Describe the, functions of the High Court ?
8. Write short notes on the following :-
(a) Civil and Criminal Cases
(b) The Lok Adalats.
Practical :
Find out the names of the Judges of the High Court of your state.
Think over:
If you are appointed a Judge, what Points would you take into
consideration?
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CHAPTER-10
OUR NATIONAL SYMBOLS
Shri Rabindranath Tagore had called India a sea of greatmen. This is the
country where we can .see unity in diversity. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari
India is one. Every Indian feels proud of his country. Every citizen respects the
Indian constitution.
Every free country has its own National Flag, National Anthem and National
Emblem which are the holy symbols of its national glory and national unity.
The National Flag is the symbol of our freedom, equality and unity. The
Constitution Assembly has approved this flag. This flag is rectangular in shape.
The length and breadth are in 3:2 proportion. For example if the length of the
flag is 15 centimeters, the breadth is 10 centimeters.
The composition :- Our National Flag is divided horizontally into three
equal parts of stripes which are of different colours. The top most stripe is of
deep saffron colour. The saffron
colour is the symbol of patriotism,
sacrifice and bravery. This reminds
us of those brave people who laid
down their lives for the country.
The middle stripe is white. The
white colour is the symbol of Truth
and purity. According to Mahatma
Gandhi, the Father of the Nation,
truth is God. The white colour
inspires to speak the truth and live a
simple and pure life.
The lowest stripe is dark green.
This colour represents progress and
prosperity in life. This inspires us
to make our motherland greener and more prosperous. We should grow more
and more food in our country. The green colour is a symbol of the dignity of
labour. Our National Flag is called the Tricolour because it is made up of three
colours.
Fig 10.1 Our National Flag
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In the centre of the white stripe, there is a wheel called the Ashok Chakra. It
is of navy blue colour. Its diameter covers the whole breadth of white stripe.
There are 24 spokes in it. These spokes inspire us to serve the country through-
out the 24 hours of the day. The wheel signifies motion, progress and change.
Importance :- Our Flag reminds us of the freedom movement in our country.
In the beginning the flag of the Indian National Congress was the same with the
only difference that in place of the ‘Chakra’, there was a ‘Charkha’. The ‘Charkha’
was very dear to Mahatma Gandhi. The ‘Charkha’ became a symbol of Boycott
of foreign goods and the use of Swadeshi goods. The spinning on the ‘Charkha’
and wearing of ‘Khadi’ made out of it was a step towards self-reliance. The
‘Charkha’ was also a symbol of the opposition of the foreign rule in the freedom
movement. This flag links the present with our past.
The National Flag is hoisted on the occasion of National festivals. You can
see the National Flag on all important Government buildings in the country. In
other countries also, it is hoisted on the Indian Embassy buildings. It is lowered
as a mark of respect when a honourable national leader or dignitary of a friendly
country dies. This is how we express our respect to the departed soul.
Rules :
· We should respect our National Flag.
· When the National Flag is raised, the saffron colour band should be
at the top.
· No flag or emblem should be placed either above the National Flag
or to its right.
· All other flags are to be placed to the left of the National Flag, if the
yare flown in a row. Also the National Flag must be put in the
highest position.
· The National Flag should be flown over important Government
buildings only, When the National Flag is carried in a procession it
should be carried on the right shoulder and in the front line.
· The National Flag should be hoisted on important national festivals
and on special occasions.
· The National Flag should not be displayed by the common people
on motor cars and other vehicles even on special occasions.
· The National Flag should not be used for decorative purposes.
· The National Flag must not be used for purposes of trade or business.
· The National Flag should be hoisted from sunrise to sun-set. It should
always be taken down on sun-set.
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The National Anthem
The National Anthem is full of praise for our motherland. It has been com-
posed by the poet Rabindranath Tagore. The hoisting of the National Flag is
immediately followed by the singing of the National Anthem. The complete poem
has five stanzas. But only the first stanza has been adopted as the National Anthem.
The National Anthem reads as follows:
Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya vidhata
Punjab-Sindhu-Gujarata-Maratha-
Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchhala Jaladhi Taranga
Tava subha name jage,
Ta_a subha ashish mange
Gahe tava Jaya-gatha.
Jana-gana mangala dayaka, jayahe
Bharat-bhagya-Vidhata
Jaya he, Jaya he, Jaya he,
Jaya Jaya Jaya, Jaya he.
Rules for singing the National Anthem:
! When the National Anthem is sung or played every one should stand at
attention.
! We should not move or talk while singing or listening to the National
Anthem.
! Every Indian should know the words and the meaning of the National
Anthem.
! Everybody should know the tune of the National Anthems that it may be
sung in chorus.
! While singing in chorus, it should be sung in tune.
! This is the emblem of the Government of India. It is in two parts the Crest
and the base.
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The crest shows three lions but in fact there
are four lions, The lion on the back is not seen
in the picture. It can be seen on the Ashoka Pillar
which is in Sarnath. The base shown as horse
to the left and a bull to the right. In between
there is a wheel which is made of twenty four
spokes.
Below the crest is inscribed. the motto
written in Devanagari Script, Satyameva Jayate.
It means ‘Truth alone triumphs’.
The chakra in the centre is a symbol of
‘Dharma’. It signifies motion, progress and
change for the welfare of humanity. The horse
represent energy and speed. The bull represents
hard work and steadfastness. The citizens of
India should resolve to exhibit three qualities in their characters. This emblem
has been adopted as a seal by the Government of India. It can be seen on all
currency notes and coins.
EXERCISES
1. Name the three colours in our National Flag.
2. What do the three colours in the National Flag represent?
3. What rules would you follow in paying respect to the National Flag?
4. What rule should be followed while singing the National Anthem?
5. Explain the importance of the National Emblem.
6. Who has composed the National Anthem?
Tick mark the right answer.
(1) Bankimchander Chatterji
(2) Rabindranath Tagore
(3) Maithli Sharan Gupta
(4) Makhan Lal Chaturvedi
Practical:
Prepare an album of National Flag of other countries.
Think over :
India is a land of unity in diversity, How?
Fig 10.2 Our National Symbol
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GEOGRAPHY
CHAPTER-1
ATMOSPHERE
The earth consists of three spheres. the Atmosphere, the Hydrosphere and
the Lithosphere. Life is found on the earth in the Zone where all these three
spheres come in contact with each other. This zone is known as ‘Biosphere’
which is very important for us.
This section deals with the atmosphere
The atmosphere extends several hundreds of Kilometres above the surface
of the earth. This gaseous envelope is known as the atmosphere. It is always
restless and so weather changes are frequent in it. The amount of insolation is
not the same everywhere on the earth so, it can be divided into various temperature
zones. The changes in temperature bring about pressure changes. The water vapour
present in the atmosphere is responsible for many weather phenomenon such as
clouds, rainfall and snowfall.
With the increase in height above sea level, the air becomes rarer.
New Terms :-
Atmosphere :- A layer of gases surrounding the earth for few hundred
Kilometres.
Air :- A gaseous mixture. .
Heat :- A feeling of
warmth given by a substance.
Rain :- Water droplets
falling from clouds.
The atmosphere is a
mixture of different types of
gases. These gases are in a
definite proportion in the
atmosphere. The following table
illustrates this fact : -
Fig 1.1 Atmosphere
ATMOSPHERE
EARTH
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TABLE
S.No. Gases Percentage
1. Nitrogen 78.03
2. Oxygen 20.99
3. Argon 0.94
4. Carbon-di-oxide 0.03
5. Hydrogen, Ozone,
Helium etc. 0.01
Total 100.00
It is clear from the above table that nitrogen and oxygen are the two main
constituents of the atmosphere. All these gases are very important for our life.
We inhale oxygen and exhale carbon-di-Oxide during respiration. On the
contrary, the plants take carbon-di-Oxide and give off oxygen. This helps in the
maintenance of ecological balance.
Apart from gases, the atmosphere consists of dust particles and water vapour.
The dust particles are more in number near the earth surface while, water vapour
is found even at higher elevations. Their quantity varies with seasons and they
are responsible for occurrence of fog and rainfall over the earth.
EXERCISES
Fill in the blanks: -
1. The atmosphere extends upto a height of........................ above the
earth’s surface.
2. As one rises high above the surface of earth, the air becomes..............
3. Man inhales......................gas during respiration.
4. The plant takes in........................and gives off.................gas.
5. Apart from the gases the atmosphere also contains
............................. and ..............................
Write short Answers :-
1. Write down the names of different gases of the atmosphere.
2. What is atmosphere?
3. How is air pollution caused? How does it affect the human life?
Do it :-
Draw a diagram of the atmosphere.
Air and Temperature
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CHAPTER. 2
AIR AND ITS TEMPERATURE
The heat in the atmosphere is known as temperature. The sun is the source
of this heat. The sun is about 15 crore kilometres away and thousand times larger
than the earth. It causes heat and energy in the space all around. Through the
atmosphere the sun rays enter and reach the surface of the earth. The surface
absorbs heat first and then slowly releases it. This process is known as
‘Radiation.’ The atmosphere is heated up by the temperature released from the
surface. When the air is heated it becomes lighter and so it rises up. In this way,
heat spreads in the atmosphere. Temperature is measured with the help of an
instrument-Thermometer.
‘Degree celsius’ (
°
C) is the unit of temperature. Celsius was the scientist
who invented the centigrade. Thermometer in which
°
C is the freezing point and
100 °C is the boiling point of water.
The temperature of any place does not remain constant. The variations of
temperature taking place in 24 hours can be found out by a special type of
Thermometer known ‘Maximum and Minimum temperature Thermometer.’ It was
invented by Sir Mr. Six.
The following factors affect the amount of radiation :
(a) The perpendicular sun rays travel a shorter distance of the Air and its
temperature sphere and also heat lesser earth surface. The result is that more
insolation is received at places with perpendicular sun rays.
(b) The inclined rays travel a greater distance of the atmosphere and have
to heat a larger earth surface. Hence, lessers insolation is received at places.
(c) The temperature changes are diurnal and seasonal. The days are hotter
than the nights and the summer is hotter than the winter season.
Factors affecting Atmospheric Temperature
The sun is the source of heat for atmosphere Temperature depends upon
many factors:
1. Latitude :
There is a decrease in temperature as we proceed from equator towards
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poles. On latitude depends the angle of striking sun rays. Therefore, higher
temperatures near equator and lower temperatures near poles are found.
2. Altitude :
There is a decrease in temperature with increase of height above sea level.
For this reasons, the higher mountain peaks are cooler than the low lands. Usually,
forever 165 metre rise, there is a decrease of 1°C.
Thermal Zones
On the basis of unequal temperature distribution over the earth surface,
there are three zones:
1. Tropical Zone :
Maximum solar radiations are received in lower latitudes (middle portion
of the earth) and so it is known as Tropical Zone.
2. Frigid Zone :
Both the Poles gets
minimum insolation and therefore, the
polar areas are called as “The Frigid
Zones.”
3. Temperate Zone :
Between the tropics and poles lies
the area with higher temperature than the
poles and lower temperature than the
tropics. This region is termed as ‘The
Temperate Zone.’
EXERCISES
I. Short Answer Questions :
1. What is radiation?
2. Which instrument is used for measuring temperature?
3. Write down the factors which affect temperature?
II. Fill in the blanks :-
i. Thc perpendicular rays trave1.................part and the inclined rays trave1
......................part of the atmosphere.
ii. Sun is................kilometres away from the earth.
iii. Thc surface receives temperature from....................
III. Do it :
Draw a diagram showing the temperature zones of the earth.
T
E
M
P
R
A
T
E

Z
O
N
E
PRIEID ZONE
Fig 2.4 Temperature Zones
T
E
M
P
R
A
T
E

Z
O
N
E
T
O
R
R
I
E
D

Z
O
N
E
FRIGID ZONE
60 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
0
0
0
0
60 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
60 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
60 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
Atmospheric Pressure
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CHAPTER-3
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
Air is a gaseous material. Like other natural substances it has its weight
too. This weight is known as air pressure or atmospheric, pressure.
“Atmospheric Pressure is the Pressure of a vertical air column of a unit
area of the surface of earth.” The instrument used for measuring atmospheric
pressure is called a Barometer. Millibar is a unit for showing pressure.
The atmospheric pressure is unequal over the earth surface. It depends
upon two factors. They are :
1. Height above sea level :
Atmospheric pressure is maximum near sea level. With the increase in height,
the air becomes lighter and so there is a decrease in the atmospheric pressure.
The amount of oxygen also decreases at higher elevations Therefore, when we
climb up a mountain, carrying of oxygen gas becomes necessary.
2. Temperature:
Higher the temperature, lighter is the gas. The result is that it rises up. Low
temperature makes the air heavy and so there is a rise in the atmospheric pressure.
The permanent wind system is highly affected by the changes of temperature.
Atmospheric: Pressure Belts.
Earth movements, temperature and height above sea level give rise to
different pressure belts over the earth. These belts are as follows.
Air Pressure Relta Extent
1. Equatorial Low 0° to 10° North and South.
Pressure Belt
2. Sub-Tropical High 30° to 35° North and South.
Pressure Belt.
3. Sub-polar Belt of Low 45° to 66 ½ North and South.
Pressure Belt
4. Polar High Pressure 85° to 90° North and South.
Belt.
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During summer the northern hemisphere faces the sun, So all the pressure
belts shift 2°-5° North-Wards, In winter, the Southern hemisphere faces the sun
for a longer time and so these pressure belts shift 2°-5° South-Wards Weather,
land and water are highly affected by the pressure belts.
EXERCISES
Write Short Answer :
I. What is atmospheric pressure?
2. On what factors does the air pressure depend?
3. What is the extent of various atmospheric pressure belts?
4. Give the position of pressure belts in summer and winter seasons.
Fill in the blanks :-
1. Unit for measuring air pressure is........
2. Air is a...............Substance;
3. The places where temperature is higher. the pressure is ..........
4. At sea level the atmospheric pressure is............
Do it :-
Draw a diagram to show the atmospheric pressure belts.
Fig 3.1 Air Pressure Belt
66 1/2
0
10
0
0
0
66 1/2
0
45
0
45
0
35
0
35
0
23 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
10
0
66 1/2
0
10
0
0
0
66 1/2
0
45
0
45
0
35
0
35
0
23 1/2
0
23 1/2
0
10
0
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CHAPTER-4
WIND DIRECTION AND VELOCITY
The air is not visible like the other substances. But we cannot ignore its
existence and importance. On the earth surface, the horizontal moving air is
known as ‘Wind.’
The wind always moves from high pressure area to low pressure area..
The wind does not move straight but, it is deflected towards right or left. The
deflection of wind is found out with the help of an instrument ‘Wind-vane.’
‘The direction of wind is governed by Farrel’s Law’.
Farrel’s Law
According to Farrel :
The earth rotates on its axis from west to east. Due to this rotation, in
the northern hemisphere the winds and ocean currents turn towards their
own right and in the southern hemisphere towards their own left. This deflec-
tion is not apparent in a short distance of one or two kilometers. But, if the
winds move for a distance of thousands of kilometers then the change in
direction becomes apparent. This is the reason why the Trade wind and West-
erlies do not follow the straight courses while moving from high pressure to
low pressure. They follow the inclined paths.
Wind-Velocity
When two places consist of different atmospheric pressure, the wind
blows from high to low pressure area. The speed of wind depends upon the
change of pressure or the pressure gradient. Higher the pressure gradient,
faster is the wind speed. The velocity of wind is measured in kilometer per
hour. Actually, a slight change of pressure, Say 1/10
th
of a millibar, can pro-
duce high velocity. wind. In such cases the wind reaches a velocity of 75-100
kms/hour. The leaves of a tree are moved by a wind velocity of 4.5 kmslhour.
The instrument used for of measuring Wind velocity is known as ‘Anemom-
eter.’ Beanfort’s chart is used for finding and comparing the wind speed.
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TYPES OF WIND
Depending upon the pressure and velocity the winds are put in three
categories:-
Categories Permanent Seasonal Local
Winds Winds Winds
Types of winds 1. Trade 1. Land and Sea 1.Loo
breeze .
2. Westerlies 2. Cyclones 2. Chinook
(Anti Trade) and
Anticyclones
3. Polar 3. Monsoon 3. Sirocco
4. Fohn
5. Hurricane
6. Typhoon
Permanent winds (Planetary winds)
The Permanent winds are of three types :.
1. Trade Winds :
In both the hemispheres they move from the sub tropical high to the
equatorial low. In the northern hemisphere their direction is from north-east
to south west and in the Southern hemisphere from south-east to north-west.
For this reason they are also known as the “Easterly winds.”:
2. Westerly Winds :
They blow from the sub-tropical high pressure areas to the sub-polar
low pressure belts. They mainly flow in the temperate zones. Their direction
is south-west in the northern hemisphere and north-west in the southern hemi-
sphere. This is the reason, why they are called as ‘ Westerly Winds.’
3. Polar Winds :
In both the hemispheres these winds blow from polar high pressure belts
to the sub-polar low pressure belts. In northern hemisphere they blow North-
East to South-West land in the Southern hemisphere from South-East to
North-West. These winds are very cold and dry because of having their origin
from the poles.
Wind Direction and Velocity
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Seasonal Winds :
Apart from the planetary winds there are some winds which blow dur-
ing a particular period of a day or a year Their directions are also fixed. The
seasonal winds are as follows:
(i) Land and Sea Breeze :
On the sea shore on one side there is
sea water and on the other side there is land
surface,with the variation of temperatures
during day and night land and sea breeze
blows. Breeze means wind.
During day the land surface is quickly
heated up while the water is relatively cool.
The air over land also gets heated, it be-
comes lighter too, so it rises up. The air
over the sea water is cooler and heavier.
So, it moves to fill the empty space. This
movement of air is from sea to land, there-
fore, it is called “Sea Breeze.”
(b) The land is quickly heated or cooled while, water takes more time
for this process. During night, the land surface is cooled earlier than water
so, warm air over water becomes lighter and it rises up. The lower surface is
left vacant, towards which cooler wind from the land surface blows. The
wind that blows from land towards sea is known as “Land Breeze.”
Fig 4.1 Regular Winds
P.Easter Line
P.Easter Line
Subpolor Low
Subpolor Low
Prevaling Weater Lines
Subtropical High
(Horse Latitude)
Subtropical High
(Horse Latitude)
Prevaling Weater Lines
North East Trade
North East Trade
Equatorial Low (Dolddurms)
Fig 4.2 Sea Breeze and Land Breeze
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Cyclones and Anticyclones :
These winds are irregular in their speed and direction. They blow for a
short duration and that, too, occasionally. Their territories are also indefi-
nite. Therefore, they are also known as the changeable winds.
As these originate eddies in river water due to some obstruction
similarly,whirling movement of air is also caused in the atmosphere. These
atmospheric eddies are known as cyclones and anticyclones.
Cyclones
When a low pressure develops in the centre, the wind rushes towards it
from the surrounding
high pressure areas.
This type of wind sys-
tem is called as a “Cy-
clone.” The centre of
the cyclone is termed as
“Eye of Cyclone.”
Heavy rainfall resulting
in a great loss of men
and money is caused by
cyclones.
Anticyclone
A high pressure area surrounded by low pressure on all the sides, is
known as an anticyclone. Since, high pressure lies in the centre, wind blows
out from it. The speed of wind is low, sky is clear and there is no rainfall in
the anticyclonic conditions.
Monsoon Winds
Winds blowing in a particular season are known as the monsoon winds.
It means they are seasonal winds. They are best developed on an extensive
portion of the continent of Asia, which is well surrounded by oceans and has
a greater range of summer and winter temperatures.
With the change of season the wind direction also changes, for examples.
(I) In summer season the interiors of the continent become very hot.
Fig 4.3 Cyclones and Anticyclones.
Wind Direction and Velocity
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This condition makes it a region of low pressure from where air is lifted up.
Winds from the surrounding oceans, where pressure is higher, rush towards
the continent.
(2) During winter season the conditions are reversed. The oceans be-
come warmer than the continental portion and the low pressure is developed
on the former. The air is warm and lighter on oceanic waters and so it is
lifted up. The wind from the cooler high pressure areas of the continent
comes to take its place.
The monsoon winds blow from sea to land in summer and from land to
sea in the winter season. Their duration is of about six months each.
Local Winds
On the earth surface the winds, blowing on a particular place are known
as “Local Winds”. In each region they are given a different name. The impor-
tant local winds are as follows:-
(i) Loo (Hot Wind) :
These winds blow on northern India in the summer season, especially, in
the months of May and June. They are called Loo or Lapat (Flames). They
cause illness and sometimes they prove fatal.
(ii) Chinook:
It blows in the North-Western part of North America. After crossing the
Rocky mountain ranges the wind which, descends down in the rain shadow
area becomes very hot. Ice melts due to these winds. The prairie plains are
benefitted and cattle rearing conditions become favourable by the Chinook
Winds.
(iii) Fohn :-
It is also a hot wind of Europe. It too helps in melting of snow. The
grapes ripe faster.
(iv) Hurricane :-
High speed storms in the south eastern North America are called Hurri-
cane. Such type of storms are also common in Australia. They cause im-
mense harm.
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(v) Typhoon :
On the South Eastern coast of Japan, in the Philippines, East Indies etc.
Cyclones with high velocity wind strike. They are termed as Typhoons. They
too are destructive in nature.
EXERCISES
I. Answer the following :-
1. How do the winds and currents flow according to the Farrel’s Law?
2. Which instruments are used for finding the direction and velocity of
winds?
3. Give names of the Planetary winds?
4. Which are the seasonal winds?
5. Give names of the local winds?
6. What are monsoon winds?
II Fill in the blanks :
i. Wind blows from................to.................pressure area.
ii. The sea breeze blows during..................... and the land breeze blows
during.......................time.
iii. At the centre of the cyclone the pressure is ...........and at the centre of
an anticyclone the pressure is.................
iv. In India..........winds blow.
III. Essay type Questions:
1. What do you understand by Farrel’s Law?
2. Describe the planetary winds?
3. Differentiate between a cyclone and an anticyclone.
IV. Draw figures to show land and sea breeze.
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CHAPTER-5
ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY
The water present in the gaseous state in the air is its humidity. It is also
known as water vapour. This water vapour is the most changeable factor of the
atmosphere.
Sources of Water vapour and it’s Characteristics
The sources of water vapour of the atmosphere are the Oceans, seas, lakes,
tanks, rivers, wells, vegetation etc. Whenever air and water come in contact
with one another, the water droplets enter the atmosphere in the form of vapour.
It’s amount is not the same in the atmosphere. Higher the temperature more is the
amount of water vapour. The water vapour can interchange into solid, liquid or
gaseous stage.
States of Humidity in the Atmosphere
Humidity plays a major role in heating or cooling of the atmosphere. There
are three main stages of humidity:
(A) Evaporation :-
Due to high
temperature the water
turns into vapour and
mixes with the air. This
process is known as
evaporation.
(B) Condensation :-
Through evaporation,
a fixed amount of water
vapour is absorbed by the
air, which is said to be
Saturated when the
temperature of the
CONVENTIONAL RAINS
CONDENSATION
SURFACE WIND
Fig 5.1 Conventional Rain
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saturated air goes down 0° when vapour changes into minute droplets of water.
This process is known as condensation.
(C) Forms of Condensation
Various forms of condensa-
tion are seen in the atmosphere;
such as-Cloud, dew, hail, snow,
fog, rainfall etc.
RAINFALL
In the atmosphere conden-
sation process is responsible for
the falling of water droplets on
the surface of earth. This is
known as rainfall. There are
three types of Rain.
(1) Conventional Rain:
The land and the air over it gets heated up in the tropics due to higher
temperatures. This gives rise to the conventional Currents. The rainfall which is
caused by the condensation of these conventional currents is known as the con-
ventional Rainfall. It is always associated with lightening and thunder of clouds.
Such type of rainfall is very common in the equatorial Regions.
(2) Orographic Rain :
When a mountain comes in the way of a humid wind, it is forced rise up.
The ascending air gets cooled and rain occurs. Such type of rainfall is known as
“Orographic Rainfall’.” On the lee-ward side (Opposite side) of the mountain
the air descends down and there is no rainfall on this side. This region is known
as the “Rain Shadow Area.”
(3) Cyclonic Rain:
There is low pressure in the centre of a cyclone. The air rushes fast towards
this centre because there is high pressure all around it. The air in the centre is
warmer and lighter, so it quickly rises up, resulting heavy rainfall. Such type of
rainfall is known as “Cyclonic Rain.”
The rainfall is measured with the help of an instrument the “Rain ‘Guage.”
Fig 5.2 Rain Caused by Mountains
Cool Air
Chinok Wind
RainShadow
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EXERCISES
I. Give short answers :
I. What is humidity?
2. What are the different forms of atmospheric humidity, Write their
names?
3. What is rainfall?
4. What do you understand by Cyclonic Rain?
5. What is a rain shadow area?
II. Fill up the blanks :-
1. The sources of water are .....................
2. The evaporation is.............in summer season than the winter season.
3. The whether vapour changes into.............................state with
condensation
III. Do it :
1. Find out whether humidity is higher in sumner season or in rainy
season.
2. Draw figures to explain conventional rain and orographic rain.
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CHAPTER-6
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
Weather:
The description of atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity,
wind direction, its velocity, amount of rainfall etc. of a place at a particular time
is known as it’s Weather. Thus weather deals with the atmospheric condition ofa
short period. The weather constantly changes with place and time.
Climate:
The average of weather conditions is known as the climate. It is the sum
total of variety of weather conditions of an area for a longer time. The clements
of climate are temperature, wind, humidity, and rainfall etc. They all affect the
weather and climate of a place.
Meteorologilcal Instruments
Many instruments are invented to measure elements of weather and climate
a few of them are as follows :
1. Thermometer:
An instrument used to measure the temperature of a place is known as
Thermometer. The unit for measurement of temperature is Celsius/Farenheit/
Rumur. But now a days degree celsius is
commonly used. A thermometer, consists of
a glass tube with a round bulb at one end.
Mercury is filled in this tube and bulb.
Within the increase of temperature the level
of mercury rises up in the tube. The tube is
well graduated in
°
C and
o
f. The graduations
denote both the freezing and the boiling
point. The reading is taken by observing the
level of mercury in the tube. Read out the
temperature from (from6.1).
2. Maximum and minimum
temperature Thermometer :
The temperature of a place does not Fig 6.1 Thermometer
Weather and Climate
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remain constant. The change of temperature is
found out with the help of Maximum and mini-
mum temperature thermometers. Temperature is
shown by the index pins. The instrument is made
up of glass tube which contains mercury or
alcohol. In one tube, the level of mercury rises
and the index pin shows the maximum temperature
while in the other tube with the fall of level of
alcohol, the index pin shows the minimum
temperature. The graduations of the tube are in
opposite directions. They are from 0°-130°.
3. Barometer :
Atmospheric pressure is measured with the help of an instrument called
Barometer. There are two types of Barometers. In one type, mercury is used
while in the other no liquid is used. The former is Fortins’s Barometer and the
later is Aneroid Barometer. Aneroid means without liquid. Aneroid barometer
looks like a rounded watch. It consists of graduations on the dial and a needle.
The needle inside the box moves with the change of atmospheric pressure and
points to the graduated dial. The number indicated by this needle is read and this
shows the atmospheric pressure of that
place.
4. Rain Guage :
A rainguage is an instrument to
measure rainfall of a place. It consists of a
cylindrical vessel with a funnel at its
opening mouth. This funnel collects
rainwater in the vessel. The collected
water is poured in a graduated flask to
measure the amount of rainfall. The flask
is graduated both in inches and
Centimetters.
5. Wind vane and Anemometer :
Wind vane is used to find out the
direction of wind. It consists of a straight
The Dial
Fig 6.2 Barometer
Fig 6.3 Rain Guage
a
b
c
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132
rod on which one arrow rotates and shows the
direction of the wind. The cardinal points i.e.
North, South; East and West are written on the
instruments and one can find out the direction of
the wind by observing the alphabet of the cardinal
point (N.S.E.W.) and the position of the arrow.
Anemometer is used to measure the velocity
of wind. There are four cups attached to a vertical
metallic rod which move with the force of the
wind. The wind velocity is read from the
instrument. The speed of wind is measured in
Kilometres per hour.
EXERCISES
I. Short answer question:
1. What is the difference between weather and climate?
2. Write down the element of climate?
3. Which instruments are used to show weather conditions? Give their
names.
4. What is a wind-vane? Give its use.
II. Fill up the blanks :-
1. The average of weather condition is known as.................
2. A thermometer is used for measuring ...........
3. The main unit for measurement of temperature is ..........
4. Rain fall is measured with the help of...............
III. Do it:
1. Prepare a model of wind-vane by observing its figures.
2. Draw figures in diffferent weather instruments.
Fig 6.4 Weather Clock (for
knowing wind direction and
wind velocity)
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SECTION II
CHAPTER -7
HYDROSPHERE
Continent - Large land masses of earth surface above Sea Level.
Ocean - Vast water bodies surrounding the land masses.
What is Hydrosphere?
The part of the surface of the earth which is covered with water is known as
Hydrosphere. Water is found in Oceans, seas,
lakes and rivers of our earth. The snow and ice
are also included in hydrosphere. On 71 % of
the earth’s surface there is water.
Importance of the Oceans :
Water is necessary for all the living be-
ings. Oceans playa significant role in our life.
The water which evaporates from oceans give
us rain. Different types of salts, fishes, corals.
pearls etc. are also obtained from the Oceans.
Look at the globe and the world map. Give
names of the Ocean and mark their size wise
orders. They are-Pacific Oceans, Atlantic
Ocean, Indian Ocean, Arctic Ocean (The North
Polar Sea), Antarctic Ocean (The South Polar
Sea).
The Pacific Ocean is the largest Ocean.
Its area is larger than the areas of all the Oceans
put together. It is also the deepest among all the
Oceans. The Marinas trench is the deepest
trench (11022 M below sea level) of the world.
Movements of the Ocean water
Children you must have seen a river or a
Fig 7.1 Hydrosphere on the
globe.
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tank. Its marginal area is shallow and the central part is much deeper. The depth
in the centre is not equal everywhere. Similarly, the depth of the seas and oceans
is also not equal. It becomes clear from Fig. 7.2.
There are three types of movements of Ocean waters:
1. Waves
2. Currents
3. Tides
Waves :- In waves only the surface water oscillates. Winds are respon-
sible for the origin of the waves. When one wave moves forward, in succession
other waves are formed. They push one another and end up near the shore.
Currents :- The
hydrosphere is never at
rest. It always shows
one or the other type of
movement. The ocean
water is mobile. Out of
all the movements of
ocean water, currents
are most important.
“The general
movement of a mass of
surface water in a
fairly defined direction
for a considerable distance is known as an Oceanic current.” “Actually currents
are like rivers in Ocean water which flow in a definite direction regularly.”
Types of currents
Depending upon their speed and temperature, the currents are of two types:
1. Warm Current
2. Cold Current
Generally those that flow polewards from the equatorial region are known
as warm currents. Those that flow from the polar regions towards Equator are
called as the cold currents.
Reasons for the Origin of currents
The factors responsible for the origin of Oceanic currents are as follows:
Fig 7.2 Depth of Oceans.
CONTINENTAL
SHELF
ISLAND
CONTINENTAL
SLOPE
OCEAN DEEPS
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1. Difference of
Temperature :
Temperatures are
higher in the equatorial
region where water
surface is raised up due to
expansion of water. This
water flows towards
poles. For bringing
equilibrium colder water
from poles flow towards
the equator.
2. The Planetary
Winds :-
Majority of Ocean
currents flow along the
direction of the planetary
winds.
3. The Earth’s
Rotation :
In 24 hours the earth
makes one rotation on it’s
axis. This daily movement deflects the Oceanic water in the form of a current
The direction of a current depends on two factors:
(i) The direction of the planetary winds.
(ii) Shape of the lands mass.
Important Oceanic currents
(A) Currents of Atlantic Ocean :
(i) North Equatorial Current Warm Current
(ii) South Equatorial Current Warm Current
(iii) Gulf Stream Warm Current
(iv) Labradore Cold Current
SOUTH ATLANTIC
OCEAN
AFRICA
NORTH
ATLANTIC
OCEAN
SOUTH
AMERICA
COLD
HOT
GREEN
LAND
NORTH
AMERICA
Fig 7.3 Currents of Atlantic Ocean.
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(v) North Atlantic drift Warm Current
(vi) Canary Cold Current
(vii) Brasilian Current Warm Current
(viii) Bengula Current Cold Current
Saragasso Sea is the calm region encircled by currents.
(B) Currents of the Pacific Ocean :
(i) North Equatorial Current Warm
(ii) KurosivoWann Warm
(iii) North Pacific Warm
(iv) Kurile Cold
(v) California Cold
(vi) East Australian Current Warm
(vii) Peruvian Cold
Fig 7.4 Currents of Pacific Ocean.
SOUTH
PACIFIC
OCEAN
NORTH
PACIFIC
OCEAN
SOUTH
AMERICA
COLD
HOT
NORTH
AMERICA
Counter Equiterial
ASIA
AUSTRALIA
North Equiterial Currents
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(C) Currents or the Indian Ocean :
(i) West Australian current...................cold.
(ii) North Equatorial current...............warm.
(iii) Mozambique................................warm.
(iv) South Equatorial current..............warm.
(v) South Equatorial current..............warm.
1. Impact of climate :
The warm currents tend to increase the temperature of the coastal region
closer to them while, the cold currents reduce the temperature.
2. Impact on Fisheries :
The fish is found in a large number at places where the warm and cold
currents meet. New found land and Japan are famous fishing grounds in the
world.
3. Impact on Ports :
The port remains
open throughout the year
when a warm current
flows adjoining to its
coast. Due to the effect of
a cold current the coastal
water freeze and the
ports are closed for a
greater period of the
year.
4. Impact on
Transportation :-
The ships are
naturally benefitted by
the favourable directions
of the currents, because
they can reach their
destiny in less fuel. But
on the contrary at the
confluence of cold and
warm currents, a danger of accidents due to fog formation, always persists.
Fig 7.5 Currents of Indian Ocean (Summer)
The territorial waters of India extended into the sea to a distance of twelve
nautical miles measured from the apporopriate base line.
INDIAN OCEAN
ASIA
AUSTRALIA
AFRICA
WEST WIND DRIFT
HOT
COLD
EQUATOR
Monsson DRIFT
S. EQUATOR
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EXERCISES
1. Write the correct answer :
1. Of the earths, surface, hydrosphere covers :
(a) 68%
(b) 31 %
(c) 71%
(d) 65%
2. On the basis of their speed and temperature, the currents are of
the following types:
(a) Five
(b) Two
(c) Four
(d) Three
3. Which of the following industry would have been affected, had
there been no Gulf Stream near the eastern coast of North
America.
(a) Lumbering
(b) Textile
(c) Fisheries
II. Explain:
1. What is the difference between waves and currents?
2. Why is gulf stream a boon for North Western Europe?
3. What is the effect of Ocean currents on our life?
III.Do it:
1. From where do we get drinking water? Collect paper cuttings.
2. Collect photographs of the animals found in,Oceans.
3. Find out the places of the confluence of warm and cold currents in a
world map.
Tides
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CHAPTER-8
TIDES
In 24 hours the surface of sea water rises and falls twice. This periodic
regular rise and fall of the level of sea is known as tides. The rise of water
towards the coast is termed as the “High Tide” while the fall of the retreat of the
Ocean water from the coasts is known as the “Low Tide.”
Causes of Tides :
The gravitational pull of the sun, and moon causes tides. The Sun is very far
from the earth. On the contrary the Moon is quite near to it. Therefore, water is
attracted by the gravitational pull of the moon than the sun. The water being
liquid, is affected more than
the solid earth by moon’s pull.
The moon attracts the water
surfaces. The part of water
which is just infront of the
moon is pulled up. The rise in
water level is a tide. The tides
are produced at two points
simultaneously, firstly, at the
place just infront of the moon,
and secondly, at the place just on opposite side of it. The rise of water level at
the second place is due to the fact that the moon slightly attracts the solid earth
too. Due to this water at the opposite side is left behind and so it accumulates,
resulting in a tide. Thus, at a time there are two tides at two different places on
opposite sides in the Ocean waters.
Due to the rise of water level at two points. There occurs a fall of water
level midway between the high tides. This fall is termed as “Low Tide.” In
oceans, low tides also occur simultaneously at two places on opposite sides.
A place experience two high and two low tides in twenty four hours. But the
time and height of the tides is not uniform.
Earth
Moon
New Moon S
p
r
i
n
g

T
i
d
e
Moon
S
p
r
i
n
g

T
i
d
e
Sun
Fig 8.1 High Tide
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Types of Tides
Depending upon the height of the waves, there are two types of tides:
(i) Spring Tide
(ii) Neap Tide.
(i) Spring Tide :- On a full moon and new moon the sun, the moon and the
earth, all the three lie in a straight line. Due to the combined gravitational pull of
the sun and the moon the tides on these days are higher. Such type of tide is
known as “Spring Tide.”
(ii) The Neap Tide :
When the gravitational pull of the
sun and the moon act at right angles to
the earth’s centre, their force of
attractions acts opposite to each other,
resulting in a small rise of the ocean
water. This type of tide is known as the
“Neap Tides.” It happens when the
moon is in its first and third quarters, is
the eighth day after the full moon and
the new moon.
Effect of Tides on Human Life :
(1) With the tidal waves the river mouths are kept clean. The waves wash
away the debris.
(2) The tides help in navigation. Larger ships can reach the shallow harbours
with high tidal waves and they can return to the sea with the ebb (low side).
EXERCISES
I Choose the right answer :
1. On which day there will be no spring tide?
(a) Full Moon
(b) New Moon
(c) The eighth-day (Asthami)
Fig 8.2 The Neap Tide
Earth
Moon
Neap Tide
Moon
Neap Tide
Sun
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2. The sea coast must have suffered in the absence of tides because of
(a) Accumulation of debris.
(b) Rivers not flowing into the sea
(c) The fish not reaching the Coasts.
II. Explain:
1. What is the difference between a Spring Tide and a Neap Tide?
2. How do the tides effect the human life?
III. Do it:
i. Draw a diagram to show “Spring Tide.”
ii. On full moon and new moon nights observe the position of the moon
in the sky.
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CHAPTER-9
NEW TERMS EUROPE
Land Hemisphere: The northern hemisphere of the earth surface, which
contains nearly six sevenths of the world’s total land area.
Fold Mountains: Mountains with long parallel ranges. They are formed
when the land gets gradually compressed owing to forces at work under the
earth’s crust.
Massif : A large mountain mass with one or two summits.
Fiord : Deep inlets of sea standing between high cliffs and penetrating into
the land.
Peninsula: A large stretch of land surrounded by sea on all sides except one
through which it is connected to a large land mass.
LAND AND CLIMATE
As a continent, Europe is indeed very small. It is just three times the size of
our country. Barring Australia, it is the smallest continent. But Europe is very
thickly populated; and yet it is prosperous too! During the past few centuries on
other continent has left its impact on the
rest of the world so much as has Europe.
Study the map of the world. You will
find that Europe is not a continent but is at
best a big peninsula of the continent of
Eurasia. This subcontinent occupies a
central position in the land hemisphere.
This is an excellent position for reaching
out to the other continents by sea or air
routes. Also note the shape of this
continent. Large arms of seas have
penetrated deep into Europe. Find out the
names of these seas from the figure. Can
you think how their presence must have
affected Europe?
Fig 9.1 Europe-Location
Look at the central of Europe in the
Northern hemisphere.
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143
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Look at the
coastline of
Europe. It is highly
i n d e n t e d .
Obviously, it
should provide a
number of natural
harbours and
ports.
Many of the
bays and seas
s u r r o u n d i n g
Europe are
shallow. They
offer some of the
best sites for
fishing. As no part
of Europe, except
Russia is very far
from sea, there has been a greater search for sea communication among the people.
This made it encouraging for the European seamen taking to trade and to the
discovery of unknown continents.
It thus became possible with the new sea routes that many of the ideas,
movements and inventions born in Europe have influenced the life of people all
over the world today.
POLITICAL MAP OF EUROPE
Study the political map of Europe carefully and name the largest country in
the subcontinent. Name landlocked countries in Europe. Locate British Isles and
four other important countries of western Europe. Name their capital cities.
Belgium and Netherlands are the two small lowland countries very thickly
populated. The countries of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Rumania and Albania
situated on Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea are known as Balkan states.
There is the small and independent Vatican city state in a part of Rome with a
population of a few hundred people. It is the seat of Pope and the headquarters
of the Roman Catholic Church. Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark are
collectively known as Scandinavia.
Fig 9.2 Europe - Political Division
Note the names of the countries, their capitals, sizes and
locations in Europe.
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Physical Features
Look at the map of Europe and note the degrees of latitude and longitude
within which it is situated. This map will also tell you that Europe is a continent
of mountains and plains. It may broadly divided into three major physical divi-
sions. (i) the North Western Highlands, (ii) the Great European Plains, and (iii)
Central Plateau and the Southern Mountains.
The North Western Highlands
The North Western Highlands include the mountains and plateaus of Nor-
way and Sweden. They also extend into the northern parts of Scotland, Wales
and Ireland. These mountains are situated close to the ocean, and their branches
penetrate deep into the sea. They form highly indented and rugged coastlines. At
places, like the coast of Norway, long, narrow and deep arms of the sea between
high cliffs penetrate
into the land, these
are called fiords.
These mountains
along with the Urals
in the east are the
oldest in Europe.
Many of these
mountains are low
and slope very
gently away from
the sea.
The Great
European Plains
These plains
stretch between the
Atlantic Coast in
the west and the
Ural Mountains in the east. These are broadest in Russia and go on narrowing
westwards. To their north lie the white sea and the North Western highlands and
to their south are the southern plateaus and mountains. Besides the Great Plains,
Fig 9.3 Europe - Physical Features.
Note the three major physical division of Europe. Locate the
important mountains ranges, rivers and seas shown in the map.
New Terms Europe
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there are small plains of Lombardy in Italy and the lowland of Andalusia in
Spain, and the plains of Hungary.
The Great European Plains are drained by a number of rivers. The Seine
and the Rhine are the important rivers that join the English Channel and the
North Sea, respectively. River Rhine is known for its great rift valley and its
delta formed Netherlands along the North Sea. The River Danube is the second
largest to the east and after cutting across the Carpathian mountains falls into the
Black Sea. It passes through a number of countries. The other rivers joining this
sea are the Dnieper and the Don. The Volga which is the largest river of Europe
joins a landlocked sea named the Caspian.
Central plateau and Southern Mountains
A series of plateaus and the mountains lying close to the southern border of
the great plain are also not very high. They have been considerably eroded in the
past. In fact, these mountains today are only the stumps of the mountains which
once were very high. Important among these are the Central Massif of France,
the Vosges, the Black forests and the Plateau of Bohemia. They are more important
for minerals than for agriculture.
To the South of these old mountains, lies a chain of young and very high
mountains barring the way to the Mediterranean Sea. It stretches from the Atlantic
in the west to the
Caspian in the
east, from where
it further extends
into Asia. These
mountains with
highpeaks, steep
slopes and deep
valleys are the
y o u n g e s t
mountains of
Europe. The most
i m p o r t a n t
mountain system
among them is
known as the
Alps Mont Blanc
Fig 9.4 Rainfall
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is the highest peak of the Alps. You will find that this peak is only half as high as
Mount Everest which is 8,848 metres above sea level in the Himalayas.
Besides the Alps, the other important mountain ranges in this group are the
Pyrenees, Apennines, Dinaric Alps, Carpathian and Caucasus. The plains of
Hungary and Lombardy within this mountain zone are agriculturally productive
But these high mountains are important for pastures for cattle and sheep and for
being the sources of water power.
The highest mountain peak of Europe lies in the Caucasus. It is known as
Elbrus. It is nearly two-thirds the height of Mount Everest.
The ranges of the southern mountains generally run parallel to one another,
forming folds, as it were. It is believed that such fold mountains were developed
when the land was gradually compressed from either side as a result of the
internal movement beneath the earth’s crust
Climate and Vegetation
The major part of the continent is situated in the cool temperate zone. In
spite of its location and compact size, the climatic conditions in Europe vary
from region to region. This is because the climate of Europe is influenced by
many factors. They
are its relief,
proximity to the
seas, the effects of
the North Atlantic
Drift and the
Westerlies.
The deep
penetrating arms of
the sea have a
m o d e r a t i n g
influence on the
climate of Europe.
The warm waters of
the North Atlantic
Drift keep the seas
along western
Europe ice free. The
Fig 9.5 Natural Vegetation of Europe.
Find out the relationship between the belts of rainfall and
natural vegetation.
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147
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warming influence of these waters is carried further in land by the westerlies. In
their wake, they also pick up moisture and cause a fair amount of rainfall.
These permanent winds are responsible for a fairly well distributed rainfall
all through the year especially in the western parts of Europe. The rainfall is
heavy in the west and along the western slopes of the mountains. It decreases as
one proceeds eastward, where it mostly occurs in summer.
The moderating influence of the westerlies and nearness to ocean make
summers warm rather than hot in western Europe. Winters too are cool, rather
than cold. In winter weather is often very foggy. The temperature remains equable
and the rainfall is well distributed all over the year. This is a typical marine or
maritime climate also known as west European type.
Away from it the Central and Eastern Europe get little of the moderating
influence of the Sea. As a result, the summers are hot and winters very cold.
Such a climate with extremes, a wide range of temperature and moderate rainfall
is known as the continental type of climate.
The rainfall in Southern Europe is confined mainly to the winters. During
summer this region comes within the influence of off-shore winds. These winds
give little rainfall. In winter, however, this region is open onto the influence of
the rainbearing, westerlies. This is typical Mediterranean type of climate in
which summers and long, hot and dry, and winters warm and wet.
The land north of the Arctic Circle has an extreme cold climate. Precipitation
is very scanty and is in the form of snow. Summers are short, with days long and
warm. The sun is visible even at midnight for a period in a country like Norway
beyond the Arctic circle. This wind-swept region is covered with snow for the
major part of the year. It is covered with the tundra type of vegetation, that is
moss, lichen and a few stunted trees such as willows and birches. The reindeer
and the polar bear are the common animals of the tundra region.
South of the tundra lies the belt of the taiga region Between the two, there
is never a sharp line of demarcation. It is a region of coniferous forests with tall
and straight pine, spruce and fir as the common trees. These trees provide
softwood and as such are valuable the forests and their northern margins are
also the trapping grounds of fur animals like lynx, sable, mink and squirrel.
Denmark has become the second largest producer in the world of mink furs,
skins of seal and blue fox which it gets from Greenland. Further south lies a belt
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of mixed forests. It consists of some coniferous trees of the taiga type. More
common, however, are the broad leaved trees which shed their leaves in winter.
They are called deciduous tree. Common among these are oak, ash, and popular.
In the Mediterranean region trees are required to stand a long summer
drought. Therefore the trees are small in size but have deep roots. Their leaves
are small, generally thick and oily or glossy. This helps to avoid evaporation of
water. Some trees are thorny and other have thick and pulpy barks. Olive cork-
oak and storie pine are the common trees. Olive, fig, grape and orange are the
well-known fruit trees of the region.
In Eastern Europe, where rainfall is too meagre, the common vegetation is
of grasses and herbs. The grass is coarse and found in patches. The region is
known as steppe grasslands.
EXERCISES
REVIEW QUESTIONS.
1. Answer the following questions.
(i) Which are the three major physical divisions of Europe?
(ii) What is a land hemisphere?
(iii) Name the channel that separates the British Isles from the European
mainland.
(iv) Which country has the plains of Lombardy?
(v) Inspite of dense Population the countries of Europe are well
developed. Give reasons?
(vi) Name two countries of Europe which are centuries ahead?
(vii) Norway depends on the Sea. Give reasons.
2. Distinguish between
(i) The marine type of climate and the continental type of climate.
(ii) The taiga and the Mediterranean types of vegetation.
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3. Complete the following statement with a correct ending.
Southern Spain receives rainfall in winter because.
(i) It lies in the zone of the westerlies.
(ii) It lies in the zone of winter monsoon.
(iii) It attracts moist winds from the Mediterranean Sea.
(iv) Westerlies wind belt shifts southwards in winter.
4. (Describe the four types of climate found in Europe. How far are
they influence by the westerlies?)
MAP WORK
5. Study the map of Europe and then make the correct pair-from
the following:
(i) Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark. Balkan States
(ii) lrish Republic, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales and England Low
countries
(iii) Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Greece, Rumania and Albania. Scandinavia
(vi) Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg. British Isles
6. Show the following in an outline map of Europe:
(i) Baltic Sea and Black Sea.
(ii) River Danube
(iii) The Pyrenees, Alps, Carpathians, and
(iv) Rome, Warsaw, Oslo and Copenhagen.
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CHAPTER-10
NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE PEOPLE
NEW TERMS
Mixed Farming :- Combination of cultivation of crops and rearing of animals
for their milk and meat on the same farm.
Dykes: Big embankments built in order to protect land from the sea.
Sericulture : Rearing of silk worms and producing raw silk as a cash crop
for supplementing farm incomes.
Truck farming: A term used for vegetable and fruit farming. It is also known
as truck or market gardening because things like vegetables, fruits and flowers
are carried, by trucks to markets.
Intensive Agriculture : A farming practice involving greater use of man-
power per unit of land,
Europe is a vey thickly Populated continent. Europe is fortunate to have a
large proportion of a level and well watered low land. Almost every inch of it
has been brought under the plough. Lands in the hills which are neither so fertile
nor so level, are used as pastures. On them are fed some of the most cared-for
cattle in the world. Hill and mountain slopes and tracts of infertile lands are
wisely left under forests. The forest trees are carefully nurtured. Even the small
European countries have used the natural beauty of their landscape in mountains,
along river and the sea coasts in attracting tourists from far and near.
Where the land has not been found fertile to provide adequate food for
people they have, turned to the sea to make good this deficiency. Many of them
learn their living by taking to fishing, shipping and overseas trade or commerce.
The Dutch have been constantly at war with the sea for wresting land from
the sea by pushing it back and back. Their country is rightly known as Holland or
Netherlands since, it is a low land In fact, a struggle for keeping sufficient quantity
of water free of sediments in rivers for navigation along their deltas is also
carried on. The water has to be saved from salts of the sea and pollution from a
large number of factories.
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In order to protect these newly claimed fertile low lands from the sea the
Dutch have built big embankments, called dykes along the sea front. These
embankments protect land from being flooded by the sea. Such lands in low
countries of Netherlands and Belgium are now used for cattle-grazing and for
truck gardening. Formerly, hundreds of windmills were busy pumping out water
from these low lands into the sea. Now it is being done with the help of big
pumps worked with electricity.
The Europeans have gone further in discovering very large underground
deposits of coal and iron. The bowls of earth have also been exceptionally kind
and generous to these people. These black twins-iron and coal-have helped
Europe to develop several industries, big and small. Even the much needed oil
has now been extracted from beneath the shallow waters of the North and the
Baltic seas in Netherlands, Norway and Great Britain.
Europe is bestowed with one more gift of nature, namely, water, which has
been used very wisely for the development of water power, inland navigation
and, irrigation. In fact, the Europeans were the first to develop power from
running water and put it at the service of man.
Industries, a network of transport and the mastery over the seas have all led
Europe to capture international trade. A very large proportion of this trade is
very much in its own favour. This explains why Europe is popular as well as
prosperous. It has helped the small countries like Denmark, Belgium and Nether-
lands to build up a large variety of their exporting industries by importing essential
raw materials and even food.
EXPLOITINGS OIL
Cultivating Crops
About one third of the total land in Europe has been brought under the
plough. However, the quality of soil and the climatic conditions are not the same
allover the region. Therefore, a variety of crops are grown in different parts of
Europe, depending upon soil, climate and availability of farm labour.
By far the most important crop of Europe is wheat. The important wheat
producing areas are the Ukraine in the Soviet Union, Paris Basin, in France, the
Plains of Hugary and the Great Plains of Europe, the low countries and the
Povalley in Italy. Wheat cultivation is confined to rich soils with cool but relatively
long summers with abundant sunshine.
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The poorer soils
are devoted to barley,
rye; and oats, in that
order. Europe and
Russia are the leading
producers of these
coarse cereals. They
supplement wheat,
the sample food crop
of Europe.
Sugar-beet and
potatoes are the
important root crops
of Europe. The sugar-
beet is the source of
sugar and has the
same importance to
the Europeans as it
has for us. Potatoes,
too, are used to supplement their food. These are grown in the plains of Central
and Eastern Europe such as in Germany and Poland. Flax is the only fibre crop
of Europe and is used for making linen. It is grown in cool, damp lands, especially
in Russia. It is the only raw material which is grown in Belgium and is not
imported.
Fruits such as apples, olives, figs, grapes, peach and oranges are also grown
in very large quantities. The orchards are confined to the sunny hill slopes and
stony soils of Mediterranean Europe. Bulgaria, in the east, is known for its
horticulture, roses and vegetables in its warm valleys. Belgium and Netherlands
in the west have also excelled in producing flower bulbs and vegetables. These
products are exported to countries in their neighbourhoods.
Rearing Animals
Europe has nearly one fifth of its land, namely the meadows and pastures,
left open for its animals. Well distributed rains and cool summers ensure abundant
and nutritious grass for its animals. Dairy cattle do very well in cool, moist
marine type of climate. The countries around the North Sea are famous for
dairying. Cattle are also reared for their meat. Since pigs multiply and grow
Fig 10.1 Europe-Forests, Ceops and Livestock.
Note the various ways in which land is used in Europe. Why are
forests found mostly in the northern part and why is the crop land
largest in the central part ?
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very quickly, they are
reared on farms for
pork. Denmark is the
example of a country
which has shifted
from growing cereals
to the production of
cattle and pigs.
Butter, eggs and
bacon form the basis
of its agriculture and
the milk yield of a
cow is very high.
Sheep are confined
to drier parts. They
are reared both for
wool and mutton.
Poultry farming is a very common feature of agriculture in Europe.
Nurturing Forest Trees
About one-fourth of the land in Europe is still left under- forests in spite of
heavy pressure on land for agriculture, Forests in Europe are confined to Scandi-
navian and Alpine mountains and to the taiga region in Russia. On the other hand
the regions in Southern and Central Europe have experienced a rapid removal of
forest over vast areas.
Harvesting The-Seas
Europe possesses some of the rich fisheries of the world. Famous among
them are the Dogger Bank and the Great Fisher Bank. The fish catch in Europe
being well over ten million tonnes, Europe has the highest consumption of fish
per head of its population. Norwegians are the great seafarers and fishermen of
Europe. They have well-equipped vessels working as central floating factories
for catching a variety of fishes along their fiords coast. They exploit the icy
waters and barren islands in polar regions for catching the valuable seals and
the whales. Norway catches 582 kilograms of fish per inhabitant every year and
at least 85 percent of it is exported. Thus Europe is, some what able to make up
for its insufficient food supplies. Fish provides a valuable source of protein for
a balanced and nutritious diet at a relatively low cost.
Fig 10.2 Europe-Distribution of Minerals
Note the location of major coal and oil fields of Europe. In which
countries are these located ?
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Exploiting Underground Wealth
Europe possesses large mineral deposits hidden under the land. By far the
most important among them are coal and iron ore. Bituminous coal of good
quality is found in Germany, Russia and the United Kingdom. A low grade variety
go coal, brittle and brown in colour, is known as lignite. German Democratic
Republic is its principal producer. In Eastern Europe, Czechoslovakia and Poland
have fairly good coal deposits for their home needs. Coal is the major source of
power in Europe. It is now supplemented by waterpower in an equally big way.
Petroleum, on the other hand, is still largely imported by many countries in Western
Europe. Big reserves of mineral oil and natural gas are found in Russia and
Rumania. Rumania is an important producer of petroleum and natural gas in
Europe outside Russia. That is why the oil derricks occupy the central place on
its national emblem as one of its main riches. In Western Europe the North Sea
oil-fields discovered in the later sixties are now producing sufficient oil.
Iron ore is found in France and Russia on a very large scale. Other producers
are Sweden, the United Kingdom and Spain. Europe also produces bauxite, sulphur
and potash.
Converting Nature’s Gifts into Goods and Utilities
It is true that Europe has a wide range of natural resources. But what is
really more interesting is the way they are wisely used by the people. Even in
cultivating land, they
follow different methods.
Where the land is
abundant and the labour
scarce, they use big
machines on their farms.
Extensive agriculture is
thus practised on large-
sized farms where more
and more machines are
employed in place of
human labour. In the
areas where land is
scarce but the labour is
surplus, intensive
agriculture becomes the
Fig 10.3 Europe-Major Industrial Areas
Name the countries and the main parts of Europe known for
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rule. Where they find that raising of crops can be combined with rearing of
animals and the practice of sericulture they follow mixed farming. It is found
throughout Europe, from Ireland in the West to Central Europe, Russia and Northern
Italy.
In order to maintain and improve the fertility of soils, they use fertilizers,
follow rotation of crops and employ other scientific techniques. In dry lands of
the steppes and the Mediterranean region, they have readily taken to irrigation.
Much of the agricultural produce is processed before it is consumed. In the
process people have developed several industries, employing a large number of
workers. A large number of mills are engaged in converting wheat into flour.
Bakeries, in turn, convert it into loaves of bread. Sugar mills are busy in
manufacturing sugar from sugar-beet. Even fruits and their juices are preserved
in various forms and widely marketed. Denmark andthe countries of Eastern
Europe like Bulgaria, Hungary and Poland have developed their food procesing
and agriculture-based industry.
Wool, flax fibres and silk are now turned into textiles. The textile mills in
Europe are busy not only in manufacturing wollen cloth and linen but they, also
produce cotton textiles by importing cotton from other parts of the world.
Milk is converted into cheese and butter. Some of it is now turned into
condensed and powedered milk. These tinned dairy products enter international
trade on a big scale. The use of science and technology has gone a long way in
changing milk, a perishable commodity, into prized articles of international trade.
Meat and fish are also now frozen and tinned before they are marketed like
many other commodites.
Logging and lumbering is now followed, with several other industrial
activities. Important among them is making of pulp and cellulose. Newsprint,
paper rayon, and other synthetic fibres are produced from wood.
Fishing has become a very complex operation. Deep sea fishing involves
preservation of fish. The fish is marketed both fresh and as a Preserve product.
Fish oil like cod liver oil and fish manure are also marketed on a large scale.
Norwegians value seal fishes for their skins, leather furs and edible fats. There
are allied industries which manufacture fishing nets, fishing boats and fish
preservation plants.
Iron and steel industries have become key industries since they are basic to
many other manufacturing industries. The major centres of these industries are
found in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Russia. But many other
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countries like Italy, Bel-
gium, Czechoslovakia
and Poland make good
steels by even purchasing
from abroad the raw
materials which are not
found in their own
territory. They are
responsible for producing
varieties of steel. This, in
turn, is consumed by
other industries, engaged
in manufacturing railway
engines, wagons,
automobiles, ships and
other machines. Coal as
a raw material is used in
several chemical industries. Aluminium is used in making aeroplanes. The poor
Scandinavian countries like Norway, in 1920’s have also become rich by being
industrialised. Agricultural countries like Denmark and small countries like
Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Czechoslovakia and Austria have also built
up diversified industries producing articles in small quantity but of great value
and high quality. They are reputed for making electronic goods, precision
instruments, metallurgical and glass articles and chemicals, fetching good prices.
The European countries are competing with one another in exporting their special
skills and knowledge to the developing countries of Asia and Afiica.
Moving The Goods And The People
One of the essential condition for the development of industries is the presence
of a network of transport and communication. Europe has every modern means
of transport for moving the goods and the people.
The railway lines criss-cross Europe, not with standing the great mountain
barriers. Railway routes cross the mountain passes like St.Gotthard and St.Bernard
in the Alps connecting the countries on both side of high mountains, which have
the major railway junctions of Europe. Compare the positions of London, Paris,
Fig 10.4 Europe-Railways
Which part of Europe has a thick network of railways ?
Study this figure and fig 6.3 given in this book to find out Alpine
passes or the routes crossing them.
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Berlin and Moscow. How do they differ from one another. Very often the road
transport competes with the railways. The highways are broad and well surfaced
roads, busy with trucks, buses and cars. People have developed a high sense of
road traffic with the result that there is a very low rate of accidents.
The bulky and heavy goods or cargo are generally transported by major
inland water ways since water transport is very cheap. Note the Rhine passing
through the industrial heart of Western Europe. It is the busiest inland waterway
of Europe and carries more traffic than any other inland waterway in the world.
Besides the, Rhine, the Seine, Thames and Danube are important waterways. In
the medium-sized country of Rumania, there are nine ports on the entirely
navigable river Danube over a distance of only 1,075 kilometres. Denmark, the
land of 97 inhabited islands, has a number of bridges and a network of ferry
services to maintain communication links. Moscow is connected by rivers and
canals to several seas. Locate on your map the important sea ports of Europe.
Air transport has also now become very popular in Europe. Airways connect
all important cities of Europe with one another. The international airports of
Paris, London, Berlin, Frankfurt connected with almost all other continents.
Distances which were
earlier covered in
months are now
covered in hours by
large and speedy jet
planes.
Population of
Europe
Asia has the
largest number of
people. But it is
Europe that has the
highest density of
Fig 10.5 Inland Waterways of Europe.
Mark the rivers connected by navigable canals.
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population. If the people
of Europe were to be
uniformly distributed all
over the continent, there
would be 98 persons per
square kilometre. If we
exclude the former So-
viet Union from Europe,
it possesses only 7 per-
cent of the world’s land
area. But it accounts for
nearly one fifth of the
world’s population.
By and large, the great plain of Europe are densely populated. While north-
ern Europe is thinly populated. Western Europe and some islands like Malta are
thickly populated. Eastern and southern Europe have a moderate density of
population, leaving aside a few pockets. However, the most densely populated
parts of Europe are found around coal fields and major ports. While the former
are essentially industrial centres, the later are the centres of international trade
and commerce. The more the number of big industrial centres and major ports,
the greater is the trend of more and more people leaving the villages for towns. It
is turning a country like Denmark into a large town with many green spaces. In
former German Federal Republic there is an unbrokenline of about 30 towns in
the Ruhr industrial belt. Belgium (323 persons per square kilo metre), German
Federal Republic (247), Netherlands (240) the United Kingdom (239), Italy
(186) and former German Democratic Republic (155) are the top six countries
with highest densities of population.
The geography of Europe points out to us how important the natural resources
of a country are to its people. But, more so, are the people themselves who
utilise these resources intelligently for national Prosperity.
Fig 10.6 Europe-Distribution of population which areas
of Europe are very densely populated and which ones
sparsely populated ? why are they so ?
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EXERCISES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Answer the following questions :
(i) What is the staple food crop of Europe?
(ii) Name two cereals that supplement the main food crop of Europe.
(iii) Which is the busiest inland waterway of Europe?
(iv) Name the two leading sea fisheries of Europe.
(v) How should natural resources be utilized for national development.
2. Distinguish between:
(i) Bituminous coal and lignite.
(ii) Extensive and intensive agriculture,
3. Make out correct pairs from the two columns.
(i) A farming practice in which only a few farmers (a) I n t e n s i v e
farming till large farms mainly with the help of machines.
(ii) A farming practice in which major emphasis is (b) Extensive
farming laid on breeding and rearing of milk cattle. (c) Mixed
farming.
(iii) A farming practice involving combination of (d) Plantation and
agriculture cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for their
milk and meat on the same farm.
4. Complete the following statement with the most suitable ending. Europe
has made great progress because.
(i) it has very large and rich agricultural lands.
(ii) it is favourably situated in relation to other parts of the world.
(iii) its people have made the best possible use of its position and
natural resources.
(iv) it has been the “Cradle of the Western Civilization.”
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5. Write how the following countries have used their natural resources to
their advantage.
(i) Denmark
(ii) Netherlands
(iii) Norway
6. Give reasons for the following. .
(i) European agriculture had to be mechanised thoroughly.
(ii) European countries are the exporters of technical know-how to
countries in Asia.
(iii) Denmark has a large number of bridges and network of ferry
services.
(iv) Some countries of Europe depend upon fisheries for their
livelihood.
(v) Most of the inhabitants of Europe use machinery in Agriculture.
MAP WORK
7. On an outline map of Europe locate and name the following.
(i) the straits joining (a) the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean
Sea and (b) Sea of Marmara and Black Sea.
(ii) Two important passes in the Alps carrying important railway line.
TOPIC FOR-CLASS DISCUSSION
8. From Practices in Europe.
Collect information on this topic. Divide the class into a few group
each collecting information on one aspect of it. Then discuss which
practices have any significance for India.
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CHAPTER 11
THREE MAJOR COUNTRIES OF WESTERN AND
CENTRAL EUROPE
NEW TERMS
Dairy farming: A kind of agriculture in which major emphasis is on breed-
ing and rearing milch cattle. Hay and other fodder crops are raised mainly to
feed cattles.
Insular Location: Surrounding by seas on all sides.
Industrial Revolution: A marked change in manufacturing from hand-oper-
ated tools in houses of people to power-driven machinery installed in spacious
factories especially built for it. It came about in England in the middle of the
eighteenth century.
Rotation of Crops:
Raising of crops in a
certain sequence on the
same piece of land mainly
with a view to restoring
the fertility of soil.
France and the United
Kingdom are important
countries of Western
Europe. France and the
United Kingdom, located
very close to each other,
have several things in
common, Paris and
London are capitals of the
two countries and are
centres of governmental,
industrial and business
Fig 11.1 France-Relief Features.
Note the location of France, its mounatins, plateaus, river
basins and important rivers.
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activity. But they are also differ from each other in many respects. Paris like
London is not a great seaport. France is larger in size than the United kingdom
but has less population. France is still a country of farmers and not of
manufacturers like the United Kingdom and German countries. Of all, the West
European countries, France is not dependent on supplies of foodstuffs from other
countries.
FRANCE
France is only one sixth the size of India. Still in Europe it is the second
largest country, next only to Russia. France faces three seas. It is further bounded
by two big mountains. Together they have given France a well-de-fined boundary.
Relief and Climate
France has a varied relief Look at its north western coastline, which is
highly indented and rugged. France has narrow coastal plains and fertile river
valleys like those of the Seine and the Loire. It possesses low hills such as those
in Brittany. The Central Massif of France is a wide plateau made up of very old
rocks. On its borders are situated the young fold mountains, namely, the Alps and
the Pyrenees. The Rhone river valley separates the folded ranges of the Alps to
its east from the Central Massif towards its west. Mont Blanc (4807) meters
above sea level, the loftiest peak of the Alps, lies in France.
France is ‘Small Europe’ in many ways. This is so not only in regard to its
relief but more so with regard to its climate. While the western and northen parts
of the country enjoy the oceanic type of climate, north-eastern France and the
high central plateau have continental climate, with hot summers and severe
winters. But autumns are long and sunny in the sheltered valleys of central plateau.
Eastern France, much farther than the Atlantic, reminds us of the continental type
of climate. Southern France experiences typical Mediterranean type of climate.
It has long dry summers and mild rainy winters. This part of France is much
warmer and has much more sun shine than any part of the United Kingdom. The
diagrams of temperature and rainfall for some places in France, are given here.
If you study them carefully you will be able to understand the contrast in climate.
Land Use and Economic Development
The indented coastline of France has given it numerous natural harbours.
They provide good opportunities for fishing, shipping and overseas trade.
Narrow coastal plains and fertile river valleys have been turned into rich
agricultural farmland. A little over one-third of the total area of France is under
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cultivation. Wheat is by-far the most important crop of France especially in the
northern plain of Paris Basin. It also produces maize, rye, potatoes, flax, barley,
oats and sugar-beet. Flax and sugar-beet are grown chiefly in the north of France
with linen mills and sugar factories in the neighbouring town. Barley grows
more in the cooler north, oats and rye on poorer soils of north-west coast and the
central plateau. France farmers generally follow mixed farming and rear cattle,
pigs and poultry on their farms. The animals are fed on hay, fodder and tops of
sugar-beet. The animal products fetch good returns to the farmer.
France is a land of intensive agriculture. Every bit of land is used. Manures
and fertilizers are applied. Rotation of crops is followed. All these help to main-
tain fertility of the soil. As a result, the yields of crops in France are very high. It
is the only West European country which is self-sufficient in food grains. Ter-
raced and sheltered valley slopes are generally devoted to cultivation of grapes
every where particu-
1arly in southern
France. The fields
where grapes are cul-
tivated are known
vineyards. Most of the
grapes are used in mak-
ing wines.
French wines are
known for their
quality. The most
notable among them is
Champagne. France
also produces other
Mediterranean fruits
like olives, figs,
peaches, plums, pear
and oranges. In
northern half of the
country the apple takes the place of vine. Here apples and grapes with hops,
instead of the vine, are used to prepare wine.
The low hills and plateaus of France make it possible to leave about one-
fourth of its total area under meadows and pastures. These pasture lands which
are well fed with rain showers, are used for rearing animals for their milk as
Fig 11.2 France-Resources
Note the varied land use and resources of France.
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well as meat. As a result, it is a leading producer of milk, butter and cheese in
the whole of Europe, excluding Russia. France also has a large number of sheep,
yielding fine wool.
Fortunately, France has preserved nearly one-fourth of its land under for-
ests. Besides its forest wealth, the mountainous part of France possesses some
of the turbulent rivers. These rivers, which are well fed with snow and rain-
water, tumble down the high mountains and plateaus. They provide France with,
abundant water-power at a low cost. Down below on the plains they are used
for inland water transport.
France is equally well endowed with underground wealth. More then 90
percent of very rich-iron ore deposits are found in Lorraine in the north-east
Coal is available only in some parts. Iron-ore, coal and water-power provide
the necessary base for its iron and steel industry. France exports iron-ore bauxite
and alumina and imports 60% of their coa1 needs from the neighbouring countries
of Europe.
France is well known for its iron and steel industry. It specialises in building
machines, It produces motorcars, trucks, railway equipment, ships and
aeroplanes. It has also a large textile industry. It manufactures chemicals,
fertilizers, electric goods and perfumes.
France has an integrated network of transport. It possesses well-kept high
ways and efficient railways. Well-knit inland waterways have proved an asset
to its heavy industries. It can now boast of its modern air-services. Paris is the
capital city of about 9 million people and is the centre of every kind of transport,
It is rightly called the heart of France, This well planned city of France gives us
an idea of the achievement of France in arts, literature, science and technology.
It has been the leading fashion-centre of the world.
The total population of France is about 55 million which is even less than
that of Bihar. It gives it an average density of nearly 101 persons per square
kilometre. Over 70% of its population is now concentrated in big towns and
cities.
THE UNITED KINGDOM
The United Kingdom is yet another small country of north western Europe.
It is hardly one-thirteenth the size of India. In total area it is nearly as large as the
state of Jammu and Kashmir. But it, too has been a big European nation.
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Unlike France, the country is situated off the mainland. This country, occu-
pying a major portion of the British Isles, is surrounded by the sea. It is, there-
fore, insular in location.
The English Channel which separates this country from the continent, is
hardly 33 kilometers at the narrowest. However, it had been found too wide to
overcome for any invader. The country did wisely utilize this advantage to
increase its wealth and prosperity. Two Indians, namely Mihir Sen and Arti
Saha, made news by swimming the English Channel.
While France is a compact and homogeneous country, the British Isles consist
of some 5,000 islands, those of Great Britain and Ireland being the largest of
them. They comprise two sovereign states of the United Kingdom of Great Britain
including North Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The major Part of the country
thus consists of the bigger island of Great Britain including three Units of England,
Scotland and Wales.
Relief and Climate
Unlike France, the United Kingdom is a country of low relief. It is marked
with undulating lands, rolling hills, dissected plateaus and small rivers. These
are highlands or uplands but not mountains as such. The highest peak is only
about 1,350 metres above sea level. The country has an indented coastline with
a number of big and small natural harbours and no part of the land is more than
125 kilometres away from the sea.
The climate of the United Kingdom is typically oceanic. It is temperate and
equable with a range between summer and winter temperatures. The westerlies
tend to make its winters warm and summers cool. The rainfall is fairly well
distributed throughout the year. But the winter months are slightly rainier than the
others. The clouds and fogs restrict the sunshine, on an average, to less than two
hours a day. The cyclones or the western depressions crossing the islands tend
to make the weather cloudy, humid and often foggy. Such day of raw weather are
followed by fair weather. It is thus a land of variable weather.
Land Use and Economic Development
As there are no mountains worth the name in these islands, it has just 7
percent of land left under the forests. Neither the forests nor the farmlands dominate
the landscape of the United Kingdom. Nearly half of its land is claimed by the
meadows and natural pastures predominantly in the western part of the country.
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As a result, sheep and cattle
rearing have become very
important agricultural
activities. The United King-
dom has become famous for
its milk cattle. On an average,
a milk cow yields more than
3,000 kilogram of milk every
year. The country exports its
milk cows on a large scale.
The country has less than
one-third of its total land
devoted to farming. The major
farmlands of the United
Kingdom are to be found in
east and south-east England.
Not much of this land is fertile.
Only 5 percent of its people
are engaged in farming. Yet
with the help of modern tools
and techniques, they produce
enough food and raw,
materials to meet two-thirds
of the country’s food needs.
Barley, wheat, rye, oats,
potatoes, sugar-beet, veg-
etables and fruits are the major crops. Even on these farms cattle and pigs are
reared for their milk and pork. Poultry-farming is very common. Now more and
more machines and tractors are being used on English farms.
The shortage of food supplies is made up by fishing. The country is
surrounded by the shallow seas that abound in fish. The long indented coastline
has provided numerous natural fishing harbours. The most important fishing
ground is the Dogger Bank. The country has a large mechanized fishing fleet. It
has facilities, to preserve fish, both on the fishing craft and at the fishing ports.
The total fish catch of this small country is nearly eight lakh tonnes a year,
Fig 11.3 The United Kingdom-Location and Relief
Features.
What makes it an island country of Europe ? Note the seas
separating it from other countries, Which parts have the
highlands and which have the lowlands ? Why does the
coastline favour the location of a number of natural
harbours ?
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No wonder then that the fish is an important item of food in the United Kingdom.
Perhaps, the
greatest natural re-
sources of the United
Kingdom has been
coal. It was the first
country to use this
‘black gold’ on a very
large scale. This
helped the country to
place itself on the
industrial map of the
world very early.
Although the good
reserves of coal have
been worked out
rapidly, the country
still produces 43
million tonnes of hard
coal. Some new coal
deposits were
discovered in the
North Sea. The country
has not much of water-
power and it is coal
which supplies nearly
three- fourth of the total
energy produced in the
country.
Huge oil and
natural gas deposits were first discovered in the bed of the North Sea in the late
sixties of this country and production began in 1975 by 1986, Great Britain was
the world’s fifth largest oil producer. Today Britain is meeting most of its own
oil needs from this source. The United Kingdom was the first to produce atomic
energy for commercial purpose, supplementing its power resources.
The country was equally rich in its iron-ore deposits. For several decades
it led the world in the production of pig iron and crude steel. Its iron-ore deposits
Fig 11.4 The United Kingdom-Resources
Locate the areas having croplands, dairy, farms, fishing-grounds,
coal and the oil-fields. Note the important industrial centers.
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are now almost exhausted or are of low grade, and the annual production. I
remained only 4.5 million tonnes. Nonetheless, it has a flourishing iron and steel
industry based mainly on imported iron-ore.
The widespread use of steam and mechanical power led to the birth of the
Industrial Revolution in this country. Principal industries are coal-mining, iron
and Steel engineering, electronics and the chemical works. It builds Ship and
manufactures railway engine wagons, motor-cars and aeroplanes. This country
also stands high in the respect of processed foods and beverages. It has a very
big textile industry, which grew in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. It
manufactures cotton and woollen textiles. It has to import raw materials like
cotton and wool from other countries. But now cotton textiles are being rapidly
replaced by plastics, chemicals and paper making industries. Look at the map
and locate the centres of various industries. They are located either near the coal
fields or near the sea-ports. Why should it be so ?
Although Britain has come down in many industries among the leading
producers of the world, yet manufactured goods and their export play a dominant
role in national economy.
For industries, a good network of transport is a must. The United Kingdom
has a fine network of roads and railways, surpassed only by Belgium in Europe.
Many of its industries and commercial centres are located on the coasts.
They are well served by the seaways. There are over 300 ports among which
Liverpool, Glasgow, NewCastle, Southampton and London are also notable as
important industrial centres.
In the midland plain of England, the cities of Birmingham, Manchaster and
Sheffield are other important industrial centres. London is the capital city, largest
in size and population (Greater London having 6.8 million people). It is served
by the busiest international airport in the world. It is situated on the Thames
river which is navigable by ocean going ships. This small country has a large
population of nearly 56 million. The average density of population is as high as
that of our country. There are almost 239 persons per square kilometre in the
country as a whole. While England is the most densely populated, Scotland is
the least densely populated area. Four out of every five persons live in cities and
towns. This shows how industrialized this country is But the big increase in the
number of automobiles, especially private cars, rise in population and increased
crowding in cities are causing-noise and air pollution. Can you find out how?
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The waste material from a large number of factories goes into the rivers. It is
called water pollution. The quality of air and water has gone down and is bad
for the people health. These problems are now catching the attention of the peo-
ple and the government not only here but elsewhere also.
The British industries greatly depend upon trade with other countries. This
country imports foodgrains and a variety of raw materials for its industry. It
exports manufactured goods. But for such a trade, the British people would have
been poorer than what they are today.
In addition to it the large number of Indian and Asians settled in Britain are
working industries and other services. Their contribution towards the building
up of British economy is significant.
UNITED GERMANY
The two post war halves of Germany covering western part known as Federal
Republic of Germany and eastern part as German Democratic Republic were
united on October 3, 1990. With nearly 80 million people, a formidabled army a
potent export driven economy, United Germany will again dominate Europe, is
an nerving thought for some of its neighbours, especially those who suffered
Nazi Occupation and atrocities during the world war second.
United Germany is a land of plains, low plateaus and the uplands. Because
of its central position in Europe, almost every trans continental route passes through
this country facing the north and Baltic seas, this country shares land frontiers
with as many as nine countries. This had been an asset to this Country for devel-
oping international trade. The two halves of Germany are comparted as :-
Basic Statistics West East
1. Area 000' sq. Ian. 249 108
2. Population 61.7million 16.1million
3. Density of Population 247 155
4. Percentage Employed in
Industry 41 48
Agriculture 5 12
Services 54 40
5. Work Force Employment 29.7 million 8.6 million
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RELIEF:
The northern half of the country consists of low lands forming apart of the
great European plain. They border the North sea, which is an arm of the Atlantic
Ocean. These lowlands are covered with sand, gravel, pebbles and pieces of
rocks. They are the deposits left behind by the old ice sheets of the past ages.
The coastal area is sandy with dunes, lakes and marshes at a number of places.
The central zone consists of low and worn down uplands, deeply eroded by
rivers flowing through them. The black forest is a low lable land belonging to it.
To its south lie the rugged high lands of the Bavarian Alps separating them from
Switzerland and Austria. On the east of the central zone, there is the famous
Rhineland a wide rift vally of Rhine river. The 864 km long river is the busiest
water way of the world. The Elbe, weser and Danube are other important rivers.
All the rivers flow in a northerly direction towards the north sea with the exception
of the Danube. The Southern section consists of the high lands, small valleys and
heavily wooded mountain ranges.
CLIMATE
The country lies between 47° and 55° latitude, so it has a temperate climate
having frequent changes in weather and rainfall through out the year. The coastal
lowlands enjoy a marine type of climate with cool summers and mild winters.
As one proceed south wards or eastwards, the sea influence diminishes and the
range of temperature tends to increase. The winter become severe in the south
owing to the rise in altitude and snowfall is relatively heavier.
LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Although Germany is a leading industrial country, it has an efficient
agriculture. This is because of man’s efforts in bringing about a technical
revolution on the land. The country’s agriculture is now almost mechanical, from
the ploughing of soil to harvesting. This was necessary because a large man
power was moving from village farms into the towns. The reclamation of swamp-
land and building of dykes along the North sea coast have helped to raise the
productive capacity of land. Inspite of the huge productive capacity of German
agriculture, it meets only about three fourth of the nation’s food requirements.
Great quantities of fertilizers and manures are used to raise good crops of wheat,
barley, rye, oats, potatoes and sugar beet, depending upon the soil and climatic
conditions. In the production of rye and potatoes, the country is second only to
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the Soviet Union. The vine-clad hills and terraces along the slopes of the Rhine
valley are called vineyards. The fertile soil of the valley is known for growing
fruits and vegetables. Land is extensively cultivated employing all the modern
means and mixed farming is practised allover the country. This country is one of
the largest producer of sugar beet in the world.
The best leaves and its factory waste form valuable fodder for cattle in the
country. It has made animal husbandry, including dairying an important agricultural
activity. The northern most vine growing region of Europe is found on the slopes
of Elbe river valley, which is most important in the heartland of this country.
Although intensive agriculture is still carried on in lowlands and valleys, farming
is highly mechanized especially in the collective farms in the south middle region.
Nearly one third of the land is under forests and woods. These are mostly
confined to the southern uplands and the Bavarian Alps. Besides lumbering the
well cared forests revolution provide base for manufacturing wood pulp, paper
and news print.
MINERAL RESOURCES:
The great resource of the country is its coal. The Ruhr is the biggest and the
richest coal producing area in Europe. It is this coal which has given rise to the
largest number of mining and heavy industries in the Ruhr area known as
Germany’s black Country. The saar is yet another important coal field of the
Germany. The excellent cooking coal is even exported arid is one of the bases of
the country’s most intensive iron and steel industry in the world Bulk of its iron-
ore is, however low grade. That is why the country has been importing at least
one-third of its iron-ore requirements from Sweden alone.
The hills and plateaus in the south of eastern Germany are more important
for the wealth of metals, silver copper, lead, Zinc and iron have been mined
there since long. A part of these uplands has been known as Erzgebirge or ore
mountains on this very ground. Two resources, brown coloured lignite coal and
potash salt have been responsible for making these region of the country highly
industrialised. Lignite is used both for producing thermal electricity and as a
raw material for the chemical industry. Although there are small fields of hard
cooking coal in this region its production is less than one percent of the total
production. Potash salt is a mineral resource gaining increasing importance for a
number of chemical industries. Besides industries based on agricultural prod-
ucts, this country is known for plastic, synthetic rubber, chemicals artificial
fertilizer and photographic optical and engineering industries.
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INDUSTRIES:
The Ruhr is a small right bank tributary of river Rhine which joins it as it leaves
the hills on its way to the sea. It is studded with heaps of coal coke furnaces, foundries,
iron and steel plants, steel rolling mills, chemical plants, and textile factories. The
Ruhr is often called the heart of Industrial Europe, making this country the third largest
producer of steel in the world after the United States of America and Soviet Union. A
large number of towns and cities are so close together, that it is not easy to distinguish
one from the other. It is the most densely populated part of this country. It leave an
appearance of a single integrated industrial area in Europe. Industrial centres are now
found in all parts of the country away from Ruhr’s coal depending other advantages
like hydropower in southern high lands, traditional skills, the raw materials and the
improved means of communications. The country is known also for its automobile
industry and is next to the United States of America in the production of cars and
trucks. It is also reputed for its chemical products.
The industries are well served by a dense network of railways, inland water-
ways and roads. Airways are also very important in connecting different parts of the
country and those of the world. Besides the life line of the Rhine, there are canals
connecting the rivers and the seas. The 99 km. long Canal known as kiol canal con-
nects the North sea with Baltic sea. As many as 400 ships pass through it every day,
which is indeed a greater volume of traffic than that in the Panama Canal. The traffic
on river Rhine consists of raw materials, food supplies. coal, petroleum and indus-
trial products to and from the Gennany. In the southern part of country, the Danube
Serves a similar purpose in carrying the traffic from northern and central Europe.
Major Cities and Towns :
Berlin is the capital city of Germany. It is the meeting place of important
roads, railways and airways of middle Europe. It is river port and is linked by
river and canal with parts of the country with Baltic and North Sea and also the
Rhine. Before unification Berlin City was divided into two parts. Eastern part
was the capital of German Democratic Republic while western part was under
Federal Republic of Germany.
Magdeburg, Leipzig and Dresden are other important cities in eastern part
situated along river Elbe or its tributaries. Magdeburg is built on an island of
river Elbe to the northwest of leipzig in the southern part of the great plain. It is
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the crossing point of routes, the focus of the sugar beat growing area, sugar
refineries, breweries tobacco and the chemical works. It has an iron works and
steel photographic and optical products are made at places in this region. Leipzig
is an ancient city, a great road and railway junction to the north of the valuable
coking coal field and has important lignite deposits close to it. Besides, largescale
commerce it has industries depending upon agriculture based on lignite.
Bonn was the capital city of Federal Republic of Germany. It is situated at
a point where the Rhine enters into northern low lands. Hamburg and Berman
are leading ports along the North Sea.
Leaving aside Ruhr industrial cities Cologne, Mannheim and Frankfurt are
the other important cities or Rhine valley. Mannheim is not only an important
river port but is the centre of one of the most well known chemical works in the
country. Frankfurt is the focus of routes and the second largest airport in the
country. It has become famous for its fur trade and some industrial aspects of the
city activities. Cologne is situated on the Rhine where its valley starts widening,
after which the river emerges in to plains. It is the oldest bridging point on it and
is a junction of the highways from east to west along the southern edge of the
European plain, and from North sea Ports into the heart of western Europe. It is
thus at the head of Navigation for sea-going vessels on the Rhine. It has facto-
ries, manufacturing textiles, sugar, tobacco, chemical, chocolates and cars. Mu-
nich is the chief city of Bavaria in the far south. It is noted for its breweries and
for manufacturing leather, paper, rubber goods and furniture. Yet is continuous to
be better known for its art and culture.
TRADE AND COMMERCE :
The Commercial links of this country with many other nations have grown.
The turnover of exports and imports has greatly increased over the years. The
region along the Baltic coast is very large but there were inadequate
communication links between it and the ports. These have now been improved
and Rostock has become an important port having better links also with the
Berlin. Besides commerce, fisheries, shipbuilding and the transport industry have
gained an added importance.
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EXERCISES
1. Answer the following questions:
(i) Name three different types of climate found in France.
(ii) Mention three important features of the oceanic climate.
(iii) By what name is the central plateau of France known?
(iv) Name one important river each of the two German republics.
(v) Why is France called a miniature Europe?
(vi) Britain is equal to Kashmir state of India in size but it is counted among
the great countries why?
(vii) The government of Britain is worried about the over industrialisation
Why?
(viii) The Ruhr region is called the heart of Europe. Why?
2. Give reasons for the following :
(i) Britain looks more to the sea than to the land for its prosperity.
(ii) While France has been mainly a land power, the United Kingdom has
become a sea power.
(iii) Whereas France exports iron ore, the United Kingdom has to import it.
(iv) The United Kingdom was the first to set up an atomic power plant.
(v) Lignite is the most important resource of unified German.
(vi) The government of Britain is worried about the over industrialization.
(vii) The Ruhr region is called the heart of Europe.
3. Give a brief account of the natural resources of France and show how
they are being properly used.
4. What geographical factors have made the Federal Republic of Germany
the leading industrial country of Europe?
5. Give a brief account of some route-towns of the two German republics
showing their importance.
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CHAPTER-12
THE COMMON WEALTH OF INDEPENDENT
STATES
It is a vast area extending across the continents of Europe and Asia. It was
formerly known as the Union of Soviet Social Republics or the Soviet Union.
After the World War I, the Russian empire was replaced by the Soviet Union.
During the World War II it enormously extended its frontiers and several parts of
Asia were annexed by it. This Union of fifteen republics emerged as one of the
major powers in the world politics. But as a result of the formal dissolution of
the Union, fifteen republics were established. Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia were
the first to declare themselves as independent states. Later remaining twelve
republics emerged as sovereign states. In order to maintain proper co-ordination
among themselves, the eleven republics organised themselves into the common
wealth and the Independent States. Russia is the largest of these republics. Out
of the above eleven republics the ten situated in Europe are as follwos :
1. Estonia 2. Lativa 3. Lithuania 4. Byelorussia
5. Ukraine 6. Moldavia 7. Georgia 8. Armenia
9. Azerbaijan 10. Russia
Physical Features
But for its mountainous fringes, nearly the whole of its area is flat, or consits
of low plateaus of uplands.
The Plains of Russia
These are one of the most extensive plains in the world. They stretch from
the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south. It
is a continuation of the Central European plains bounded by the Ural mountains
in the east.
These low-lying rolling plains are drained by several rivers flowing in
different directions. Find out their names from the map. Of these the Volga, the
Dneiper and the Don are the most important. Being very fertile, these plains
form the heartland of Russia.
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Eastern mountainous region.
The Urals are the main mountains of this region. These mountains form
barrier between the two continental wings of the country. They rise to a greater
height in the south. The Pachori river rises from the Urals. It is a tributary of the
Volga. The Ural river also rises from these mountains. It falls in the Caspian Sea.
South-eastern lowlands
The land in the north of the Caspian Sea is up to four metre below sea
level. The Volga and the Ural fall into the Caspian Sea after crossing this land.
Climate
Russia has continental type of climate with extreme variations. It ranges
from the bitter arctic winters to suffocating hot summers of the Central Asian
deserts. In general, winters are long and cold and summers short but warm.
Except the European part of the country, Russia is little affected by the tempering
influence of the oceans. Moreover, the northern lowlands are exposed to the
cold polar winds. They blow from across the Arctic Ocean which is frozen for
nine months. Owing to these reasons together with the huge size of the country
the winters in
Russia are
extremely cold.
The freezing of
inland and coastal
water; covers large
areas and there are
few all-weather
ports. Only in the
sheltered areas in
the Mountains
J a n u a r y
temperature may be
above freezing
point.
A large part of
Russia receives
rain during the
THE COMMONWALTH OF INDEPENDENT
STATES (FORMERLY REPUBLICS OF USSR)
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short summers. Snowfall is common all over the country for as many as nine
months in Siberia. Rains go on decreasing from west to east. It is scanty in
Siberia ard the Caspian Turan lowland. The heaviest rainfall occurs in the
Caucasus mountains. They get most of their rain in winter.
Vegetation
There is a great variety in vegetation. Several vegetation belts succeed one
another in regular sequence from north to south. They are the tundra the taiga, the
mixed forests the steppes and the desert vegetation belts.
Forty percent of land is covered with forests. They are most extensive in
Siberia and the eastern region. It is the largest source of timber in the world. The
trees are mechanically felled. This saves a lot of time. Soft wood is used for
making pulp for paper and newsprint. This region is the major producer of logs
and boards of wood which are exported.
Animal Rearing
Only 15 percent of the land is under pastures and meadows. Cattle, pigs,
sheep and reindeer are reared in large number for their milk, meat, wool and
fur. Dairy-farming is specially developed around Moscow. Sheep are scared,
both wool and mutton, in the dry parts of central Asia. Reindeer are reared on
the far north for their milk and meat. They also serve as beasts of burden in icy
region.
Economic Development
Russia is very rich in natural resources of all kinds. But its valuable resources
is its own people. After the revolution of 1917 the people, by their hard labour,
have done a lot to develop the vast natural resources. This has made their country
one of the strongest in the world.
Agriculture
Agriculture is the main occupation of Russia. Only 10 percent of its total
area is under cultivation, yet it is very large when compared to that of any other
country in the world. Collective farming was developed here. They have big
farms called Kolkhozes. They occupy almost half of the cultivated land. The
farmers pool their resources such as land, cattle, implements and seeds.
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There are some farms owned and run by the government. They are called
sovkhozes. The managers and the labourers on these farms are appointed by the
state. These farms specialize in certain products. Their main object is to conduct
experiments. They also serve as demonstration farms and are scattered in different
parts of the country. They have their own machines and equipment. In the dry
central Asian land irrigation has increased the agricultural productivity.
Russia produces wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, sugar beat, potato,
sunflower seeds and cotton. Flax is grown around Moscow. It is a useful fibre.
Cotton is an important crop of the warm desert region of central Asia.
Mineral and Power Resource:
The country is very rich in mineral resources. It has huge reserves of iron
ore, manganese and bauxite. The country has very rich deposits of gold. Its other
minerals are lead, tin, nickel, copper, potash, platinum and tungsten.
Coal is the greatest power resource of Russia. It has a leading position in
the production of coal and lignite. It has a large output of petroleum and natural
gas. Russia has also considerable deposits of uranium. It is used for the production
of atomic energy. Russia has large dams for the production of hydroelectricity. It
is the second largest producer of electricity from all sources. The Syr and Amu
rivers provide water for irrigation in the dry south.
Industries
Heavy Industries account for more than two-thirds of the country’s industrial
production, contributing half of the national income. Iron and steel is the most
important industry of Russia. New Centres have come up in Siberia and Central
Asia. The country produces tractors, heavy machines, trucks, blast furnaces,
arms and ammunitions and chemicals. It helps in building shops and aeroplanes.
The centres of textile industry are Moscow and Leningrad. The country is the
largest producer of beet sugar.
Transport
Russia is a country of vast distances. Railways and rivers are the chief
means of transport. The Trans-Siberian railway is the largest railway in the
world. Moscow is the biggest railway junction. The Trans-Siberian Railway
has connected Moscow and Leningrad with distant cotton growing areas. Now
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attention is being paid to the construction of good roads and electrification of
railway lines.
Most of the country is flat and has been suitable for inland water transport.
But in early winters and early summers, floods in the north flowing Siberian
rivers make them unsuitable for navigation. In winter rivers are frozen and serve
as natural tracks for sledges. Most of rivers in Russia are now inter connected
with canals. Moscow has now become a port of four seas the Caspian Sea,
Black Sea, Baltic Sea and White Sea.
Murmansk is the only ice-free port in Russia which operates throughout the
year in the Arctic Sea. It is along the route to Vladivostok. Despite its location in
the extreme north the warm Atlantic Drift keeps it ice-free. Some of the important
ports on the Black Sea, the Baltic and the Pacific are kept open by the ice breakers.
Pipe-lines carry oil from the oil fields to other parts of the country and to many
east European countries.
There has been amazing development of air transport in Russia. Moscow
and Leningrad are the plain airports of the country. Airlines connect practically
every country with them. Aircraft are of great help in the remote areas like northern
and eastern Siberia.
Moscow is the capital of Russia. It is the largest city of the country and the
most important transport centre. Russian is the official language. It is the first
language of about sixty percent people.
Ukraine
Ukraine is the second largest state in terms of population. It has many
important industries though it is basically agricultural region. Kiev is the capital.
The people of Ukraine are of Russian origin Ukraine is important as a wheat
producing area. The other important producer is rye Sugar-beet and sunflower
are also produced here. Ukraine has big iron and steel plants. It is a thickly
populated area.
Georgia
Historical evidence suggests that about 2800 years ago Georgian civilisation
emerged in the caucasus mountains. In early 19th century the Russians occupied
it. Tibilisi is the capital of Georgia.
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Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan had been a part of the Russian empire in the pre-christian era.
Later the turks settled here in large numbers. In the 19th century under difference
treaties the northern portion which includes the oil rich area of Baku was included
in Turkey. In 1918 Azerbaijan emerged as a republic in 1920, it was taken over
by the Red Army of Russia. It has a big Muslim population. It is an important
cotton producing republic. Baku is the capital which is situated on the Caspian
Sea.
Armenia
Armenia had been under the Persian, Roman, Greek, Arab and Turk influence.
In 1920 Turkey and the Soviet Union divided Armenia between themselves. In
the December of the same year Armenia was declared as a Soviet Republic. It is
known for its copper mines. Yerevan is the capital of Armenia.
Estonia
Estonia is one of the Baltic republics. Tallin is its capital.
Lithuania
Latvia is situated between Estonia and Lithuania. Riga is its capital.
Lithuania is on the Baltic Sea which is ice free even in the winter and it’s
navigable throughout the year. For more than fifty years, it had been an unwilling
partner of the Soviet Union. Volnius is the capital of Lithuania.
Russia
The Russian empire came into being in early fifteenth century. Both in turns
of area and population it is the largest constituent of the Soviet Union. Moscow
which has a population of 5.17 crore is the capital. Russia extends from the
Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. It has 8800 km east-west and 4800 km north-
south dimensions. The large variety of its population can be particularly seen in
the north-eastern and western areas.
Byelorussia
Byelorussia was established by the Russian Ukrainians and basically by
the white slave communities of the east in the 9th century. After the Mongol
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invasion, this area was occupied by the Polish and the Lithuanian Kings. As an
after the conflict between Poland and the Soviet Union during the first world
war, half of the western portion of Byelorussia was handed over to Poland.
According to a treaty concluded in September 1939, the Soviet Union took back
the portion from the Poles. This is a major fertilizers producing area. It is an
exporter of consumer goods.
Moldavia
A portion of this area which was known by the name of Kiev Russia was
annexed by the Romanian Kings in the 15th century. In the 19th century it became
a part of the Russian empire. Vesverya, its western portion, was transferred to
Romania in 1918. But in 1940, under a treaty Vesverya was regained to form the
Moldavian republic. It is an important centre for the production of grapes and
implements. Kishinev is the capital of Moldavia.
EXERCISES
1. What natural features divide Russia into two continents?
2. Name the main minerals found in Russia.
3. Write a note on the agricultural products of Ukraine.
4. Name the eastern and western terminals of the Trans-Siberian
Railway.
5. When did the Soviet Union collapse?
6. Which areas compose the commonwealth of Independent states?
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CHAPTER 13
AFRICA
LAND, CLIMATE, RESOURCES AND THEIR UTI-
LIZATION
NEW TERMS
Strait: A narrow stretch of water Connecting two large bodies of water of
seas.
Isthmus : A neck of land separating two seas.
Waterfall: A sudden descent of water over a big step in the bed of the river.
Wildlife: Animals and birds leading a free life in their natural surroundings.
Rift valley: A long and deep valley with steep slopes on both sides formed
due to a crack or a rift in the land.
Tropical Rain-forests: Dense and thick forests of the equatorial region
where the temperature and rainfall are very high.
Savana : The tropical grasslands in Africa having tall and coarse grasses.
Density of population: The average number of persons per unit area, i.e.
square kilometre.
The African continent is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean sea
and from Asia by the Red Sea. However, it almost touches Eurasia at three
different points. (a) the Straits of Gibralter in the north-west, (b) the Suez Canal
in the northeast and (c) the Straits of Bab-el Mandeb in the east. By the beginning
of the twentieth century several European countries had become so powerful
that they had brought most parts of the world under their rule. Almost the whole
of Africa had come under the domination of one or the other European power.
Today, however, most of the African people have gained independence. The
people who are still under foreign rule are fighting for their independence and
are due to win their freedom soon. The political map of Africa has changed
rapidly in recent years.
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183
The Land
The map shows some of
the major land forms of Africa.
Almost all of Africa appears to
be one huge plateau though it
consists of several plateaus.
The plateaus is higher in the
south and in the east. A few
volcanic mountain peaks rise
above the plateau in the eastern
part near the equator. In fact, the
highest peak of Africa is located
in this highland region. It is
mount Kilimanjaro with a height
of 5,895 metres above sea level.
It remains snow-covered
throughout the year.
The lowland areas are in
the western and the northern
parts and along the coast.
One of the special physical features of Africa is its Great Rift Valley. A
RIFT VALLEY is a long and deep valley formed due to cracks or rifts in the
land. It is bounded by wall like steep slopes on both sides. In Africa, there is a
long chain of such rift valleys runnning from the south of lake Malawi northward
to the Red sea and then through the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Afuaba to the
Dead Sea. Hence it is known as the ”Great Rift Valley.”
Many of these valleys are filled with water called lakes. Therefore, there
are several large lakes in the highland region of Africa. Lake Victoria is the
largest lake in Africa. It is also the source of river Nile, which is the longest
river in the world. It rises in the rainy equatorial region and flows northward.
After a long journey through the Sahara desert, it reaches the Mediterranean Sea.
Another important river is the Zaire in Central Africa. It is also known as Congo
in the later part. It drains a large area and discharges a huge amount of water into
the Atlantic Ocean. In fact it carries the greatest volume of water among all the
rivers of Africa. The Niger in the western part and the Zambezi and the Orange
in the southern part are the other important rivers of Africa.
Fig 13.1 Africa- Political divisions
Map
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With the exception of the Nile and the Zaire, few African rivers can be used
for shipping. This is because the rivers drop from the higher plateaus to the
coastal lowlands making waterfalls. Victoria Falls on Zambezi is higher and
wider than even the famous Niagara Falls of North America.
About one-third of Africa is a desert land The Sahara is the largest desert
in the world. It is located in the northen part of Africa. The Kalahari desert in
southern Africa is another great desert.
Climate and Natural Vegetation
Africa extends between 37
0
14' N to 34
0
50' S latitudes. Thus the major
part of it lies within the tropical zone. It is, in fact, the most tropical of all the
continents. The temperature is very high almost througout the year. The highest
temperature in the world has been recorded at Al-Aziziyah (Libya) as 58
0
C.
Only on the high plateaus and mountains is it somewhat moderate. Even on the
plateaus the day temperatures are high although the nights are cool.
There are marked variations in the distribution of rainfall. It has caused
wide variations in climate.
The belt lying along the equator on both sides has a hot, wet climate
throughout the year. It rains
almost daily and there is only one
season, namely, the hot-wet
summer.
This is known as the equa-
torial type of climate. Because of
the abundance of heat and
moisture, most of the region is
covered with thick forests called-
TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS
it has a varied wildlife.
To the north and south of the
rain-forests, there are regions of
warm summers and mild winters.
In these belts most of the rain
occurs in summer. There is a
distinct dry period. Total rainfall
Fig 13.2 Africa Physical features
Africa - Land, Climate, Resources and Their Utilization 185
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185
is also much less than that in the tropical rain-forests. This climate is known as
the Sudan type of climate. This climate is found in a very large part of the continent.
Its vegetation is mostly grasses. The tropical rainforests gradually begin to open
up and give place to woodlands, which finally turn into grasslands. The region
covered with tall and coarse grasses is known as the SAVANNA. It is the
homeland of a variety of grass-eating animals and the wild beasts that live by
killing them.
Beyond the savanna, both in the northern and in the southern parts of Africa,
there are extensive deserts. They are known as the Sahara in the north and the
Kalahari in the south. Temperature
is very high. In fact the highest
temperature in the world is found
here. There is almost no rainfall.
The climate is hot and extremely
dry known as the desert type of
climate. Vegetation is either
wholly absent or includes only
scrubs and bushes.
The northern and the southern
coasts of Africa have mild and
rainy winters and warm and dry
summers. This is known as the
mediterranean type of climate.
The climate is cooler in the
highlands of southern and eastern
Africa.
Natural Resources And Their Utilization
The boundaries provided by nature to any area are known as NATURAL
RESOURCES. They include things such as soil, water, minerals, forests and
animals. Africa is rich in several natural resources.
Soil
Soil is one of the most important natural resources. It supports different
kinds of plants and trees. Soil is formed very slowly. It takes, hundreds of years
to form a one centimetre thick layer of soil
Fig 13.3 Africa-Climatic divisions
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Some soils,
are better suited for
crops. Such fertile
soils are usually
found in the river
valleys and plains.
However, some of
the less fertile soils
can also be made
fertile by adding
fertilizers. But
some soils are not
at all suitable for
crops, though they can support other kinds of plants or grasses.
In Africa, only, 10 percent of the soil is suitable for crops. It includes
the volcanic soils of east Africa, the alluvial soils of the Nile valley and certain
soils of the savanna lands, which are very fertile. In other parts of the continent
climatic conditions and the nature of the land form have been unfavourable for
the formation of good soil. However, a very large part of central Africa is under
forest cover, which is also an important natural resource of the continent.
Water:
A large part of the Africa is dry. However the remaining parts get good
rainfall. There are many rivers which carry plentiful rain water throughout the
year. A good deal of this water is used for irrigation. Many rivers reach the sea
through a series of waterfalls because they flow from the higher plateau areas on
to the lower coastal plains. As such ships and boats are prevented from sailing
very far upstream. These can, however, be used for the development of
hydroelectricity.
The Kariba dam on the Zambezi is the largest producer of water-power in,
Africa. The Aswan dam on the Nile in Egypt is another very big dam.
Minerals:
Africa is very rich in several valuable minerals. It leads the countries of the
world in the production of diamond, gold and platinum.
Fig 13.4 Africa-Annual Rainfall
Fig 13.5 Africa-Natural
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187
More than 95 percent of the world’s diamond production Comes from Africa.
The price of diamond depends on its size and brightness. Good quality diamonds,
often used in jewellery, fetch a high price. Inferior quality diamonds are used for
industrial purposes.
Africa is responsible for more than half the world’s gold production. South
Africa is the major producer of gold and platinum in Africa. As you know, gold is
used for making ornaments but its greatest value lies in the fact that it serves as the
basis for issuing currencies in all the countries of the world.
Africa has large reserves of cobalt, manganes, chromium, copper, tin, bauxite,
and uranium. But there is not much coal and iron ore in this continent. This has
hampered the production of steel, which is so important for industrial growth. In
the past, most of these resources were used reck essly by the Europeans powers,
who exported them in large quantities. As a result, several large copper mines are
now closed. Today the independent nations of Africa are facing the problem of
finding out ways by which these resources could be utilize wisely for their economic
prosperity. Cobalt and manganese, which are mixed with iron to make steel, are
found in the Southern half of Africa leads the countries of the world in the production
of chromium, a metal which does not rust. Zaire and South Africa are the main
producers of copper (Which is used for making electric wires), bauxite (which
yields alumimum) and uranium (which is used in producing atomic energy).
Petroleum is found in many parts of Africa such as Nigeria, Libya and Angola.
Forests
Forests and trees are very important sources of wealth. Besides timber, many
other products are obtained from them. Large parts of central Africa are covered with
thick forests. They yield hardwood which may be used as timber. They have many
valuable trees such as mahogany, ebony and kapok.
Rubber trees grow wild in these forests, though they are native to South America.
However, they are now being planted properly. Africa exports rubber in large quantities.
Three different types of palm trees are found in Africa. They are coconut
palm, oil and date palm. Coconut palms are found in the tropical islands (such as
Zanzibar and Pemba) and along the equatorial coast such as Tanzania. They
yield copra from which coconut oil is obtained. Oil palm, from which palm oil
is obtained, is common in west Africa. Nigeria exports a good deal of this oil.
Date palm grows in the oasis in the drier regions. Dates constitute an important
item of food for the local people. Egypt exports a large amount of dates.
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188
Cacao and kola are
trees which provide us
beverages. Cocoa is
obtained from the cacao
trees. Like coffee, it is a
very popular drink and is
also used for making
chocolate. Cacao grows
well in the equatorial
lowlands. West African
countries, Such as Ghana
and Nigeria, export a
good deal of cocoa. Kola
trees yield nuts which are
used in preparing cola
drinks and chewing gum.
Africa has a large
variety of fruit trees. In
the tropical region,
banana, pineapple,
papaya, jackfruit and
mango are common. Citrus fruits such as lemon, orange and lime are also grown
here. The mediterranean regions grow olives, apples, peaches and grapes. East
Africa produces cashewnuts. Zanzibar and Pemba islands are the biggest producers
and exporters of cloves in the world.
Wildlife
There is an abundance of wildlife in Africa. The extensive equatorial forests
and swamps as well as the huge grass lands are ideal homes for a variety of
birds and animals.
Elephants, wild buffaloes, snakes, pythons, monkeys; hippopotamuses and
rhinoceros are some of the important animals found in the forests and swamps.
Deer, stag, zebra and giraffe belong to the open woodlands and grasslands. Some
animals such as lions and tigers prey on these grass-eating animals. Camels are
found in the deserts. The ostrich, a large, fast-running bird, is found in the Kalahari
desert.
Wild animals and birds are important natural resources. Previously they
Fig 13.6 Africa-minerals and industries.
Africa - Land, Climate, Resources and Their Utilization 189
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189
were hunted for their skins
bones, horns, tusks and
feathers, which were sold
for good prices. As a result,
the number of these animals
and birds reduced. The
governments of the different
countries of Africa have,
therefore, made laws against
unlicensed hunting. Several
Wildlife sanctuaries and
national parks have been
developed. These are
restricted woodlands and
forests where hunting is not
allowed. The animals can
live freely in their natural
surroundings. Tourists from
all over the world visit these national parks to watch wildlife in natural
surroundings. Tourism is thus a fast growing industry which provides good
income to the local people. However, hunting of these animals has not stopped
completely, and so there is a need to enforce the laws.
In the higher savanna regions of eastern, northern and western Africa, cattle
grazing is very important. Large herds of cattle are owned by nomadic tribes,
who move from one place to another with their herds.
Crops
Different kinds of crops are grown here. Some crops are grown by the
people for food. These are called FOOD CROPS.
There are other crops which are grown mainly for manufacturing industries.
These are known as CASH CROPS.
Most of the food crops of Africa are root crops such as yam and cassava.
With the exception of maize, cereals are not very important. Wheat, rice and
millets like sorghum are grown only in small quantities.
Amongst the cash, crops, palm oil, groundnut, cocoa, coffee, cotton and
sisal are important.
Fig 13.7 Africa-widlife
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190
Palm oil and groundnut are produced mainly in west Africa. Cocoa and
coffee from Africa constitute about 60 and 24 percent of world trade respectively.
Cotton has been grown in the Nile Valley for several thousand years. About nine
percent of the world’s trade in cotton comes from Africa. Sisal is a vegetable
fibre that is used in making ropes and sacks. Africa is one of the world’s largest
producers and exporters of sisal. In fact, Tanzania leads the countries of Africa
in sisal production. Sisal plants thrive well on poor, sandy, soils. They are reared
in a nursery. After words they are planted in rows in large fields. After three or
four years, their leaves are cut off and crushed by machines. The fibre is left
which is dried and made into ropes and sacks.
The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are famous for cloves and coconuts.
They produce about nine-tenths of the world’s cloves. The clove trees grow to a
height of about 12 metres. They have long, dark and shining leaves. The creamy
pink buds of the trees are picked just before they burst open. Picking must be
done within a very short time. The picking season is a very busy time.
In the past few years, many African nations increased their production of
cash crops. This could provide them money to build dams, industries, transport
and communication lines and improve their living conditions. Hence, the area
under food crops decreased in many countries. In some parts of Mica, drought
conditions are prevailing because of the failure of rainfall for many years. There
has been acute food shortage in several countries of Africa.
The People
The people of Africa vary greatly. About 70 percent of these people are the
Blacks. The rest of them have come from other parts such as Europe and Asia.
The first European settlement in South Africa was made in 1652. Now there
are more than 3,000,000 Europeans in south Africa alone, but they constitute
only 20 percent of the population. Though the white people are in a minority they
rule the country. Besides, they practice a policy of segregation i.e., the non white
population is not allowed to live freely in the country. It is a serious problem.
Like in our country, several hundred languages are spoken here. This presents
problems in communication. Many Africans, therefore, find it useful to be able
to speak at least two languages like us. One is the local language or dialect. This
Africa - Land, Climate, Resources and Their Utilization 191
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191
enables them to
communicate with
people in their own
village or tribe. In
addition, they learn to
speak French, Italian,
English, Arabic or
Swahili. SWAHILI is a
language which is
understood by many
people. Different
religions such as Islam,
Christianity and Animism
are followed by the
people of Africa.
ANIMISM is the religion
followed by many tribes.
It is based upon love and
respect of nature.
The total population of Af-
rica is about 537 million. If it is
distributed uniformly over the
whole continent there will be
only 18 persons per square kilo-
metre In other words DENSITY
OF POPULATION in Africa is
18 persons per square kilome-
tres We may, therefore, say that
it is a thinly populated continent.
The actual distribution of popu-
lation is, however uneven.
Look at the population map
and note the vast spaces which
are unpopulated. The Sahara
desert in the north and the
Fig 13.9 Africa-distribution of Population
Fig 13.8 Crops and livestock
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192
Kalahari desert in the southwestern part have very little population. Why are
these regions thinly populated? Why do we find a dense population in the valley
and the delta of the Nile and some parts of west Afiica?
Transport
Africa does not have enough means of transport. The extensive deserts and
thick forests hinder the construction of roads and railways. Rivers are useful
only for local
transportation. The
presence of waterfalls
makes them largely
unnavigable. Railways
and roads are not well
developed. Mostly they
link the mining and other
important centres with
the coast. Air transport is
becoming more and more
important but it is costly.
Locate on the map
the two sea routes of the
world, one passing
through the Suez canal
and the other going
around the Cape of Good
Hope.
Africa is a continent of great promise because it has vast natural resources.
The new independent countries of Africa are making great progress in develop-
ing their agriculture, industries and transport routes. India and many other na-
tions are helping African nations to develop their resources.
Fig 13.10 Africa- transport lines, major cities
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193
EXERCISES
Review Questions
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Which mountains lie in the north-western and south eastern parts of
the continent of the continent of Africa?
(ii) Why do most of the rivers in Africa have water falls before they
flow into the sea?
(iii) Why has there been a serious food shortage in Africa?
(iv) Which are the thickly populated parts of Africa?
(v) Which language of Africa is understood by many people?
(vi) Why is climate in Africa different at different places?
(vii) Which is the hottest place in the world?
(viii) How many years does it take in the formation of one Centimetre
layer of Earth?
2. Make correct pairs from the following two columns:
(a) The world’s longest river (i) Zaire
(b) The African river discharging
a huge amount of water into the Atlantic Ocean (ii) Kariba
(c) The desert northern Africa (iii) Kalahari
(d) The dam on the Nile (iv) Nile
(e) The dam on the Zambezi (v) Aswan
(t) The desert of southern Africa (vi) Sahara
3. Some of the trees and plants found in Africa are sorghum, ebony,
kola, wheat, mahogany, sisal, cotton,. and cacao. List them under the
following categories :
(i) Trees which give hardwood
(ii) Trees which give fruits for making beverages
(iii) Plants which yield fibre
(iv) Plants which produce cereals
4. Give reasons:
1. Although a big continent, Africa, has small population.
2. Why are most of the countries of the continent still undeveloped?
3. Why is Africa called a dark continent even today?
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CHAPTER-14
LAND OF FORESTS-ZAIRE
NEW TERMS
Cassava: An important plant of the tropical region. The roots of the plant
are eaten as food.
Export: Goods and services sold by one country to another country.
River basin: A large area drained by a single river and its tributaries.
Zaire was ruled by Belgium for a long time. But it became an independent
country in 1960. It is about three-fourths the size of India but it has a small
population which is just a little more than that of Kerala State. See the location
of Zaire in the map of Africa.
Land and Climate
The greater part of Zaire lies within the basin of river Zaire from which it
has derived its name. The Zaire basin is a large saucer-shaped depression
surrounded by the plateaus.
The Zaire is one of the
largest rivers of the world
But it is navigable only in
parts because it has
numerous waterfalls and
rapids, i.e., small waterfalls.
Zaire lies in the
equatorial region and so it
has high temperature and
heavy rainfall throughout the
year. The abundance of heat
and moisture causes plants
and trees to grow very
rapidly. The land is
therefore, covered by
tropical rain forests. These
forests are evergreen Fig 14.1 Zaire
Land of Forest - Zaire
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because all trees do not shed their leaves at the same time. In these dense forests
trees compete with each other for sunlight and become very tall. Many of them
reach a height of 40 metres or more. Trees of several species are found in a very
small area. Below the tall trees there are several small trees. Beneath them is a
mat like green cover of grasses, shrubs and climbers. Because of the trees and
the undergrowth, it is very difficult to travel in these forests. River courses are
the only means by which one can travel in these forests. The foliage in these
forests is so dense that the rays of the sun hardly reach the forest floor. These
forests are, therefore, dark and gloomy.
On both sides of the rainforest, savanna grasslands are found.
Resources and their Utilization
Zaire is rich in several natural resources such as forests, wildlife, soil,
minerals and water power, Agriculture and mining are the two important economic
activities of the people.
Forests:
A large part of the country is covered with equatorial or tropical rain-
forests. Though they contain one of the largest reserves of hardwood in the
world, they have not yet been utilized much.
Wildlife:
Zaire is often called a gigantic zoo because of its large variety of wildlife.
Snakes, phythons, monkeys, elephants and hippopotamuses are some of the
examples of animals living in the forests and swamps of Zaire. Besides, a variety
of birds also live in its forests.
Soil and Crops:
Although Zaire is a lowland, only onefifth of its total land is under cultivation.
It is because of its vast forest cover.
The principal food crops grown here are rice, maize, cassava and sorghum.
Rice is grown in the north, the north-east and in the Kasai province in the south.
Maize is grown in the Savanna region. Cassava is a kind of tuber. Its plant grows
to a height of about a metre and a half. The tuber is dried and pounded into flour.
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Cash crops such as rubber, coffee, cotton and oil palm are grown just for
export. Cattle rearing is done on the high lands especially in the savannas.
Methods of agriculture are mostly traditional. The food crops are used mainly
by the families producing them. Efforts are being made to improve agriculture
by providing fertilizers and using new methods of farming.
Minerals and Industries:
Zaire has vast reserves of copper, diamond, cobalt, tin, zinc, manganese
and uranium. They are found mainly in the southern province of Shaba (Katanga).
It is one of the largest producers of copper and industrial diamond in the world.
Most of the minerals extracted within the country are exported.
Most of the industries in Zaire process agricultural and mineral products
for export. They are located mainly in Likazi (Jodotville) and Lubumbashi
(E1izabethville).
Water Power:
There is huge potentiality for water power. It has a number of dams and
hydel power stations. It also supplies water power to its neighbouring countries
- Congo and Burundi.
However, there is a lot of scope for future development.
The people:
The people of the country are mainly the Blacks. They, however, belong to
different tribes. Nearly two-third of the population consists of the Bantu-speaking
Blacks.
Its total population is about 32 milion. Because of the country’s huge size,
the density of population is low, i.e., about 14 persons per square kilometre.
Zaire is mainly rural. However, the number of people now living in urban
areas is growing very fast. In fact, the rate at which the towns and cities have
developed in Zaire, is one of the highest in Africa. Many of, these urban centres
were developed by the European settlers. They are similar in appearance to any
city of a developed country. Kinshasa is the largest city and is the capital of
Zaire. Lubumbashi (Elizabethville) and Kisangani are other important cities.
Matadi is the chief port of the country which is situated on the river Zaire.
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EXERCISES
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. Answer the following questions briefly?
(i) In which river basin is Zaire located ?
(ii) Why is the river Zaire navigable only in parts?
(iii) What is an evergreen forest?
(iv) Which are the main food crops of Zaire?
(v) The population of which state of India is equal to that of Zaire ?
2. What are the characteristics of equatorial rain-forests? Why have
these forests not yet been used much?
3. Why are most of minerals from Zaire exported and not used ?
4. Explain how cassava is grown and used.
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CHAPTER-15
LAND OF PALM AND PALM OIL-NIGERIA
NEW TERMS
Tributary: A stream or river which joins a larger river. Hydroelectricity
Electricity produced by the force of falling water on turbines.
Inland drainage: A river system in which rivers do not reach the sea or the
ocean.
Nigeria is one of the largest countries of Africa. In population it leads all
the countries of Africa. It is one of the wealthiest and most progressive countries
of the continent.
Land and Climate:
Nigeria is a country of
lowlands and plateaus. The
coastal area in the south is a
lowland covered with rain-
forests. The surface of the
land is undulating, i.e., it
rises and falls so that it looks
like waves.
Further north, lies the
plateau of Jos where
woodlands of the south
gradually give place to
grasslands. The extreme
north of the country merges
with the Sahara Desert.
The Niger is the most
important river after which
the country is named. It
Fig 15.1 Nigeria
Land of Palm and Palm Oil - Nigeria
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drains the greater part of Nigeria before it fall into the Gulf of Guinea. Rivers of
the north-eastern part of the country flow into lake Chad, thus forming an inland
drainage system, i.e., one where the rivers do not reach a sea or an ocean.
Coastal Nigeria has an equatorial type of climate and has rainfall throughout
the year. In the interior there is a marked dry season in summer. Hot and dust-
laden winds often blow from the north east during this season known as the
HARMATTAN.
Resources and their utilization
Crops:
Nigeria is mainly an agricultural country. The major part of its land is
under food crops which are consumed locally. They include yam, cassava, millet,
maize, sweet potatoes, rice and beans. The country is self-sufficient in food and
is very important for certain agricultural exports. It is the world’s largest exporter
of palm kernels, palm-oil and groundnuts It is second largest producer of cocoa.
It also produces cotton, rubber, tobacco and banana.
The oil palm tree grown very well in the equatorial climate. It reaches its
full height of approximately 12 metres in about fifteen years. The fruits of the
tree grow in clusters. Oil is extracted from the hard nut as well as from the pulp
fruit by simple crude methods or by machines. The chemical properties of the
two oils are different. It is used in making margarine, soap, candles, hair-oil and
other things.
Animal Rearing :
It is important in the northern grass lands, Cattle, goats and sheep are reared.
The goat-skins are supplied to the leather industries of Nigeria.
Forests:
One-third of the country’s total area is under forest. Timber and plywood
are the important exports.
Water Power:
Nigeria is rich in water power resources. Kainji dam has been counstructed
on the river Niger. There are four hydel power stations in Jos in the north.
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Minerals and Industries :
There are large reserves of tin and columbite in the central plateau. They
are exported on a large scale. Nigeria also posses iron, lead, zinc, manganese
and limestone. It is the only coal producing country of western Africa. It is one
of the largest mineral oil producing countries of Africa. In the 1970s it experienced
a real oil boom because of increased production. This affected the economic
condition of Nigeria in many ways. On the one hand it helped in earning more
money for the country, and on the other it affected agriculture adversely. Increased
income generated demand for services of all types. As a result the percentage of
people employed in services increased from about 10 in 1970 to 23 in 1982. But
the percentage of people engaged in agriculture dropped from 75 in 1970 to 59
in 1982.
Nigeria has several industries such as textiles, food processing, leather and
tanning, oil mills, cigarettes, rubber factories and metal works.
The transport and communication system of Nigeria is one of the best in
Africa.
The People:
The majority of the people are the Blacks. They however, belong to different
tribes.
Nigeria has a population of 92 million. The density of population is about
100 persons per square kilometre. The density of population is comparatively
higher in the south western and south eastern parts than in the rest of the country.
Lagos is the capital city of Nigeria. Lagos and Port Harcourt are the principal
ports. Ibadan is the largest city and an important trade centre. Important industrial
‘centres are Kano, Kaduna and Jos in the north and Lagos and port Harcourt in
the south.
Land of Palm and Palm Oil - Nigeria
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EXERCISES
1. Answcr the following questions briefly
(i) How did Nigeria receive its name ?
(ii) Which industries are found in Nigeria?
(iii) Name the river on which the dam in Nigeria is located. Also name
the dam.
2. Make correct pairs from the following two columns :
(a) The capital city of Nigeria
(b) An important port of Nigerla
(c) An important trade centre of Nigeria
(d) The most important cash crop of Nigeria
(c) An important industrial centre of northern Nigeria
(i) Kano
(ii) Cocoa
(iii) Lagos
(iv) Port Harcourt
(v) Ibadan
(vi) Accra
(vii) Palm oil
3. What-are the major crops of Nigeria ? What climatic factors are
responsible for their growth ?
4. In what ways has the oil boom in Nigeria affected its economic
condition?
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CHAPTER-16
THE GIFT OF THE NILE - THE ARAB REPUBLIC
OF EGYPT
NEW TERMS
Gulf: A small area of the sea penetrating into the land. It is usually of a
larger extent than a bay.
Distributaries: The channels of a river by which it distributes its water.
Delta: A more or less triangular tract made up of alluvium at the mouth of a
river. It is traversed by a number of distributaries.
The Arab Republic of Egypt is situated in Africa but it is at the junction of
two continents, namely, Africa and Asia. Until the Suez Canal was constructed,
the isthmus of Suez formed a land bridge between Africa and Asia. The Suez
Canal serves as a very useful and convenient gateway of international trade
between the countries of the east and the west.
You will notice, that Egypt is a part of the Great Sahara Desert which
occupies nearly half the northern part of Africa. A very small part of Egypt lies
in Asia also. The life-giving waters of the Nile have made it one of the richest
and most thickly populated lands of Africa. No wonder the Egyptians consider
their land the gift of the Nile. The Nile Valley has been the home of one of the
oldest civilizations of the world.
Land and Climate
The larger part of the country is a desert because of scanty rainfall. This
part is almost wholly uninhabited. Hot, dry and sand laden winds blow from the
south during early summer, i.e, April and May. These are Known as KHAMSIN.
There is a narrow strip of land along the river Nile, which is fertile. The
river has deposited rich mud on both sides during floods. In fact, not more than
one thirtieth of Egypt is populated. People live on both the banks of the Nile in a
The Gift of The Nile - The Arab Republic of Eygpt
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strip of land, which has a maximum width of about 25 kilometres. At places, it is
not more than two or three kilometres wide.
The Nile is the second largest river in the world. Its source lies in Lake
Victoria. This lake is located in the equatorial region, where it rains heavily
throughout the year. It, therefore, collects a large volume of water before entering
Egypt.
At Cairo, the river slits into a number of channels, distributing its water
over a wide tract. Such channels by which river water is distributed are known
as DISTRIBUTARIES.
Resources and their utilization
Crops:
Agricultural land is very limited in Egypt. Only three percent of the total
land is under cultivation. However, nearly three-fourth of the population is engaged
in agriculture, there is a great pressure of population on agricultural land.
Fig 16.1 The Nile Valley
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Even though the Nile Valley and its delta are one of the world’s most fertile
lands, agriculture cannot be carried out without irrigation. The flood waters of
the Nile have been used for irrigation with great skill for the last 5,000 years.
The Egyptian farmer, called FELLAH, has to work very hard on his small field
but he is able to grow at least two crops annually.
The principal crops of Egypt are maize, rice, wheat, millet, and sugarcane.
Dates are an important product, grown especially in oasis.
Cotton is the most important cash crop of Egypt. It is world famous for its
fine quality. Cotton plant needs a fertile soil, high temperature and abundant
sunshine. It grows well here with irrigation water. Its fruit or ball ripens in about
six months, after which it burst open showing the white fluff that is cotton. Rain,
fog, dust and pests can damage cotton crop. That is why the hot, dry and clean
weather of Egypt is very suitable for cotton growing.
Water Resources :
Several high dams have been built on the Nile. The largest among them is at
Aswan. Canals taken from the dams irrigate crops throughout the year.
Hydroelectricity is also produced at these sites.
Minerals and Industries :
Mineral oil is the most important mineral wealth of Egypt. It is found in
Sinai and along the Red Sea coast. Other minerals such as phosphates, sea salt,
manganese and iron ore are also produced.
The cotton textile and food industries are quite important and also the
oldest Engineering industries i.e. manufacture of diffrent kinds of equipment,
chemical industries i,e,
manufacture of fertilizers, glass, soap, etc, and oil refineries are developing
fast.
The people
The inhabitants of Egypt are mostly Arabs and are followers of Islam. The
total population of the country is about 46 million. The average density of
The Gift of The Nile - The Arab Republic of Eygpt
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population is thus 46 persons per square kilometer. The actual distribution, how-
ever is very uneven. In the Nile valley it is more than 900 persons per square
kilometre.
Al Qahira (Cairo), the capital of Egypt is the largest city of Africa.
The famous pyramids of sphinx are located near Cairo. AI Iskandariya
(Alexandria) is the chief sea port and the second largest city of Egypt. But Said
(Port Said) at the Suez Canal is a big trading centre.
Transport :
The roads and railways run along the course of the river Nile. The network
of transport lines is very dense in the delta region. However, there are roads in
all directions. Cairo is the centre of the transport system. Besides, it is also a
very important international airport. But, it is the Suez Canal which has put
Egypt on the world map of intemational trade. The canal was cut across the
isthmus which separates Africa and Asia. It now links the Mediterranean Sea
with the Red Sea. The opening of the Canal in 1869 shortened the voyage from
Bombay to London by more than 7,000 kilometres. The canal is 162 kilometres
long and a ship takes about 10 to 12 hours to pass through it.
Fig 16.2 A Pyramid
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EXERCISES
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) Name the source of the Nile.
(ii) Which is the most important cash crop of Egypt? What percentage of
land is under cultivation?
(iii) Why is irrigation necessary for agriculture in Egypt.
(iv) Which seas are connected by the Suez Canal ?
(v) Which is the biggest dam on the river Nile?
(vi) Which is the longest river in the world?
2. Distinguish between :
(i) A tributary and a distributary.
(ii) A strait and an isthmus.
3. Complete the following statement by choosing the correct ending
from those given below the statement. The Suez Canal is the busiest
international waterway because
(a) it charges nominal toll on the goods passing through it.
(b) it saves the long journey round the Cape of Good Hope.
(c) it is an all sea level canal.
(d) it is the longest sea canal.
4. What are the favourable conditions for the growth of cotton in Egypt?
5. Why is Egypt called the gift of the Nile?
South Africa - Land of Gold and Dimonds
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CHAPTER-17
SOUTH AFRICA-LAND OF GOLD AND
DIAMONDS
Cape : A prominent headland projecting into the sea.
Ocean Current : A general movement of the surface water of the ocean
flowing in a definite direction like a stream.
Pastoral farming : The practice of breeding and rearing animals on pastures
for milk, meat, wool and skin.
Mixed farming: Combination of cultivation of crops and rearing of animals
on the same farm.
Apartheid : Policy of segregating people on the basis of their race or colour
of their skin.
South Africa lies in the southernmost part of the continent. It is a large
country, about three-eighth the size of India, but has only a small population. It
has a variety of natural resources. It is known for its mineral wealth, particularly
gold and diamonds.
It is bounded on three sides by two oceans namely, the Atlantic Ocean and
the Indian Ocean. It occupies an important position on the international trade
route.
Land and Climate
Almost the whole of South Africa is a high plateau sloping towards the
west. The Drakensberg mountains in the east form the edge of this plateau. Some
of its ridges are higher than 3,000 metres. To the east of these mountains, the
land drops down rapidly. To the south, the land drops down in steps.
The Plateau region is covered with grasses. It is called ‘the veld’. It is a
Dutch word which means field.
South Africa lies in the warm temperate zone. It has a moderate climate due
to several reasons. It is surrounded on three sides by oceans. The great height of
the plateau is another reason for its cool climate. It is further cooled by the cold
ocean current along the west coast.
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The Orange and the Vaal river flow from the Drakensberg mountains west
ward to the Atlantic Ocean. The Limpopo river flows along the northern boundary
of the country for some distance.
Except in coastal areas, the rainfall is not much and decreases from south to
north and from east to west. Most of the country has rains in summer but the
southern coast sets rain during winter.
Resources and their utilization Soil and Crops:
Since a large part of the country on the western side does not get sufficient
rain, it is a dry land. The eastern part has a good rainfall but most of it is hilly
and unsuitable for cultivation. It is only in the veld region in the north central
part that the land is fertile and rainfall is moderate. As such only one-eighth of
the total land of South Africa is under cultivation. Maize is the most important
crop. Wheat, oats and barley are also grown.
Animal Rearing:
It is more important than the cultivation of crops. The breeding and rearing
of animals on pastures is known as PASTORAL FARMING. Cattle, goats and
sheep are reared for
their milk, meat,
wool and skin. The
Merino sheep of
South Africa are
famous for their fine
wool. In fact, as an
exporter of wool
South Africa is next
only to Australia. In
some areas
cultivation of crops is
combined with
animal rearing. This
type of agriculture is
known as MIXED
FARMING..
Fig 17 South
South Africa - Land of Gold and Dimonds
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Minerals and Industries:
South Africa is the leading producer of gold and diamonds in the world. It
accounts for nearly half of the world’s production of gold. The gold mines are
near Johannesburg. Rocks containing gold are blasted, crushed, washed and
sorted. Then with the help of chemicals, gold is dissolved and separated from
the ore. The centre of diamond mining is Kimberley Platinum, manganese, uranium,
copper, iron, asbestos and coal are the other important minerals of the country.
Mining is the most important activity of the people.
South Africa is the most industrialized country of Africa. It manufactures a
number of products from its agricultural raw materials. Tinned fruit, processed
food, sugar, cigarettes, meat, dairy products and textiles are the important products.
The iron and steel industry has become a major industry. Metal works and chemical
industries are also developing.
The People:
The total population of South Africa is about 39 million. The density of
population is only 26 persons per square Kilometre. Nearly two- third of the
population consists of the Blacks. Less then one fifth of the population is composed
of the whites. The rest of the population includes the Asians and mixed groups.
South Africa was earlier a colony of England but later on it was given self
government. But government was still run by whites. Although the whites were
in minority but the government was entirely run by them. Non-whites has no part
in the government. They were permitted to live only on lands reserved for them.
They could own land only in their reserves. They were not given higher jobs.
They mostly worked in mines and they were paid less than whites. Thus there
was complete segregation of the non-white people in every sphere of life-
political, economic and social. The policy of segregating the people on the basis
of their race or colour is known as Apartheid. No other country of the world
shows such disregard of human rights as south Africa.
Before 1915 Gandhiji had awakened nonwhites about their human rights.
As a result the non whited had been struggling hard for their rights. Thousands of
people including children’s home lost their lives in this struggle. The nonwhites
finally succeeded in their struggle. In 1994 there was pact-between Nelson
Mandela the leader of non-whites and the Govt. of whites and an interim
Government was formed. Nelson Mandela is the leader of the new Government.
All the countries of the world welcomed this.
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Johannesberg is the largest city of South Africa. It is a commercial and
Industrial centre. Protria is the Captial City of the Country. Cape town is the
legislative Capital. It is also the largest port. The other two important ports are
Durban and port Elizabeth. The country has a good network of railways. This
has enabled it to exploit its mineral wealth and to develop its agriculture and
industries.
EXERCISES
1. Answer the following questions briefly.
(i) What is the area of South Africa as compared to India?
(ii) What is the veld?
(iii) Why does South Africa enjoy a moderate climate.
(iv) What is meant by mixed farming?
(v) What is apartheid?
2. Make correct pairs from the following two columns.
(a) The centre of diamond mining in South Africa
(b) The centre of gold mining in South Africa
(c) The capital city of South Africa
(d) The biggest port of South Africa
(e) The southern most tip of South Africa.
(i) Johannesburg
(ii) Cape of Good Hope
(iii) Cape Town
(iv) Kimberley
(v) Pretoria
(vi) Port Elizabeth.
3. What is meant by pastoral farming? Why is it important in South
Africa?
4. Which are the important minerals of South Africa? How is gold
mined and refined?
5. Why is agriculture less important in South Africa?

CMYK

Originally Edition By National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi

Adapted By State Council of Educational Research & Training, Raipur (C.G.)

By C National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi & State Council of Educational Research & Training, Raipur (C.G.)

Published by : Chhattisgarh Text Book Corporation Shyam Nagar, Raipur

Printed by : Orient Press Ltd., Tarapur for Chhattisgarh Text Book Corporation, Shyam Nagar, Raipur

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PREFACE

According to National Education Policy 1986, special emphasis has been given to determine and achieve the Minimum Learning at different levels of school education. In the new syllabus, skill based activities have been included in the books to make learning, interesting and enjoyable. Contents have been selected by keeping in mind the mental levels and interests of the children. Books on languages serve the purpose of developing linguistic competence as well as national values. Contents of science and social science are included in order to make the concepts clear. Authors have tried to develop the contents of the mathematics books in such an interesting way that the children can master the mathematical competencies in an easy manner.All these books carry special focus on linking knowledge with the sorroundings. Chhattisgarh State Council of Educational Research and Training has revised the contents of the prevailing books by arranging workshops in order to make necessary correction according to the historical, geographical and cultural characteristics of the state. To make the book more appealing, the illustration have been coloured. I hope that this book will be valuable to the students and teachers. The Council is obliged to the writers and editors of different books. Suggestions are invited for the continuous process of improvement and reforms in education. Director S.C.E.R.T. Chhattisgarh, Raipur

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CONTENTS
Foreward :

HISTORY
Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 India and the World Kingdom of the South (A.D. 800-1200) Kingdom of the North (A.D. 800-1200) The Delhi Sultanate (A.D. 1206-1526) The Life of the People during the Sultanate The Coming of The Mughals and the Europeans to India Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Akbar The Age of Splendor and Wealth The Fall of The Mughal Empire 43 54 62 73 1 5 15 27 35

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CIVICS Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Our Constitution Main Characteristics the Indian Constitution The Fundamental Rights and Duties Center-State Relationship The Indian Parliament The President and the Council of Ministers The State Legislature The Governor and the Council of Ministers Our Judicial System 78 83 87 90 93 97 100 102 106 111 Chapter 10 Our National System v CMYK .

CMYK GEOGRAPHY Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Atmosphere Air and its Temperature Atmospheric Pressure Wind Direction and Velocity Atmospheric Humidity Weather and Climate Hydrosphere Tides New Terms : Europe 115 117 119 121 127 130 133 139 142 150 Chapter 10 Natural Resources and the People Chapter 11 Three Major countries of Western and Central Europe 161 175 182 194 198 202 207 Chapter 12 The Commonwealth of Independent State Chapter 13 Africa. resorces and their utilization Chapter 14 Land of Forests .Zaire Chapter 15 Land of Palm and Palm oil Nigeria Chapter 16 The gift of the Nile .land. climate.The Arab Republic of Egypt Chapter 17 South Africa Land of Gold and Diamonds vi CMYK .

Very soon they became wealthy by establishing business contacts with east and west Africa. the Afghans and the Mughal royal families. made the culture of India richer. obviously. The Arabs contributed a lot to the advance of different branches of learning. China and India. Before long the Arab Civilization became one of the progressive civilizations. The period falling between the eighth and the thirteenth century is known as the Early Medieval period and the period between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries is called the later medieval period. Greece. They made use of their wealth in learning the different arts from China. After the death of Hazrat Mohammad. Harounal-Rashid was a famous Abbasi Calipha. began to be called the Caliph. the representative ruler. economic and political life in India began to appear. The famous Caliph dynasties were the Umayyids and the Abbasis. Persia and India and in developing a new civilization. the highest preceptor of Islam. These changes influenced all the aspects of life. The new ideas and the changes that crept into the society of medieval India were brought in from out-side India by the Turks.e. i. A good portion of Europe and Africa had come under his control.CMYK HISTORY India and the world 1 CHAPTER . During the seventh century Hazrat Mohammad. the new ideas and the new culture brought into India by them.1 INDIA AND THE WORLD The history of the period falling between the eighth century to the eighteenth century is known as the history of the middle ages. Islam very rapidly spread to many parts of the world. He also exercised control over the route connecting Europe with India and China. The contribution 1 CMYK . The Turks and the Mughals adopted India as their own country and became a part of the Indian society. They encouraged the growth of trade and commerce through the sea route and other routes. began a new ages in India which we recognize as the Medieval India. Thus. Around the eighth century many changes in the social. the founder of Islam united the Arab tribes. The Arabs were skilled tradesmen.

As a result. The condition of the farmers deteriorated on account of this system. the Europeans also got interested in trade. came into being. this very system was in vogue. known as the Feudal system. The rulers of these provinces were Seluk Turks. they nevertheless came in close contact with the Arabs and began to take interest in Arab learning. The Mongols established their control over the whole area from Western Asia and Southern Russia upto China. In the development of learning in Europe in the fifteenth and the sixteenth centuries the knowledge of the Arabs played an important part. At the beginning of the middle ages the Europeans were quite backward as a result of the snapping of trade ties with other countries. most of the Kings and feudal lords of Europe fought long drawn out wars with the Arabs. many a province including Ghazni and Ghor became independent. The feudal lords managed to secure from the king the authority and control over large areas of land on the basis of their military strength. who became powerful in western Asia by the eleventh century. The Mongols gave encouragement to this trade. but they were worried over the spread of Islam. In return for this they declared. Although the Europeans were not victorious in the wars. It is on account of this growing interest that the Europeans have been able to make such a progress in the field of science today. The thinkers and philosophers of 2 CMYK . loyalty to the monarch and provided him with military assistance during the time of emergency. Geography and Astronomy cannot be forgotten.CMYK Social Science-7 of the Arabs to Geometry. This made them very rich. Algebra. As a result. They had to work hard and the lion’s share of their produce was taken away by the king and the feudal lords. They spent a lot of money on building beautiful temples. craft and literature also progressed a lot. In medieval India. During the eighth century many changes took place in Asia and Europe. The Roman Empire had flourished during the ancient period but by the fifth century downfall came to the empire. During the thirteenth century their power also declined when they came under the attack of the Mongols led by Chenghez Khan. After the fall of the Roman Empire a new system of a administration. Those wars are called the Crusades. Trade ties were established among them. In the ninth century the power of the Abbasi Caliphs weakened. The different countries of the world came in contact with one another during the middle ages. At that time the powerful Chola Kings ruled over southern India. Later on when the Arabs grew rich because of their trade with other countries. They had trade ties with South-East Asia and China. Art.

4. 3 CMYK . 2. The Mughals established their empire in India in the Sixteenth century and it was not in anyway less glorious in magnificence and power than the Gupta empire in ancient India. during the thirteenth century it began to be written on paper. The Abbasi Caliph of Baghdad. The powerful ruler of East Asia in the eleventh century.CMYK India and the world 3 this period influence Indian thought deeply. Some of the Mughal emperors have written their autobiographies. EXERCISES I. Match the contents of column A with those of column B : A 1. Indian culture was greatly enriched. 4. the mausoleums and the majestic buildings built in the different parts of India during that period also give us an insight into the arts and culture of the time. 5. 3. the mosques. The temples. The Seluk Turks Haroun-al-Rashid 1. the forts. Besides these. The main sources of the knowledge of the history of the ancient times are literature and archaeology. the minarets. But later on. 5. Some historians have written about the happenings during the rule of their contemporary sultans. The same is true about the history of the medieval India the literature of this period was written on palm-leaves and copper plates at the beginning. foreign travellers continued to visit India from time to time. During the regime of the Chola Kings in the South. period of Europe The famous kingdoms of the early medieval period. They have given an account of the Sultans in their books. The medieval. Historical books are the chief source of our knowledge about the medieval history. the Pratihara The Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal is called the Dark Ages. 3. The famous ruler of the later medieval period. there are some religious and literary books which help us a good deal to gain knowledge of history of that time. B The Pala. 2.

age. IV.... 2.. Roman) The Arab civilization was the most advanced civilization of the .. III. Fill in the banks with the appropriate word or words given in brackets :1.. 3... (Afghans. Interesting things to do : 1.. 2.. 3.... Mongols) The feudal system began after the fall of the . Turks. (The Turks & the Afghans. 3. 4 CMYK .. Chenghez Khan achieved control of West Asia and the areas of China in the thirteenth century. Show the kingdom of the Chola Kings in the map of India. modern) The Crusades were fought between.... Who was Chenghez Khan ? How far was his kingdom spread ? What was the contribution of the Arabs in the sphere of knowledge and science in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries? What is meant by the feudal system ? What were the demerits of this system ? What was the contribution of the Chola Kings of the South to the Indian civilization ? What are the main sources of knowing medieval history ? V. Write ‘Yes’ against the right statement and ‘No’ against the wrong ones :1. Muhammad. The Europeans achieved a great progress in trade and commerce during the medieval period.. 2. the Muslims and the Chiristians the Iranians and the Mongols)... 4....CMYK Social Science-7 II... 4. where the Arabs and Mongols had their Kingdoms.. Sahib Organised and educated the ... 4. The Chola Kings of the Deccan had trade relations with China... Arabs.empire.... medieval. 5... 2... (Mughal. Answer the following questions :1... (ancient... Find out from the map of India. The founder of Islam.... Turkish... Haroun Rashid was the Abbasi Caliph of Baghdad...

the kingdoms of the northern Deccan tired to extend their control upto the Ganges valley.800-1200) The northern and southern parts of our country came into very close contact in the medieval period. The succeeding Pallava kings continued to struggle against the Chalukyas. Aprajita Varman. Secondly.CMYK CHAPTER . Thus. The city of Kanchi was the seat of education and learning. Kanchipuram was their capital. D. the kingdoms of the north and the south came closer to one another. the last king of this dynasty was defeated by the Cholas. During their rule. the successor to Mahendra Varman was the first powerful king of the Pallava dynasty. Literature in the local Tamil language was also produced side by side with Sanskrit during this period. Their reign extended from the sixth century upto the ninth century. Thirdly many brahmins from the north were invited to settle down in the south. the Pandya. and the author of ‘Kiratarjuniam’ wrote ‘Mattavilas’ in Sanskrit. their capital. It was during this period that Bharati. He not only protected his kingdom from the Chalukyas but also invaded Vatapi. In 899 A. The Pallavas : After the fall of the Andhra Satvahana’s empire the Pallavas established their control over the southern part of the Krishna river. Narasingha Varman got for himself the title of ‘Vatapi Kond’ on this victory. 1. The administration of the Pallavas was very systematic.D.2 Kingdoms of the South KINGDOMS OF THE SOUTH (A. Wars continued to be fought over al long period between the Pallava King Mahendra Varman and the Chalukyas to gain control over the south. Firstly. Art and Literature flourished a great deal. the Cher and the Rashtrakuta. the Chalukya. With this came to an end the Pallava rule. Most of the Pallava Kings were shaivas. Narasingha Varman. The period will be specially remembered for its architecture and sculpture. The 5 CMYK . It had many reasons. They had built many temples. the religious movements of the South soon became popular in the north also. Pulakesin. the Chalukya king was killed in the battle. the Pandyas and the Rashtrakutas. In the eighth century the chief kingdoms in the South were the Pallava. the Sanskrit Scholar.

The Rashtrakutas : Kirti Durg a feudal lord under the Chalukya king Kirti Varman laid the foundation of the Rashtrakuta dynasty after defeating his master in 733 A. Mahabalipuram ture and art-patterns influenced those of the south-east Asia. The later Chalukyas :. Kavarka II and brought the kingdom under his 6 CMYK .We have already read that the Chalukya ruler.D. Five Rath temple cut out of rocks were built on the sea-shore at Mahabalipuram. The continuous wars against the Cholas and the ceaseless at temples at Maintaining supremacy over north India weakend the Rashtrakutas.CMYK Social Science-7 Dharamaraja and the Kailashnath temples stand even to this day. They had to face opposition mainly from the rulers of Bengal and Bihar also from the Gurjar Pratiharas. the Rashtrakutas led many attacks on north India. The architecture rised in this gradually spread all over the Deccan. 2. Tailap (Taila) II. Krishna I got built the famous Kailash temple at Ellora. Amogvarsha I was himself a writer of high calibre. While at the peak of their progress. their style of architecFig. The fertile land in between the Ganga and the Yamuna was the main theatre of conflict among the three kingdoms. whose capital was Kannauj. Tailap defeated the Rashtrakuta ruler. The Pallavas exercised good deal of influence on the culture of India. The Kingdom of the Rashtrakutas extended upto South Gujrat. Kavark-II and established his control over the Rashtrakuta Kingdom. the Chalukya ruler. defeated the last Rashtrakuta ruler. At that large settlements of South Indian traders flourished in countries which today are known as Indonesia and Kumpuchea.1 Ratha Temple. Malwa and Baghelkhand in the north and Tanjore in the south. As the Pallavas carried on trade across the sea. In 973 A. This is a rock cut temple and stands as a monument of the Rashtrakuta reign. The Rashtrakuta rulers were patrons of art and education.D.

) On the decline of the Chalukyas at the beginning of the twelvth century. last Pallava King. the rulers of the Yadava dynasty established their reign by defeating the rulers of the later Chalukya dynasty and continued to rule from Devagiri (Present Daulatabad in Maharastra.C time upto the end of ouv DI DE ery A) EP the thirteenth century Gangatikandacholapuram the Cholas occupied Madurai PANDYAS an important place in the history of south India.D. The capital of Tailap was at Kalyan (present Kalyani in Andhra Pradesh). Tapi R. 2. A small SOUTH INDIA IN THE ELEVENTH CENTURY kingdom of the Cholas had existed for R. the rule of the Kakatiya dynasty began in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh Warangal (in present Andhra Pradesh) was their capital.The Cholas belonged to an ancient tribe of South India. The territorial waters of India extend into the sea to a distance of twelve nautial miles measured from the appropriate base line.) Aparajita Varman had 7 CHO LAS AS ER CH CMYK . From his Kanchipuram H (IN YA Mahablipuram R.D. In S DAV Devangiri YA the middle of the ninth R. Godavari century (846-871 LATER ARABIAN IYAS CHALUKYAS A. Nanrmada centuries on the R. As Tailap belonged to the Chalukya dynasty. historians regard his dynasty as later Chalukya dynasty.) the Surveyor General of India and Goverment of India Copyright 2001. At that time the authority of the Hoisalas also began to emerge. Later on. For this reasons they are also known as the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Aditya I (Based upon Survey of India map with the Permission of the (871-907 A. The Hoisala dynasty founded its kingdom near present Mysore. Mahanadi Coromandal coast. Kingdoms of the South The Chola empire :.2 his capital. He conquered INDIAN OCEAN Tanjore from the Pandyas and made it Fig.CMYK control. Krishna Chola extended the BAY authority and OF BANGAL grandeur of the LA KS dynasty.) Vijayamala AKT Warangal K SEA R.

Large tanks were dug in which rainwater could be stored. More eminent than him was Parantaka I (917-953 A. He invaded kingdoms located in different directions and extended his empire. Arab traders used to come to India from West Asia to deal in these goods. a Rashtrakuta King.’ But Parantaka had to accept defeat at the hand of Krishan II. Cloth. There were other reasons also for these invasions. He invaded the Laccadives and the Maldives. Canals were constructed to carry water from the tanks to the fields for irrigation. He encouraged agriculture in his kingdom. Parantaka was an able commander.) who was very powerful and ambitious. Ellora (Kalinga) and the Cher Kings (Kerala) and took over the control of Madurai after taking the Pandya King prisoner. spices costly jewels and other articles used to be exported from India to West Asia. Thus king Rajaraja proved to be an efficient and successful ruler.D. built up a powerful navy with a fleet of ships. with the gaining of victories over these areas. So.)who conquered the Pandya Kingdom and received the title of ‘Madurai-Kinda’ which means ‘the conqueror of Madurai. therefore. Rajaraja understood the importance of exercising control over the sea. the profits from the trade started coming to the Chola Kingdom. Many of them settled down in the towns situated on the Western coast of India. He knew that if he could exercise control over the coast of south India.3 The Kailasha Temple. A part of the Sri Lankan’s population is of Tamil origin even today. Among the Chola kings there was Rajaraja I (985-1016 A. administrator and patron of the learned. 8 CMYK . He defeated the Ganga Fig. the Chola kingdom would become much more powerful. He.CMYK Social Science-7 made the foundation of the Chola Kingdom solid.D. The walls and ramparts of the Rajarajeshwara temple bear the detailed account of his victories. He was by far the greatest south Indian ruler and that is why he was honored with the title of ‘the great’. 2. The main centre for conducting trade with the Maldive group of islands was the Chera kingdom and the centre for trading with West Asia was Sri Lanka. He led an attack on Sri Lanka and brought under his control its northern region.

D. Rajendra Chola was more powerful and ambitions than his father. Gangai Kond Cholapuram by name. secondly they had to enter into a prolonged fight with the Chalukyas of the West.D.D. He not only consolidated his father’s empire but also added to its glory with fresh victories. the King of Bengal and annexed Bihar to his Kingdom after conquering it. at the request of the Indian traders Rajendra Chola sent out a powerful navy for their safety. The Cholas held under control some of the provinces of the Kingdom of Shrivijaya in 1025 A.CMYK Kingdoms of the South Rajaraja’s son. The second victorious campaign of Rajendra Chola was that of East Asia. The Indian ships were obliged to pass through the straits of Molucca. The Chola Kingdom was brought to an end by the attack of Malik Kafur in A. Two of these were really bold and daring. The whole empire was divided into provinces they were called ‘Mandalams. One was when his armies advanced along the eastern coast of India. He fought many campaigns in the Southern peninsula. The successors to Rajendra Chola were not so capable and powerful as he was. the last ruler of this dynasty. For many centuries India traders had been trading with many parts of south-east Asia. this control did not last long.1310II on Rajendra III. Here he built beautiful temples and magnificent places. However. and reached as far as the river Ganges through Orissa. He had a council of ministers to advise and guide him. This trading extended upto southern China. Thus. Administrative system of the Cholas :The king was the head of the administration and Government. The different branches of Government had each an officier at the top. So. Before returning to the south he defeated Mahipala. The lowest unit of administration was the village. He received the title of Gangai Kond and established the town. Many of the feudal lords set up their own Kingdoms. Each village had a village council known as ‘Ur’ The life and the work of the village were discussed in these council.’ Each Mandalam was again divided into ‘Valanddus’(Districts). was often divided into a number 9 CMYK . Internal revolts also weakened the authority of the Kingdom. He ruled for a long period from 1014 to 1044 A. The merchants of Shrivijaya and the Pirates created difficulties for the Indian ships. The councils. Indian goods were sent to China by ships and cargoes were brought from there. Thus the Cholas fought against the Kingdom of Shrivijaya which included Sumatra and Java and also some parts of the straits of Molacca. These were at the time under the control of the Kingdom of Shrivijya. by the end of the twelfth century only a small Kingdom in Tanjore was left in the control of the Chola Kings.

a portion was kept apart for the king and remaining used to be spent on the works of public utility like digging of tanks. Out of total revenue thus collected. These two classes of people remained engaged in the service of the higher classes. During this period many of the great religious teachers came to the north 10 CMYK . construction of roads and also on the salary of the state employees. In this way some of the brahmins became so rich that even a few generations of them could lead a comfortable life. traders etc. oil producers. they treated all religions Vaishnawism.’ They were free to explain and propagate their own religions. Trade in the Chola Kingdom reached a new height. the brahmins and the tradesmen occupied a place of pride in society during the Chola rule. They had to work very hard. and Buddhism Jainism with equal respect. King Rajaraja. One sixth of the land produce was realized as land tax. The members of these committees were elected annually on the basis of their qualifications. Great learned brahmins were gifted land and villages by the king. The shudras were treated as untouchables and were not allowed to enter temples. In addition to this taxes were realized from the weavers. art and literature :Most of the Chola kings followed the Shaiva doctrine but were quite liberal in their religious outlook. Religion. goldsmiths. The management of villages was thus done in a democratic way. The Economic system :The main source of income of the Kingdom was taxes on land. maintenance of the army and on temple buildings. But the conditions of the labourers in town and the farmers in villages was far from satisfactory. The Vaishnavas were called ‘Alwars’ whereas the Shaivas were known as ‘Nayannars. although a Shaiva. Brahmins were respected on account of their learning and knowledge of the Religious scriptures. built temples of Vishnu and gave Charities to Buddhist monasteries. During this period some new sects introduced new ideas into system of worship and devotion and began to propagate them among the people. Octroi duty was also levied in the markets. Women belonging to the upper classes owned property also. The social condition :Besides the king and the courtiers. The condition of women in South India was better than that of the women in the north.CMYK Social Science-7 of small committees and each committee looked after one aspect of administration.

They build many magnificent temples in Tanjore and GangaiKond Cholapuram. The king and the wealthy persons used to donate land and money very liberally for building temples and for their security. The best known of the south Indian religious teachers were Shankaracharya and Ramanuja-charya. The Rajrajeshwara temple in Tanjore is an unparalleled specimen of architecture of the time. His idea was that in. Ramanuja-charya was another great religious teacher of south India who lived in the eleventh century. He preached that one should worship God with total devotion. He believed in the acquisition of knowledge and held that it was through knowledge that one could worship God. The temples were the centres of social activity and religious functions. comparison to knowledge devotion and love are of greater importance in worshipping God. In the Central Shrine room the image of the God goddess was installed. The Cholas made an advance in the system and tradition of building construction of the Pallavas. the scenes of worship and also the scenes of music and dancing. Shankaracharaya belonged to Kerala and lived in the eighth century.CMYK Kingdoms of the South from the south although. These images were made of bronze or stone. the walls of the temples were beautified with images and variety of scenes. The royal temples built by the Cholas were grand and magnificent like the Fig. Shankaracharya. He tried to remove the distinction on the basis of castes and to bridge the gulf between the high and the low which prevailed in the society at that time.4 The Brihadeshwar Temple Tanjore Brihadeshwara temple of Tanjore. His philosophy is known as the Advaita system which means that there is only one unique and supreme power in the whole of the universe. later on. the court scenes the battle scenes. 2. The bronze images are famous all over the world for their art and beauty. north India also did produce some great teachers of religion. travelled all over India and preached his philosophy. He held religious discussions with many a learned men. 11 CMYK .

during the time of Jatavarman Sunder I (1251-1258 A. visited South India during the reign of Marvarman Kulashestra Pandya. literature and cultural upliftment. the Pandya Kings continued to fight against the Pallava. Marco Polo. Thereafter. Kamban wrote his famous work. The temples were the centres of education both in towns and villages. Schools used to meet in the country yard or in a part of the temples. social and religious 12 CMYK . Telugu being the language of the common man. in Tamil. He has given an account of the political. The Venetian traveler.) The Pandya authority again reached its peak. Donations were given to these institutions by the kingdom. Saints also preached in language of the people. the Pandya kings continued to try to get back their kingdom by revolt. building construction. The Pandya kings also built a number of temples among which the temples of Sri Rangam and Chindambaram are famous. the Chola and the Chalukya kings for the security of their kingdom. About three hundred year later. Tikkanna and Yaramma produced literary works of high quality on the basis of Mahabharat in Telugu during this period. learned men Pampa. Ramnad and Tinneveli of South India. During the ninth century the Pandyas rose again. Madurai was their capital. He defeated the Cher. He secured control over Kanchi also. In 920 A. Temple priests worked as teachers also. For about 150 years thereafter. the Kalingas. Their king Shrimakhallabha defeated a combined army of the Gangos. religious reformation. the Cholas. Paunna and Ratna produced good-quality literature in Kannada. In the seventh century Pandya King Arikesri Marvarman defeated the Cheras of Kerala siding with the Chalukyas he defeated the Pallavas and extended his Kingdom over a small area. the Ganga. The Pandya Kingdom The Pandyas were Dravidians and had been ruling in the areas around the districts of Madurai.D. the Cholas disintegrated this kingdom. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were written in that language Scholars like Nannaya. It was essential to acquire the knowledge of the Vedas and other scriptures. the Ramayana. Kannada being the languages in the areas around Mysore. Besides this a lot of works in poetry and drama were composed in Tamil by scholars. the Hoyasal and the Kakatiya kings.D. the Pallavas and the Magadhas. was a period of development not only from the political point of view.CMYK Social Science-7 Both Sanskrit and Tamil prospered during the time of the chola kings. the Cholas. arts. Many of the inscriptions of the Chola kings are in both Sanskrit and Tamil. but also from the point of view of trade and commerce. The period between the eighth and the twelfth century. Generally education was imparted through Sanskrit and the pupils were brahmins.

4. Travancore and Cochin. After some time matrimonial relations were established between the Cherasand the Cholas. IN the first century A. Describe the adventure of victorious advance of Rajendra Chola. struggle continued among the successors and by the end of the thirteenth century this kingdom lost its existence.CMYK Kingdoms of the South conditions of the Pandya Kingdom. Answer the following question in about 200 words each :1. 6. 3. 5. EXERCIES I. 2. Why did Rajendra Chola make an attack on the south eastern Kingdom ? 13 CMYK . There was a king Perunar by name who was killed in a battle with the Cholas.D. 4. In the tenth century the Cholas brought under their occupation the Chera Kingdom and this went on upto the twelfth century. Who were the Rashtrakutas ? How did they establish their Kingdom? Who re-established the Chalukyas ? Who were the chief rulers of the Pallava dynasty ? How far was the Kingdom of Rajaraja I spread ? Why is he called ‘great’? Mention the public welfare items of work of the Chola Kings. By and by the authority of the Cheras ended completely. Chera and Kerala are synonymous words. 3. The Chera Kingdom : Like the Cholas and the Pandyas the Cheras were also Dravidians. 2. II. Given an account of the administration of the Chola Kingdom. Short-answer Questions: 1. Write down the names of the main royal dynasties. The thirteenth century saw the spread of the influence of the Pandyas. Describe the religious condition of the Chola reign. But in the eighth century the Pallavas obtained control over the Chera Kingdom. A king named Senguttavan extended his Kingdom by removing the neighbouring Pandyas and Cholas. What improvements in literature were made during the Chola reign? Give an account of the society during the Chola reign. In their kingdom were included the modern Malabar. 5. 6.

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III. Fill in the blanks with the word/words given in the brackets:1. ..................had a powerful kingdom in the Deccan which tried to conquer a part of the plains of Ganga. (The Cholas, The Chalukyas, The Rashtrakuta) 2. The Rastrakutas had to fight many wars with the Powerful kings of the .............dynasty. (Kakatiya, Hoyasala, Chola) 3. 4. 5. The Rashrakuta dynasty was established by ..............(Kirti Durg, Krishna I, Narasingha Varman). The Chola ruler..............received the title of Madurai Konda. (Aditya I, Parantaka I, Rajraja I) The Kailash temple at Ellora was made by Krishna I who belongs to the dynasty............... (Pallava, Rashtrakuta, Chola)

IV. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’ against the ones that are false :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The Rastrakutas ruled over Dwar Samudra situated near Mysore. Tarantaka defeated Krishna II, a Rashtrakuta king. The Ratha temples in Mahabalipuram were built during the Pallava period. Warangal was the capital of the rulers of Yadava dynastry. The Chola rulers fought battles again and again against the powerful Partiharas and the Palas.

V. Things to do :Collect the pictures of the ancient temples of India and distinguish between the different styles of architecture in the construction of temples north and south India.

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Kingdoms of the North

CHAPTER-3

KINGDOMS OF THE NORTH
(A.D. 800-1200)

The period of about 400 years (AD. 800 to 1200) of the history of India is known as the Rajput period. The political unity of India had received a setback after the death of Harsha. Both in the South and the North many a dynasty came into existence and declined during this period. But none of them was able to conquer most of the territories of India and unite them into one integrated unit. Kannauj was the capital of Harsha. From the time of Harsha, Kannauj acquired as much importance as did Pataliputra during the Mauryas and the Guptas or as Delhi has at present. Kannauj had become not only the political capital of India but also her cultural capital Every ambitious ruler desired to make it his capital It was their conviction that one who ruled over Kannauj would-be accepted as the emperor of the whole of north India. A hard struggle took place among the ruling dynasties of the time to gain control over Kannauj. They were the Rashtra Kutas the Palas and the Pratiharas. The Rashtrakutas were ruling in the region around Nasik in northern Deccan. Govinda III, Krishan III and Indra III were the Powerful and influential monarchs in this dynasty. It. was they who brought fame to the Rashtrakutas. The kingdom of the Palas spread all over Bengal and a large part of Bihar: The first king of this dynasty was Gopal. After his death his son, Dharmapala, came to the throne. He was the most famous king of this dynasty. The word ‘Pala’ occurs at the end of the names of the kings of this dynasty. So, they are known as the Palas. The Pratiharas set up an independent kingdom over Southern Rajasthan and some parts of Malwa. Vatsaraja was the most famous among the Pratiharas and the second famous king was Nagabhatta II. By the end of the eighth century the Pratiharas had established their rule over Kannauj. Later on, king Dharmapala of the Pala dynasty reorganised his army and brought Kannauj under his control But the Palas could not hold Kannauj for a long time. During the reign of King Mihir Bhoja the Pratiharas regained their strength and captured Kannauj. At the beginning of the tenth century, by reorganizing themselves and consolidating their power the Rashtrakutas brought Kannauj under their control once again. Thus all
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Social Science-7

the three dynasties of north India spent their time in fightings and trying to gain control over Kannauj. This resulted in the decrease in their military strength and soon all the three lost their powers. Several small. kingdoms came into being in north India which had relation with the Rajput dynasties which appeared on the scene later on. The rule of the Sens was established over the Pala Kingdom. The reins of the Rashtrakuta. Kingdom came into INDIA IN THE PERIOD the hands of the A.D.800-1200 Chalukya Kings. Kashmir
R.I nd us

The Origin of the Rajputs :
The name of the Rajasthan, the present state of the Indian. Republic, was Rajputana. On this part of the country lived a majority of the Rajputs and their Kings.

TOMARAS

R.Taongpo

Delhi
CHAUHANAS PRATHARAS PAWARS R. Ganga

KAMARUPA

The Rajputs INDIAN OCEAN claim to be the descendants of the Fig-3.1 The Map of India: India from 800 A.D.to 1200 A.D. ancient sun-family (Suryavanshi) or the moon family (Chandra-Vanshi). Another belief is that they have descended from the fire-family (agni-kula) the Fire-pit (Yagna-Kunda) were born the Pratiharas, the Pawaras, the Solankis and the Chauhans. These families set up their kingdoms in the Western India Rajputana and central India and continued to make efforts to increase the sphere of their influence. It is undoubtedly true that the Rajputs tried to unite the whole country by establishing vast empire.
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CHANDELS SOLANKIS PALAS UTKALA Indore R. Mahanadi Nasik Bhubanesware Puri ARABIAN R. Godavari RASTRAKUTA SEA BAY Malkhand OF R.Krishna LA BANGAL KS CHOLAS H (IN YA Present R.C ANDAMAN ouv DI DE ery international A) EP & NIKOBAR boundries... ISLAND (INDIA)

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Kingdoms of the North

They also faced very bravely the raids of foreigners of them the Pratiharas ruled over Kannauj region about which we have already read. In the central region of Rajputana was the Kingdom of the Chauhan (Chahamanas). Chahaman, was the founder of that family. Previously, these kings were the tax-paying lords under the GurjarPratiharas. Later on, Vigraharaja added to the strength and glory of the Chauhan family by defeating the Tomars and he laid the foundation of an independent rule. His son, Sinharaja bore the title of ’Maharajadhiraja’ In the twelfth century Ajayraja Chauhan founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer) and got palaces and temples built in it. A great and powerful ruler of this dynasty was king Prithviraja. A description of his deeds of bravery has been given by his court poet, Chandvardai, in his book entitled ‘Prithviraj-Raso’, He fought against the Solankis of Gujarat, the Chandelas of Bundelkhand and Jaichand. King prithviraja III was the most honoured among the Kings of his time. Prithviraja III had to face the attacks of Sahabuddin Muhammad Ghori. In the end he, was defeated and Delhi and Ajmer came under the Muslim authority. The founder of the Solankis (Chalukyas) in Gujarat was Maharaja. This family had perhaps no connection with the Chalukyas of the South. Mularaja had to confront the attacks from the Chauhans from the north, Tailap II from the South, the Parmaras of Malwa and also, the Kalchuri Kings. He, however, managed to keep up his kingdom. During the reign of Bhima I of this dynasty, Mahamud Ghaznavi’s’ raids took place. On seeing the might of Mahamud he got so frightened that without giving any fight he ran away leaving his capital behind The Hindus fought bravely, but were defeated. Mahamud Gaznavi ransacked temples; broke the idol of the temple of Somnath, killed thousands of Hindus and returned to Gazni with immense wealth. The succeeding kings of this family were not so worthy and therefore its decline began. The Parmara (Pawar) family which claimed to have come out of the FirePit (agnikunda) was founded by Upendra (Krishnaraja) who had been a subedar of Malwa and had owed allegiance to the Rashtrakutas. A ruler of this family, Harsha, was very powerful and established an independent kingdom in Malwa by defeating the Rashtrakutas. He made Dhar, which is near Indore, his capital. His successor was Munja, who was the greatest army commander of his age and was a powerful king. Munja expanded his kingdom by defeating almost all the Kings around him. He was a lover of art and literature and was himself a poet. Magnificient temples were got built by him in the main towns of his kingdom. The Munja-Sagar lake near Dhar, which exists even to day, was built by him. King Bhoja was another great king of the Paramara family. He was extremely
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The Tomars ruled over the region north-east of the Chauhan kingdom. Of these the raid of Mahmud of Ghazni caused a severe loss to India. He was the worthy son of a worthy father. Among the hilly Kingdoms in the Punjab. The whole country was divided into. ambitious. and around the areas of Delhi. It was these Tomars who founded the city of Delhi in A. To plunder 18 CMYK . Mahmud of Ghazni: Subugtagin was the ruler of Ghazni. He was a devotee of Lord Shiva he built a lot of temples in his kingdom. Kamraup of Assam. in 1305 AD Alauddin Khilji conquered Malwa and brought it under the control of the Delhi Sultanate.g. He was very brave. These kingdoms used to fight against one another to show their might or to expand their territories. After his death. the Chandelas of Bundelkhand and the Guhelots of Mewar who ruled over the region to the south of the Chauhan Kingdoms. At last. Those battles reduced their strength gradually. He founded a university at Dhar.CMYK Social Science-7 ambitious and powerful. a place to the south of present Bhopal. After King Bhoj a rulers of the Paramar family continued to rule for about two hundred years. He had all the qualities of a brave soldier and an able commander. During his reign the city of Dhar reached the peak of its glory. small and big kingdoms. which is Present Haryana. They could never unite together to face any external aggression on account of their disunity. their protectors. thereafter several attacks of the Arabs and Turks continued to take place. his son Mahmud (AD. They were the rulers of central India and Rajasthan e. King Bhoja was a highly learned man and connoisseur of art. He was extremely greedy and idiot. The first attack of the Arabs had taken place on Sindh in 643 A. Kashmir’ and Utkal in Orissa.998) came to the throne. Chambal Jammu and Kulu were” notable. He set up a town named Bhojpur.D. After his accession to the throne he chalked out a plan for a vast empire and was successful also in translating it into reality. These kings may be grouped under two categories. 736 Later on the Chauhans defeated the Tomars and annexed their Kingdoms within their territory (2) Some other kingdoms were either in the hilly areas or had no connection with the Rajputs. For about three hundred years. Among these were Nepal. a very small princely state in central Asia. In addition to these prominent Rajput kings there were many small royal families all over India who had begun their rule under the protection of the Pratihara and Rashtrakuta kings but later on who became independent ruler after revolting against. (I) Those kingdoms which had connections with the history of the Rajputs. daring and religious.D. Thus they could not protect themselves when there was an invasion of the Turks from the North-Western of India.

Mahmud was victorious Mahmud’s last raid was on Somnath temple situated on the coast of Kathiawar. Although he went back after plundering his raids. He got control over some of the border forts. He raided the land between A. It was the most magnificent of the temples in medieval India. He carried out raids on Multan three times. but he also desired to add to his kingdom the northern part of India by conquering it. Muhammad was the son of the ruler of Ghor. The objective of Muhammad Ghori’s invasion was not merely to plunder. Here he defeated the ruler of the Karmayee community. 1026.D. His first attack was on Multan. Every year he would raid India. Kalinjar. In 1178 A. Next year he attacked the old king Jaipal of Peshawar. The king was defeated. he brought under his control 19 CMYK . were the aims of his life. imprisoned the king and made the conquered territory apart of his empire. Many kings joined this fight. Kannauj. But due to lack of expertise in military science and army movement of the Indian side. Although Mahmud’s attacks were like raids. a small kingdom in Afghanistan. They continued to fight among themselves as before and the country grew weaker and weaker. At the end of the twelfth century Muhammad Ghori’s invasion took place. So he concentrated his attention on the northern kingdoms.D. Muhammad Ghori : Indian king took no lessons even from the destructive raids of Mahmud. The army of the sultan looted as much wealth as would be hard to count. The vast wealth of the temple was looted by Mahmud.CMYK Kingdoms of the North wealth and to spread. 1000 and AD.D. Muhammad was appointed ruler of Ghazni. conquered it. he tried to penetrate into India through Gujarat.’ Gradually the power or the ruler of Ghor increased so much that he captured Ghazni permanently. But left the Indian kings weaker in their military power. his chief objective was not to set up a kingdom but to plunder wealth. Islam in non-islamic areas of the world with the power of the sword. hut the Solanki king Mularaj II defeated him. The first raid of Mahmud was made in 1000 A. Foreigners came to know about the political and ‘military weaknesses of India the destruction of the ancient temples gave a severe jolt to the architecture and a vast quantity of wealth went out of the country. He drew up a plan to secure unlimited wealth and to spread Islam in India. Ajmer and Ujjain to unite and give a fight to Mahmud. King Jayapala’s son Anandpala requested the rulers of Gwalior. By 1186 AD. Then he captured Sindh. ransack the cities and the palaces and go back honoured with the titles of “idol breaker” and “conqueror’.

Delhi and Hansi (a town situated to the north-west of Delhi). Having come to know this Prithviraja advanced with a large army. Although the Rajputs fought with exemplary courage and bravery. In A. Brahmins conducted religious ceremonies and rituals of worship.D. Prithviraja was taken prisoner and later on put to death. the Khokhars. Kshatriyas were also learned and good warriors. a young Khokhar murdered him. Only the Gaharwar king Jaichand of Kannauj.CMYK Social Science-7 the forts of Peshwar. Brahmins and Kshatriyas got subdivided 20 CMYK . they were defeated on account of the absence of able leadership and fighting skill.D. therefore went back to Ghazni leaving his slave and able general Qutb-ud-din to rule over the conquered territory as his representative. After the victory of the Punjab. did not side with the Chauhans in this battle. Some of them wrote biographies of the king and histories of the kingdom and verses in praise of the king. With his defeat easier for Muhammad Ghori to win over India. The courts were attended not only by feudatories but also by the wealthy brahmins and traders. 1205 a fighting race. Social life : Although the political and economic authority of kings during this period. Thus he became the master of the whole of the border areas and the Punjab. King Prithviraja appealed to the other. Muhammad Ghori had generally to face difficulties in Afganistan. kings for help. they did live in pomp and show. The revolt was put down but while he was returning to Ghaini. Muhammad was defeated and he managed to escape in a badly wounded condition. Lahore and Sialkot.D. By this victory the Turks came to control Ajmer. Much of their income was spent in building palaces and temples and also to maintain the pomps and show of their courts. Fierce fighting took place at Tarain between the two armies. The status of Brahmins and Kshatriyas in society was high. the border of Muhammad’s Kingdom began to touch those of Ajmer and Delhi which were ruled by Prithviraja Chauhan Muhammad attacked the fort of Bhatinda in 1191 A. This time he had brought with him about one lac twenty thousand soldiers.1192. Returning to Ghazni he collected a large army consisting of daring and ferocious men belonging to the hilly kingdoms of Central Asia and the very next year came down to attack India again. Some of them were also appointed to high posts. Muhammad Ghori came to suppress them. He. revolted. Both the armies came face to face on the plains of Tarain again in A. Prithviraja was the most powerful king in north India. weakened. It is said that about a hundred and fifty big and small kings rallied under Prithviraja’s flag.

The life of the Rajput women was also full of bravery and courage like that of their men-folks. Besides these. among whom the feelings of high and low began to deepen. there was no system of payment of salary in cash. As the number of such persons increased. Persons authorized to collect land revenue came to be called ‘rai’ or ‘thakur’. Among the other classes in society were farmers. the Brahmins and learned men were also granted lands as gifts. Most of them were cultivators and labourers. Those who did the lowly work were treated as untouchables. Polygamy was in vogue among the higher classes. The custom of Sati began to grow widerspread.e. Among the Rajputs the system of Swayamvara was prevalent. Of all ‘the classes in society the life of the Shudras’ was the most difficult. in turn would grant the right to their subordinates for the sake 21 CMYK . Previously. They were also required to maintain troops which the king could demand whenever he wanted. The important change that took place in agriculture. The land revenue pertaining to the gifted land was fully utilised by those who were granted the lands. Thus they remained under the control of the king. they would burn themselves to death rather than fall into the hands of the enemies.CMYK Kingdoms of the North into many sub-castes and sects. craftsmen. businessmen and labourers. They kept a large portion of the land revenue for their own use and credited the rest into the treasury of the king. women would take to “Jauhar” i. Economic life : In this age village-folks remained engaged in rearing animals and doing agriculture. But with the coming of the medieval period many such persons began to claim the ownership of the land. the amount of revenue which came to the king decreased. They had no rights and they were looked down upon. The Rajputs acquired a separate entity on account of the their bravery and courage. Many of the officers who had many villages and large areas of land. This revenue used to be equal to the amount of money he would normally receive as salary. On the death of their husbands in battles or in foreign attacks. Marriages took place at an early age among the ordinary classes. Many far-reaching changes in the condition of wormen took place in this age. was with regard to land measurement and realization of land tax. Instead of the payment of salary the authority was given to realize the land revenue in a particular village or a piece of land. In such a case the authorized person did not have any rights of ownership over the land.

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Social Science-7

of convenience. Thus a number of intermediaries came into existence between the king and the peasant. This led to the fast growth of feudalism one result of this was that those who had large grant of land often behaved like independent rulers. The peasants who cultivated such lands started paying more attention to the feudatories. So the king gradually began to be quite away from the peasants. On account of the decrease in the king’s revenue, the expenses on security also decreased and it became hard to maintain a large and powerful army. This was one of the primary reasons why the kingdoms of north India could not protect themselves from the attacks of the Turks. There was rivalry and jealousy among the feudatories. ‘Even small disputes were settled through a fight. Most of their time and money were spent on such, futile wars. If any feudatory felt that he had become sufficiently strong, he would proclaim himself, independent and set up an independent kingdom. Often the king was too weak to restrain the feudatories from taking such steps. Thus the Rastrakutas who had been feudatories of the Chalukyas became the independent rulers. The Chandelas ruling under the Pratiharas also became independent. The Cholas of the South had also began as feudatories. The peasants had to suffer most in these circumstances. They not only paid the revenue to the lord but had to do free labour also for him. Often the feudal lord would realize from them extra taxes on roads, mills, water for irrigation etc. They were fated to toil hard and remain poor. The inhabitants of towns and cities remained engaged in different trades and industries. Like those in the South the different traders had organized themselves into various groups. Cotton, Woollen and silk cloth, ivory goods, ornaments and utensils of gold and silver, statues and idols of cast bronze, playthings and earthen pots were produced in large quantities in the country. Goods within the country were transported by roads and rivers. Patliputra, Ayodhya, Ujjain, Kannauj, Mathura and Kashi were big business centers. Because of the settlement of the Arab traders on the west coast of India, trade with the Mediterranean countries and western Asia flourished. Cotton and Woollen clothes, precious stones, sandalwood, Coconut, cloves, nuts ivory goods and Keshar were exported outside and horses, dates and wine were imported in large quantities from outside.

Religious life :
On account of the patronage of the Rajput Kings, Hindu religion became very popular. Buddhism which had started declining during the reign of Harsha
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now remained confirm to east India. Jainism had its influence on Rajasthan, Gujarat and among some royal families of the south. At the beginning of this age a number of such learned men and philosophers were born who had deep faith in the Vedic rituals. As such the realization of self-attainment through rituals became a part of Hindu religion. Hindu religion included the Vaishnawa, the Shiva and the Shakta sects. Gradually tantra-mantra and inhuman ritual practices got into these sects. When the religious thought began to get distorted in north India, then saints, like Shankaracharya and Ramanuja in the south brought a sense of reawakening in it. Both of them belonged to the south and you have already read about them. Vishnu was worshipped in his two incarnations-as Rama and as Krishna. Temples of a number of Gods and Goddesses were built in this age. The legends about the lives of Ram a and Krishna were depicted on the: walls of the temples with the help of images and pictures. Festivals were celebrated with fun fare. It was during this age that Opposition to the complicated rituals began and stress began to be given on simple Bhakti (devotion). This very feeling gradually developed into the “Bhakti movement” later on.

Education and Literature :
Education spread well during this age. The temples were the main centres of education where children of the higher castes were taught. Buddhism played a notable part in the field of education. The famous monastery at Nalanda was still in existence. Kashi, Kannauj etc. were principal centres of learning. King Bhoja had a university built at Dhar. The interest in science and astronomy that was taken in the Gupta period started decreasing now, For example, the discoveries of Aryabhatta instead of being used to make further discoveries about the sun, the Earth and the Universe, were mixed up with astrology on account of ignorance and superstition. Indian medical system of Ayurveda was famous the world over but now further progress in’ this area too stopped. This period has its importance in the field of literature also. Even now the language of literature was Sanskrit. Among the famous poetic works were Magha’s Shishupal Vadh; Bhavabhuti’s ‘Uttar Ram Charit’ and Bharavi’s ‘Kiratarjuniyam.’ The most popular literary work of the period was ‘Katha Sarit Sagar’ a collection of stories. Biographies of kings were also written. Of them Vilhan’s VikramankDev-Charit’ and Kalhan’s “Raj Tarangini” and famous history books. In northern
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India Krishan Worship spread and many poetic works based on the love-legends between Radha and Krishan were produced. Jaideva’s ‘Geet-Govinda’ is one of them.

Architecture and Painting :
The famous kings and the powerful feudatories built temples in this age which are living examples of architecture. There are hundreds of temples which were built in this period. The temples at Puri and Bhuvaneshwar and the Sun temple at Konark in Orissa are the most famous among these. The Chandella kings built the Khajuraho temples in Bundelkhand. These temples have style different from the style of the Orissa temples. The group of Jain temples on Mount Abu in Rajasthan with white marble is a creation of this period. The art of building forts also developed in this period. The forts at Chittor, Ranthambhor, Gwalior etc. were also built in this period. Alongwith architecture, sculpture and painting also made much progress during this period. Under the patronage of the Pala Kings many idols of Gods and Goddesses were made of bronze, black stone. Moral paintings continued to

Fig. 3.3 The Shiv Temple of Khajuraho 24
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be used to decorate the walls of temples and palaces. Another type of painting which became-very popular during the Mughal period later on, began in this period. It was the art of miniature painting. Artists began to draw pictures to illustrate books. These pictures drawn on the books made of palm-leaves are the ideal specimens of art. Afterwards more, Subtitles and colours came to be used in them.
EXERCISES

I. Fill in the blanks with a word from those given in the brackets:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Many battles were fought in north India to gain control over the city of:............(Kannauj, Delhi, Agra) King Bhoj was a powerful king belonging to the............. dynasty. (Chandela, Pratihara, Parmara) Delhi was founded by the rulers of the............... family. (Chauhan, Tomar, Gaherwar) The famous temples at Khajuraho were built by the.............rulers. (Chandela, Pala, Gurjara) Mahmud of Gazni attacked India...........times. (Fifteen, Seventeen, Three)

II. Match the contents of column A with those of column B.
A. 1. The Rashtrakuta kings. 1. B Ruled over Avanti and some parts of southern Rajasthan was Raj Tarangini. Ruled over the northern area around Nasik in the Deccan. 4. 5. were in a large number in north India. was to obtain money and wealth by plunder.
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2. 3. 4. 5.

The Pratihara Kings The aim of the invasions of Mahmud of Gazni. Kalhan’s famous historical book. The followers of the Shiva and the Vaishnawa’ sects

2. 3.

Show the areas in the map of Asia which were attacked by Mahmud of Gazni and-Muhammad Ghori. 7. 2. 3. Which powers struggled among themselves to obtain control over Kannauj? How did the Gurjar Pratiharas expand their Kingdom? What Were the main causes of Mahmud of Ghazni’s attacks on India? What are the beliefs prevalent today about the origin of the Rajputs? What is the importance of the battle of Tarain in Indian history? What changes in the economic system were made during the Rajput period? What was the condition of women during the Rajput period? Give an account of the social life in the reign of the Rajputs? What progress was made in architecture and painting during the Rajput period? IV. 6. 9. 26 CMYK .CMYK Social Science-7 III. 5. 2. 4. 8. Answer the following questions :1. Something to do:1. Show the areas of rule of the major north Indian dynasties in map of India.

The second big ruler of this dynasty was Iltutmish. he became the Sultan of Delhi. In the meantime the conspirating generals got her murdered. therefore. revolted. Raziya. 4. But the Turkish Generals of the time look it to be a matter of dishonor to work under Raziya a woman. It was during his reign that the Mongols. Thus he had to spend his time in facing all sorts of troubles Iltutmish got the unfinished Qutub Minar completed which had been started during the time of Qutab-ud-din. The credit far establishing the turks in India goes to him. the general of Muhammad Ghori. They. 1206 TO 1526) The period of Indian history from AD. established their control over the area along the Indus. 1206 to AD. The first ruler of this dynasty was Qutub-ud-din Aibak. The son of Iltutmish proved to be of no worth. After the death of Muhammad Ghori.1 The Qutub Minar . D. She herself led the army in the fight and tried to suppress the revolt. 27 CMYK Fig. The Slave dynasty (A/D. So the reigns were taken over by his daughter. Five different dynasties ruled over Delhi during this period.CMYK The Delhi Sultanate CHAPTER 4 THE DELHI SULTANATE (A. 1206-1290) : All the rulers of this dynasty were either themselves slaves or the sons of slaves. He put down the revolt of the Turkish noblemen and Tatars and also defeated those Rajputs who were trying to regain their lost freedom. 1526 is known as the period of Delhi Sultanate. under the leadership of Chenghez Khan. But Raziya did not lose her courage even in these circumstances. That is why this dynasty is called the Slave Dynasty. He was a Turk ruler.

he succeeded in spreading his empire from the North to the South. soon the rule of this family also come to an end. He sent out his reliable general. The slave dynasty. The Khilji Sultan (A. The attack on devagiri in the South by his nephew. A vast sum of money was needed to maintain a large army. During his time farmers had to pay half of their produce as taxes. were given hard punishment. but the famous sultan of this family was Muhammad-bin-Tughluq. The succeeding rulers of the Khilji family were also weak and incapable. He reorganized the army and conquered Gujarat. The last ruler of the slave dynasty was Balban. He laid the foundation of the Khilji family. Very hard punishment was given to the disloyal ones and at last he was able to enforce his unfettered authority. Malik Kafur.CMYK Social Science-7 Raziya was an able. Jalaluddin and then occupied the throne of Delhi himself. Alauddin murdered his uncle.1290-1320) : Jalaluddin Khilji occupied the throne of Delhi after putting to death the last ruler of the slave dynasty. Alauddin raised the land taxes on the fertile land between the Ganga and the Yamuna (theDoab). came to an end. He ruled for about 26 28 CMYK .2 Raziya Begum The Tughluq family (A. intelligent and brave ruler. Those traders who did not sell goods at the prices fixed or who played false in weight. During his reign articles of daily use were very cheap. therefore. Kekubad was the last ruler of this dynasty. Chittore. As a result. He fixed the prices of articles and appointed officers to keep a watch on the markets so that the soldiers were not required to spend a large amount on buying essential commodities and they could maintain themselves with their low salary. The successors to Balban were incapable.D. 1320-1413) : The first ruler of the Tughluq family was Gayasuddin Tughluq. Ujjain.D. to conquer the South. Fig 4. Ranthambhor. He stationed an army on the border in order to put in check the Mongols. Alauddin was a notable incident during his time. Thus. Mandav and Chanderi.

Fig 4. but also revolted against him. He had noted that among all the Sultans of Delhi. the taxes on the farmers of the Doab area. He therefore. token coins of copper began to be minted in many a household. But it proved to be really matter of great misery for the people to leave their native places and move to a place about 1100 Kilometers away. First of all Muhammad Tughluq drew up a plan for extending the boundaries of his empire by organising a large army. Proper care about the conveniences on way to Dautalabad was taken. But unfortunately a famine broke out at the time. in the South. The face value of these value of token coins was equal to the value of the real gold coins. he was the most intelligent and able ruler. He required a vast amount of money for this. Daulatabad being situated. The farmers not only refused to pay the taxes. This scheme of Muhammad Tughluq also proved unsuccessful because he could not exercise proper control on their minting. As a result. He again issued orders to shift the capital back to Delhi from Daulatabad.CMYK The Delhi Sultanate years. He has written highly about Tughluq. thus. They became annoyed with the Sultan. At last the order to raise the taxes had to be withdrawn by the people at the Sultan. He ordered all the officers of Delhi and the subjects to shift to Daulatabad. all his plans failed. Gold or silver could be obtained in exchange for the coins from the royal treasury.3 Alauddin Khilji The second plan of Muhammad Tughluq was to transfer his capital from Delhi to Devagiri. with the terms of money and manpower. As a result. raised. As gold and silver had to be given in exchange for the token coins already issued the royal treasury became almost 29 CMYK . In order to make good the wastage of money and wealth caused by the shifting of the capital and the famine. it was easier to exercise control over the South. After making Devagiri his capital he named it Daulatabad. Muhammad Tugluq drew up a plan to issue token coins of copper. These movements caused him heavy losses. Tughluq was. This plan also failed. IbnBatutah came to India. For the Sultan also it was very difficult to control the North while remaining in Daulatabad. During his reign an Arab traveller. His ideas were very noble but he committed many errors in implementing them. obliged to discontinue the scheme of token coins.

LA Dwar BANGAL KS Arrangements for Samudra HY (IN A irrigation were Andaman & DI DE A) EP Nikobar made to increase Madurai Island agricultural Prod(India) uce . Many tanks INDIAN OCEAN were dug and canals Fig 4. As a matter of fact people at the time did not have any faith in the main currency these days. Firoz Tughluq. Ranthombor Kada Ghodi ascended the throne Banaras Chittor after him.4 The Kingdom of Alauddin Khilji constructed during these very days. He did many acts of general Deogiri welfare for the ARABIAN Yarangal SEA benefit of the BAY Gulbarg OF oppressed people. Hissar and Jaunpur.D. The Lodi Dynasty (A. He founded new townships like Firozabad. Many works in Sanskrit were translated into Arabic and Persian during his time. 1451-1526) : Lodi Sultans were Afghans. After the death of Firoz Tughluq there was no powerful ruler in this family. He plundered Delhi to his hearts content and returned to his native place. The Syed family (A. who captured the throne of Delhi. All the previous Sultans of Delhi were Turks. Before returning.CMYK Social Science-7 Present external Boundary of India Kashmir Lahore Delhi EMPIRE OF ALLAUDDIN KHILJI 1320 A. 30 CMYK . 1414-1451) : Khizr-Khan laid the foundation of the Syed family. therefore. He was also an incapable ruler. The last Sultan occupied the throne of Delhi by the name of Alauddin Alamshah. empty.D. removed by Bahlol Lodi. There were in all four Sultans in this family. In 1398 TaimurLung invaded India. he appointed KhizrKhan as the Governor of the Punjab. the nephew of Ajmer Muhammad Tughluq. Samarkand. He was.D.

He would be either a relative or a favourite of the Sultan. The Turk Sardars of the time were very powerfu1. the Sultan had the final say. They used to conspire against the Sultan and. That brought about dissatisfaction and revolt all over the kingdom. In military and judicial affairs also. The Rise of the New Kingdoms : As a result of the decline of the Sultanate a number of new Kingdoms came into existence in different parts of the country. they were successful even in occupying the throne of Delhi with their conspiracy. The Administration of Sultanate :The Sultan was supreme in the administration of the sultanate. the governor of Punjab. The main source of income for the kingdom was land revenue. skill and bravery. About one third of the land-produce was realized as revenue. Oppressed by the tyrFig 4. invited the ruler of Kabul. During the rule of some of the Sultans. Babur. this proportion reached up to a half of the produce.CMYK The Delhi Sultanate The main Sultan of the Lodi dynasty were Sikandar Lodi and Ibrahim Lodi. The major portion of the income was spent on the army. There. Daulat Khan. Many of these kingdoms had 31 CMYK . The post of Mukaddam (head of the village) continues to exist even today. A fierce battle took place at Panipat in 1526 between Babar and Ibrahim Lodi. There was no definite system of succession during this time. Lodi was defeated in the battle and thus came to an end the Lodi dynasty. used to be a subedar in every suba (Province).5 The Tomb of Firoz Tughluq at Hauskhas Delhi anny of Ibrahim Lodhi. at times. the personal expenses of the Sultan and on building magnificent buildings and forts. hot-tempered and headstrong. Ibrahim Lodi was very proud. The officers appointed in villages and districts used to realize the revenue. Some of the sultans inherited the throne where as some occupied it with their intelligence. For the convenience of administration the Sultans of Delhi divided the Kingdom into a number of provinces. to attack India. His behaviour with his officers and the subject was not good.

CMYK Social Science-7 been the provinces of the sultanate and now become independent Kingdom. INDIA IN THE LATE 14th & 15th CENTURIES Kashmir Lahore Delhi The kingdom of Gujarat was founded by Ahmed Shah.6 India In The Late 14th & 15th Centuries Mandavgarh By this time two of the Kingdoms of the Rajputs-Mewar and Marwar-had become quite powerful. Mewar. The Kingdom of Kashmir had also become important during this period. Jodhpur and Bikaner kingdoms also came into existence around this time. He also founded the city of Ahmedabad. In the Deccan the Bahamani Kingdom and the Kingdom of Vijayanagara were important. an officer of Muhammad Tughluq. In the eastern India the two important Kingdoms were those of Jaunpur and Bengal. Vijayanagar and Bahamani. although there existed some sort of rivalry between them. Zainat Abedin was the popular ruler of it. Gujarat. Jaunpur. The ruler of Malwa INDIAN OCEAN was Husangshah. The Chief among these were the kingdoms of Bengal.Ganga Ajmer Ranthombor Kada Ghodi Banaras Chittor Bengal Ahmedabad Khandesh R. Rana Kumbha of Mewar was a man of Versatile genius. He encouraged the study of Sanskrit and Persian and also did many. Mahanadi Deogiri ARABIAN Yarangal SEA BAY Gulbarg R. He belonged to Bahamanshah family of lran. The Bahamani Kingdom was founded by Hasan Gangu. So the Kingdom founded by him came to be known as Bahamani Kingdom. Krishna OF LA Dwar BANGAL KS Samudra H (IN YA Andaman & DI DE A) EP Nikobar Madurai Island (India) Sindh . He founded Fig 4. Besides being a ruler he was a good poet and musician. Marwar. Firoz Shah 32 CMYK Agra R. Malwa. Jaunpur was later to become a centre of Hindi literature and learning. acts of general welfare.

..... 4. .... 3. As they remained unaffected by the turmoils in the north India...... Harihar and Bukkas founded this kingdom which was situated to the south of the Bahamani Kingdom......... Mughals) . Most of the ruler the. 5. A 1... north...sent an army towards the deccan under the command of Malik Kafur. architecture and the regional languages during their time... 2.. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate words given in the brackets :1...India.....(Balban. (Firoz. Delhi. Vijayanagara Kingdom-Two brothers named.. 2. They... 4...CMYK The Delhi Sultanate was the most powerful ruler of this dynasty.. . 2....stationed his army on the borders to stop attacks by Mongols. Alauddin) Arab traveller. 5. Mohammad-bin-Tughluq.. The rulers of the Bahamani and the Vijayanagara Kingdoms were very ambitious and wanted to bring under their control the whole of the peninsula. Turks...... Raziya... . central) 5.... (Afghanis. Iltutmish. (Balban.... Founder of the slave dynasty.... Iltutmish) 33 CMYK 4.... Use of token currency. 3.. Bahmani and Vijayanagar were the two main kingdoms in .. (South... Notable progress was made in art. Raziya. Attack of Chenghez Khan. Alauddin.. they made useful contribution to the development of the Indian culture and civilization. EXERCISES I..... 3... Ibrahim Lodi).... B Battle with Babar in Panipat... Tughluq.. therefore were always at war... Ibn-battutah has given a description of the reign of .... Qutub-ud-din Aibak Iltutmish Alauddin Khilji Mohammad-bin-Tughluq Ibrahim Lodi 1. east..... Mongols.. Sultanate were. II... Match the contents in column A with those in column B... Control on market price. But even then they continued to hold their sway for two hundred years. As a result of their mutual jealousy and warfare they could not make their position strong. Alauddin Khilji....

Things to do : 1. 34 CMYK . 4. 2. Draw the outlines of the Chief Kingdoms during the Sultanate in the map of India. How did Alauddin Khilji expand his kingdom? IV. Essay-type questions: 1. 2. 3. Make a list of the Sultans of the Delhi Sultanate according to the families and write against each the duration of their rule in the Christian years. 3. Mention three of the important events of Mohammad Turghluq’s time. V. 2. 5. Why did the Turk nobles oppose Raziya? Mention about the land tax and the price control policies of Alauddin Khilji. Muhammad Tughluq’s policies failed although they were well thought why ? Which kingdoms rose in India after the fall of the Sultanate? Give a description of the Bahamani and the Vijayanagara Kingdoms. Describe the system of administration of the Delhi Sultanate. Short answer questions : l.CMYK Social Science-7 III.

Whenever a new Sultan was enthroned the Khutba or sermon was read in his name and new coins bearing his name were minted and issued. As a result of the prevailing disunity and want of the spirit of nationalism. 35 CMYK . the nobles and the wealthy lived a life of pomp and show. The Brahmins and the Ulemas were an important part of society as teachers of religion. from the very ancient times there came to live in Indian people belonging to different culture patterns and religious beliefs. During the early medieval period the Arabs came to Sind and the South as traders. conspiracies and revolts began to take place. expanded them into empires and gradually settled down here. The general townmen and the peasants belonged to the other groups. The Turks and the Arabs. the nobles. Social life: Indian society was divided into four major groups during the period of the Sultanate. brought with them the ideas. Those among them who acted as advisers to the Sultan exercised a tremendous influence. the Hindu princes and the Landholders. And with their settling down in India. but the life of the conquerors also gets influenced by the culture of the conquered people. Thus. foreign ruler attacked our country captured and then began to rule over it. Some of them founded their Kingdoms in India. the cultures and the patterns of living of Iran and central Asia. who came to India. Not only is the conquered country influenced by these new patterns. full of luxury. The aristocracy and the priesthood held the highest position. Following the footsteps of sultan. The Sultan lived a life of Splendour in Delhi. In such a situation some powerful. Indian society got influenced by them. Indian gradually developed as new type of culture which was a fusion of a variety of living pattern and thoughts. The Turks and Afghans came to the north from the central Asia as invaders. Thus. the Indian culture and patterns of living also influenced them. they bring with them new ideals of life as also new patterns of living.CMYK The Life of The People During The Sultanate CHAPTER-5 THE LIFE OF THE PEOPLE DURING THE SULTANATE We have already read that India had become a house divided against itself. The aristocracy was the ruling class which consisted of the Sultan. Whenever a foreign people conquer a country and settle down in it.

Some of the towns were administrative and military centres and some towns were places of religious pilgrimage. Love and war were include into Islam on account of the Sufi Saints. They settled down in different parts of India. The people living in towns were generally the merchants traders and artisans. Many Hindus became the followers of these Sufi saints. Most of the towns were trading centres. He lived at Ajmer for a long time and also died there. 36 CMYK . fasting rituals of worship etc.CMYK Social Science-7 Some of them were exceptionally wealthy and had received grants of land. both Hindus and Muslims were influenced by each other and each borrowed some religious ideas-from the other. The Purdah system and the custom of child marriage got wider acceptance. The Sufis : Along with the Turks. The status of women declined gradually. and some nobles and officers. Among them were some Sufi saints. The life of the peasants continued much as before. This gave rise to two religious trends-the Sufi movement and the Bhakii movement. Moin-ud-din Chisti was a great sufi saint of his time. He was honoured by both the sultan and the common man. He was convinced that bhakti (devotional) music was also a path leading to God-Urs is held every year on his mansoleum even today. They had a broad outlook and were-tolerant of other communities and their religions. a number of saints and religious preachers came to India. The artisans lived in a special locality of the city according to their crafts. Religious life : Islam came to India with the turks and the Afghans. Even today we find that some localities and areas of cities are called after the type of artisans and merchants who lived there at one time. They believed that man could gain access to God if he bore real love for him in his heart. These Sufi saints did not give much importance to prayer. Among the royal families and the wealthy families polygamy was practised. Another famous saint of this very community was saint Nizamuddin Auliya who lived near Delhi. Although there was some bitterness at the outset. The caste system was an important feature of society during the time. The changes brought about by the coming of the Turks and Afghans remained limited to the upper levels of society. They preached love and devotion and Bhakti as the means of coming nearer to God. These customs resulted into a decline in the status of women. This resulted in many things.

His teachings have been compiled in a book called “Granth Sahab. Vallabhacharya was a Telgu brahmin of the South.” Nanak said emphatically that all men are equal and therefore there should be no differences based on castes.CMYK The Life of The People During The Sultanate The Bhakti Movement : Many saints who tried for the Hindu muslim unity were born in the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries. He was a devotee of Lord Krishna. He laid emphasis on Fig. He wrote the Gita in Marathi and brought it within the reach of the common man. That is why it is called the Bhakti Movement. Kabir-followers (Kabir-Panth. 5. All such saints laid greater emphasis on love as the means of coming closer to God. Suradasa was the main poet belonging to this group. He composed many couplets on Krishna-Lila and sang them in chorus. The group of the eight Chief disciples of his is called “Ashta-Chhap”. Later on his followers became very powerful in north-India. In Banaras Kabir spread Bhakti through the language of the people. Kabir was a social reformer and symbol of communal unity.). Nanak was another important preacher of religion. Vrindaban and Varanasi etc. He tried to remove the discrimination between the Hindus and the Muslims. His teachings areas valuable and relevant today as they were during his time. Both of them preached that love was the means of developing devotion to God.1 Khwaja Moin-ud-din Chistie’s Mausoleum at Ajmer 37 CMYK . He rebuked both the Hindus and the Muslims for the unnecessary ritual the show and the bigotism. Sant Namdeo and Sant Tukaram also were born in Maharashtra. In the north and preached devotion to the service of Krishan. Sant Gyaneshwara in Maharashtra preached Bhakti. Mahaprabhu Chaitanaya preached religion in Bengal. He travelled on places of Pilgrimage like Mathura. He held that god is one and is called by different names. The disciples or Kabir set up different community by the name. rather than on ritual. He founded the Sikh religion.

plundered the country and took away with them unlimited wealth and money.3 Guru Nanak The raiders that had come to India before the Turks and the Afghans e. The Sultans and the noblemen gave encouragement to business and industry in order to meet their needs. The Chief canons of his teaching were one God. and one name to worship.CMYK Social Science-7 the purity of mind and character. The Sultans of Delhi tried their utmost to improve the economic condition of the country. The preachers preached in the language of the people. He held that the restrictions with regard to eating based on caste differences were of no avail and insisted that everyone of his followers should eat in a common kitchen (Langar). and that rituals are not necessary. Fig 5. But when the Sultans of Delhi established their Kingdom in India. 38 CMYK . Avery important advantage that occurred from it Was the development of literature in Hindi and the regional languages the most important aspect of the Bhakti Movement was that it tried to bring closer the followers of Hinduism and Islam by removing their differences and bridging the gulf between them. Influence on the people : The Bhakti Movement widely influenced the society of the time.g. Mahmud of Ghazni and Taimur Lung. This led to the strengthening of the sense of devotion to God among the common man as also among the people of the low classes. All the saints had laid emphasis on devotion to God and purity of character in their teachings.2 Kabir The Economic life : Fig 5. Many cooperative factories were also opened. the wealth and property of the country were put to use within the country itself. One can realise God through love. one Guru. They preached that for the devotion to God one need not give up this world.

irrigation tax. The source of income of the state was the land tax. Persian. China. coins in a large quantity were minted and circulated. Zakat (a religious Tax) was collected from the Muslims and the whole income from this was utilised for helping the poor. It was during this time that the system of weights by tolas was started which continued till the modern adoption of the metric system. tax on the mineral wealth. Jajia tax used to be realized from the Hindus. Indian traders carried on their trade with Malaya. herbs. utensils of metal ivory goods etc. were the other sources of income of the state. On Account of the extensive rise of money in trade and business. The silver coins were called tank and these were started by Sultan Iltutmish. Lakhnoti. Central Asia. Turkish as well as 39 CMYK . Every town had a market place. therefore exercised its influence on many languages in the country and many Persian words found their way into the different Indian languages. house tax. Khamobat. It was something between a half to one third of the land produce and was realized in cash coins or in kind. Big fairs were also held in which traders would assemble to buy and sell goods. Multan.CMYK The Life of The People During The Sultanate Trade reached a new height during this period. It was a tax imposed on the non muslim citizens. Foreign traders brought gold to India and in exchange took away with them cotton and silk cloth. It was on the lines of the tankah that the silver rupees were issued later on. to their countries. Afghanistan and many European countries. pilgrimage tax etc. that did not bring about any change in the traditional agricultural work. The two forms of Hindi-Braj and Avadhi were used. came into existence as a result of the mixture of Persian with Hindi. Language and Literature : Regional languages developed in this age and literature was produced in them. The grammar of Urdu was the same as that of Hindi but its vocabulary was drawn from Persian. An African traveller. Giving the account of his travels he has recorded that the magnificent city he ever visited was Delhi. Ibn-Batutah came to India during Muhammad Tughluq’s reign. Although the Sultans in Delhi drew up. been before. Sortargaon (Bengal) etc. The main occupation of the common people was agriculture. Iran. Urdu. In addition to this octroi on commodities of trade. The main cities and ports were Broach. Persian was the court language in several parts of the country. The life of the peasants in villages remained as it had. Food stuff was in abundance and its price was also low. many a plan for the improvement of agriculture. A new language. The common man’s life was full of wants and poverty. The village folks earned their living by agriculture and small scale crafts.

in private residences as well. tombs and a little later. Khusrau’s puzzles are still prevalent among the community. Two of the very important architectural forms of this period were the arch and the dome. both the arch and the dome were widely use in mosques. Architecture: The Turks and Afghans brought with them new styles and techniques of architecture. Over and above the works of translation. Bengali in the east. Gradually Urdu began to be used mainly in the towns. Both of these forms were based on advanced mathematics and engineering skill. the Ramayana and the Mahabharata were translated not only in the regional languages. plays etc. After the coming of these new styles. Vidyapati etc. Malik Muhammad Jayasi. The construction of the tall. the Puranas. He wrote in the language of the common people in addition to creating works in Arabic and Persian. So they lived under the royal patronage. The musical instruments like the Sitar. Sometimes they painted the portraits of their patron kings and sometimes they illustrated the events described in the books with their paintings. The inclusion of new forms enriched the art of music also.CMYK Social Science-7 Hindi. In the same way. there were many poets and writers who produced original works in various languages in the forms of epic poems. Gujarati in the west. The coming together of the two styles of architecture resulted into the construction of some very beautiful buildings. Amir Khushrau was famous poet and learned man of this age. Education and Literature Loving Sultans open many maktabs and Madarassas for muslim students. These got merged with the ancient Indian styles and new type of architecture developed. Punjabi in the north. lyric poems. slender tower was another style of this period. the Sarangi and the Tabla became very popular during this time. Famous among such poets and writers were the Telegu poet. Maithil poet. Marathi in the South. Srinadha. but also in Arabic and Persian. 40 CMYK . Painting and Music : The artists of the time were engaged in decorating books -belonging to the rulers and the courtiers. The maktabs and schools attached to mosques and temples were the centres of learning. Many of the popular literary works in Sanskrit viz. The Qutub Minar built during the reign of the Mamluk sultans and the nearby mosque were the earliest of these constructions.

Awadhi. During this period the main occupation of the people was agriculture.... painting. A 1..was the court language in a large area of the country during the Sultanate Period.. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’ against the ones that are false: 1. 4.CMYK The Life of The People During The Sultanate The coming of the Afghans and the Turks resulted into many experiments with new patterns of living.... . Nanak Chaitanya Kabir Gyaneshwara 1. 2. Amirkhusrau) III. Fill in the blanks with the correct word/words given in the brackets: 1.. 5.wrote puzzles in the people’s language during the Sultanate rule. The life of common people was full of wants and poverty... 4. 41 CMYK .. 2. II. 4. (Braj... Bengali) A famous poet. The rulers of Ahmednagar built beautiful buildings on the hills of Mandu. . 3.. (Kabir.. Founded the Sikh-religion. As a result there took place the development of religious movements. (Urdu. 3.... B Preached Bhakti in Maharashtra Preached Bhakti in the peoples languages in Banaras. Urdu..) A new language born out of mixture of Hindi and Persian was....... Hindi.. In the Sultanate period Indian traders travelled within local and foreign countries.. 3.. Persian.. 2... architecture and new and beautiful styles of music. Match the names in column A with contents in column B. 3.. Preached Krishan-Bhakti in Bengal. EXERCISES I. 2.... The Chief source of income for the state was trade......... Sur... Sanskrit.. languages.

4. 8. 5. Short answer questions :1. Throw light on the condition of women during the Sultanate period. Give an account of the development in language and literature during the Sultanate period. 3. 6. Describe the condition of the peasantry during the Sultanate period. Kabir and Vallabhacharya. Kabir. What were the influences of the Sufi saints and the Saints of the Bhakti movement on the society at that time? How did the Turks and the Afghans influence the architecture & music in India? Give an account of the following in 3 sentences each Nanak. What were the contributions of the Sufi saints to Indian society? Describe the main characteristic of the society during the Sultanate period. 42 CMYK .CMYK Social Science-7 IV. Things to do: Collect interesting details about Nanak. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. 2. Vallabhacharya V. Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. 7.

the Afghan Chief of Delhi. Babur had Punjab Previously raided as far Delhi as the border of India. The Lodi also agreed to INDIA ON THE EVE help Babur against OF MUGHAL Ibrahim Lodhi.CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India CHAPTER 6 THE COMING OF THE MUGHALS AND THE EUROPEANS TO INDIA The political situation in India was in disarray before the attack of the Mughals.D. So. the Sultan CONQUEST Kashmir of Delhi. OF Babur (1526 to 1530 A. Sultan Ibrahim Lodi was the last emperor of the Sultanate in north India. They plotted with Babur. surrendered to Babur without giving him a LA KS H (IN YA DI DE A) EP Vijaynagar BANGAL Andaman & Nikobar Island (India) OCEAN Madurai INDIAN Map 6. the ruler of Kabul.) Daulat Khan. Ibrahim Lodi could not keep them under his control on account of his incapability. he agreed in no ARABIAN SEA time and reached Punjab Golcomba BAY Bijnor with his army.1 India at the time of the Mughal Victory. many of the Afghan chiefs revolted against the Sultan and declared themselves independent rulers of so many kingdoms In such a situation many of the Afghan Turkish chiefs took to conspiracy. He Sind Mewar Agra knew that India was a rich country and hence Bundel Bihar when he was asked for Khand Gujrat Berar military aid by the chiefs Orissa Khandesh of lndia. Rana Sanga of Mewar also wanted to exercise his control over Delhi. Lodi. In order to capture the throne of Delhi. The whole country was divided into small kingdoms. to get rid of the Delhi Sultanate. Sultans depended more on the patriotism and loyalty of the Afghan Chiefs. 43 CMYK .

In his childhood he was called ‘Farid’ but after having killed a lion. Humayun. A fierce battle took place on the famous plain of Panipat. He had also a small but well trained expert cavalry. This was the first battle of Panipat. Humayun could not find time to look after the administration. On the other hand. Babur was not only brave warrior and able general but also a superb literary figure. he also helped Babur against Ibrahim Lodi by providing him with military aid. Sher Shah (1540 to 1545 A. Babur himself was a brave and expert general. Humayun (1530 to 1540 A.D. Babur died in 1530 A. Babur attacked Ibrahim Lodi.D. Sultan Bahadur Shah of Gujrat was planning to capture the throne of Delhi. He knew how to plan an effective strategy and use his army to the best advantage. With the desire of becoming the Sultan of Delhi. 6. Babur founded the Mughal rule in India. Humanyun succeeded in conquering Gujrat and Malwa.) After Babur’s death his son. ascended the throne of Delhi. The Afghan chiefs were determined to turn the Mughals out of the country.D. Therefore Humayun had to face a lot of difficulties immediately after coming to the throne. but he Fig. He was well versed in the Turkish language and a poet and writer too.) : Sher Shah was the son of a Chief who was the owner of a small estate in Bihar. the Sultan of Delhi. but he could not live long to make it secure against the enemies. The battle was won by Babur.CMYK Social Science-7 fight. he 44 CMYK . Being preoccupied with all these revolts and having had to face the enemies. In 1526 A. Sher Shah was making efforts to re-establish the influence of the Afghans.D. Babur had brought his artillery with him which was a novel thing for the Indian army.2 Humayun’s Tomb. Delhi could not establish his authority over Western India.

wells were dug and at short districts rest houses were built for the comfort of the travellers. Humayun desired to be the ruler of Delhi once again. He was very much influenced by the policies of Alauddin. Which was built during the Maurya period. On account of this the position of north India weakened. Like Sultan Alauddin. He. On account of all these things he became very popular among his subjects. With the construction of these roads it became easy for the officers. On both the sides of the roads shady trees were planted. After conquering Punjab in 1555 he took possession of Delhi and Agra. The peasants were not required to pay taxes for nothing.3 Sher Shah’s Tomb at Sasaram killed in an explosion in the explosive store during the raid of Kalinjar in 1545 A. the workers and the traders to move from one place to another. adopted the land reforms of Sher Shah as they were. He began the system of paying salaries to the officers in cash the administrative officers and the workers could make a complaint directly to the emperor. Unfortunately. conquered Kandhar and Kabul. He took care to collect the revenue but he also took pain to see that no injustice was done to the peasants. It was Sher Shah who first started the use of the one-rupee coin.CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India was recheristened Sher Khan’. He built roads in the south upto Burhanpur and to Jaunpur in the east to link the borders of his kingdom with Delhi. The same road from Peshawar to Calcutta is now known as the ‘Grand Trunk Road’. with the help of the Shah of Persia. the Mughal rule was established in India once 45 CMYK . Sher Shah got many roads constructed in his kingdom in order to facilitate transportation. He began to tour the Kingdom in order to inspect the work of the officers. He repaired the road stretching from north India to Bengal. he was Fig. Sher Shah could rule only for five years. In this way. Emperor Akbar. By defeating Humayun he became the ruler of India.D. he fixed up the land revenue after measuring the land. Sher Shah organized a powerful army with the help of which he became an independent ruler. Sher Shah organized his army. Sher Shah’s death proved to be boon to Humayun because Sher-Shah’s successors were weak and incapable. Administrative reforms of Sher Shah: First of all. later on. 6.

6. After only one year. In south India. these people with the consent of the Sultan got Mahamud Gavan murdered. He defeated 46 CMYK . The Bahmani Kingdom progressed a great deal in the fifteenth century. Babur. Therefore the Bahmani Kingdom got divided into five independent Kingdoms. He conquered Goa from Vijayanagar so that the profit on trade therefore began to Fig. Making progress gradually he became the Chief Minister of the Bahmani Kingdom. who is counted among the great kings of India. could not enjoy the fruits of his victory for long. The succeeding rulers could not exercise control over their chiefs.D. All this increased the popularity of Mahamud Gavan among the subjects but. Humayun. the greatest ruler of the Vijayanagar Kingdom. Besides this. succeeded him. this kingdom extended upto the river Krishna. the frequency of attacks from the neighbouring Kingdom of Vijayanagar was increasing. They began to conspire against him. In matters of collecting taxes. With his skill and prudence Mahamud Gavan advised the Bahmani Sultan rule justly for nearly twenty five years. His reign continued for about twenty-one years. like his father. Hasan Gangu. he took up employment under the Sultan. His son. The Bahmani Kingdom : The political situation of south India was also affected when the mughals came to power. while coming down from the stair-case of the library he fell down and died. He was a Persian businessman. After coming to India. Mathematics and logic. As he received the title of ‘Alauddin Bahman Shah’. he committed no atrocities on the subjects.CMYK Social Science-7 again. founded the Bahmani Kingdom in the fourteenth century. ruled it. this kingdom came to be known as the ‘Bahamani’ kingdom. some other people began to be jealous of him. In 1481 A.Tughluq. The most powerful ruler of the Bahmani dynasty was Firoz Shah Bahmani He was a good poet and had special interest in Science. Akbar. on the other hand. The credit for this goes to its able and wise minister named Mahamud Gavan.4 Coins of Krishna Deva Rao be received by the Bahmani Kingdom. The Vijayanagar Kingdom : By the end of the fifteenth century when the Bahmani Kingdom started declining after the death of Mahamud Gavan the Vijayanagar Kingdom rose to power again. At that time Krishna Deva Rao. one of the officers of Muhammad-bin.

47 CMYK . Holland and Spain. Marco Polo from Venice and Nikitan from Russia visited South India. Golconda and Ahmednagar. Goa had already become a colony of the Portuguese. In 1408. He gave them lots of facilities. Payes by name. The boundaries of his kingdom extended upto south Konkan in the west. Krishna Deva Rao died in 1530 A. But both of them had come along. Vijayanagar came under the combined attack of the forces of the neighbouring states-Bijapur. India and Europe: At the end of the fifteenth century the Portuguese were the first to come to the Western sea coast of India. He issued orders to his officers with regard to the welfare of his subjects. the first ship of Vasco-de-gama reached India to trade. Krisnha Deva Rao made friendly relations with Portuguese also. In this way Vijayanagar lost it glory.g. By and by they commanded over small Indian territories and established their factories there. Krishna Deva Rao constructed many temples and palaces.CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India the rulers of Orissa and Bijapur on the battlefield. By the side of the factories the Portuguese built their settlements. Krishna Deva Rao introduced a large irrigation scheme for the agricultural development in his kingdom. He wrote ‘Amukta Malyada’. in 1565 A. a long poetic composition in Telegu. He permitted the Portuguese Governor. France. and was defeated on the battlefield of Taliketa. In the sixteenth century traders came to India from Some other parts of Europe. He took possession of the Doab of Raichur from the Bahmani Kingdom. to trade and established their settlements. Another Portuguese. lived in his court for many years.D. They were so much benefited by their trade that they felt encouraged to settle in India. These European countries wanted to establish trade relations not only with India but with other Asian countries also. Vishakhapattanam in the east and upto the end of peninsula in the south. He was interested in literature and was proficient in Telegu and Sanskrit languages. Such as England.D. Albubuerque to construct a fort. The Three kingdoms of South: The decline of the Vijayanagar Kingdom began just after the death of Krishna Deva Rao. He has given a description of the administrative system prevailing during the reign of Krishna Deva Rao. Before the coming of the Portuguese traders some Europeans had also come to India who travelled various parts of the country e. Denmark. In these settlements lived their missionaries whose main objective was to propagate Christianity. On the Western coast he established friendly relations with all the local kings.

an astronomer and scientist of Italy. a new movement took place in Europe which gave rise to such tendencies as have direct bearing on our modern thinking and living. Learned men studied seriously about the artistic achievements. it began in Italy in the fifteenth century and in the next two centuries it spread to the whole of Europe. Copernicus. their learning reached Italy and Spain. People’s attention was drawn to the Greek and Roman cultures and civilizations that were in existence before the beginning of Christianity. In the beginning of the Seventeenth century Galileo. The Renaissance thinkers emphasized that knowledge should be used for human welfare. Leonardo-da-Vinci was another scientist and artist of 48 CMYK . the influence of the church began to wane on the learned persons. the theory of Copernicus was attempted to be proved by Aryabhatta in India. Now the basis of thinking was what man could perceive and feel. the philosophy and the history of those ancient cultures. This movement is called the Renaissance. Man should do good.: After the long spell of the Dark Ages. This movement revived interest among the people in the ancient culture and civilization of Europe. They came to believe that one could gain knowledge by wisely observing the world around him. Science was born through this process. By and by.CMYK Social Science-7 The Renaissance . Centuries before. Many rules of small kingdoms and wealthy merchants began to take an interest in this. First of all. This added to the curiosity of the Europeans. not because it is God’s command but because all men are human beings. People were not inclined to accept whatsoever was told by the Church about the universe. The knowledge gained by his experiments began to spread to other European countries and thus new scientific discoveries began to be made. In the fifteenth century. The whole atmosphere began to be pervaded with a spirit of enquiry. proved this by his observation and experiment. a Polish philosopher. new ways of thinking developed. People did not believe that knowledge was given by God. The new thoughts of the Renaissance were enthusiastically accepted by the merchants and the middle class people in the cities because they were against the church and feudalism. the literature. He invented the telescope and through it studied the sun and other planets. To prove his theory he used his scientific methods. This idea of Copernicus prevented a revolutionary thought before the scholars of the world because upto that time it was taught by the church that the earth was created by the God and thus it was the centre of the universe. Consequently. tried to prove that the sun is the centre of the universe and the earth and other planets move around it. People were not inclined to accept everything blindly. God and human life. Due to long standing trade contacts with the Arabs.

6A Specimen Ship of the 16 th Century western Asia was under the control of the Turks. Had that trade stopped. On having taken possession of Constantinople by the Turks. As a consequence many European sailors set out on seaFig 6. the Europeans had no knowledge of the other parts of the world. The period of Discoveries and Inventions: The thoughts of the Renaissance period spread fast from one city to another all over Europe. Previously. ‘pleasure and pain very effectively in his dramas. The Monalisa portrait made by him was an incomparable piece of painting. The European kings and the merchants encouraged old and adventurous sailors to discover new sea-routes to Asia in order to gain the advantage of direct trade with Asia. a great portion of Fig 6. Europe had the need of Asian Spices and many European cities were dependent on this trade. The scientists of the Renaissance period were ready to help these sailors to hunt for new searoutes.CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India Italy.7 Vasco-de-Gama expeditions towards different directions to discover new sea-routes. he invented a number of machines out of which the ‘flying machine’ was the most exciting of his experiments. The simplest and easiest route from Europe to Asia was through Western Asia which was now closed. At the same time an incident took place in Europe. In his paintings. the trade relations between Europe and Asia came to an end. Trade between Europe and Asia was necessary for many reasons. he beautifully depicted the feelings of an average human being. these cities would have declined. In the field of literature Shakespeare was a great dramatist of the later Renaissance period and he gave expression to human hopes and aspirations. Thus the 49 CMYK . For example.D.Till then. It was the capture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 A. Being interested in science.

Another Portuguese sailor was Vasco-de-Gama. the Spainiards also did not lag behind in this sphere. First of all. Portuguese. Geographers would effect changes according to the new knowledge in their records. the tip of Southern Africa. D.8 Columbus civilization of Peru. By this time. They conquered these areas. he continued his journey along the eastern coast too. therefore. Before long.D. Therefore the continent was named America. but they discovered two great civilization in America. Under the leadership of Columbus. Prior to this the Indian trade was dominated by the Arabs. the Portuguese came forward in this direction. their position became strong in India. sailed towards the West and reached the islands of West Indies. which he took to be a part of India. First of all. destroyed these civilization and took away the gold and silver from there to Spain. geographers had come to know that it was a new continent. Columbus wanted to reach India by the Western route. Following Diyaz. the Portuguese brought under their control the Arab trade.D. Whenever a ship went to a new country it returned with new information and knowledge. These were the Ajtex civilization of Mexico and the Incas Fig 6. Like the. Cochin and Cannanor. a Spanish sailor a sea-expedition started. progress and improvements were made in the drawing of maps. The existence of the continent of America was proved.D. And he sailed up to Cape of Good Hope. So they opposed the Portuguese. The invention of the ‘Mariner’s 50 CMYK . The Spanish kings bore all the expenses of it. This was in the year 1492 A.CMYK Social Science-7 period of new discoveries began. The Spainiards met with no success in respect of Asia. When Magellane went around the world in 1519 A. Queen Isabela gave him help. Bartholomew Diyaz travelled along the Western Sea-Coast of Africa in 1488 AD. but by making attacks on the Arab trade settlements. Thereafter the Portuguese merchants started coming to India. after the name of Amerigo. Scientists and geographers helped the sailors immensely in the discovery of new trades and new countries. They built trade houses at Calicut. Crossing the Arabian sea he reached the harbour of Calicut on the Western Sea-Coast of India in 1498 A. Amerigo Vespucia was successful in reaching America in 1497 A. He.

The Portuguese were also the first to fit good quality guns in their ships and thus they increased their fighting power. Now ships could sail. across the sea. At the beginning of the sixteenth century persons denouncing the church organized themselves. The biggest leader of the church was called the Pope. denounced the church. Gradually the rights of the Pope and those of the church began to be challenged. Their version of Christianity was of a later date and was accepted from all over northern and Western Europe. They held that their religious outlook was the order and more orthodox one. Pope means ‘father’. The Reformation and its reaction: From the ‘Dark Ages’ upto the Renaissance. 51 CMYK . He could punish those who opposed the accepted beliefs and practices in the field of religion. John Kelvin etc. other European countries joined in later on. During this period the Pope was the most powerful authority in both political and religious matters. One of them was the Roman Catholic and the other was the Greek orthodox Christianity. Rome was the centre of the Roman catholics. It lessened the danger of getting the ships lost in the sea. These countries were. In many northern countries of Europe. Feelings of the people grew stronger against the Roman catholic church and at last they broke away from it. None could challenge it. The Portugueseinvented the movable sails which could be adjusted according to the direction of wind. the church had a right to collect taxes of various kinds from the public. at last successful in setting up their dominions in Asia and Africa.CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India compass’ proved to be a boon for the sea voyages. The authority of the Pope was unlimited and uncontrolled. In this adventure of hunting new searoutes and discovering new lands. Till then. By now Christianity was divided into two groups. The compass was invented in China and it reached Europe through the Arabs. Trading was encouraged. Constantinople was the centre of the greek orthodox religion. the governments in these countries began to take interest in trading with Asia. By and by. Christian theologians like Martin Luther. the property of the Church was snatched away and the taxes collected by the Church began to be deposited in the royal treasury. Christianity was the dominant religion in Europe. Erasmus. On account of this division of Christianity a lot of blood was shed because the Catholics and the Protestants continued their fight against each other for along lime. But now people began to object to these taxes also. People began to express their indignation at the interference of the Church in secular matters like politics. into a new group of Christians called the “Protestants” This movement is known as the reformation movement in religion.

2. Leaving aside Aurangzeb.CMYK Social Science-7 The Portuguese in India: The Portuguese came to India to trade. Christianity was not a new religion for India. Akbar was the symbol of this new civilization. They succeeded in their aim by even resorting to piracy. 52 CMYK . They did’ not hesitate even to compel the people to become christians. B The Kingdom of Vijayanagar became powerful. Yet the Portuguese were not satisfied with that situation. Their first objective was to take over the control of the spice trade from the Arabs. 1. India and later on. The Portuguese had another interest in India. settled down here and became a part of the Indian population. India got the opportunity to witness the era of a new civilization. They wanted to convert into Christianity as many Indians as possible. The result of the Mughal rule was the laying of the foundation of a powerful empire in which almost the whole of India was included. They tried their allmost to convert as many Indians to Christianity as possible. Came from Venice and visited south India. 4. The biggest difference with them and the earlier invadors was that the Mughals made India their home. 3. They established the inquisition also in India. A After defeating Humayun Sher Shah. other Mughal rulers were liberal in their religious outlook and policy. Match the contents of the column A with those of column B. The Syrian Christians had been living peacefully in India for many centuries before that. Declared himself the ruler of India. The Mughals in India : The Mughals came to India to establish their empire and they did get success in it. Mahmud Gavan helped the Bahmani kings At the end of the fifteenth century when the Bahmani Kingdom declined Marco Polo 1. Came from Russia and travelled in the Deccan. To snatch away the spice trade they had to establish their settlements in west Asia. 3. EXERCISES I. 4. in Southeast Asia. They always kept the welfare of India in view. 2.

was the first European who reached America.. Short answer questions: 1. In 1526 a battle was fought on the famous plains of...... (Mahamud Gavan.... Nikitin 5... Galileo... 6.. Al Beruni) . Kingdom..a sultan as Akbar if he had more time to rule.......... 4. 5.....when Babur defeated the Lodi army. Tarain.. 8. (Magelane.discovered that the earth moves round the sun... (Babur. 7.. Columbus.. Panipat) It was possible that . 3. Ibn Batutah. was an able chief minister of the Bahmani......CMYK The Coming Of The Mughals and The Europeans to India 5...Vinci. (Talikota... Leonardo-da. Leonardo-da-Vinci) .......... 2... 5.... Amengo Vespucia Vasco-de-Gama) Give three reasons for the first battle of Panipat. might have become as great.. 1.... Galileo...... 9.. Fill in the blank with the right word or words from those given in brackets....... Who was Sher Shah? Why did he get success? How did Humayun regain his lost Kingdom? Who established the Bahmani Kingdom? Who was Krishnadeva Rai? Why is he remembered? Who were the first Europeans to come to India and why did they come? What is meant by ‘Renaissance’? What was its influence on Europe? Write two sentences on each: Copernicus. Rule wisely and justly for twenty five years. 4..... Essay... 1.. 2..... 3. What do you understand by the Reformation? Give an account of Sher Shah’s administration..... Humayun.. Sher Shah) . II..... (Copernicus..type questions : Things to do: Find out the routes in the world map through which the Arabs and the Europeans came to India.............. 53 CMYK .

D.1 Akbar Akbar’s first conflict was with Hemu. Hemu was a general of proved merit and he had a large army. Delhi and Agra of Adil Shah Sur and his Hemu. Hakims Possession. Bairam Khan looked after the affairs of the state. At the beginning Akbar ficulties. At that time Humayun had taken refuge at Amarkot after being defeated by Sher Shah. As a result of the victory in the second battle of Panipt. He did not know that the son born in such adverse circumstances. But his heart was not in studies. his guardian. Akbar regained his control 54 CMYK . Akbar was thirteen years old at the time.A. Akbar’s childhood was spent in misery.1556 and declared him the emperor of Delhi. A. Sikandar trouble in Punjab. he fell down. had to face a lot of difwere under the control Chief Minister was were seeking an lost power. Bairam Khan held Akbar’s coronation at that very place on February 14. arrangements for his education was made. were a number of was short of money conditions of the Fig 7.D. The Mughal army was victorious. put to death. The Rajputs also opportunity to regain their Shah Sur was creating Kabul was in Mirza Besides this. Akbar and the economic country was in a shambles. in the palace of Veersal a Hindu King of Amarkot (Sind). On his removal from the battlefield confusion and stampede took place among his soldiers. between the two armies. A fierce battle took place on the historical plains of Panipat on November 15. 1542. Hemu was taken prisoner and later on. But on being pierced by an arrow suddenly in the eye. there small Kingdoms. 1556. Akbar was very young.CMYK Social Scince-7 CHAPTER -7 AKBAR Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar was born on 23rd November. would one day become a great emperor of India. He was staying with Bairam Khan in Punjab when he got the news of his father’s death. When he became five years old.

He cemented this friendly relations with marriage alliances between his family and those of the Rajputs. She faced the army squarely taking a sword in her hand but when she had no hopes of victory she put an end to her life. Akbar was convinced that to rule over India could be possible only with the support of the Hindus as well as the Muslims. With the help of his Rajput friends Akbar was successful to annex to his empire such forts as Chittore and Rartthambhor. Akbar sent one of his generals Asaf Khan to attack on Gondwana. He put this principle into Practice firstly by establishing friendly relations with the Rajputs. Akbar set him free and took him into his army. In those days the widow queen Durgawati used to rule there on behalf of her minor son. Mandu was his capital. Vir Narayan also died fighting like hero. He also appointed many Rajputs on high offices of his administration. When Akbar came of age he took the reign of administration into his own hands from Bairam Khan. The result of this was that the Mughal Administration was benefitted by the services of many Rajput Chiefs. Nevertheless. Ajmer and Jaunpur. The ruler of Malwa.2 Queen Duragwati ruler of Mewar. He advanced to conquer the important forts of Gwalior. Mansingh was one of his most prominent and efficient generals. Getting defeated Baj Bahadur showed his back but later on surrendered himself. The son of the king of Amer.CMYK Akbar over Delhi and Agra. the Fig 7. He made many pacts and alliances with the Rajputs. He himself married a number of Rajput princesses. He sent his army under the command of Adham khan and Pir Muhammad to gain control over Malwa. This kingdom was situated in the areas around Jabalpur and Mandla of the present Madhya Pradesh. After establishing his authority on a sound footing in Delhi and Agra. Baj Bahadur was given to luxury and was a lover of music. Once again the authority of the Mughals was established in northern India. Udaisingh did not accept defeat 55 CMYK . Asaf Khan plundered the limitless wealth of the Kingdom. he decided to extend the area of Mughal domination. Vir Narayan.

the Mughal army was victorious. Baluchistan and Kandhar and expanded his empire. the kingdom of Ahmednagar was merged with the Mughal empire. Chand Bibi faced the Mughal onslaught very boldly. Ahmednagar. She did not accept defeat till the end.D. Prior to his death. Bijapur and Golconda. on the plains of Haldi Ghati between the armies of Rana Pratap and Akbar. Upto the end of his life. wandered from forest to forest. Rana Pratap underwent a lot of hardships. After the death Chand Bibi. he did not accept Akbar’s domination and continued to struggle for his Fig 7. he did regain his control over the whole of Mewar except Chittore. A very fierce battle took place in 1577 A. The profits from the trade in both these provinces went to the Mughal treasury. Traders in Gujarat traded with the Arabs and the Europeans. When the Mughal army attacked Ahmednagar. into Sarkars and every Sarkar into Parganas. Akbar conducted attacks on Orissa and also on the places of military importance in the North-Western border provinces like Kabul. The highest officer of 56 CMYK . He built up a vast empire and applied a uniform system of administration throughout the country.3 Maharana Pratap motherland. Akbar also annexed to his empire the Kingdoms of Khandesh. ate bread made out of grass. Finally. In those days Chand Bibi ruled over Ahmednagar as the guardian of the minor nephew. they were Important trade centres. He brought about the following improvements in order to reinforce the administration :Akbar divided the whole empire into 15 Subas (Provinces) and every Suba was divided. Maharana Pratap carried on his struggle against Akbar. but kept up his dignity. The Army of Rana Pratap taught the Mughal army a good lessons of life. He conquered Gujarat and Bengal. Likewise Bengal traders traded with south-east Asia and China in spices and cloth. Rana Pratap was taken away to a safe place. The Administration of Akbar Akbar was an unbriddled aristocrat. Since there areas were connected with the sea. Akbar’s desire was to exercise control over the whole of India.CMYK Social Scince-7 and after his death his son. honour and glory.

But gradually religious liberation and tolerance came to him. He executed ten year settlements. First of all. self tax. Under this system each noble was given a mansab (rank).CMYK Akbar every Suba was a Subedar who was responsible for the maintenance of law and order in the Suba. The land-development carried out during Akbar’s time were of great importance and the credit for this goes to his Dewan. The trade system: Agriculture was the main occupation. The rank of a mansab was valued high or low according to the number of mounted soldiers one was authorized to keep. The administration of a city was the responsibility of the Kotwal. The chief sources out of these was the revenue. making opium and liquor were the other common occupations. paper making. The emperor had a select band of soldiers and an artillery. freedom. Akbar himself 57 CMYK . production of equipments for war. He adopted a policy of equality. monopoly trade. there was not the fear of any Mansabdar’s using his army against the emperor. octroi duty and land tax. The useful trades of cloth making. The land revenue was fixed at onethird of the annual produce calculated on a ten year average. Todarmal. The religious policy: At the beginning. Fishing. The cultivator could credit the revenue either in cash or in kind. cotton cloth making made a great progress. making utensils of different metals were in a state of development. tolerance. saltmaking. The Mansabdari system was established in order to strengthen the administration. liberalism and compromise with regard to all religions. The officers in charge of land development were paid handsome salaries so that they did not trouble the farmers. The Dewan kept the record of land revenue. Trade both internal as well as external made a good progress. The emperor could deploy the army of a mansabdar as he liked. The sources of Income of the State : The sources of income were the mint inheritence. Akbar was a staunch muslim. The Bakshi met the needs of the army and sent necessary information regularly to the Capital. presents. land was divided into categories measure the fields chains made of bamboos were introduced. These were from 10 to 10. according to his convenience. The system of transferring the officers from one place to another from time to time was also started. Therefore.000 in number.

4. Akbar accepted the principles of conduct and behavior of the Hindu religion. ‘Sursagar’ of Surdas. Christians. In order to attain compromise and adjustment. He stopped realizing the Zazia tax from the Hindus. Jains and Buddhists and showed an attitude of respect towards all religions. where he would hold discussions with the saints and learned men belonging to different religions. the successors of Akbar could rule peacefully for about 150 years after him. Pilgrimage tax imposed on the Hindus was abolished. On account of his policy it became possible to establish peace and strengthen the economic position of the country. Famous poets and literary men like Surdas. 2. 5. He built a place of worship (Ibadat Khana) at Fatehpur Sikri in 1575 AD. Birbal. lived during Akbar’s rule. Abul fazal. As a result. He made no discrimination among Hindus. Akbar’s liberal policy brought about a coordination and cohesion in the society. Akbar’s state authority was strengthened by the support of the Hindus. Raskhan. Muslims. Although the paths of realization were different. He studied the basic principles of all religions and came to the conclusion that the fundamental principles of all religions were the same. The fanaticism and bigotism of Islam were turned down by Akbar’s’ religious policy. Tulsidas. 6. Development of Fine Arts and Literature: (1) Literature: Tremendous progress was made during the reign of Akbar in the fine Arts and Literature.CMYK Social Scince-7 was intelligent He could analyse and test the other Scriptures in the light of reason. He used to put’ on a ‘tilak’ on his forehead and performed worship also. among the different religions and to establish a new religion he started a new sect called the Din-i-Ilahi. Parsis. The non-muslims gave up opposing the Mughal rule. ‘Ram Charit Manas’ of 58 CMYK . Faizi. The consequences of Akbar’s Religious Policy: 1. Keshav das. 3. Hindu women used to worship different Gods and goddesses in his palace. Badayuni etc. Abdul Rahim Khankana. A fusion between the Hindu and the Muslim cultures took place on account of the coming together of the Hindus and the Muslims.

A fusion of the Indian and the Persian styles of painting began to be made during Akbar’s time. Bright colours were used in the paintings of the time. (3) Architecture: A mixing of the Indian and the Persian style of architecture was done in the buildings built during Akbar’s time. Lahore. Akbar got forts built in Agra. was a famous singer of his court. Akbar got Sanskrit books translated into Persian. the Buland Darwaza etc. He laid the foundation of a secular state by giving the freedom of religion to all. Jodhabai’s palace. Fig 7. (2) Music and Painting : Music made progress during Akbar’s time. Jama Masjid. Emperor of Music. Akbar partronised painting also. painting and architecture. the palace of the Turk Sultan. The buildings of importance here were the Diwan-e-Khas. ‘Ramchandrika’ of Keshav Das. the Diwan-e-Aaam. He invited artists from overseas to teach painting. He tried to remove the evil social customs. the tomb of Sheikh Saleem Chistie. music. all of Akbar’s actions go to prove him to be a national emperor. Birbal’s palace. Akbar a great National Emperor: If we consider things from a wider angle. 59 CMYK .CMYK Akbar Tulsidas.4 Akbar’s mausoleum at Sikandara Paintings of trees. He encouraged inter-caste marriages. rivers. During his reign great advancement was made in the fields of literature. He treated the Rajputs with honour. He established political unity in the country by conquering the largest areas of the country. He himself however was not lettered. Akbar built a city Fatehpur Sikri by name. animals and human beings used to be done very attractively. Tansen. Discrimination was done away with while making appointments to the posts under the Government. the palace of Mariam. The fort of Agra is a fine specimen of architecture. ‘Akbar-Nama’ of Abul Fazal and also ‘Aine Akbai’ were very famous in literary works.mountains. and Allahabad.

11. 4. 6. How and why did Akbar free himself from his guardian. 5. Give any five results of Akbar’s religious policy.? Explain the development in literature and Arts during Akbar’s time. How did Maharana Pratap struggle to save his motherland? How did Chand Bibi struggle against the Mugha1s? What was the influence of Akbar’s Rajput policy on the minds of the people? Mention the characteristics of the mansabdari system of Akbar. 8. Describe the second battle of Panipat and mention its results. 10. 17. 2. 14.CMYK Social Scince-7 EXERCISES Essay-type Questions: l. 15. “Akbar was a great national emperor” Elucidate. 7. l2. 16. Bairam Khan? Mention the incident of queen Durgawati’s sacrifice. What were the primary difficulties during Akbar’s accession to the throne? What were the battles fought by Akbar for the expansion of his Kingdom? Explain Akbar’s Rajput policy? Explain Akbar’s administrative system? Explain the taxation system of Akbar? What was Akbar’s religious policy? What was its influence on the society of that time. Short-answer question : 9. 13. 18. 3. Make a mention of the famous buildings of Akbar’s time? Choose the correct alternative and write it: 60 CMYK .

to pay the salary in cash to start the Mansabdari system. he abolished evil social customs. the most important was : (1) (2) (3) (4) to abolish the Jagir system. 61 CMYK . Akbar secured the faith of the people. (d) Akbar is considered a national emperor because : (1) (2) (3) (4) (e) Collect the pictures of the famous buildings of Akbar’s time. to keep the navy. The Mughals struck roots in India. Akbar got control over Delhi. he ruled as a secular ruler. Akbar made himself free from treacherous courtiers. (b) The main result of Akbar’s Rajput policy was that : (1) (2) (3) (4) It brought about Hindu-Muslim Unity. (c) Among Akbar’s measures of improving the strength of the army. It facilitated Akbar to win other victories. he expanded the Mughal empire in India.CMYK Akbar (a) The most important result of the battle of Panipat was that : (1) (2) (3) (4) Hemu was killed. he brought about improvement in literature and art. Akbar got reliable persons to help him.

Before that he was the Subedar (Governor) of Awadh and Bengal. In the beginning he managed the administration well and made no changes in the religious and administrative policies of Akbar.1 Jehangir about his reign. Life at the court went on becoming more and more luxurious. This work of Jehangir provides us with a lot of information Fig 8.D. his eldest son. ascended the throne by the name of Jehangir. Jehangir : After the death of Akbar in 1605 A. He had a very good knowledge of Turkish and Persian. During their reigns the area under Mughal control was expanded and its revenue increased. Marriage with Nur Jahan : In 1611 A. During Jehangir’s time the art of Painting reached its zenith. Shahjahan and Aurangzeb to rule. She. Jehangir was educated and learned.D.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER 8 THE AGE OF SPLENDOUR AND WEALTH Akbar established a vast empire with his strength and made arrangement for its efficient administration. He wrote his reminiscences in “Tuzuki-Jehangiri” in which persian style can be seen. That is why this age came to be known as the age of splendour and wealth. Jehangir was very deeply influenced by her beauty and 62 CMYK Fig 8. In reality it was Akbar who was the founder of the Mughal empire because he put it on a permanent footing. was a beautiful and intelligent woman. He had a great attachment for painting and was himself a painter of a high order. This made it sufficiently easy for his successor. Jehangir and for the two later rulers.Jehangir married NurJahan.2 Nur Jahan . Salim.

The European traders had started arriving during Akbar’s reign itself. During the reign of Jehangir the king of England sent Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador. Thus Jehangir made the Mughal empire more powerful. Any person was free to appeal against injustice by pulling that chain. During Jehangir’s reign the king of Iran recaptured the Kandhar Province. He sent his army to the hills of Punjab and took control of Kangra.Shah Jahan was Jehangir’s son. Shah Jahan : The reign of Shah Jahan. but failed. He tried to execute a trade agreement with Jehangir. Khurram (Shah Jahan) revolted against him because Nur Jahan wanted Shaheryar to be the successor of Jehangir. Sir Thomas Roe lived in Agra for three years. However. this revolt was put down. Sir Thomas Roe as his ambassador.CMYK The Age of Splendor and Wealth ability. Jehangir is specially remembered for the chain of justice. Nur Jahan shouldered his responsibilities and carried on the administration of the empire. Nur Jahan’s influence continued to grow on the administration and Jehangir displayed growing indifference in the affairs of the state and sank into a life of luxury. Not many battles were fought in his time. but failed. Amar Singh’s entering into a treaty Jehangir continued his father’s policy of matrimonial alliances with the Rajputs. This was a loss to the empire. He tried to execute a trade agreement with Jehangir. Rana Pratap. Nur Jahan appointed her kith and kin to the high posts of administration and this gave rise to dissatisfaction among the courtiers. He had a golden chain with bells tied to it hung by the wall of his palace. came to an end with Pratap’ s son. The struggle that had started between Akbar and the king of Mewar. His son. 63 CMYK . He consolidated the authority of the Mughals in Bengal. He also fell ill for a long period and during that time. Jehangir’s general. The main events of Jehangir’s reign : On the whole the reign of Jehangir was peaceful. Mahawat Khan also revolted but Nur Jahan managed to crush it with her insight and he fled towards the south. The clash with the Ahmednagar Kingdom was a source of trouble. made a treaty and the struggle ended then and there. Jehangir sent a large army under the command of Prince Khurram for an attack but having got frightened Malik Amber. He has given a lively account of the life in the Mughal court. Jehangir had to face internal revolts also. the builder of the World famous ‘Taj Mahal’ was the period of highest glory for the Mughals. the ruler of Ahmednagar.

Shah Jahan had to spend his last days in great misery. Aurangzeb and Muravd. Shah Jahan concentrated his attention on the north west In order to secure. They had established a business settlement at Hugli. Another group in the south to oppose the Mughal authority was that of the Marathas.D. the Deccan. Shah Jahan made his son. Mumtaj Mahal. The revolt in Bundelkhand was suppressed easily. Shuja. The Mughal armies cleared them out of Hugli. Soon after his coming to the throne Shah Jahan had to face the revolts of the Rajputs of Bundel Khand and the Mughal Governor Khan-e-Jahan Lodi. He used to look at the Taj Mahal from the fort and remember his queen. By this time the Portuguese had become quite powerful on the eastern coast.the defence of the north-western border he sent his armies to Balkh and Badak Shan in central Asia.3 Mumtaj Begun and Shah Jahan her the title ‘Mumtaj Mahal’. Then the armies advanced towards the north-east and annexed Kamrupa in Assam. The war of succession ensued soon after amongst his four sons Dara.CMYK Social Science-7 After the death of his father 1628 AD. In the capacity of a prince. But he could not get complete success. Aurangzeb tried his utmost to conquer Bijapur and Golconda and annex these to the Mughal empire. Ahmednagar was made a part of the Mughal empire 1636 A. He succeeded to the throne. Shah Jahan paid his attention to this problem. Shah Jahan was taken ill in 1657 A.D. After sorting out the problems in the Deccan. Ambitious Aurangzeb defeated all his brothers and captured the throne. Aurangzeb the Governor of the Deccan. It was on her grave that the world famous ‘Taj Mahal’ was built. who was very beautiful and was the daughter of Asaf Khan. Shah Jahan confirmed on Fig 8.D. He recaputred Kandhar from the Shah of Iran in 1688 A. He had his marriage with Arjumand Banu. We shall learn about them in detail later on. but this victory did not last long because Kandhar again went out of his hands. At last 64 CMYK . He forced Bijapur and Golconda also accept the Mughal supremacy. he had participated in a battle in which he displayed the qualities of an efficient general. Using it to do piracy in the Bay of Bengal. but the Deccan had by this time become an area of trouble for the Mughals. He also imprisoned his father.

which was studded with costly jewels was placed in this very fort and Shah Jahan used to sit on it.CMYK The Age of Splendor and Wealth Shah Jahan died as a prisoner in 1666 A. At present this diamond is lying safe in the British Museum. The world renowned diamond. he was sentenced to death and executed in Agra. on account of his policy of religious fanaticism gave up Akbar’s policy of religious tolerance. Rajaram and then Chudaman. Aurangzeb. one after the other. Most of Aurangzeb’s time was consumed in putting down these rebellions. the Sikhs and the Marathas revolted against it. the power of the Sikhs was increasing. the Rajputs. The Jat Rebellion: The Jats of Mathura rebelled under Gokula’s leadership against the attrocities of Aurangzeb. On account of this policy the loyalty of the Hindus towards the Mughal rule came to an end. later on. The greatest expansion of the Mughal empire was made during his reign. built a fort at Anandpur. He imposed a lot of restrictions on the non-muslims. The enthusiasm of the Jats did not. however. Twenty thousand Jats confronted the Mughal army. These rebellions took place in the life time of Aurangzeb and continued even after that and helped the decline of the Mughal empire. After the death of the Seventh Guru he tried to take advantage of the differences over the succession of the Guru’s throne. He ruled for nearly fifty years. It is a part of Delhi at present. the Fig 8. Aurangzeb became the Mughal emperor in 1658A. Teg Bahadur. The Jats. In order to put an end to the increasing 65 CMYK . but Gokula was taken prisoner and. They carried on the rebellion under the leadership of first. D. The ninth Guru. In the meantime.D. It was here that he erected the Jama Masjid and the Red fort. weaken at this.e. He built a city “Shah Jahanabad” in his name and made it his capital. The Sikh Revolt: Aurangzeb was unhappy with the Sikhs. This adversely affected the administration.5 Taj Mahal Agra Peacock throne. ‘Kohinoor’ was studded into this throne and it was later looted and taken away by Nadir Shah. The “Takhit-i-Taus” i. Shah Jahan’s reign was a period of great splendor.

With these measures Guru Govind Singh turned to Sikhs into a powerful organization. revolted. under the leadership of Durgadas Rathore. On reaching Deccan Shivaji declared himself to be the independent ruler of the Maratha Kingdom. Shivaji. He was afraid of the powerful courtier. Although Jai Singh did not get success in it. Shaista Khan to fight against. He was not received with due honour and dignity which annoyed him. Then Aurangzeb got purturbed.D. His son. The King of Bijapur sent his general. Which made Punjab a serious danger spot for the Mughal authority. Seeing the weakening of the Bijapur Kingdom Shivaji tried to make himself an independent ruler. At this the Rajputs. Aurangzeb sent his son. Kripan (dagger).D. He sent the governor of the Deccan. In 1665 AD. They were strong in the hilly region around Pune (Poona) and the Konkan. organised the Sikhs and made them militant. Guru Govind Singh. Afzal Khan to fight against Shivaji but Shivaji killed him. Under the leadership of Guru Govind Singh the Sikhs carried on their struggle against the mughals for long time. and Kachcha (underwear). The strength of the Marathas was continuously increasing under Shivaji’s leadership. but Aurangzeb hated them. Aurangzeb tried to annex his kingdom. naturally created a deep anger among the Sikhs. Henceforth the expression ‘Khalsa’ which meant ‘the pure’ began to be used for the Sikhs. Kangha (Comb). The Rajput Rebellion: The Rajputs had contributed a lot to the strengthening of the foundation of the Mughal empire. This. Shivaji sat on the throne in 1674 A. Jodhpur (Marwar). he made Shivaji agree to go to the Mughal court by the treaty of Purandar Shivaji came to the court at Agra along with Jai Singh. but on Shivaji’s making a sudden attack. Jaswant Singh of Jodhpur. To bring about uniformity among the Sikhs it was made compulsory for everyone of them to have the five characteristics: Kesha (hair). chieftains under the control of the Deccan Kingdoms. During the six years of his reign he was successful in establishing a powerful 66 CMYK . Shaista Khan had to flee for his life. Aurangzeb sent Raja Jai Singh to lead an attack on Shivaji.CMYK Social Science-7 power of the Sikhs. The Maratha Rebellion: The Marathas were the small. Aurangzeb put him under confinement in Agra. but the Rajputs won him over their side. With great shrewdness Shivaji slipped out of the confinement. Akbar to crush it. Kara (Iron bracelet). the Mughal administration ordered the execution of Guru Teg Bahadur in 1675 A. But the struggle of the Rathores continued unabated till the last days of Aurangzeb’s life. Afterwards Aurangzeb made a treaty with Rana Jai Singh of Mewar. After his death in 1678 AD.

9 Map of India : The Kingdom of Shivaji-India 1680 A. He consoliBeleari Madras dated the scattered Karwar Mysore Pondichery power of the Marathas Tanjore and organized it in the Trichunapalli form of a powerful nation.D. taxes called ‘Chauth’ and ‘Sardesmukhi’ were also levied on those living outside the Maratha Kingdom (the areas under the Mughal empire and the Deccan). Shivaji’s administration was of high order. The areas from where these taxes were realized. The main-source of income was the tax on land which amounted to two-fifths of the land produce. He issued strict standing orders to his army not to do any harm to the women and children of the enemies and to the standing crops. His death occurred in the year 1680 A. He was a highly reINDIAN OCEAN ligious man but he also maintained an attitude of Map 8. tolerance towards other religions.D. Baroch Burhanpur Elichpwar BAY Nagpur ARABIAN OF Pune SEA BANGAL Satara Bombay Kolhapur Machchalipatnam 67 CMYK .CMYK The Age of Splendor and Wealth Maratha Kingdom. He had a deep respect for women. Shivaji’s name will always be remembered as an uplifter of the nation. He was inspired by the feeling of public welfare in his rule. be over and above the KINGDOM OF SHIVAJI above mentioned tax and was one tenth of the total revenue. which was inspired by the ideals of public welfare. where kept free from the Maratha looting and attacks. ‘Chauth’ was one fourth of tax which the farmers paid to the other kingdoms of the Deccan or to the Mughal empire.D. In addition to this. but there was a committee of eight persons called Ashta-Pradhan to advise him on the affairs of the State. The reins of the Maratha Kingdom were in the hands of the king. He was an able administrator. Present external Boundary of India ‘Sardeshmukhi’ used to INDIA 1680 A. INDIA Shivaji’s character was unique.

both these kingdoms went out of the control of the Mughals. the middle and the low. It was divided into three classes the high. At least. drinking. In the lowest class Golkunda BANGAL were included the farmers. La ho re 68 CMYK . Their life was full of Madurai discontentment and poverty because their INDIAN OCEAN wages were very low an whereas the taxes and. Social and Cultural life in the Mughal Period: The Society: The society during the mughal period was feudal. artisans and Hydrabad labourers. He lived a life of luxury and splendor among the feudatories were Iranians. The Jagirdars and the Zamindars were very rich and lived a luxurious life. music Kashmir and songs. gambling and throwing Delhi lavish parties. The seige of Bijapur and Golcunda continued for years together. both were merged with the Mughal empire although. later on. Indian Muslims and Amirs as well as kings. The emperor occupied the highest status. Turanis. Their dresses and interests exhibited high splendor and glory.D. Their number was a legion. lived Orissa Khandesh a peaceful and contented ARABIAN BAY Berar Ahmadnagar OF SEA life. The Agra officers of the state and Ajmer Allahabad the middle class. Being an orthodox Sunni Aurangzeb harboured enmity towards these princely states right from the time of his father. Present external Boundary of India They spent money freely INDIA 1700 A. fights of AURANGZEB animals and birds. the Map 8. KINGDOM OF on hunting. because their rulers were Shia Muslims.D.10 prices were quite high. Map of India : Aurangzeb’s Empire in In India 1700 A.CMYK Social Science-7 The Bijapur & Golconda Kingdoms : In the Deccan the kingdoms of Bijapur and Golconda were a problem for the Mughal rulers. People Bihar Rajput INDIA of this class whose Malva Gujrat number was comparatively less.

The chief centres of trade during this period were Delhi. The measures of land reforms introduced by Akbar brought about improvement in the condition of the farmers. tobacco and silk were grown in large quantities. During Akbar’s reign translation of the Mahabharata. high-ranking poets 69 CMYK . cotton. Bihar and Gujaral. Literature and Education: Many a Mughal emperor was either himself learned or patronized learned men. India’s foreign trade was done with countries like Perisa. in his court. Economic Progress The Mughal period was a period of prosperity in agriculture and trade. Humayun’s sister. Surat. People belonging to both the communities participated in the festivals of each other. pirs and mendicants and fakirs in reverence bowing heads at the mausoleums and dargahs etc were in vogue equally was among the Hindus and the Muslims. Muhammad Sadiq wrote a book entitled . Humayan himself was lover of literature. In addition to food grains. holding the gurus. Banaras. ‘Babur-nama’ in the Turkish languages. On account of the Bhakti movement during the Mughal rule. Tuzuk-i-Babri. Books of historical importance like ‘Akbar-nama’ and ‘Ain-e-Akbari’ were written by Abul Fual.CMYK The Age of Splendor and Wealth Villages had little contact with the towns and cities. Machchlipattam ete. The cloth industry prospered a lot during this period. indigo. consideration of omens. Zari-work of Banaras. East Africa. the Ramayana. Hindi literature made an unprecedented advancement. in addition to the production of original literary works in Persian and Hindi Works of translation also were done. Mulmul of Dacca. Russia and Western Europe.’ The ‘Bhagwat Gita’ and the Upanishads were translated into Persian during Shah Jahan’s time. much of a difference in the dresses of the Hindus and the Muslims. cotton. the Bible. Woollen cloth of Kashmir were the items of world-renown. The trade of the time was chiefly in the hands of the Hindus. Babur himself wrote his autobiography. Factories were run by the Government in which thousands of workers and . As a result. Agra Lahore. the Atharvayeda. the Quaran etc. Gulbadan wrote Humayan in Persian. Different kinds of industries also flourished. There was not.labourers were employed. China.’Shah Jahan nama. their mores were as they had been before. ‘Aurangzeb compiled a treatise ‘Tatwah-e-Alamgiri’ with the help of some muslim books. Akbar had. cloth of Bengal. Nal-Damayanti. canes. Emperor Jehangir wrote his autobiography ‘Tuzk-i-Jehangiri. were made into Persian. Things like practising magic and Magical spells. Their modes of living. The country was getting prosperous by the income from the trade.

The buildings of Fatehpur. Delhi. There was no formal government arrangement for public education during the Mughal period. All these buildings are made of red stone. Birbal. A special mention deserves to be made of the Diwan-e-Aam. South-east Asian and Indian styles in the architecture of this period. Abdul-Rahim Khankhana etc. Lahore and Ahmedabad. the Jama Masjid. and the schools situated in the temples and the mosques were the main centres of education. Architecture: Architecture received a special encouragement during the Mughal period. Jaunpur. Tulsi Das also produced his famous poetic work. Bihari etc. Banaras and Nadia in Bengal were the Hindu centres of higher learning. Lucknow and Delhi became the centres of Urdu poetry during the eighteenth century. The reign of Shah Jahan is considered to be the golden period of architecture on account of the magnificent and attractive buildings constructed during the time. Girls had their education at home. During Jehangir’s time marble stone began to be used. tombs in Agra. Senapati. He changed his capital from Agra to Delhi and laid the foundation of the city of Shahjahanabad. Of the buildings erected. The process of building construction started primarily during Akbar’s time. Lahore. It is a building made of white marble stone. Kandhar. mosques. Lahore. The nature of education was chiefly religious. The main centres of muslim education were Agra. The most famous building of Shah Jahan is the Taj Mahal. We find an admixture of the Central Asian. here the Red Fort and the Jama Masjid are the main ones. The tomb of Akbar in Sicandara built during Jehangir’s time is a famous building. but people used Urdu and Hindi in villages and towns. forts. He built magnificent buildings.the Diwane-Khas and the Moti Masjid and the fort of Agra are his famous bui1dings. 70 CMYK . There were madrsas and school for higher education in which there was’ arrangement for the study of Mathematics.CMYK Social Science-7 like Mansingh. From the artistic point of view no other building is comparable to it. the palace of Mariam. Sikri are of a high quality from the artistic point of view. were the other poets of repute who produced poetic works in Hindi. The Diwan-e-Aam. Bhushan Dev. The court language of the Mughals was Persian. Allahabad and Fatehpur Sikri. It was during the time of Akbar that Surdas wrote ‘Sursagar’ and Raskhan and Meera composed literary works in devotion of Krishan. the Buland Darwaza among them. Kabul. . Astrology and Medicine. the Diwan-e-Khas. Delhi. Ahmedabad etc. He got built many buildings in Agra. ‘Ramcharit Manas’ during this very period. Ajmer.

.(Mewar.Lahore....... During Jehangir’s time the greatest progress was made in the art of .. Agra).. That caused the growth of interest in music in these areas.. Aurangzeb was against music.(1574... 1680). music..... 4...... Tansen was one of his nine jewels in the court on whom was conferred the title of “The emperor of music.....CMYK The Age of Splendor and Wealth Painting: The most important painting technique of the period was the technique of miniature painting..(Delhi.... Akbar himself was a good singer.. 5.. He could recognize the artist by just looking at the painting of the painters of his time Farooq Beg. Humayun loved music.came to the court of Jehangir as the ambassador of the king of England. Music: The Mughal emperors had an interest in music Babur himself knew a lot of about art. Marwar.... (Hawkins..” There were many singers in Jehangir’s court also... 2. Ustad Mansoor and Bisan Das were very high class painter.... Sir Thomas Roe) Vir Durgadas fought against the Mughals for the safety of the Kingdom of... many gharanas (schools) of music were established.. many musicians left the Mughal court and went away to the courts of the provincial governors. .... The art of painting reached its zenith during Jehangir’s time..... Sahah Jahan’s voice was very sweet.... EXERCISES I.. They got the famous gardens built in Kashmir and they also beautified their buildings by having gardens around them. He himself was a painter and connoisseur of art. 3.. Consequently... He had in his court many musicians of repute.. writing) Shah Jahan got the Red Fort built in.. Khandesh)........ Later on.... 71 CMYK .... 1674.....(painting.. The Mughal rulers were lovers of nature. the Rajput kingdoms of Rajasthan and the Kingdoms on the hills... Shivaji sat on the throne in the year .. Ramadas and Mahapatra were the famous singers of his court... Select the most appropriate words from the brackets and fill in the blanks : 1.. Painting did not receive any special encouragement during the time of Aurangzeb. Columbus..

7. 5. 2. B Abut Fazal Muhammad Sadiq Humayun Gulbadan Surdas Tulsidas III. 4. 6. Describe the Major events of Jehangir’s reign. 5. 4. 9. 8. 3. 5. 3. Match the contents of column A with those of B : A 1. Which rebellions had Shah Jahah to face in the beginning? Describe the relations of Aurangzeb with Shivaii. 2. What do you know about Shivaji’s administration? What were the results of the policy of religious fanaticism of Aurangzeb? Name the famous buildings of the Mughal period. 12. Give an account of the progress made in literature during the Mughal period. Write the name of the person who constructed it against each building. Why did the Sikhs revolt during the time of Aurangzeb? Describe the economic condition of the Mughal period. 10. 2. 4. 11. 6. IV. 72 CMYK . Give an account of the war of succession for Shah Jahan’s throne.CMYK Social Science-7 II. Interesting things to do: 1. Describe Noor Jahan’s influence on the Government. 3. Describe the condition of the society during the Mughal period. Answer briefly the following questions :1. Prepare an album of the buildings built in the Mughal period. Humayun-nama Akbar-nama Sur sagar Shah Jahan-nama Ramcharit Manas 1.

The Afghans settled in Ruhelkhand also revolted against the Mughal rule. the Marathas were extending the sphere of their influence to northern India.D. Real power passed into the hands of the newly established kingdoms. During Bahadur Shah’s reign. Before him no other emperor had such a vast empire. the famous third battle of Panipat took place between the Marathas and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Marathas were defeated in this and they had to go away from the north. But all of them were incapable and powerless. the king of Iran and Ahmed Shah Abdali. the Mughal empire became very weak. As a result. The four years of his rule were full of problems and difficulties. After his death again the battle for succession ensured and several rulers came on the throne for a short period. Bengal and Awadh established independent Kingdoms in their respective provinces. consolidating their strength. But after his death in 1707 A. ‘Takht-i-Taus’ of Shah Jahan and the Kohinoor diamond to Iran. The son victorious in this fight acceeded to the throne by name of Bahadur Shah. On the other side after. the Rajputs and the Sikhs took to rebellion. 73 CMYK . They remaind just nominal rulers. from the north to the south. New powers came into existence in the form of Kingdom. Taking advantage of the weakness of the Mughal rule the governors of Hyderabad. Nadir Shah. His empire spread all over India. Nadir Shah plundered Delhi to his heart’s content and took away with him the famous. But on account of these attacks the Mughal empire remained restricted just to the areas around Delhi.CMYK The Fall of Mughal Empire CHAPTER 9 THE FALL OF THE MUGHAL EMPIRE Aurangzeb was the last powerful Mughal emperor. While the Mughal rulers were already facing and suffering from the internal rebellions. Taking advantage of the weakness of the administration Banda Bairagi led the Sikh rebellion and decided to set up an independent Sikh Kingdom in the Punjab. Bahadur Shah could do nothing to suppress them. After Aurangzeb’s death such as infighting took place among his sons. During the Mughal reign there used to be fighting’s on the question of succession. the king of Kabul invaded India.

The Portuguese founded the city of Bombay. They took full advantage of their increasing sea power. because now. the Portuguese gave away Bombay to the English as dowry. Vasco-de-Gama reached Goa Madras Calicut through a new Andaman & Sea route. but on the marriage of the princess of Portugal with Charles-II. That is why the traders of Europe decided to trade with India.CMYK Social Science-7 Kashmir Punjab L o ah re INDIA IN THE EARLY EIGHTEEN CENTURY The European Traders: There was a great demand of lndian cloth and spices in Europe. The English companies secured their control over the cloth-trade. Thus. but the rivalry in trade with the English did not end. Delhi Agra First of-all. The French lost to the English. there was again a stiff competition between the English and the French traders. not only were able to 74 CMYK Avadh Bikaner Bihar Jaipur Mewar Bengal Berar Jodhpur Khandesh Gujrat Bijnor Mewar Golcomba Marathas BAY ARABIAN OF SEA Bijapur BANGAL Hydrabad p ee ad hy ) k s dia L a (In . a Portuguese sailor. the French companies established a trade centre at a place called Pondicherry. In the INDIAN OCEAN seventeenth century. the ruler of England. the Map 9. The Calicut Nikobar Pondichery Portuguese carried on Island Cochin (India) their trade with India for a long time. the French also came to India to trade. The naval power of the English gradually increased to a great extent. They established trade companies. the English and Map of India : India is the beginning of Eighteenth Century. Now the English companies. There was competition among these companies. D. The places where they had established their factories are today known as Madras and Calcutta. The traders of Holland and Portugal could not come to their level. in 1664 A.1 Dutch.

to care more for their personal interests. Hyderabad. Foreign attacks. 75 CMYK . but its fall had already begun during his very reign. They discontinued maintaining mounted soldier in the required strength. They were unable to do anything to save the empire from the imminent decline. the mansabdars and the wealthy in the eighteenth century caused erosions in the moral and social values of the people. The number of mansabdars increased reducing the number of Jagirs. who were more advanced. They remained puppets in the hands of the officers. internal rebellions and the wars of succession caused a great deal of money to be wasted. display of wealth and ideal enjoyment. Awadh and Bengal became independent states on account of this very reason. The aristocrats spend most of the their time in drinking. The military power of the Mughals had also weakened. The artillery. As we have already seen. The pompous and luxurious living of the emperors. The causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire : After the death of Aurangzeb the Mughal empire broke up. Consequently. Succession wars very often took place during the Mughal period and that went on reducing the strength of the state. The Mughals made no efforts to modernise their army. The provincial Governors became powerful and some of them set up independent kingdoms. They did not possess the capacity to rule over such a vast empire. Their manasabdars were no more loyal to the Kingdom. Instead of training the Indian personnel for the artillery they began to appoint foreign soldiers to manage it. Officers also began.its climax in the eighteenth century. It had reached. Economic reasons were also responsible for the fall of the Mughal empire. gradually extended their authority over the whole of India. That affected the peasants adversely for the Jagirdars started realizing more from them. This gradually enabled them to establish their rule in India. The wasteful and extravagant living of the mughal emperors also added to the financial crisps. Many drawbacks crept into the mughal administration. They paid no attention to the improvement of the guns and cannons.CMYK The Fall of Mughal Empire control the trade in India but they also began to interfere in the politics of the new kingdoms in India. had become outdated. of which they were very proud. the English. the successors of Aurangzeb were weak and incapable.

.. 1. Decided to establish an independent Kingdom in the Punjab. 4.. II.. Vasco-de-Gama was the first.. Plundered Delhi and took away to Iran the Takht-i-Taus. French. 3. 4.. Portuguese. came to India after the death of Aurangzeb..company . (English. 3.. d Fill in the blanks with the words given in brackets : 1. (India. 2. of the Mughal empire.sailor who came to Ini a by a new sea-route. the ruler of England as dowry from . Portuguese) 2. B Fought the third battle of Panipat with the Marathas..... 2. Write ‘YES’ against the statements that are true and ‘NO’ against the ones that are false.... Was an incapable Mughal ruler.... Banda Bairagi Bahadur Shah First Nadir Shah Ahmed Shah Abdali 1.. 4.... Holland... French) The city of Bombay was obtained by Charles. III. German.. The third battle of Panipat was fought between Ahmed Shah Abdali and the English....CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES I... Match the content of column A with those of column B.. France) The toughest encounter the English company had to do was with the.. 2. 76 CMYK ......... 3.. A 1... Portugal. 3. (Dutch. The trading companies of Europe. The Mughal rulers paid no attention to increasing the sea-power...... Dutch.. Only Aurangzeb was responsible for the fall.

2. 3. 2. Which were the new kingdoms that came into existence in the eighteenth century? Which defects got into the Mughal administration? What was the result of the Mugha1 emperor’s policy of not paying attention to the importance of the sea power? What were the reasons that compelled the Mughal rulers to face economic stringency? Write down the four main causes of the fall of the Mughal empire. 5. Make a list of the present day important centres of textile industry. 77 CMYK . 4. Prepare a list of important Indian Sea-ports. Something to do: 1. V. Answer briefly the followoing questions:1.CMYK The Fall of Mughal Empire IV.

1. The Executive 3. there are three chief organs of the Government of India. Therefore.CMYK Social Science-7 CIVICS CHAPTER-1 OUR CONSTITUTION The meaning of Constitution: Constitution is a collection of those rules through which a country is governed. Our country became independent on 15th August. and 26th January as National Festivals each year. this day is 78 CMYK . The Council of Ministers and the Public Services Constitute the Executive. In our constitution the rules have been framed on the basis of the cultural values of India. 1947. secularism and socialism have been enshrined in it. The Judiciary. It has two Houses-The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. The Indian judiciary consists of the Supreme Court. The rights and duties of the citizens of India have also been anuciated in this constitution. The Indian Parliament makes laws for the whole country. The Legislature: The law-making organ is called the legislature. A short History of the Development of the Constitution :We celebrate 15th August. Therefore. According to our constitution. the Subordinate Courts the Lok Adalats and the Nyaya Panchayats.That part of the Government which enforces law is called the Executive. The President. The above three organs of the Government work independently. The Legislature 2. no conflict of any type arises and the balance is evenly maintained.The disputes arising out of the encroachment of laws. The Judiciary:. The Executive:. Along with the division of powers. The ideals of democracy. these organs co-operate with one another. the High Courts. are settled by the Judiciary.

election was held in July. In order to please the Indians by giving them some sort of freedom a goodwill mission was sent to India. Indians were not in favour of helping the British Government in the war. Rajendra Prasad . Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel. Dr. 1946. In India the freedom movement was gathering momentum. but by the members of the Provincial Legislative Assemblies. Dr. Due to their dual policy of ‘Divide and Rule’ there was great unrest among the Indians. This independence was achieved after a long and hard struggle by the Indian people. The mission is known as the “Cabinet Mission. the British Government wanted them to fight for it in the war. It also had members representing different political parties. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee.1 Dr. Shrimati Sarojini Naidu and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur were important women 79 CMYK Fig 1. The members were elected not by the people directly. Rajendra Prasad. In order to crush these movements. Members of the Constituent Assembly The first meeting of the Constituent Assembly was held on 9th December. many movements were started. Thus the pressure was increasing to grant freedom to India on the British Government. soldiers were considered to be very brave. there was a demand for freedom from every nook and corner of the country. the second world war brokeout. The British Government got entangled in it.” The Mission recommended that there should be a Constituent Assembly to frame a constitution for India. one after another by the Indian National Congress. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. In 1939. Sardar Baladev Singh were some of the members. 1946 to elect a Constituent Assembly of India. The members were drawn from different communities and regions of India. As a result. Before independence our country was governed by the laws of the British Government. According to this recommendation. Shrimati Vijayalakshmi Pandit. Therefore. Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru. Maulana-Azad. Since long. a reign of terror was unleased by the British Government. Indian.CMYK Our Constitution called the Independence Day. we were being exploited by the British Government.

This day was declared as the Republic Day. There is a reason for this.2 Pandit Nehru to commemorate this date. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru had said that they did not want colonial independence. the Indian Constitution was enforced on 26th January. The Drafting Committee :The Drafting Committee was formed to prepare the draft of the constitution.CMYK Social Science-7 members. Shri Radhavallabh Vijayavargiya were some of the members from the present Madhya Pradesh. More than 30 members belonged to the Scheduled Castes. Shri Kusumkant Jain. All the sessions of the Assembly were open to the press and the people. 80 CMYK . Dr. Shri Ram Sehciya. The Chairman of the Constituent Assembly was Dr.M. the President. V. H. Shri H. In order Fig 1. Thus. 1929. the Indian National Congress had decided to fight for complete independence of India and 26th January. Why Republic Day on 26th January? The Constitution was passed on 26th November. B. Dr.P. Shri Sitaram Jajoo.R Ambedkar and Shri K. Modi. 1950. because the constitution made India a Republic. In its Lahore session in December. They wanted complete independence. Dr. Shri Gopikrishna Vijayavargiya. Kamath. Some constitutional experts such as Shri Alladi Krishan Swamy Ayyar. The Supreme ruler. The Anglo-Indian and Parsess were represented by Shri Frank Anthony and Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar was its Chairman. Pandit Ravishankar Shukla. Munshi were. Seth Govinddas. Rajendra Prasad. Pandit Ravisankar Shukla who belonged to Chhattisgarh was a member of the constituent assembly. The views and the opinion of the people were also expressed freely in newspapers. 1930 was celebrated as the complete Independence Day. the people of India were indirectly involved in the making of their constitution. The Constituent Assembly took about three years to prepare the Indian Constitution. 1949 by the Constituent Assembly but it was enforced on 26th January. 1950. Hari Singh Gaur. is elected by the people.

7 Vijaylaxmi Pandit Fig 1. After him Shri C. General Election was held in the country for the first time in 1952.3 Dr.8 Rajkumari Amritkaur Lord Mountbatten was the Governor General of India in 1947. Dr.4 Vallabh Bhai Patel Fig 1. Raj Gopalachari became the first Governor General.CMYK Our Constitution Fig 1. of free India. 81 CMYK .5 Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Fig 1. Bhimrao Ambedkar Fig 1. He was the first Indian to hold this office. Rajendra Prasad became the first elected President of India.6 Sarojini Naidu Fig 1.

how will you discharge your duty? 82 CMYK . Why was the Indian Constitution needed? What is the meaning of the Constitution? How was our constitution made? Who was the Chairman of the Constituent Assembly? Why was our constitution enforced on 26th January? Who was the Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Constitution? Give the name of a member of the constituent assembly who belonged to Chhattisgarh ? Clarify the meaning of the following :The Constituent Assembly the Drafting Committee. Name the persen who represented Chhattisgarh as a member of Constituent Assembly. 8.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES I. 9. 5. 2. 3. Practical :Meet some old man in your locality and collect information about the Indian freedom movement. 7. 6. Think over : If you are asked to preside over some meeting. 4.

fDr] fo’okl /keZ vkSj mikluk dh Lora=rk] the following preamble : izfr"Bk vkSj volj dh lerk izkIr djusds fy.CMYK Main Characterstics of The Indian Constitution CHAPTER 2 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION Before knowing the main characteristics of the Indian constitution. it is essential to know about its preamble.] fopkj vfHkO.d laiw. socialistic.fDr dh xfjek vkSj jk"Vª dh . 83 CMYK . Justice.1 Equality of status and of opportunity. social. cukus ds fy. 1949. do hereby adopt.kjkT. O. belief. the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign. and to promote among them all Fraternity assuring the dignity of the individual and the.drk rFkk&v[k.kZ izHkqRo laiUu makers of the constitution lektoknh] /keZ fujis{k yksdra=kRed x. In our Constituent Assembly this 26th day of November. economic and political.k. rFkk mu lc esa We. and give to ourselves this constitution.Mrk lqfuf’pr djus okyh cU?kqrk c<+kus ds fy. faith and worship. expression.fer vkSj vkRekfiZr djrs gSaA Fig 2. The preamble reflects the views and the objectives of the constitution makers and also the basic values of the country and the constitution.rn~ }kjk bl lafo/kku dks vaxhd`r] vf/kfu. enact. The ge] Hkkjr ds yksx] Hkkjr dks . unity and integrity of the Nation. n`<+ ladYi gksdj viuh bl lafo/kku lHkk esa vkt rjh[k 26 uoacj 1949 bZ. had a dream of an ideal rFkk mlds leLr ukxfjdksa dks lkekftd] vkfFkZd vkSj jktuhfrd society which was stated in U. secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens.¼ferh ekxZ’kh"kZ ’kqDy lIreh laor~ 2006 foØeh½ dks . We waged a long battle for freedom. Liberty of thought. The constitution of every country in the world has its own preamble.

There are separate Governments at the centre and in the states. There are also some other features of constitution. The constitution given complete freedom to its citizens to practise and preach their own religion. there are 28 states and 7 union territories. The directive principles have been incorporated for the establishment of a welfare State. Our Government is now capable of making its own decision in internal and foreign affairs. to all. Socialism is one of our National Goals. Under such condition the country cannot make any progress. 84 CMYK . Secularism : The State gives equal treatment to all the religions. economic disparities create unrest in the country. secularism and socialism are the basic principles of our constitution. In our Country. We are not subordinate to any country in external or internal matters. Our constitution sets up a federal system of government. employment. This means that each adult. These representatives together. form the Government. Democracy. Special facilities have been given to the backward and the downtrodden people. Presently. man and woman. The representatives are elected after every five years. The division of powers between the Central and the State Governments has been made according to the three lists in the constitution. It does not favour any particular religion. justice etc. Sovereignty : This is the main feature of the Indian Consitution. Our people is now capable of making its own government. Democracy : Democracy means a Government which is run by the representatives of the people who are elected on the basis of adult franchise. The ultimate source of an power is the people. Federal system of Government : The Federal System of Government is that system where the powers of the central government and the state government are well defined in the constitution. India is completely independent state now. We the Indians run our own government. Therefore. efforts have been made to create a society based on social and economic equality. elects a representative of his or her own choice. Socialism : The achievement of socialism based on economic and social equality is one of the chief goals of our constitution. It has been provided in it to give equal opportunities in education.CMYK Social Science-7 The preamble as given above clearly states that our country is now sovereign in all matters.

security. proper balance should be maintained between rights and duties. The State List 3. Jail. We do not have the system of double citizenship in India. The real power is vested in the Parliament. and compulsory education for all children up to the age of the 14 years. Special direction have ‘been’ given for the uplift of the backward communities and the weaker sections of our society. The Union List :.CMYK Main Characterstics of The Indian Constitution 1. The rights and duties are inter-related. There are six fundamental rights guaranteed in the constitution. These help in promoting democratic values. There is a provision to make special laws for women. The Union List 2. Health etc. Agriculture. There is a Directive Principle which aims at achieving free. The Prime Minister and other ministers are answerable to the Parliament for their actions.our constitution provides for a single citizenship of this country. The State List :. 1.The subjects of local. The directive principles direct the Government to work for the social well-being. The Directive Principles of State Policy : To bring about economic and social welfare in the country.Railways. are some of the subjects included in this list. Post and Telegraph.Both the Parliament and the State Legislature can make laws on the subjects given in this list. The Fundamental Rights and Duties : The fundamental rights are the necessary condition for the development of the personality of an individual. so necessary for the development of the personality of the citizens. External Affairs etc. Education. The directive principles also provide equal pay for equal work to both men and women. The purpose is to bring social ‘equality’ in the country. Single Citizenship:. One man’s duty is another man’s right Neglect of duties is a curse for humanity and it hampers the growth of society. The Concurrent List :. economic and social prosperity of the nation. 2. Armed Force. importance like Police. 3. 85 CMYK . the directive principles of State Policy have been stated in our constitution.Like Britain there is the parliamentary system of Government in India. A person may be living in Madhya Pradesh or Maharashtra but he is called only the citizen of India. Therefore. The ministers in the Central Cabinet are members of the Parliament. are enumerated in this list. When the citizens forget their duties there is lawlessness in the society. The citizen of each state is a citizen of India. The Concurrent List. The Parliamentary System:.

.......for humanity.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1...... Fill in the blanks :(a) (b) (c) India is completely a..... Practical : Learn the prayers of all the religions... The fundamental rights help in the development of the..state.... 2. 3...... 4.. Write a short note on anyone of the following :(a) Democracy (b) Single Citizenship (c) The Directive Principles of State policy......... Explain three main characteristics of the Indian Constitution..of a man... Think over : How do all religions promote humanity? 86 CMYK ..... Throw light on the main aims of the Indian Constitution........ Neglect of duties is a...............

in the field of education. profession and earning a livelihood. 87 CMYK . Even the Parliament or the Legislative Assemblies cannot make any law which encroaches upon these rights. hold public meeting peacefully and form any association or union. language. awarded before independence have been abolished. No child under the age of 14 years’ can be employed to work in any factory or mine. The Indian Constitution has guaranteed some important rights. 2. In almost all the democratic countries. speak. Right against Exploitation :. sex. Untouchability has been abolished.Every citizen has the right to read and write. creed. The State cannot discriminate on the basis of religion. some seats have been reserved for them in schools. Nobody can be asked to work against his wishes. caste. Right to Freedom :. Scheduled castes and Scheduled Tribes have been given special facilities. some rights are guaranteed to the citizen in the constitution. Any law which interferes with the fundamental rights can be set aside by the Supreme Court. He is free to go to any part of the country and settle there. In free India such distinctions as ‘Bharat Ratna’ and ‘Padmashri’ are conferred for outstanding service to the country.CMYK Fundamental Rights and Duties CHAPTER 3 FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES In the last Chapter you have read that fundamental rights help in the development of the personality of every citizen. women and children. He is also free to acquire any property anywhere in the country. He can take up any job or trade any where in India. 3. colleges and Government services so that they may come at par with other sections of the society. employment. The constitution prohibits forced labour of beggar’. The state gives equal opportunities to every individual. Due to their backwardness. It is only during an emergency that the fundamental rights can be suspended Our Constitution has guaranteed six types of rights to the citizens as given below:- Our Fundamental Rights 1. All the titles. on the basis of abilities. It is an offense to buy or sell men. place of birth etc.The purpose of this rights is to prevent any exploitation in society. Right to Equality : Our constitution gives equal treatment to all the citizens.

They take pride in their language and culture. script and culture People in different part of the country speak different languages. Fundamental Duties :.Every citizen in India has the freedom to practise his own religion. 6.1 Our Fundamental Rights 5. Cultural and Educational Rights :. But nothing was said about the duties of the citizens in the constitution. They have the right to establish their own educational institutions.CMYK Social Science-7 4. Right to Constitutional Remedies :. can approach the court and challenge the action of the Government. These are as Under : 88 CMYK .1950. the constitution was amended in 1976 and the fundamental duties of the citizens were incorporated in it.Every Indian citizen has the right to preserve his own language. Right to Freedom of Religion :.Our constitution was enforced on 26th January. People of different religions have also the freedom to preach their religion in a peaceful manner. They can also form any religious association for religious purposes. That is why the courts are described as the protectors of citizens rights. Right To Liberty of Religion Organization Right To Education Culture Right Against Exploitation Right To Liberty Right of Equality THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT Right To Constitutional Remedy Writing Speech Occupation Fig 3.Each citizen has the right to approach the court in order to protect his fundamental rights. If the fundamental right are curtailed or taken away by any law of the Government the citizens. In order to make people conscious about their duties.

8. The rights and duties are inter related. To Develop the Spirit of Goodwill and brotherhood. What rights have been given to the citizens to prevent the encroachment of the ‘Fundamental Rights? Practical:Make a list of some evils in the society. To Inculcate Scientific Attitude among people.CMYK Fundamental Rights and Duties 1. 3. what types of freedom have been granted to Indian Citizens? 3. To Preserve the Ancient Culture. our National character is developed. Both are concerned with the development of a sense of responsibility among the citizens. Think over :What steps will you take to remove social evils? 89 CMYK . The right and duties are complementary to each other. the National Flag and the National Anthem. What facilities have been provided to the weaker section of society in the Indian Constitution? 5. To have faith in the ideals of National Freedom Movement. To Defend and Serve the Country. EXERCISES 1. 6. You cannot think of the one without the other. By doing so. 5. lakes and Wild-life. To Protect Forest. 2. To protect the Integrity and Unity of the Country. which evils in society have been prohibited? 4. Why are the fundamental rights essential for the citizens of the country? 2. 7. Under the right to freedom. 9. To strive individually and collectively for the achievement of National Goods. 4. To show respect to the Indian Constitution. Under the right against exploitation. To Protect the Property of the nation. There is a great relationship between fundamental rights and duties’ as enshrined in the constitution. 10.

The federal system of government is more suitable for such big countries. At the National THE UNION THE STATE Fig 4. the Prime Minister. There is another Government at the State Level which includes the Governor. 90 CMYK . According to this system there are two set of Governments. the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Division of Powers between the Centre and the States According to the constitution. Ours is a vast country.1 Distribution of powers between the Center and the State level. These powers have been divided into three lists. People of different religions. in their respective areas. languages and communities live here. the Council of Ministers. the Chief Minister. there is a Central Government which includes the President. the Council of Ministers and the Parliament. This dual type of government is called the Federal System of Government. castes. the powers of the central and the state government have been clearly defined in writing.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-4 CENTRE-STATE RELATIONSHIP Our Constitution makers have envisaged a federal system of government for our country. This system of Government has been adopted in India.

The State Legislature are empowered to make laws on these subjects for the states.All the subjects of National importance are included in this list. Health. e. The Union List 2 The State List 3 The Concurrent List. Foreign Affairs Metereology Navy Army Air Force National International Relation Airways Highways U. If there is any dispute regarding these laws. Post and Telegraph. Armed Forces. The Union List :.g. Courts Jail Hospitals Sanitation e Vet rin ary lic e SUBJECTS IN THE STATE LIST Agriculture Po Irrigation Fisheries Roads Forests Fig 4. Foreign Relations. Both the Parliament and the State Legislatures are empowered to make laws on these subjects. The Concurrent List:. Currency etc. These subjects relate to the whole country. In all 97 subjects. The laws made by the Parliament will prevail. Agriculture.This list contains 47 subjects.All the local or regional subjects like Education.2 Subjects in the Union List only the Parliament is entitled to make law in these subjects. Jail etc. are included in this list.N. Railway.CMYK Center .State Relationship I. SUBJECTS IN THE UNION LIST Railways Shiping Fig 4. The State List :.3 Subjects in the State List 91 CMYK .O. They are 66 in number.

Practical: Find out the subjects of the ‘Concurrent List’ and Prepare a list of them. Why has ‘Defence’ been included in the Union list and ‘Police’ in the State List? 4. Think Over: Whose decision is final when there is a dispute between the Central Government and a State Government? And Why? 92 CMYK . What do you understand by the Federal System of Government? 2. How is the division of Powers made between the centre and states? 3.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1.

The Union Government runs the administration of the whole country specially in regard to the subjects given in the Union list. The Lok Sabha 2. the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha form the Parliament in India. Its members are elected directly by the people. the whole country is divided into constituencies. Qualifications :.1 The Parliament House of the members of the Lok Sabha. Every Indian Citizen who is not less than 18 years of age has a right to vote.The First House of the Indian Parliament is called the Lok Sabha. They are elected by the people.The following qualifications are necessary for the candidates of the Lok Sabha. He should not be insolvent. This is called Adult Franchise. There are two Houses of Parliament. The President. 1.The number of elected members of the Lok Sabha may be upto 545. Composition :. He must be a citizen of India. The Parliament is the supreme law making body in our country.CMYK The Indian Parliament CHAPTER -5 THE INDIAN PARLIAMENT The Indian Constitution provides for a dual Government. 93 CMYK . Election :. It is the house of the people. The election is held through the secret ballot system. 1. 2. Term : The members of the Lok Sabha are elected for a period of 5 years.For the election Fig 5. The Rajya Sabha. mentally unsound or a convict. The Lok Sabha :.

They are elected from amongst the members themselves. Election :. Art Science.CMYK Social Science-7 3.The members of the Rajya Sabha are indirectly elected. The age of the members of this house should be 30 years or more. The Rajya Sabha:.The Second House is called the Rajya Sabha.There is one speaker and one deputy Speaker for the Lok Sabha. Chairman:. 4.There are in all 250 members in this house. It is never dissolved.The Fig 5. He controls the proceeding and maintains discipline in the house. These persons are well-known in the fields of Literature. He should not hold any office of Profit under the Government. At present Shri Bhero-Singh Shekhawat is the Vice-President of India 94 CMYK . Office-bearer :. Out of these. They are elected by members of the Legislative Assemblies. Term :. He should have completed 25 years of age.The Vice President of India is the Ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Composition :. Social Service etc. A member is elected ordinarily for a period of six years. One third of the members of the Rajya Sabha retire after every two years and at the same time an equal number of new members are elected. 12 members are nominated by the President. The speaker presides over the sessions of the Lok Sabha.2 How Laws are made Rajya Sabha is a permanent house. The other qualifications are the same as those of the members of the Lok Sabha.

(d) Amendment of the Constitution :. After having passed by the other house also. the Parliament keeps control on them in-come and expenditure of the Government. the bill. It makes laws for the whole country. They get monthly pay and allowances. Some members support the bill while some other members criticise it.The Parliament exercises control over the Executive. (b) Passing the Budget :. (C) Control over the Executive :. the Vice-President and the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts. clause by-clause discussion of the bill takes place. it is sent to the President for his consent and signature. nor can spend any amount. Functions:. explains the purpose of the bill. Without the approval of the Parliament.CMYK The Indian Parliament and Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. 95 CMYK . make the Indian Parliament.The following are some of the important functions of the Lok Sabha :(a) Legislative Powers :. In the third reading.The Parliament is the Supreme law-making body in the country.It is only the Parliament which has the power to amend the constitution. Some special facilities have been given to the members of the Parliament. The Lok Sabha can remove them by passing a No confidence motion against them. Besides this. The suggestions given by the members are either accepted or rejected. copies of the bill are given to the members.Through the process of Impeachment. Every member is provided with a living accommodation in Delhi. the Parliament has the power to remove the President. if there is a need for it. which is introduced in any of the houses of the Parliament has to go through three readings. In the second reading. Some provisions of the constitution can be amended only after getting the approval of the State Legislative. In this way the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabba together. The Prime Minister and his Ministers are responsible to the Parliament for their work. as a whole is finally discussed and put to vote. It becomes an Act after his signature. he is entitled for free Telephone.The budget is approved by the Parliament. Thus. (e) Impeachment :. the Government can neither in any taxes. the bill is passed. The same procedure is repeated in the other house. Any member who introduces the bill. If the majority of the members are in favour.Free First Class Travel by rail to any part of India. Every bill. In the first reading.

Practical :Find out the name of the member of Parliament in your constituency. 4. 5. 3. Describe the functions of the Parliament. (a) 25 years (b) 30 years (c) 18 years (d) 21 years Write about each of the following in one sentence : (a) Adult Franchise (b) The Speaker of the Lok Sabha (c) The Chairman of the Rajya Sabha. How is the Lok Sabha formed? How are the members of the Lok Sabha elected? What is the minimum age-limit for voting in the General Election in India? Write the correct answer. 2.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1. Think Over :Why is the Parliament a Supreme body? 96 CMYK .

According to the Indian Constitution the whole Executive Power of the Central Government is vested in the President but the real powers are exercised by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. The Election of the President : The President is elected indirectly by the people. the Governors. The Prime Minister keeps the President informed of all the decision of the Cabinet. The Central Council of Ministers :.We have already read that there is a Council of Ministers to help the President. At Present Shri A.P. He appoints the Prime Minister. He has also the power to grant pardon. Abdul Kalam is the President of India. He also President inaugurates the Budget Session of the Parliament. Money bills are presented with his consent. the Judges etc. Members of both the houses of the Parliament and the elected members of the State Legislative Assemblies take part in the election of the President. He summons and adjourns Parliament sessions. The administration of the whole country is run on his behalf. The Constitution has provided for a Council of Ministers to help the President. The 97 CMYK Vidhan Sabha Fig 6. The Functions and Powers of the President : The President is the head of the Executive of the Indian Union. other Ministers. Every bill becomes an act after his signature. The Prime Minister is the leader of the Council of Minister. The President is only the Constitutional head. the Ambassadors. The President Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha has also some emergency powers.J.CMYK The President and The Union Cabinet CHAPTER-6 THE PRESIDENT AND THE UNION CABINET The office of the President is the symbol of National Dignity and Unity.1 Election of the President . He is supreme commander of the three wings of the Armed Forces.

the country and the people. Deputy Ministers. If he is not a member of either of the two houses. social welfare. require the services of a large number of civil servants. 98 CMYK .The Office of the Prime Minister is very important in the Indian Constitution because the Prime Minister is the leader of the Majority party in the Lok Sabha. the upkeep of the means of transport and Communication etc. All the important appointment made by the President are made in consultation with the Prime Minister. construction of roads. Thus the Prime Minister is the leader of the Parliament.CMYK Social Science-7 leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha is appointed as Prime Minister by the President. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Parliament of its actions. They execute the laws at the public level. he must become so within a period of six months from the date of taking office. The Prime Minister distributes the department among the ministers. Education. The Function of the Cabinet :. The Prime Minister :.For the smooth running of the administration. The Civil Servants are called Government Servant. different departments are allotted to the members of the Council of Ministers. THE CIVIL SERVICES The cabinet decides the major issues and the policies. The Prime Minister is the Chief advisor of the President. The success of the Government depends upon the work of the civil servants. The execution of their policies is the responsibility of the Civil Servants. State Ministers 3.. Before assuming office. each minister is administered an oath of secrecy. The minister formulates the policies of his ministry. Each minister is responsible for the work and administration of his department. the Council of Ministers. Health. It is mainly the Prime Minister who runs the administration of the country. The concerned minister has a major role to play in the execution of these decisions. The Council of Ministers is made up of all the three. Very often a minister is allotted more than one department. There are three categories of ministers 1. Each minister must be a member of either the Rajya Sabha or the Lok Sabha. Cabinet Ministers 2. The Civil Servants are recruited by the Public Service Commission. On the advice of the Prime Minister other ministers are appointed by the President. The civil servants should not be members of any political party. All the ministers work in a co-operative manner under his leadership.

........ 3 4.. How is the Central Council of Ministers formed? Describe the functions of the Council of Minister? Why is the office of the Prime Minister of India so important? Write short notes on the followings : (a) Civil Services (b) Election of the President.................. (d) The Civil Servants are called.........servants.CMYK The President and The Union Cabinet EXERCISES 1.of the majority party in the Lok Sabha.. 2. Practical : Find out the functions of the present Prime Minister of India......... Fill up the blanks : (a) The office of the President is the.... Write the powers and functions of the President.... 7.. Think over: If you were the Prime Minister of the country what would you do for its development? 99 CMYK .......... of National dignity and unity. (b) The President is only a constitutional ... 6...... 5....... (c) The Prime Minister is the.... Throw light on the importance of the office of the President..

The term of the Legislative Assembly is five years. The Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha) The whole of Chhattisgarh is divided into 90 Assembly Constituencies. The buildingof Chhattisgarh Legislative Assembly is located in Raipur. Likewise. But it can Fig 7. there are 90 members of the Legislative Assembly in our state. in order to run it properly. Our country is so vast in size and population that it is difficult to control it from the centre. in the state legislature there may be two houses. Most of the state have Legislative Assemblies only. the Legislative Assembly. The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. Like the Lok Sabha this house represents the people of the state. the President and the Central Council of Ministers. The qualifications of a member of the Legislative Assembly are the same as those of the members of the Lok Sabha. In Madhya Pradesh there is only one house i. In the same way there is a legislative Assembly in each state. our country has been divided into many states. The administration of these states is run by the State Governments.1 The Vidhan Sabha Bulding C. At the centre there are two houses of parliament. The election of the Speaker and the 100 CMYK .CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-7 THE STATE LEGISLATURE In the last chapter you have read about the Parliament. the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. be dissolved even earlier than five years by the Governor. Thus. The laws of the states are made by the state legislatures.G. In our country a few states have Legislative Councils. Therefore.e.

The rest of the members are nominated by the state Governor.... Think over: If you are made the members of the Legislative Assembly... houses... One-third of its members are elected by the members of the Legislative Assembly..... Municipal corporations and Zilla Parishads. This house co-operates in the working of the Legislative Assembly... Our constitution has given some special powers to the Legislative Assembly. Practical: Observe the proceedings of any session of the Legislative Assembly in your state.......... Under the financial powers...... 5. Under the legislative powers. the Legislative Assembly makes necessary laws for the state on the subjects in the state list and the concurrent list. Municipal committees. The Legislative Council (Vidhan Parishad) : There is a different procedure for the election of the Legislative Council.... Another one-third is elected by the local bodies of the State e.years....Assembly constituencies in Chhattisgarh (d) The term of the Legislative Assembly is...... It passes the budget of the State.. 4... what would you do for the Welfare of the people? 101 CMYK ... Fill up the blanks :(a) There are.. EXERCISES 1. in the state legislature...... The members of the Legislative Assembly also take part in the election of the President of India and the members of the Rajya Sabha..CMYK The State Legislature Deputy Speaker is made by the members of the ‘Legislative Assembly. Their qualifications are the same as those of the members of the Rajya Sabha.. Some members are elected by the university graduates and teachers constituencies. 3.house in the state legislature of Chhattisgarh (c) There are . it controls the finances of the State.... It exercises control over the Council of Ministers in a variety of ways..g.... Who elects the Speakers and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly? What are the powers enjoyed by the Legislative Assembly? How much of the population is represented by a member of the Legislative Assembly? What is the procedure of election for the Legislative Council? 2... (b) There is .

The Chief Minister is the leader of the Council of Ministers. The administration of a state is carried on in the name of the Governor. the Governor can himself pass some orders. The Governor has the power to summon and adjourn the sessions of the Legislative Assembly. All the bills passed by the Legislative Assembly become Acts after the signature of the Governor. The Governor appoints the leader of the majority party in the state legislature as Chief Minister. Money bills require the approval of the Governor before they can be introduced in the Assembly. A citizen of India who has completed the age of 35 years can be appointed Governor of the state. The Governor can reduce the punishment awarded under a state law and he can also grant pardon. These orders are called ordinances. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister. Sometimes when the Assembly is not in session. If the Governor feels satisfied that the Government of the state is not running according to the provisions of the constitution. the top officers of the state like the Chairman and the members of the Public Service Commission and the Advocate General. he can recommend to the President to declare emergency in the state. A Governor should not be a member of the Parliament or the state legislature nor he should hold any office of profit. The powers and functions of a Governor are like those of the President of India.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER 8 THE GOVERNOR AND THE STATE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS The Governor is the head of the state. Other 102 CMYK . other ministers. The Governor is appointed by the President. The State Council of Minister and the Chief Minister : The State Council of Ministers is the real executive of the State. This is to be remembered that the Governor acts only on the advice of the Chief Minister. The budget session of the Legislative Assembly begins with the Address by the Governor. These are the legislative powers of the Governor. In such a situation ‘President’ s rule can be promulgated in the state. He holds office for five years but he can be removed before the completion of his term and his term can also be extended by the President of India.

1 The State Goverment of Chhattishgarh THE HIGH COURT ministers are appointed by the Governor and then departments are allotted on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers is the executive of the state. All these together make the state council of Ministers.CMYK The Governor and The State Council of Ministers STATE GOVERMENT OF CHHATTISHGARH THE GOVERNOR THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY THE CHIEF MINISTER THE CABINET DEPARTMENTAL ADMINISTRATION DIVISIONAL COMMISSIONER DISTRICT ADMINISTRATION TAHSIL Fig 8. The business of the Legislative Assembly is approved by the Council of Ministers. It Formulates the policies of the state and gives advice to the Governor on administrative matters. The Chief Minister and other ministers must be the members of the Legislative Assembly. The number of Ministers in the cabinet is not fixed in the constitution. Their Number is at the discretion of the Chief Minister. The Chhattisgarh Council of Ministers Consists of Cabinet Ministers state Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries. The Council also decides upon the nature of the bills to be presented in the 103 CMYK .

Jail etc. Excise. self-government. It is the Secretariat which implements the decisions of the Government. The minister is the head of his department. Forests. He can demand the resignation of any minister. The polices of the government are executed into action with the help of the civil services. the Deputy Secretary and other Government servants. It also formulates the economic and taxation policy of the state.S. 104 CMYK . there is a Chief Secretary. department in the secretariat. Law. The appointments to the important posts are made on his advice. Health.K. industries. To help him there are many officers like the Secretary. Agriculture. Mantralaya Bhawan. Information and Publicity. But the minister is not expected to implement the decisions of the government and do all the work himself. The State Civil Services The State Council of Ministers lays down the policies of the state. Some of the important departments are General administration. The Budget of the Government is prepared by the finance. All these taken together are called the civil service. Revenue. The Secretariat of Chhattisgarh is situated at D. Public works. He informs the Governor about the decisions of the cabinet. Finance.CMYK Social Science-7 Legislative Assembly. the Special Secretary. Cooperation. Education. The head office of all the department is called the secretariat. It is from the secretariat that orders are sent to the divisional and district places. There are a number of department in the state Government. We have in our State 3 Division and 16 Districts. Irrigation. The civil services therefore play an important role in this regard. Each minister is responsible for the function of his department. Almost all the departments have their head-quarters at Raipur. Home. Hence the Chief Minister occupies an important place in the state. THE CHIEF MINISTER The Chief Minister has a major role to play in the politics and the Government of the state. He presides over the meetings of the cabinet. The whole cabinet is dissolved if the Chief Minister resigns. It also makes plans for the welfare of the state. Raipur. The budget of the state is presented in the assemblies after the approval of the Council of Ministers. Above all the secretaries.

(The President. The Chief Minister has an important place in the State Government.. drought. 2. The Chief......... Write the correct Answer : (a) (b) (c) The Governor is appointed by ... the appeals regarding land and revenue of the lower courts. What are the powers enjoyed by the Governor? Write any four functions of the state council of Ministers... Describe main duties of the Divisional Commissioner... He supervises the relief work of the Government during natural calamities like.. The leader of the State Council of Ministers is ... The Prime Minister.. He is a senior member of the Indian Administrative service. The Divisional Commissioner hears.... Minister. The Prime Minister).CMYK The Governor and The State Council of Ministers The head of the ‘division is called the Commissioner and the head of the District is called the Collector.. The Governor The Speaker). 5........ The Chief Minister).(The Chief Minister. 4... floods and famine. 105 CMYK . 3.. EXERCISES 1. (The Governor. He gives orders to the Collectors and inspects their work.... Write any four duties of the Chief Minister in support of your answer. The Chairman of the State Public Service Commission is appointed by .

The Supreme Court :. Organisation :. The qualifications for the post of a judge of the Supreme Court are as follows : 1. He should have worked as a judge for at least five years or must be an advocate for at least 10 years. they go to the court of law for justice. Original Jurisdiction :. The Chief Justice is appointed by the President. No judge of the Supreme Court has so far been removed from his post. for various reasons. This is located in Delhi. In the same way whenever there is a dispute or a controversy between two persons or institutions. They can be removed only by the President on grounds of proven misbehavior and incapacity. The other judges are also appointed by the President in consultation with the Chief Justice.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-9 OUR JUDICIAL SYSTEM When children quarrel among themselves at home. For this the Parliament must pass a resolution by a two third majority. the elderly people settle their disputes. He should be a citizen of India.This court has the original jurisdiction to hear cases for the first time. Functions and Powers : I. Term : The judges of the Supreme Court can work up to the age of 65 years. Removal of the Judges : Once appointed the judges cannot be removed easily from their posts. Such cases are of two types : 106 CMYK .Our constitution has provided for a free and unitary judicial system. 2. The highest and most prominent court is the Supreme Court in our country.The Supreme Court has one Chief Justice and 25 other judges.

107 CMYK . The Supreme Court can also grant special permission to appeal in some cases. (d) The permission to appeal is given when it is certified by the High Court that the case. (b) Such cases which relate to the fundamental rights of the citizens of India. Here the protection of the fundamental rights is involved. one side and one or more state Government on the other side. (b) Civil suits involving the amount of at least Rs.000/ . is fit for appeal. if his fundamental rights have been encroached upon by the Government. (c) The Supreme Court hears appeals in such criminal cases where the death sentence has been awarded by a State High Court. Appellate Jurisdiction : (a) The supreme Court hears appeals against the decision of the State High courts. Any citizen of India can move the Supreme Court.can be heard as appeal in the Supreme Court.CMYK Our Judicial System Chief Justice Supreme Court (a) Such cases where there is a dispute between the Union Government and a State Government. Sub Ordinate Court Fig 9.1 The Judiciary 2. civil or criminal. 20.

Qualifications :.The following are the qualifications of the judges of the High Court 1. He must have worked as a judge in any court in the state for five years or must have been an advocate for at least 10 years.The High Court of Chhattisgarh is located in Bilaspur. Any citizen of India can move the Supreme Court for the protection of the fundamental rights granted in the constitution. The court of records : The Supreme Court is also the court of records.Protection of the Fundamental Rights : The laws which violate any clause of the Constitution may be declared null and void by the Supreme Court on a writ. Composition :. 2. They are cited a precedents in the lower courts The High Courts The constitution provides for a High Court in each state. 4.The High Court has one Chief Justice and some other Judges. The High Courts :. He should be a distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President of India. He should be citizen of India. The President of India appoints the Chief Justice and other Judges in consultation with the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.CMYK Social Science-7 3. Advisory Powers The President of India can seek advice from the Supreme Court on any legal issue. Fig 9. 5.2 The High Court Building of Chhattishgarh 108 CMYK . 3. But the President is not bound by the advice given. All the Judgements given by the Supreme Court are used like laws in the other courts.

2 Power to Pass orders :. You have already read about it in earlier classes.The High Court has the power to Inspect and control all the courts of the state. Judicial Powers :. The cases involving fighting.The High Court has both original and appellate jurisdictions. civil and criminal cases and cases regarding the fundamental rights. It has the power to hear. The parties in dispute have to spend a lot of money. The Nyaya Panchayat : The minor cases in the rural areas are settled by the Nyaya Panchayats at the village level. a system of Lok Adalat has been started in this country. The Sessions Courts :. These courts work under the high court of the state. It has the power to appoint. 3 Control over the Subordinate Courts :. 109 CMYK . You have already read about it in the 6th class. for the first time. The Subordinate Courts The Court of the District Judges is the highest civil court in the district. It has also the power to decide the election petitions. Under this system. It is binding on all the subordinate courts to obey the orders of the High Court regarding the protection of the fundamental rights. looting.There are sessions courts to hear the criminal cases. promote and transfer the judges of the subordinate courts.The High Court can take necessary action regarding the protection of the fundamental rights granted in the Indian constitution. Lok Adalats : In the existing system the Indian courts take a long-time to decide cases. murder are heard in these courts. cases are decided speedily and without much expenditure. Civil judges are appointed in the district courts. The cases of lesser amounts are heard by the Sub-judges and the Munsifs. The appeals against Its decision can only be made in the Supreme Court. This court has the power to hear civil cases. To reduce the time and expenditure.CMYK Our Judicial System Functions and Powers : I.

4. what Points would you take into consideration? 110 CMYK . 6. 2. 8. Why do we need a court ? Who appoints the judges of the High Court? What are the qualifications of the judges of the Supreme Court ? What types of cases are heard in the Supreme Court ? Describe the composition and powers of the Supreme Court ? How is the High Court in our state organised ? Describe the. 3. functions of the High Court ? Write short notes on the following :(a) Civil and Criminal Cases (b) The Lok Adalats.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1. 5. Practical : Find out the names of the Judges of the High Court of your state. Think over: If you are appointed a Judge. 7.

The green colour is a symbol of the dignity of labour.Our National Flag is divided horizontally into three equal parts of stripes which are of different colours. equality and unity. Our National Flag is called the Tricolour because it is made up of three colours. The composition :. the Father of the Nation. This inspires us to make our motherland greener and more prosperous. The white colour is the symbol of Truth and purity. The white colour inspires to speak the truth and live a simple and pure life. The saffron colour is the symbol of patriotism.see unity in diversity. The length and breadth are in 3:2 proportion. 111 CMYK . Every free country has its own National Flag. The top most stripe is of deep saffron colour. From Kashmir to Kanyakumari India is one. The middle stripe is white. The National Flag is the symbol of our freedom. Fig 10. For example if the length of the flag is 15 centimeters. truth is God. The Constitution Assembly has approved this flag. We should grow more and more food in our country. This is the country where we can . The lowest stripe is dark green. This flag is rectangular in shape. According to Mahatma Gandhi. Every citizen respects the Indian constitution.CMYK Our National Symbols CHAPTER-10 OUR NATIONAL SYMBOLS Shri Rabindranath Tagore had called India a sea of greatmen.1 Our National Flag This colour represents progress and prosperity in life. Every Indian feels proud of his country. sacrifice and bravery. This reminds us of those brave people who laid down their lives for the country. the breadth is 10 centimeters. National Anthem and National Emblem which are the holy symbols of its national glory and national unity.

The ‘Charkha’ was also a symbol of the opposition of the foreign rule in the freedom movement. In other countries also. The National Flag must not be used for purposes of trade or business. Rules : · · · · We should respect our National Flag. There are 24 spokes in it.CMYK Social Scince-7 In the centre of the white stripe. All other flags are to be placed to the left of the National Flag. The National Flag should be flown over important Government buildings only. it is hoisted on the Indian Embassy buildings. When the National Flag is carried in a procession it should be carried on the right shoulder and in the front line. progress and change. 112 CMYK · · · · · · . It is of navy blue colour. The National Flag should not be used for decorative purposes. You can see the National Flag on all important Government buildings in the country. It is lowered as a mark of respect when a honourable national leader or dignitary of a friendly country dies. No flag or emblem should be placed either above the National Flag or to its right. Its diameter covers the whole breadth of white stripe. Importance :. The National Flag should not be displayed by the common people on motor cars and other vehicles even on special occasions. if the yare flown in a row. Also the National Flag must be put in the highest position. When the National Flag is raised.Our Flag reminds us of the freedom movement in our country. the saffron colour band should be at the top. there was a ‘Charkha’. These spokes inspire us to serve the country throughout the 24 hours of the day. The National Flag should be hoisted on important national festivals and on special occasions. The ‘Charkha’ was very dear to Mahatma Gandhi. The National Flag should be hoisted from sunrise to sun-set. The National Flag is hoisted on the occasion of National festivals. This flag links the present with our past. It should always be taken down on sun-set. The ‘Charkha’ became a symbol of Boycott of foreign goods and the use of Swadeshi goods. there is a wheel called the Ashok Chakra. The wheel signifies motion. This is how we express our respect to the departed soul. The spinning on the ‘Charkha’ and wearing of ‘Khadi’ made out of it was a step towards self-reliance. In the beginning the flag of the Indian National Congress was the same with the only difference that in place of the ‘Chakra’.

Jaya he. it should be sung in tune. Jaya he. Jana-gana mangala dayaka. While singing in chorus. jaya he Bharata-bhagya vidhata Punjab-Sindhu-Gujarata-MarathaDravida-Utkala-Banga Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchhala Jaladhi Taranga Tava subha name jage. But only the first stanza has been adopted as the National Anthem.CMYK Our National Symbols The National Anthem The National Anthem is full of praise for our motherland. Jaya Jaya Jaya. It is in two parts the Crest and the base. We should not move or talk while singing or listening to the National Anthem. jayahe Bharat-bhagya-Vidhata Jaya he. Ta_a subha ashish mange Gahe tava Jaya-gatha. The complete poem has five stanzas. Rules for singing the National Anthem: ! When the National Anthem is sung or played every one should stand at attention. Everybody should know the tune of the National Anthems that it may be sung in chorus. It has been composed by the poet Rabindranath Tagore. This is the emblem of the Government of India. Every Indian should know the words and the meaning of the National Anthem. The hoisting of the National Flag is immediately followed by the singing of the National Anthem. 113 ! ! ! ! ! CMYK . Jaya he. The National Anthem reads as follows: Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka.

CMYK Social Scince-7 The crest shows three lions but in fact there are four lions. 4. Satyameva Jayate. 5. 6. Below the crest is inscribed. 2. It can be seen on all currency notes and coins. The bull represents hard work and steadfastness. The chakra in the centre is a symbol of ‘Dharma’. The citizens of India should resolve to exhibit three qualities in their characters. It signifies motion. 3. How? 114 CMYK . The lion on the back is not seen in the picture. progress and change for the welfare of humanity. The horse Fig 10. Name the three colours in our National Flag. What do the three colours in the National Flag represent? What rules would you follow in paying respect to the National Flag? What rule should be followed while singing the National Anthem? Explain the importance of the National Emblem. (1) Bankimchander Chatterji (2) Rabindranath Tagore (3) Maithli Sharan Gupta (4) Makhan Lal Chaturvedi Practical: Prepare an album of National Flag of other countries. This emblem has been adopted as a seal by the Government of India. In between there is a wheel which is made of twenty four spokes. The base shown as horse to the left and a bull to the right. It can be seen on the Ashoka Pillar which is in Sarnath.2 Our National Symbol represent energy and speed. It means ‘Truth alone triumphs’. the motto written in Devanagari Script. Think over : India is a land of unity in diversity. EXERCISES 1. Who has composed the National Anthem? Tick mark the right answer.

It is always restless and so weather changes are frequent in it. the air becomes rarer.1 Atmosphere 115 CMYK .A layer of gases surrounding the earth for few hundred Kilometres.Water droplets falling from clouds. EARTH Rain :. The following table illustrates this fact : - Fig 1. The water vapour present in the atmosphere is responsible for many weather phenomenon such as clouds. With the increase in height above sea level.A gaseous mixture.A feeling of warmth given by a substance. This zone is known as ‘Biosphere’ which is very important for us.CMYK Atmosphere GEOGRAPHY CHAPTER-1 ATMOSPHERE The earth consists of three spheres. the Atmosphere. This section deals with the atmosphere The atmosphere extends several hundreds of Kilometres above the surface of the earth. the Hydrosphere and the Lithosphere. . These gases are in a definite proportion in the atmosphere. The amount of insolation is not the same everywhere on the earth so. Life is found on the earth in the Zone where all these three spheres come in contact with each other. The changes in temperature bring about pressure changes. This gaseous envelope is known as the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a mixture of different types of gases. Heat :. ATMOSPHERE Air :. rainfall and snowfall. New Terms :Atmosphere :. it can be divided into various temperature zones.

............... 2....00 Percentage 78....... The dust particles are more in number near the earth surface while.99 0....... Helium etc...01 100..No. The plant takes in.. 1.. 4..... Write down the names of different gases of the atmosphere.. The atmosphere extends upto a height of.......... the plants take carbon-di-Oxide and give off oxygen..... and .. Ozone.. 2...gas during respiration.... EXERCISES Fill in the blanks: 1.. How is air pollution caused? How does it affect the human life? Do it :Draw a diagram of the atmosphere.. On the contrary.. 5.... above the earth’s surface... Apart from gases. This helps in the maintenance of ecological balance.. Man inhales.... 3..and gives off... 116 CMYK .............. Their quantity varies with seasons and they are responsible for occurrence of fog and rainfall over the earth... Write short Answers :1..... Total 0...... 4. 5....... All these gases are very important for our life.. 2........... What is atmosphere? 3...............CMYK Social Science-7 TABLE S.......94 0. 3. We inhale oxygen and exhale carbon-di-Oxide during respiration.03 It is clear from the above table that nitrogen and oxygen are the two main constituents of the atmosphere... As one rises high above the surface of earth.. the atmosphere consists of dust particles and water vapour.... Apart from the gases the atmosphere also contains .gas..03 20... Gases Nitrogen Oxygen Argon Carbon-di-oxide Hydrogen....... the air becomes... water vapour is found even at higher elevations.

Hence. The temperature of any place does not remain constant. In this way. Factors affecting Atmospheric Temperature The sun is the source of heat for atmosphere Temperature depends upon many factors: 1. When the air is heated it becomes lighter and so it rises up. This process is known as ‘Radiation. The days are hotter than the nights and the summer is hotter than the winter season.’ It was invented by Sir Mr. The surface absorbs heat first and then slowly releases it. It causes heat and energy in the space all around. heat spreads in the atmosphere. Latitude : There is a decrease in temperature as we proceed from equator towards 117 CMYK . (b) The inclined rays travel a greater distance of the atmosphere and have to heat a larger earth surface. lessers insolation is received at places. The variations of temperature taking place in 24 hours can be found out by a special type of Thermometer known ‘Maximum and Minimum temperature Thermometer. 2 AIR AND ITS TEMPERATURE The heat in the atmosphere is known as temperature. The result is that more insolation is received at places with perpendicular sun rays. (c) The temperature changes are diurnal and seasonal. ‘Degree celsius’ (°C) is the unit of temperature.’ The atmosphere is heated up by the temperature released from the surface. The sun is about 15 crore kilometres away and thousand times larger than the earth. Six. Through the atmosphere the sun rays enter and reach the surface of the earth. The sun is the source of this heat. Temperature is measured with the help of an instrument-Thermometer. Celsius was the scientist who invented the centigrade. The following factors affect the amount of radiation : (a) The perpendicular sun rays travel a shorter distance of the Air and its temperature sphere and also heat lesser earth surface.CMYK Air and Temperature CHAPTER. Thermometer in which °C is the freezing point and 100 °C is the boiling point of water.

Altitude : There is a decrease in temperature with increase of height above sea level.. Usually.. What is radiation? 2. Write down the factors which affect temperature? II...” 3...... the higher mountain peaks are cooler than the low lands. III.CMYK Social Science-7 poles.... ii....part and the inclined rays trave1 .. Tropical Zone : Maximum solar radiations are received in lower latitudes (middle portion of the earth) and so it is known as Tropical Zone. there is a decrease of 1°C. For this reasons...part of the atmosphere..’ FRIGID ZONE 0 23 1/2 0 60 1/2 0 Fig 2... Fill in the blanks :i. 2. 2..... Sun is. Temperate Zone : Between the tropics and poles lies the area with higher temperature than the poles and lower temperature than the tropics.............. Thc surface receives temperature from..... Short Answer Questions : 1...4 Temperature Zones EXERCISES I.. there are three zones: 1. Frigid Zone : 23 1/2 0 0 0 0 60 1/2 0 23 1/2 T E 60 1/2 0 M PR AT E TE PRIEID ZONE M PR 0 AT TO 60 1/2 E RR ZO IE NE D ZO 0 NE 23 1/2 ZO NE 0 Both the Poles gets minimum insolation and therefore. This region is termed as ‘The Temperate Zone... Thermal Zones On the basis of unequal temperature distribution over the earth surface. higher temperatures near equator and lower temperatures near poles are found.... Thc perpendicular rays trave1... On latitude depends the angle of striking sun rays.......... Do it : Draw a diagram showing the temperature zones of the earth.. Which instrument is used for measuring temperature? 3.. forever 165 metre rise. iii. Therefore.. the polar areas are called as “The Frigid Zones.....kilometres away from the earth. 118 CMYK ....

temperature and height above sea level give rise to different pressure belts over the earth. Low temperature makes the air heavy and so there is a rise in the atmospheric pressure. Air Pressure Relta Extent 1. when we climb up a mountain. . These belts are as follows. Atmospheric: Pressure Belts. 2. Temperature: Higher the temperature. With the increase in height. Equatorial Low Pressure Belt Sub-Tropical High Pressure Belt. The atmospheric pressure is unequal over the earth surface. 85° to 90° North and South. The result is that it rises up. 3.” The instrument used for measuring atmospheric pressure is called a Barometer. carrying of oxygen gas becomes necessary.CMYK Atmospheric Pressure CHAPTER-3 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE Air is a gaseous material. pressure. It depends upon two factors. Sub-polar Belt of Low Pressure Belt Polar High Pressure Belt. lighter is the gas. Like other natural substances it has its weight too. Millibar is a unit for showing pressure. This weight is known as air pressure or atmospheric. the air becomes lighter and so there is a decrease in the atmospheric pressure. Height above sea level : Atmospheric pressure is maximum near sea level. The permanent wind system is highly affected by the changes of temperature. 30° to 35° North and South. 2. 45° to 66 ½ North and South. Earth movements. 4. The amount of oxygen also decreases at higher elevations Therefore. “Atmospheric Pressure is the Pressure of a vertical air column of a unit area of the surface of earth. 119 CMYK 0° to 10° North and South. They are : 1.

the pressure is ....... 4.. Air is a. In winter.Substance.... 120 CMYK . EXERCISES Write Short Answer : I. 2....CMYK Social Science-7 66 1/2 45 0 0 66 1/2 45 0 0 35 23 1/2 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 35 0 23 1/2 10 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 23 1/2 0 23 1/2 35 45 0 0 0 35 45 0 0 66 1/2 66 1/2 Fig 3........ On what factors does the air pressure depend? 3..1 Air Pressure Belt 0 During summer the northern hemisphere faces the sun... At sea level the atmospheric pressure is. 3.... Unit for measuring air pressure is. The places where temperature is higher. Do it :Draw a diagram to show the atmospheric pressure belts. What is atmospheric pressure? 2.. land and water are highly affected by the pressure belts.... Give the position of pressure belts in summer and winter seasons..... What is the extent of various atmospheric pressure belts? 4...... So all the pressure belts shift 2°-5° North-Wards... Fill in the blanks :1. the Southern hemisphere faces the sun for a longer time and so these pressure belts shift 2°-5° South-Wards Weather.

On the earth surface..’ ‘The direction of wind is governed by Farrel’s Law’. a slight change of pressure.’ Beanfort’s chart is used for finding and comparing the wind speed.’ The wind always moves from high pressure area to low pressure area. Wind-Velocity When two places consist of different atmospheric pressure.5 kmslhour. in the northern hemisphere the winds and ocean currents turn towards their own right and in the southern hemisphere towards their own left. faster is the wind speed. The speed of wind depends upon the change of pressure or the pressure gradient. But we cannot ignore its existence and importance. if the winds move for a distance of thousands of kilometers then the change in direction becomes apparent. The wind does not move straight but. They follow the inclined paths. The instrument used for of measuring Wind velocity is known as ‘Anemometer. wind. Higher the pressure gradient. This is the reason why the Trade wind and Westerlies do not follow the straight courses while moving from high pressure to low pressure. The deflection of wind is found out with the help of an instrument ‘Wind-vane. the horizontal moving air is known as ‘Wind. The velocity of wind is measured in kilometer per hour. 121 CMYK . But. the wind blows from high to low pressure area. In such cases the wind reaches a velocity of 75-100 kms/hour. Say 1/10th of a millibar. can produce high velocity. Actually. it is deflected towards right or left. The leaves of a tree are moved by a wind velocity of 4.CMYK Wind Direction and Velocity CHAPTER-4 WIND DIRECTION AND VELOCITY The air is not visible like the other substances. This deflection is not apparent in a short distance of one or two kilometers. Farrel’s Law According to Farrel : The earth rotates on its axis from west to east. Due to this rotation.

Cyclones and Anticyclones 3. why they are called as ‘ Westerly Winds. Sirocco 4.CMYK Social Science-7 TYPES OF WIND Depending upon the pressure and velocity the winds are put in three categories:Categories Permanent Winds Seasonal Winds 1. Monsoon Local Winds 1. Their direction is south-west in the northern hemisphere and north-west in the southern hemisphere. 2. Polar 3. 122 CMYK .Loo 2. Hurricane 6. Chinook Types of winds 1. In the northern hemisphere their direction is from north-east to south west and in the Southern hemisphere from south-east to north-west.’ 3. Trade Winds : In both the hemispheres they move from the sub tropical high to the equatorial low. They mainly flow in the temperate zones. These winds are very cold and dry because of having their origin from the poles. For this reason they are also known as the “Easterly winds. In northern hemisphere they blow NorthEast to South-West land in the Southern hemisphere from South-East to North-West. 1. Westerlies (Anti Trade) 3.”: 2. Polar Winds : In both the hemispheres these winds blow from polar high pressure belts to the sub-polar low pressure belts. Land and Sea breeze . Fohn 5. This is the reason. Typhoon Permanent winds (Planetary winds) The Permanent winds are of three types :. Trade 2. Westerly Winds : They blow from the sub-tropical high pressure areas to the sub-polar low pressure belts.

therefore. So. The air over land also gets heated. warm air over water becomes lighter and it rises up. towards which cooler wind from the land surface blows.with the variation of temperatures during day and night land and sea breeze blows. it becomes lighter too. it moves to fill the empty space. During night. During day the land surface is quickly heated up while the water is relatively cool.CMYK Wind Direction and Velocity Seasonal Winds : Apart from the planetary winds there are some winds which blow during a particular period of a day or a year Their directions are also fixed. The wind that blows from land towards sea is known as “Land Breeze.2 Sea Breeze and Land Breeze 123 CMYK . the land surface is cooled earlier than water so.1 Regular Winds (b) The land is quickly heated or cooled while. so it rises up.” P. The seasonal winds are as follows: (i) Land and Sea Breeze : On the sea shore on one side there is sea water and on the other side there is land surface. This movement of air is from sea to land. water takes more time for this process.Easter Line Fig 4.” Fig 4. The air over the sea water is cooler and heavier. The lower surface is left vacant.Easter Line Subpolor Low Prevaling Weater Lines Subtropical High (Horse Latitude) North East Trade Equatorial Low (Dolddurms) North East Trade Subtropical High (Horse Latitude) Prevaling Weater Lines Subpolor Low P. Breeze means wind. it is called “Sea Breeze.

too. As these originate eddies in river water due to some obstruction similarly. the wind rushes towards it from the surrounding high pressure areas.3 Cyclones and Anticyclones. they are also known as the changeable winds. is known as an anticyclone. With the change of season the wind direction also changes.” The centre of the cyclone is termed as “Eye of Cyclone. Anticyclone A high pressure area surrounded by low pressure on all the sides. This type of wind system is called as a “Cyclone. Monsoon Winds Winds blowing in a particular season are known as the monsoon winds. Cyclones When a low pressure develops in the centre. Therefore. It means they are seasonal winds. Fig 4. These atmospheric eddies are known as cyclones and anticyclones. They blow for a short duration and that.CMYK Social Science-7 Cyclones and Anticyclones : These winds are irregular in their speed and direction. Their territories are also indefinite. for examples. They are best developed on an extensive portion of the continent of Asia. The speed of wind is low. high pressure lies in the centre. wind blows out from it.whirling movement of air is also caused in the atmosphere. Since. occasionally. sky is clear and there is no rainfall in the anticyclonic conditions. 124 CMYK . which is well surrounded by oceans and has a greater range of summer and winter temperatures.” Heavy rainfall resulting in a great loss of men and money is caused by cyclones. (I) In summer season the interiors of the continent become very hot.

descends down in the rain shadow area becomes very hot. especially. where pressure is higher. The oceans become warmer than the continental portion and the low pressure is developed on the former. 125 CMYK . Local Winds On the earth surface the winds. After crossing the Rocky mountain ranges the wind which.CMYK Wind Direction and Velocity This condition makes it a region of low pressure from where air is lifted up. Such type of storms are also common in Australia. (2) During winter season the conditions are reversed. It too helps in melting of snow. In each region they are given a different name. in the months of May and June. The monsoon winds blow from sea to land in summer and from land to sea in the winter season. Ice melts due to these winds. They cause immense harm. The prairie plains are benefitted and cattle rearing conditions become favourable by the Chinook Winds. blowing on a particular place are known as “Local Winds”. The grapes ripe faster. Their duration is of about six months each. They are called Loo or Lapat (Flames). rush towards the continent. The important local winds are as follows:(i) Loo (Hot Wind) : These winds blow on northern India in the summer season. (iii) Fohn :It is also a hot wind of Europe. The wind from the cooler high pressure areas of the continent comes to take its place. (ii) Chinook: It blows in the North-Western part of North America. (iv) Hurricane :High speed storms in the south eastern North America are called Hurricane. They cause illness and sometimes they prove fatal. Winds from the surrounding oceans. The air is warm and lighter on oceanic waters and so it is lifted up.

... Which are the seasonal winds? 5............ The sea breeze blows during... 3............... type Questions: What do you understand by Farrel’s Law? Describe the planetary winds? Differentiate between a cyclone and an anticyclone.......... 126 CMYK . Which instruments are used for finding the direction and velocity of winds? 3..winds blow.. East Indies etc... IV.... Answer the following :1. Wind blows from.. How do the winds and currents flow according to the Farrel’s Law? 2..pressure area.....to.. in the Philippines.. In India. iii..... Draw figures to show land and sea breeze... What are monsoon winds? II Fill in the blanks : i.. ii. Give names of the Planetary winds? 4. iv.... and the land breeze blows during........ Cyclones with high velocity wind strike. They are termed as Typhoons...time....... At the centre of the cyclone the pressure is .. 2. Give names of the local winds? 6..........and at the centre of an anticyclone the pressure is...... They too are destructive in nature.. III... Essay 1.CMYK Social Science-7 (v) Typhoon : On the South Eastern coast of Japan........... EXERCISES I..

CMYK Atmospheric Humidity CHAPTER-5 ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY The water present in the gaseous state in the air is its humidity. seas. It is also known as water vapour. rivers. The water vapour can interchange into solid. States of Humidity in the Atmosphere Humidity plays a major role in heating or cooling of the atmosphere. There are three main stages of humidity: (A) Evaporation :Due to high temperature the water turns into vapour and mixes with the air. which is said to be Saturated when the temperature of the CONDENSATION SURFACE WIND CONVENTIONAL RAINS Fig 5. tanks. This water vapour is the most changeable factor of the atmosphere. lakes. This process is known as evaporation.1 Conventional Rain 127 CMYK . It’s amount is not the same in the atmosphere. Sources of Water vapour and it’s Characteristics The sources of water vapour of the atmosphere are the Oceans. liquid or gaseous stage. wells. Higher the temperature more is the amount of water vapour. Whenever air and water come in contact with one another. the water droplets enter the atmosphere in the form of vapour. a fixed amount of water vapour is absorbed by the air. (B) Condensation :Through evaporation. vegetation etc.

It is always associated with lightening and thunder of clouds. Such type of rainfall is very common in the equatorial Regions.” 128 CMYK . resulting heavy rainfall. Such type of rainfall is known as “Orographic Rainfall’. This region is known as the “Rain Shadow Area.2 Rain Caused by Mountains (1) Conventional Rain: The land and the air over it gets heated up in the tropics due to higher temperatures. (2) Orographic Rain : When a mountain comes in the way of a humid wind. The ascending air gets cooled and rain occurs. RainShadow Fig 5. There are three types of Rain.” (3) Cyclonic Rain: There is low pressure in the centre of a cyclone.” The rainfall is measured with the help of an instrument the “Rain ‘Guage. This is known as rainfall. This process is known as condensation. dew. The air rushes fast towards this centre because there is high pressure all around it. rainfall etc. This gives rise to the conventional Currents. The rainfall which is caused by the condensation of these conventional currents is known as the conventional Rainfall. such as-Cloud. Such type of rainfall is known as “Cyclonic Rain. it is forced rise up. The air in the centre is warmer and lighter. Cool Air Chinok Wind RAINFALL In the atmosphere condensation process is responsible for the falling of water droplets on the surface of earth.” On the lee-ward side (Opposite side) of the mountain the air descends down and there is no rainfall on this side. (C) Forms of Condensation Various forms of condensation are seen in the atmosphere. fog. so it quickly rises up. snow. hail.CMYK Social Science-7 saturated air goes down 0° when vapour changes into minute droplets of water.

. 129 CMYK .in summer season than the winter season.. 3. The whether vapour changes into. The sources of water are .... 5....... Draw figures to explain conventional rain and orographic rain. 2. 4....CMYK Atmospheric Humidity EXERCISES I...... Do it : 1.... 2.. Give short answers : I..... What is humidity? What are the different forms of atmospheric humidity...... 3. Write their names? What is rainfall? What do you understand by Cyclonic Rain? What is a rain shadow area? II....state with condensation III...... Fill up the blanks :1.. The evaporation is... Find out whether humidity is higher in sumner season or in rainy season.... 2...............

of a place at a particular time is known as it’s Weather. wind. The weather constantly changes with place and time. and rainfall etc. Within the increase of temperature the level of mercury rises up in the tube. its velocity. consists of a glass tube with a round bulb at one end. The tube is o well graduated in °C and f. Thus weather deals with the atmospheric condition ofa short period. humidity. Thermometer: An instrument used to measure the temperature of a place is known as Thermometer. wind direction. amount of rainfall etc. Meteorologilcal Instruments Many instruments are invented to measure elements of weather and climate a few of them are as follows : 1. Read out the temperature from (from6. The clements of climate are temperature. But now a days degree celsius is commonly used.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-6 WEATHER AND CLIMATE Weather: The description of atmospheric conditions such as temperature.1 Thermometer . The graduations denote both the freezing and the boiling point. humidity. 2. Climate: The average of weather conditions is known as the climate. They all affect the weather and climate of a place. A thermometer.1). The reading is taken by observing the level of mercury in the tube. The unit for measurement of temperature is Celsius/Farenheit/ Rumur. Mercury is filled in this tube and bulb. It is the sum total of variety of weather conditions of an area for a longer time. Maximum and minimum temperature Thermometer : The temperature of a place does not 130 CMYK Fig 6.

Aneroid means without liquid. mercury is used while in the other no liquid is used.2 Barometer temperature.3 Rain Guage . The graduations of the tube are in opposite directions. The instrument is made up of glass tube which contains mercury or alcohol. The change of temperature is found out with the help of Maximum and minimum temperature thermometers. The collected water is poured in a graduated flask to measure the amount of rainfall. Aneroid barometer looks like a rounded watch. the index pin shows the minimum Fig 6. The flask is graduated both in inches and Centimetters. The number indicated by this needle is read and this shows the atmospheric pressure of that a place. The needle inside the box moves with the change of atmospheric pressure and points to the graduated dial. It consists of a cylindrical vessel with a funnel at its opening mouth. This funnel collects rainwater in the vessel. Wind vane and Anemometer : Wind vane is used to find out the direction of wind. b 5. Barometer : Atmospheric pressure is measured with the help of an instrument called Barometer. There are two types of Barometers. The former is Fortins’s Barometer and the later is Aneroid Barometer. Rain Guage : A rainguage is an instrument to measure rainfall of a place. In one type. The Dial 3. It consists of a straight 131 CMYK c Fig 6. 4. They are from 0°-130°. In one tube. Temperature is shown by the index pins. the level of mercury rises and the index pin shows the maximum temperature while in the other tube with the fall of level of alcohol.CMYK Weather and Climate remain constant. It consists of graduations on the dial and a needle.

E.e... 3.......CMYK Social Science-7 rod on which one arrow rotates and shows the direction of the wind. EXERCISES I.. What is a wind-vane? Give its use.... A thermometer is used for measuring .. Draw figures in diffferent weather instruments. 132 CMYK . 4... II. 2.... The wind velocity is read from the instrument. The cardinal points i. What is the difference between weather and climate? 2. The main unit for measurement of temperature is .) and the position of the arrow... North.. III.4 Weather Clock (for knowing wind direction and wind velocity) Prepare a model of wind-vane by observing its figures. East and West are written on the instruments and one can find out the direction of the wind by observing the alphabet of the cardinal point (N. Which instruments are used to show weather conditions? Give their names. Anemometer is used to measure the velocity of wind.... The speed of wind is measured in Kilometres per hour.. 4... Short answer question: 1...S. There are four cups attached to a vertical metallic rod which move with the force of the wind... Do it: 1........ Write down the element of climate? 3. Rain fall is measured with the help of.. South. 2.... Fill up the blanks :1. Fig 6....... The average of weather condition is known as..W.

Give names of the Ocean and mark their size wise orders. Its area is larger than the areas of all the Oceans put together. Movements of the Ocean water Children you must have seen a river or a 133 CMYK Fig 7. Importance of the Oceans : Water is necessary for all the living beings. Indian Ocean. lakes and rivers of our earth. are also obtained from the Oceans. .CMYK Hydrosphere SECTION II CHAPTER -7 HYDROSPHERE Continent . Atlantic Ocean. What is Hydrosphere? The part of the surface of the earth which is covered with water is known as Hydrosphere. Look at the globe and the world map. The water which evaporates from oceans give us rain. Ocean . fishes. On 71 % of the earth’s surface there is water. seas.Vast water bodies surrounding the land masses. Water is found in Oceans.1 Hydrosphere on the globe. The snow and ice are also included in hydrosphere. Arctic Ocean (The North Polar Sea).Large land masses of earth surface above Sea Level. The Pacific Ocean is the largest Ocean. pearls etc. It is also the deepest among all the Oceans. corals. Oceans playa significant role in our life. Antarctic Ocean (The South Polar Sea). They are-Pacific Oceans. The Marinas trench is the deepest trench (11022 M below sea level) of the world. Different types of salts.

When one wave moves forward. the depth of the seas and oceans is also not equal. Tides Waves :.2. There are three types of movements of Ocean waters: 1. It becomes clear from Fig. The ocean water is mobile. currents are most important. Warm Current 2.In waves only the surface water oscillates. 7. Similarly.2 Depth of Oceans. Cold Current Generally those that flow polewards from the equatorial region are known as warm currents. It always shows SLOPE OCEAN DEEPS ISLAND one or the other type of movement. Its marginal area is shallow and the central part is much deeper. surface water in a fairly defined direction for a considerable distance is known as an Oceanic current. They push one another and end up near the shore.The CONTINENTAL hydrosphere is never at SHELF CONTINENTAL rest. Reasons for the Origin of currents The factors responsible for the origin of Oceanic currents are as follows: 134 CMYK .” Types of currents Depending upon their speed and temperature. Out of all the movements of ocean water. Currents :. Waves 2.CMYK Social Science-7 tank. Those that flow from the polar regions towards Equator are called as the cold currents. the currents are of two types: 1.” “Actually currents are like rivers in Ocean water which flow in a definite direction regularly. Winds are responsible for the origin of the waves. in succession other waves are formed. The depth in the centre is not equal everywhere. “The general movement of a mass of Fig 7. Currents 3.

COLD HOT 3. Difference of Temperature : Temperatures are higher in the equatorial region where water surface is raised up due to expansion of water. NORTH AMERICA NORTH ATLANTIC OCEAN AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN 2. The Earth’s Rotation : In 24 hours the earth makes one rotation on it’s axis. (ii) Shape of the lands mass.CMYK Hydrosphere GREEN LAND 1. Important Oceanic currents (A) Currents of Atlantic Ocean : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) North Equatorial Current South Equatorial Current Gulf Stream Labradore 135 CMYK Warm Current Warm Current Warm Current Cold Current . For bringing equilibrium colder water from poles flow towards the equator. The Planetary Winds :Majority of Ocean currents flow along the direction of the planetary winds. The direction of a current depends on two factors: (i) The direction of the planetary winds. This daily movement deflects the Oceanic water in the form of a current Fig 7. This water flows towards poles.3 Currents of Atlantic Ocean.

(B) Currents of the Pacific Ocean : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) North Equatorial Current KurosivoWann North Pacific Kurile California East Australian Current Peruvian 136 CMYK Warm Warm Warm Cold Cold Warm Cold . (v) (vi) (vii) North Atlantic drift Canary Brasilian Current Warm Current Cold Current Warm Current Cold Current (viii) Bengula Current Saragasso Sea is the calm region encircled by currents.4 Currents of Pacific Ocean.CMYK Social Science-7 ASIA NORTH AMERICA NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN North Equiterial Currents Counter Equiterial SOUTH PACIFIC OCEAN SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA COLD HOT Fig 7.

always persists...... Impact of climate : The warm currents tend to increase the temperature of the coastal region closer to them while.CMYK Hydrosphere (C) Currents or the Indian Ocean : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) West Australian current...warm. But nautical miles measured from the apporopriate base line..cold... EQUATOR AUSTRALIA INDIAN OCEAN 4....... a danger of accidents due to fog formation........ South Equatorial current.warm........5 Currents of Indian Ocean (Summer) confluence of cold and warm currents.. 1................warm.... New found land and Japan are famous fishing grounds in the world.. North Equatorial current... Mozambique.. 137 CMYK . on the contrary at the Fig 7.warm.... South Equatorial current...... because COLD they can reach their The territorial waters of India extended into the sea to a distance of twelve destiny in less fuel.... Monsson DRIFT EQUATOR AFRICA S. Impact on Ports : The port remains open throughout the year when a warm current flows adjoining to its coast. 2.... the cold currents reduce the temperature..... ASIA 3. Impact on Transportation :- The ships are WEST WIND DRIFT naturally benefitted by the favourable directions HOT of the currents.......... Due to the effect of a cold current the coastal water freeze and the ports are closed for a greater period of the year.... Impact on Fisheries : The fish is found in a large number at places where the warm and cold currents meet.......

138 CMYK . Of the earths.Oceans. On the basis of their speed and temperature. Find out the places of the confluence of warm and cold currents in a world map. 3. From where do we get drinking water? Collect paper cuttings.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1. had there been no Gulf Stream near the eastern coast of North America. the currents are of the following types: (a) (b) (c) (d) Five Two Four Three 3. Collect photographs of the animals found in. surface. 3. Write the correct answer : 1.Do it: 1. 2. Explain: 1. What is the difference between waves and currents? Why is gulf stream a boon for North Western Europe? What is the effect of Ocean currents on our life? III. (a) (b) (c) Lumbering Textile Fisheries II. hydrosphere covers : (a) (b) (c) (d) 68% 31 % 71% 65% 2. Which of the following industry would have been affected. 2.

CMYK Tides CHAPTER-8 TIDES In 24 hours the surface of sea water rises and falls twice. firstly. The Sun is very far from the earth. The rise of water towards the coast is termed as the “High Tide” while the fall of the retreat of the Ocean water from the coasts is known as the “Low Tide. On the contrary the Moon is quite near to it. A place experience two high and two low tides in twenty four hours. 139 CMYK Spring Tide Spring Tide .1 High Tide simultaneously. This fall is termed as “Low Tide. The rise in water level is a tide. is affected more than the solid earth by moon’s pull. The rise of water level at the second place is due to the fact that the moon slightly attracts the solid earth too. Therefore. The part of water Sun Earth which is just infront of the New Moon moon is pulled up. But the time and height of the tides is not uniform. and moon causes tides. at the place just infront of the moon. water is attracted by the gravitational pull of the moon than the sun. and secondly. The tides are produced at two points Fig 8. at the place just on opposite side of it. resulting in a tide. This periodic regular rise and fall of the level of sea is known as tides.” Causes of Tides : The gravitational pull of the sun. Due to this water at the opposite side is left behind and so it accumulates. The moon attracts the water Moon Moon surfaces. Thus. There occurs a fall of water level midway between the high tides. low tides also occur simultaneously at two places on opposite sides. Due to the rise of water level at two points. at a time there are two tides at two different places on opposite sides in the Ocean waters.” In oceans. The water being liquid.

resulting in a small rise of the ocean water. The waves wash away the debris. EXERCISES I Choose the right answer : 1. is the eighth day after the full moon and the new moon. there are two types of tides: (i) (ii) Spring Tide Neap Tide.On a full moon and new moon the sun. (i) Spring Tide :. This type of tide is known as the “Neap Tides. (2) The tides help in navigation. Neap Tide Earth Neap Tide Moon Fig 8. their force of attractions acts opposite to each other. Larger ships can reach the shallow harbours with high tidal waves and they can return to the sea with the ebb (low side).2 The Neap Tide Sun Effect of Tides on Human Life : (1) With the tidal waves the river mouths are kept clean. the moon and the earth. Due to the combined gravitational pull of the sun and the moon the tides on these days are higher. On which day there will be no spring tide? (a) (b) (c) Full Moon New Moon The eighth-day (Asthami) 140 CMYK .” It happens when the moon is in its first and third quarters. Such type of tide is known as “Spring Tide.CMYK Social Science-7 Types of Tides Depending upon the height of the waves.” Moon (ii) The Neap Tide : When the gravitational pull of the sun and the moon act at right angles to the earth’s centre. all the three lie in a straight line.

Explain: 1. The sea coast must have suffered in the absence of tides because of (a) (b) (c) Accumulation of debris. 2. What is the difference between a Spring Tide and a Neap Tide? How do the tides effect the human life? III. ii. 141 CMYK .CMYK Tides 2. Draw a diagram to show “Spring Tide.” On full moon and new moon nights observe the position of the moon in the sky. Do it: i. II. Rivers not flowing into the sea The fish not reaching the Coasts.

and yet it is prosperous too! During the past few centuries on other continent has left its impact on the rest of the world so much as has Europe. This subcontinent occupies a central position in the land hemisphere. Also note the shape of this continent. They are formed when the land gets gradually compressed owing to forces at work under the earth’s crust. Large arms of seas have penetrated deep into Europe. Can Fig 9. it is the smallest continent. 142 CMYK .CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-9 NEW TERMS EUROPE Land Hemisphere: The northern hemisphere of the earth surface. This is an excellent position for reaching out to the other continents by sea or air routes. Massif : A large mountain mass with one or two summits. But Europe is very thickly populated.1 Europe-Location you think how their presence must have Look at the central of Europe in the affected Europe? Northern hemisphere. Fiord : Deep inlets of sea standing between high cliffs and penetrating into the land. Study the map of the world. which contains nearly six sevenths of the world’s total land area. Fold Mountains: Mountains with long parallel ranges. Barring Australia. Peninsula: A large stretch of land surrounded by sea on all sides except one through which it is connected to a large land mass. You will find that Europe is not a continent but is at best a big peninsula of the continent of Eurasia. Find out the names of these seas from the figure. LAND AND CLIMATE As a continent. It is just three times the size of our country. Europe is indeed very small.

As no part Fig 9. Rumania and Albania situated on Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea are known as Balkan states. The countries of Yugoslavia.CMYK New Terms Europe Look at the coastline of Europe. Belgium and Netherlands are the two small lowland countries very thickly populated. It thus became possible with the new sea routes that many of the ideas. movements and inventions born in Europe have influenced the life of people all over the world today. Name landlocked countries in Europe. Iceland. Greece. There is the small and independent Vatican city state in a part of Rome with a population of a few hundred people. Name their capital cities.Political Division Note the names of the countries. except locations in Europe. their capitals. POLITICAL MAP OF EUROPE Study the political map of Europe carefully and name the largest country in the subcontinent. Russia is very far from sea. Norway. They offer some of the best sites for fishing. Locate British Isles and four other important countries of western Europe.2 Europe . It is highly i n d e n t e d . Sweden and Denmark are collectively known as Scandinavia. there has been a greater search for sea communication among the people. Obviously. 143 CMYK . it should provide a number of natural harbours and ports. sizes and of Europe. Many of the bays and seas surrounding Europe are shallow. It is the seat of Pope and the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. This made it encouraging for the European seamen taking to trade and to the discovery of unknown continents. Bulgaria.

They form highly indented and rugged coastlines. Wales and Ireland. long. Note the three major physical division of Europe. these are called fiords.CMYK Social Science-7 Physical Features Look at the map of Europe and note the degrees of latitude and longitude within which it is situated.Physical Features.3 Europe . (i) the North Western Highlands. Locate the Atlantic Coast in important mountains ranges. (ii) the Great European Plains. The Great European Plains These plains stretch between the Fig 9. the west and the Ural Mountains in the east. and their branches penetrate deep into the sea. These mountains along with the Urals in the east are the oldest in Europe. Many of these mountains are low and slope very gently away from the sea. The North Western Highlands The North Western Highlands include the mountains and plateaus of Norway and Sweden. They also extend into the northern parts of Scotland. This map will also tell you that Europe is a continent of mountains and plains. and (iii) Central Plateau and the Southern Mountains. These mountains are situated close to the ocean. Besides the Great Plains. narrow and deep arms of the sea between high cliffs penetrate into the land. like the coast of Norway. rivers and seas shown in the map. At places. These are broadest in Russia and go on narrowing westwards. To their north lie the white sea and the North Western highlands and to their south are the southern plateaus and mountains. It may broadly divided into three major physical divisions. 144 CMYK .

River Rhine is known for its great rift valley and its delta formed Netherlands along the North Sea. To the South of these old mountains. respectively.CMYK New Terms Europe there are small plains of Lombardy in Italy and the lowland of Andalusia in Spain. The other rivers joining this sea are the Dnieper and the Don. The Great European Plains are drained by a number of rivers. These mountains with highpeaks.4 Rainfall 145 CMYK . the Vosges. the Black forests and the Plateau of Bohemia. They have been considerably eroded in the past. It passes through a number of countries. these mountains today are only the stumps of the mountains which once were very high. It stretches from the Atlantic in the west to the Caspian in the east. The most important mountain system among them is known as the Alps Mont Blanc Fig 9. Important among these are the Central Massif of France. and the plains of Hungary. The Seine and the Rhine are the important rivers that join the English Channel and the North Sea. Central plateau and Southern Mountains A series of plateaus and the mountains lying close to the southern border of the great plain are also not very high. The River Danube is the second largest to the east and after cutting across the Carpathian mountains falls into the Black Sea. lies a chain of young and very high mountains barring the way to the Mediterranean Sea. steep slopes and deep valleys are the y o u n g e s t mountains of Europe. The Volga which is the largest river of Europe joins a landlocked sea named the Caspian. They are more important for minerals than for agriculture. from where it further extends into Asia. In fact.

The warm waters of the North Atlantic Drift keep the seas along western Europe ice free. The highest mountain peak of Europe lies in the Caucasus. The ranges of the southern mountains generally run parallel to one another. 146 CMYK . Find out the relationship between the belts of rainfall and natural vegetation. In spite of its location and compact size. The Fig 9. the effects of the North Atlantic Drift and the Westerlies. It is believed that such fold mountains were developed when the land was gradually compressed from either side as a result of the internal movement beneath the earth’s crust Climate and Vegetation The major part of the continent is situated in the cool temperate zone. It is nearly two-thirds the height of Mount Everest. Dinaric Alps. The plains of Hungary and Lombardy within this mountain zone are agriculturally productive But these high mountains are important for pastures for cattle and sheep and for being the sources of water power.CMYK Social Science-7 is the highest peak of the Alps. forming folds. Apennines. It is known as Elbrus. Besides the Alps. Carpathian and Caucasus. as it were. the climatic conditions in Europe vary from region to region. They are its relief. The deep penetrating arms of the sea have a moderating influence on the climate of Europe. You will find that this peak is only half as high as Mount Everest which is 8. the other important mountain ranges in this group are the Pyrenees. This is because the climate of Europe is influenced by many factors.848 metres above sea level in the Himalayas.5 Natural Vegetation of Europe. proximity to the seas.

This wind-swept region is covered with snow for the major part of the year. the summers are hot and winters very cold. skins of seal and blue fox which it gets from Greenland. there is never a sharp line of demarcation. hot and dry. they also pick up moisture and cause a fair amount of rainfall. Summers are short.CMYK New Terms Europe warming influence of these waters is carried further in land by the westerlies. South of the tundra lies the belt of the taiga region Between the two. spruce and fir as the common trees. Precipitation is very scanty and is in the form of snow. rather than cold. Further south lies a belt 147 CMYK . sable. Winters too are cool. It is covered with the tundra type of vegetation. The temperature remains equable and the rainfall is well distributed all over the year. It decreases as one proceeds eastward. The rainfall in Southern Europe is confined mainly to the winters. The land north of the Arctic Circle has an extreme cold climate. westerlies. In their wake. Such a climate with extremes. mink and squirrel. The rainfall is heavy in the west and along the western slopes of the mountains. This is a typical marine or maritime climate also known as west European type. In winter weather is often very foggy. During summer this region comes within the influence of off-shore winds. where it mostly occurs in summer. These trees provide softwood and as such are valuable the forests and their northern margins are also the trapping grounds of fur animals like lynx. Denmark has become the second largest producer in the world of mink furs. Away from it the Central and Eastern Europe get little of the moderating influence of the Sea. and winters warm and wet. It is a region of coniferous forests with tall and straight pine. These permanent winds are responsible for a fairly well distributed rainfall all through the year especially in the western parts of Europe. The moderating influence of the westerlies and nearness to ocean make summers warm rather than hot in western Europe. a wide range of temperature and moderate rainfall is known as the continental type of climate. however. The reindeer and the polar bear are the common animals of the tundra region. In winter. As a result. this region is open onto the influence of the rainbearing. The sun is visible even at midnight for a period in a country like Norway beyond the Arctic circle. that is moss. with days long and warm. These winds give little rainfall. lichen and a few stunted trees such as willows and birches. This is typical Mediterranean type of climate in which summers and long.

Which country has the plains of Lombardy? Inspite of dense Population the countries of Europe are well developed. and popular. 2. Olive. In Eastern Europe. Distinguish between (i) (ii) The marine type of climate and the continental type of climate. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Answer the following questions. They are called deciduous tree.CMYK Social Science-7 of mixed forests. where rainfall is too meagre. Their leaves are small. are the broad leaved trees which shed their leaves in winter. however. More common. Therefore the trees are small in size but have deep roots. Which are the three major physical divisions of Europe? What is a land hemisphere? Name the channel that separates the British Isles from the European mainland. The region is known as steppe grasslands. generally thick and oily or glossy. EXERCISES REVIEW QUESTIONS. fig. 1. This helps to avoid evaporation of water. Common among these are oak. grape and orange are the well-known fruit trees of the region. Olive corkoak and storie pine are the common trees. 148 CMYK . In the Mediterranean region trees are required to stand a long summer drought. It consists of some coniferous trees of the taiga type. The grass is coarse and found in patches. Give reasons. Give reasons? Name two countries of Europe which are centuries ahead? Norway depends on the Sea. the common vegetation is of grasses and herbs. ash. The taiga and the Mediterranean types of vegetation. Some trees are thorny and other have thick and pulpy barks.

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) It lies in the zone of the westerlies. Scotland. Show the following in an outline map of Europe: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Baltic Sea and Black Sea. How far are they influence by the westerlies?) MAP WORK 5. Greece. 149 CMYK . Oslo and Copenhagen. Study the map of Europe and then make the correct pair-from the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (vi) Iceland. Rumania and Albania. and Rome. Carpathians. Complete the following statement with a correct ending. Bulgaria. British Isles 6. River Danube The Pyrenees. Scandinavia Belgium. It lies in the zone of winter monsoon. Southern Spain receives rainfall in winter because. (Describe the four types of climate found in Europe. Warsaw. Balkan States lrish Republic.CMYK New Terms Europe 3. 4. It attracts moist winds from the Mediterranean Sea. Wales and England Low countries Yugoslavia. Norway. Northern Ireland. Westerlies wind belt shifts southwards in winter. Sweden and Denmark. Netherlands and Luxemburg. Alps.

Dykes: Big embankments built in order to protect land from the sea. Their country is rightly known as Holland or Netherlands since. The water has to be saved from salts of the sea and pollution from a large number of factories. shipping and overseas trade or commerce. turned to the sea to make good this deficiency. Europe is fortunate to have a large proportion of a level and well watered low land. 150 CMYK . by trucks to markets. Intensive Agriculture : A farming practice involving greater use of manpower per unit of land. Europe is a vey thickly Populated continent. Even the small European countries have used the natural beauty of their landscape in mountains. Hill and mountain slopes and tracts of infertile lands are wisely left under forests.Combination of cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for their milk and meat on the same farm. Almost every inch of it has been brought under the plough. Truck farming: A term used for vegetable and fruit farming. fruits and flowers are carried. The Dutch have been constantly at war with the sea for wresting land from the sea by pushing it back and back. It is also known as truck or market gardening because things like vegetables.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-10 NATURAL RESOURCES AND THE PEOPLE NEW TERMS Mixed Farming :. Where the land has not been found fertile to provide adequate food for people they have. Lands in the hills which are neither so fertile nor so level. are used as pastures. a struggle for keeping sufficient quantity of water free of sediments in rivers for navigation along their deltas is also carried on. On them are fed some of the most cared-for cattle in the world. Many of them learn their living by taking to fishing. The forest trees are carefully nurtured. Sericulture : Rearing of silk worms and producing raw silk as a cash crop for supplementing farm incomes. it is a low land In fact. along river and the sea coasts in attracting tourists from far and near.

which has been used very wisely for the development of water power. In fact. EXPLOITINGS OIL Cultivating Crops About one third of the total land in Europe has been brought under the plough. water. climate and availability of farm labour. The Europeans have gone further in discovering very large underground deposits of coal and iron. hundreds of windmills were busy pumping out water from these low lands into the sea. 151 CMYK . the low countries and the Povalley in Italy. Europe is bestowed with one more gift of nature. Even the much needed oil has now been extracted from beneath the shallow waters of the North and the Baltic seas in Netherlands. However. big and small. Paris Basin. Formerly. The bowls of earth have also been exceptionally kind and generous to these people. The important wheat producing areas are the Ukraine in the Soviet Union. These black twins-iron and coal-have helped Europe to develop several industries.CMYK Natural Resources and The People In order to protect these newly claimed fertile low lands from the sea the Dutch have built big embankments. in France. This explains why Europe is popular as well as prosperous. Belgium and Netherlands to build up a large variety of their exporting industries by importing essential raw materials and even food. depending upon soil. irrigation. a variety of crops are grown in different parts of Europe. By far the most important crop of Europe is wheat. A very large proportion of this trade is very much in its own favour. a network of transport and the mastery over the seas have all led Europe to capture international trade. the quality of soil and the climatic conditions are not the same allover the region. These embankments protect land from being flooded by the sea. Such lands in low countries of Netherlands and Belgium are now used for cattle-grazing and for truck gardening. Norway and Great Britain. called dykes along the sea front. It has helped the small countries like Denmark. Therefore. Wheat cultivation is confined to rich soils with cool but relatively long summers with abundant sunshine. the Plains of Hugary and the Great Plains of Europe. Industries. Now it is being done with the help of big pumps worked with electricity. inland navigation and. the Europeans were the first to develop power from running water and put it at the service of man. namely.

1 Europe-Forests. olives. peach and oranges are also grown in very large quantities. Why are the Europeans as it forests found mostly in the northern part and why is the crop land largest in the central part ? has for us. Since pigs multiply and grow 152 CMYK . Dairy cattle do very well in cool. the sample food crop of Europe. These are grown in the plains of Central and Eastern Europe such as in Germany and Poland. in that order. Ceops and Livestock. grapes. Sugar-beet and potatoes are the important root crops of Europe. figs. same importance to Note the various ways in which land is used in Europe. namely the meadows and pastures. too. Cattle are also reared for their meat. The countries around the North Sea are famous for dairying. They supplement wheat. moist marine type of climate. Europe and Russia are the leading producers of these coarse cereals. in the east. are used to supplement their food. roses and vegetables in its warm valleys. Belgium and Netherlands in the west have also excelled in producing flower bulbs and vegetables. especially in Russia. and oats. left open for its animals.CMYK Social Science-7 The poorer soils are devoted to barley. Bulgaria. These products are exported to countries in their neighbourhoods. The orchards are confined to the sunny hill slopes and stony soils of Mediterranean Europe. It is grown in cool. Potatoes. damp lands. Fruits such as apples. is known for its horticulture. Flax is the only fibre crop of Europe and is used for making linen. The sugarbeet is the source of sugar and has the Fig 10. Well distributed rains and cool summers ensure abundant and nutritious grass for its animals. It is the only raw material which is grown in Belgium and is not imported. Rearing Animals Europe has nearly one fifth of its land. rye.

Denmark is the example of a country which has shifted from growing cereals to the production of cattle and pigs.2 Europe-Distribution of Minerals to drier parts. In which countries are these located ? wool and mutton.CMYK Natural Resources and The People very quickly. Fish provides a valuable source of protein for a balanced and nutritious diet at a relatively low cost. The fish catch in Europe being well over ten million tonnes. 153 CMYK .forests in spite of heavy pressure on land for agriculture. On the other hand the regions in Southern and Central Europe have experienced a rapid removal of forest over vast areas. Butter. Norwegians are the great seafarers and fishermen of Europe. They have well-equipped vessels working as central floating factories for catching a variety of fishes along their fiords coast. Harvesting The-Seas Europe possesses some of the rich fisheries of the world. eggs and bacon form the basis of its agriculture and the milk yield of a cow is very high. Europe has the highest consumption of fish per head of its population. they are reared on farms for pork. Thus Europe is. They are reared both for Note the location of major coal and oil fields of Europe. They exploit the icy waters and barren islands in polar regions for catching the valuable seals and the whales. Forests in Europe are confined to Scandinavian and Alpine mountains and to the taiga region in Russia. some what able to make up for its insufficient food supplies. Poultry farming is a very common feature of agriculture in Europe. Norway catches 582 kilograms of fish per inhabitant every year and at least 85 percent of it is exported. Sheep are confined Fig 10. Famous among them are the Dogger Bank and the Great Fisher Bank. Nurturing Forest Trees About one-fourth of the land in Europe is still left under.

is still largely imported by many countries in Western Europe. Europe also produces bauxite. Even in cultivating land. Other producers are Sweden. Where the land is abundant and the labour scarce.CMYK Social Science-7 Exploiting Underground Wealth Europe possesses large mineral deposits hidden under the land. they follow different methods. Big reserves of mineral oil and natural gas are found in Russia and Rumania. By far the most important among them are coal and iron ore. But what is really more interesting is the way they are wisely used by the people. intensive Name the countries and the main parts of Europe known for agriculture becomes the 154 CMYK . Bituminous coal of good quality is found in Germany. Petroleum. on the other hand. In Western Europe the North Sea oil-fields discovered in the later sixties are now producing sufficient oil. Converting Nature’s Gifts into Goods and Utilities It is true that Europe has a wide range of natural resources. A low grade variety go coal. German Democratic Republic is its principal producer.3 Europe-Major Industrial Areas surplus. That is why the oil derricks occupy the central place on its national emblem as one of its main riches. Iron ore is found in France and Russia on a very large scale. the United Kingdom and Spain. It is now supplemented by waterpower in an equally big way. Rumania is an important producer of petroleum and natural gas in Europe outside Russia. In Eastern Europe. Extensive agriculture is thus practised on largesized farms where more and more machines are employed in place of human labour. Coal is the major source of power in Europe. Czechoslovakia and Poland have fairly good coal deposits for their home needs. Russia and the United Kingdom. is known as lignite. they use big machines on their farms. sulphur and potash. brittle and brown in colour. In the areas where land is scarce but the labour is Fig 10.

they have readily taken to irrigation. In order to maintain and improve the fertility of soils. from Ireland in the West to Central Europe. Milk is converted into cheese and butter. Where they find that raising of crops can be combined with rearing of animals and the practice of sericulture they follow mixed farming. Newsprint. flax fibres and silk are now turned into textiles. Sugar mills are busy in manufacturing sugar from sugar-beet. Fish oil like cod liver oil and fish manure are also marketed on a large scale. also produce cotton textiles by importing cotton from other parts of the world. It is found throughout Europe. In the process people have developed several industries. Denmark andthe countries of Eastern Europe like Bulgaria. employing a large number of workers. The major centres of these industries are found in the United Kingdom. France. In dry lands of the steppes and the Mediterranean region. in turn. leather furs and edible fats. fishing boats and fish preservation plants. Deep sea fishing involves preservation of fish. But many other 155 CMYK . Some of it is now turned into condensed and powedered milk. Russia and Northern Italy. Meat and fish are also now frozen and tinned before they are marketed like many other commodites. and other synthetic fibres are produced from wood. The fish is marketed both fresh and as a Preserve product. into prized articles of international trade. Iron and steel industries have become key industries since they are basic to many other manufacturing industries.CMYK Natural Resources and The People rule. Wool. A large number of mills are engaged in converting wheat into flour. Hungary and Poland have developed their food procesing and agriculture-based industry. a perishable commodity. The textile mills in Europe are busy not only in manufacturing wollen cloth and linen but they. they use fertilizers. convert it into loaves of bread. Germany and Russia. Important among them is making of pulp and cellulose. Much of the agricultural produce is processed before it is consumed. Even fruits and their juices are preserved in various forms and widely marketed. The use of science and technology has gone a long way in changing milk. Logging and lumbering is now followed. Fishing has become a very complex operation. paper rayon. follow rotation of crops and employ other scientific techniques. with several other industrial activities. Norwegians value seal fishes for their skins. Bakeries. These tinned dairy products enter international trade on a big scale. There are allied industries which manufacture fishing nets.

in 1920’s have also become rich by being industrialised. fetching good prices. Belgium. wagons. Czechoslovakia and Poland make good steels by even purchasing from abroad the raw materials which are not found in their own territory.4 Europe-Railways engines. Netherlands. engaged in manufacturing railway Fig 10. The European countries are competing with one another in exporting their special skills and knowledge to the developing countries of Asia and Afiica. Agricultural countries like Denmark and small countries like Switzerland. The railway lines criss-cross Europe. Aluminium is used in making aeroplanes. Railway routes cross the mountain passes like St. which have the major railway junctions of Europe. not with standing the great mountain barriers. The poor Scandinavian countries like Norway. ships and Study this figure and fig 6. metallurgical and glass articles and chemicals.CMYK Social Science-7 countries like Italy. 156 CMYK . is consumed by other industries. They are responsible for producing varieties of steel. Belgium. in turn. Czechoslovakia and Austria have also built up diversified industries producing articles in small quantity but of great value and high quality. precision instruments. a raw material is used in several chemical industries. Paris.Bernard in the Alps connecting the countries on both side of high mountains.3 given in this book to find out Alpine other machines. Compare the positions of London. They are reputed for making electronic goods. Europe has every modern means of transport for moving the goods and the people.Gotthard and St. Which part of Europe has a thick network of railways ? automobiles. Moving The Goods And The People One of the essential condition for the development of industries is the presence of a network of transport and communication. This. Coal as passes or the routes crossing them.

Frankfurt connected with almost all other continents. The international airports of Paris. Population of Europe Asia has the largest number of people. the land of 97 inhabited islands. Note the Rhine passing through the industrial heart of Western Europe. London. Very often the road transport competes with the railways. The bulky and heavy goods or cargo are generally transported by major inland water ways since water transport is very cheap. Mark the rivers connected by navigable canals. People have developed a high sense of road traffic with the result that there is a very low rate of accidents.075 kilometres. It is the busiest inland waterway of Europe and carries more traffic than any other inland waterway in the world. But it is Europe that has the highest density of Fig 10. Rhine. Locate on your map the important sea ports of Europe. Moscow is connected by rivers and canals to several seas. Besides the. How do they differ from one another. buses and cars. busy with trucks. Airways connect all important cities of Europe with one another. Denmark. Thames and Danube are important waterways. The highways are broad and well surfaced roads. 157 CMYK . Air transport has also now become very popular in Europe. has a number of bridges and a network of ferry services to maintain communication links. Distances which were earlier covered in months are now covered in hours by large and speedy jet planes. Berlin.5 Inland Waterways of Europe.CMYK Natural Resources and The People Berlin and Moscow. the Seine. In the medium-sized country of Rumania. there are nine ports on the entirely navigable river Danube over a distance of only 1.

the greater is the trend of more and more people leaving the villages for towns. the great plain of Europe are densely populated. leaving aside a few pockets. the later are the centres of international trade and commerce. German Federal Republic (247). It is turning a country like Denmark into a large town with many green spaces. If the people of Europe were to be uniformly distributed all over the continent. Fig 10. Western Europe and some islands like Malta are thickly populated. it possesses only 7 percent of the world’s land area. However. While northern Europe is thinly populated. 158 CMYK . Netherlands (240) the United Kingdom (239). there would be 98 persons per square kilometre. Italy (186) and former German Democratic Republic (155) are the top six countries with highest densities of population. The geography of Europe points out to us how important the natural resources of a country are to its people. Eastern and southern Europe have a moderate density of population. If we exclude the former Soviet Union from Europe. are the people themselves who utilise these resources intelligently for national Prosperity. more so. In former German Federal Republic there is an unbrokenline of about 30 towns in the Ruhr industrial belt.6 Europe-Distribution of population which areas of Europe are very densely populated and which ones sparsely populated ? why are they so ? By and large. the most densely populated parts of Europe are found around coal fields and major ports.CMYK Social Science-7 population. Belgium (323 persons per square kilo metre). But it accounts for nearly one fifth of the world’s population. The more the number of big industrial centres and major ports. But. While the former are essentially industrial centres.

A farming practice in which major emphasis is (b) Extensive farming laid on breeding and rearing of milk cattle. (iii) 4. Complete the following statement with the most suitable ending. A farming practice involving combination of (d) Plantation and agriculture cultivation of crops and rearing of animals for their milk and meat on the same farm. Which is the busiest inland waterway of Europe? Name the two leading sea fisheries of Europe. What is the staple food crop of Europe? Name two cereals that supplement the main food crop of Europe. (c) Mixed farming. (i) (ii) A farming practice in which only a few farmers (a) I n t e n s i v e farming till large farms mainly with the help of machines. 3. Europe has made great progress because. it is favourably situated in relation to other parts of the world. Make out correct pairs from the two columns.CMYK Natural Resources and The People EXERCISES REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Extensive and intensive agriculture. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) it has very large and rich agricultural lands. its people have made the best possible use of its position and natural resources. it has been the “Cradle of the Western Civilization. How should natural resources be utilized for national development. Answer the following questions : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2.” 159 CMYK . Distinguish between: (i) (ii) Bituminous coal and lignite.

Two important passes in the Alps carrying important railway line. Write how the following countries have used their natural resources to their advantage. Then discuss which practices have any significance for India. Collect information on this topic. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) MAP WORK 7. Give reasons for the following. . Denmark has a large number of bridges and network of ferry services. Some countries of Europe depend upon fisheries for their livelihood. 160 CMYK . Most of the inhabitants of Europe use machinery in Agriculture.CMYK Social Science-7 5. Divide the class into a few group each collecting information on one aspect of it. European countries are the exporters of technical know-how to countries in Asia. From Practices in Europe. TOPIC FOR-CLASS DISCUSSION 8. 6. (i) (ii) (iii) Denmark Netherlands Norway European agriculture had to be mechanised thoroughly. (i) (ii) the straits joining (a) the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea and (b) Sea of Marmara and Black Sea. On an outline map of Europe locate and name the following.

have several things in common.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe CHAPTER 11 THREE MAJOR COUNTRIES OF WESTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPE NEW TERMS Dairy farming: A kind of agriculture in which major emphasis is on breeding and rearing milch cattle. It came about in England in the middle of the eighteenth century.1 France-Relief Features. France and the United Kingdom are important countries of Western Europe. industrial and business Fig 11. Insular Location: Surrounding by seas on all sides. Industrial Revolution: A marked change in manufacturing from hand-operated tools in houses of people to power-driven machinery installed in spacious factories especially built for it. Note the location of France. Hay and other fodder crops are raised mainly to feed cattles. Paris and London are capitals of the two countries and are centres of governmental. river basins and important rivers. located very close to each other. France and the United Kingdom. Rotation of Crops: Raising of crops in a certain sequence on the same piece of land mainly with a view to restoring the fertility of soil. 161 CMYK . its mounatins. plateaus.

This is so not only in regard to its relief but more so with regard to its climate. It is further bounded by two big mountains. reminds us of the continental type of climate. are given here. Southern France experiences typical Mediterranean type of climate. Of all. Eastern France. which is highly indented and rugged. France is larger in size than the United kingdom but has less population. On its borders are situated the young fold mountains. the West European countries. the Alps and the Pyrenees. It possesses low hills such as those in Brittany. They provide good opportunities for fishing. While the western and northen parts of the country enjoy the oceanic type of climate. A little over one-third of the total area of France is under 162 CMYK . FRANCE France is only one sixth the size of India. But they are also differ from each other in many respects. Mont Blanc (4807) meters above sea level. France has narrow coastal plains and fertile river valleys like those of the Seine and the Loire. It has long dry summers and mild rainy winters. the loftiest peak of the Alps. Still in Europe it is the second largest country. Relief and Climate France has a varied relief Look at its north western coastline. France is ‘Small Europe’ in many ways. But autumns are long and sunny in the sheltered valleys of central plateau. north-eastern France and the high central plateau have continental climate. next only to Russia. much farther than the Atlantic. If you study them carefully you will be able to understand the contrast in climate. The Central Massif of France is a wide plateau made up of very old rocks. lies in France. Land Use and Economic Development The indented coastline of France has given it numerous natural harbours. France is not dependent on supplies of foodstuffs from other countries. shipping and overseas trade. Together they have given France a well-de-fined boundary. This part of France is much warmer and has much more sun shine than any part of the United Kingdom. France faces three seas. with hot summers and severe winters. Paris like London is not a great seaport.CMYK Social Science-7 activity. Narrow coastal plains and fertile river valleys have been turned into rich agricultural farmland. namely. The diagrams of temperature and rainfall for some places in France. France is still a country of farmers and not of manufacturers like the United Kingdom and German countries. The Rhone river valley separates the folded ranges of the Alps to its east from the Central Massif towards its west.

2 France-Resources and oranges. These pasture lands which are well fed with rain showers. Manures and fertilizers are applied. Rotation of crops is followed. It also produces maize. are used for rearing animals for their milk as 163 CMYK . France farmers generally follow mixed farming and rear cattle. peaches. fodder and tops of sugar-beet. northern half of the country the apple takes the place of vine. All these help to maintain fertility of the soil. rye. France also produces other Mediterranean fruits like olives. potatoes. Most of the grapes are used in making wines. As a result.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe cultivation. oats and sugar-beet. Terraced and sheltered valley slopes are generally devoted to cultivation of grapes every where particu1arly in southern France. The fields where grapes are cultivated are known vineyards. plums. Flax and sugar-beet are grown chiefly in the north of France with linen mills and sugar factories in the neighbouring town. The low hills and plateaus of France make it possible to leave about onefourth of its total area under meadows and pastures. pear Fig 11. The animal products fetch good returns to the farmer. barley. figs. pigs and poultry on their farms. Wheat is by-far the most important crop of France especially in the northern plain of Paris Basin. It is the only West European country which is self-sufficient in food grains. The most notable among them is Champagne. instead of the vine. flax. French wines are known for their quality. The animals are fed on hay. France is a land of intensive agriculture. are used to prepare wine. the yields of crops in France are very high. Barley grows more in the cooler north. Here apples and grapes with hops. oats and rye on poorer soils of north-west coast and the central plateau. In Note the varied land use and resources of France. Every bit of land is used.

It possesses well-kept high ways and efficient railways. It has been the leading fashion-centre of the world. trucks. science and technology. France has an integrated network of transport. As a result. France is equally well endowed with underground wealth. 164 CMYK . excluding Russia. literature. It is rightly called the heart of France. It produces motorcars. Over 70% of its population is now concentrated in big towns and cities. THE UNITED KINGDOM The United Kingdom is yet another small country of north western Europe. abundant water-power at a low cost. The total population of France is about 55 million which is even less than that of Bihar. They provide France with. France exports iron-ore bauxite and alumina and imports 60% of their coa1 needs from the neighbouring countries of Europe. it is a leading producer of milk. France has preserved nearly one-fourth of its land under forests. But it. More then 90 percent of very rich-iron ore deposits are found in Lorraine in the north-east Coal is available only in some parts. butter and cheese in the whole of Europe. electric goods and perfumes. too has been a big European nation. fertilizers. It specialises in building machines. Paris is the capital city of about 9 million people and is the centre of every kind of transport. In total area it is nearly as large as the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Besides its forest wealth. yielding fine wool. railway equipment. France also has a large number of sheep. coal and water-power provide the necessary base for its iron and steel industry. These rivers. Down below on the plains they are used for inland water transport. It can now boast of its modern air-services. It gives it an average density of nearly 101 persons per square kilometre. It has also a large textile industry. ships and aeroplanes. the mountainous part of France possesses some of the turbulent rivers. It manufactures chemicals. Fortunately. This well planned city of France gives us an idea of the achievement of France in arts. Iron-ore. which are well fed with snow and rainwater. France is well known for its iron and steel industry. It is hardly one-thirteenth the size of India. Well-knit inland waterways have proved an asset to its heavy industries. tumble down the high mountains and plateaus.CMYK Social Science-7 well as meat.

Scotland and Wales. therefore. It is temperate and equable with a range between summer and winter temperatures. The major Part of the country thus consists of the bigger island of Great Britain including three Units of England. It is marked with undulating lands. Such day of raw weather are followed by fair weather. The country did wisely utilize this advantage to increase its wealth and prosperity. is surrounded by the sea. They comprise two sovereign states of the United Kingdom of Great Britain including North Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.350 metres above sea level. namely Mihir Sen and Arti Saha. Nearly half of its land is claimed by the meadows and natural pastures predominantly in the western part of the country. dissected plateaus and small rivers. it has just 7 percent of land left under the forests. It is. Two Indians. The clouds and fogs restrict the sunshine. the United Kingdom is a country of low relief. This country. The English Channel which separates this country from the continent. to less than two hours a day. on an average. Neither the forests nor the farmlands dominate the landscape of the United Kingdom.000 islands. the British Isles consist of some 5. insular in location. Land Use and Economic Development As there are no mountains worth the name in these islands. It is thus a land of variable weather. The westerlies tend to make its winters warm and summers cool. it had been found too wide to overcome for any invader. occupying a major portion of the British Isles. The country has an indented coastline with a number of big and small natural harbours and no part of the land is more than 125 kilometres away from the sea. While France is a compact and homogeneous country. Relief and Climate Unlike France. is hardly 33 kilometers at the narrowest. The highest peak is only about 1. those of Great Britain and Ireland being the largest of them. But the winter months are slightly rainier than the others.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe Unlike France. However. rolling hills. the country is situated off the mainland. made news by swimming the English Channel. humid and often foggy. The climate of the United Kingdom is typically oceanic. 165 CMYK . The rainfall is fairly well distributed throughout the year. These are highlands or uplands but not mountains as such. The cyclones or the western depressions crossing the islands tend to make the weather cloudy.

Now more and more machines and tractors are being used on English farms.3 The United Kingdom-Location and Relief and techniques. sheep and cattle rearing have become very important agricultural activities. Even on these farms cattle and pigs are reared for their milk and pork. On an average. The United Kingdom has become famous for its milk cattle. The country exports its milk cows on a large scale. Only 5 percent of its people are engaged in farming. The long indented coastline has provided numerous natural fishing harbours. Which parts have the of the country’s food needs. What makes it an island country of Europe ? Note the seas materials to meet two-thirds separating it from other countries. rye. enough food and raw. The shortage of food supplies is made up by fishing. The country has less than one-third of its total land devoted to farming. sugar-beet. Not much of this land is fertile. Poultry-farming is very common. vegetables and fruits are the major crops. The total fish catch of this small country is nearly eight lakh tonnes a year. 166 CMYK .CMYK Social Science-7 As a result. highlands and which have the lowlands ? Why does the coastline favour the location of a number of natural Barley. It has facilities. they produce Features. oats. Yet with the help of modern tools Fig 11. a milk cow yields more than 3. The country is surrounded by the shallow seas that abound in fish. both on the fishing craft and at the fishing ports. harbours ? potatoes.000 kilogram of milk every year. The country has a large mechanized fishing fleet. The most important fishing ground is the Dogger Bank. wheat. The major farmlands of the United Kingdom are to be found in east and south-east England. to preserve fish.

Note the important industrial centers. coal and the oil-fields.fourth of the total Fig 11. Great Britain was the world’s fifth largest oil producer. It was the first country to use this ‘black gold’ on a very large scale. For several decades it led the world in the production of pig iron and crude steel. This helped the country to place itself on the industrial map of the world very early. The country has not much of waterpower and it is coal which supplies nearly three. dairy. Perhaps. fishing-grounds. supplementing its power resources. the country still produces 43 million tonnes of hard coal. country. The United Kingdom was the first to produce atomic energy for commercial purpose. farms. Huge oil and natural gas deposits were first discovered in the bed of the North Sea in the late sixties of this country and production began in 1975 by 1986.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe No wonder then that the fish is an important item of food in the United Kingdom. the greatest natural resources of the United Kingdom has been coal.4 The United Kingdom-Resources energy produced in the Locate the areas having croplands. Some new coal deposits were discovered in the North Sea. Its iron-ore deposits 167 CMYK . The country was equally rich in its iron-ore deposits. Although the good reserves of coal have been worked out rapidly. Today Britain is meeting most of its own oil needs from this source.

It builds Ship and manufactures railway engine wagons. and the annual production. Principal industries are coal-mining. There are almost 239 persons per square kilometre in the country as a whole. a good network of transport is a must.CMYK Social Science-7 are now almost exhausted or are of low grade. Many of its industries and commercial centres are located on the coasts. It is situated on the Thames river which is navigable by ocean going ships. In the midland plain of England. They are well served by the seaways. it has a flourishing iron and steel industry based mainly on imported iron-ore. Manchaster and Sheffield are other important industrial centres. chemicals and paper making industries. They are located either near the coal fields or near the sea-ports. iron and Steel engineering. which grew in the wake of the Industrial Revolution. There are over 300 ports among which Liverpool. Scotland is the least densely populated area. This shows how industrialized this country is But the big increase in the number of automobiles. largest in size and population (Greater London having 6. This country also stands high in the respect of processed foods and beverages. The widespread use of steam and mechanical power led to the birth of the Industrial Revolution in this country. London is the capital city. Look at the map and locate the centres of various industries. yet manufactured goods and their export play a dominant role in national economy. especially private cars. the cities of Birmingham. It has a very big textile industry. rise in population and increased crowding in cities are causing-noise and air pollution. Four out of every five persons live in cities and towns. This small country has a large population of nearly 56 million. electronics and the chemical works. Can you find out how? 168 CMYK .8 million people).5 million tonnes. While England is the most densely populated. It is served by the busiest international airport in the world. It manufactures cotton and woollen textiles. Southampton and London are also notable as important industrial centres. The United Kingdom has a fine network of roads and railways. For industries. Why should it be so ? Although Britain has come down in many industries among the leading producers of the world. It has to import raw materials like cotton and wool from other countries. But now cotton textiles are being rapidly replaced by plastics. Nonetheless. Glasgow. The average density of population is as high as that of our country. surpassed only by Belgium in Europe. I remained only 4. NewCastle. motor-cars and aeroplanes.

2. This country imports foodgrains and a variety of raw materials for its industry. These problems are now catching the attention of the people and the government not only here but elsewhere also. this country shares land frontiers with as many as nine countries. Area 000' sq. the British people would have been poorer than what they are today. In addition to it the large number of Indian and Asians settled in Britain are working industries and other services. With nearly 80 million people. Percentage Employed in Industry Agriculture Services 5. United Germany is a land of plains. Their contribution towards the building up of British economy is significant. The quality of air and water has gone down and is bad for the people health.7 million 169 CMYK West 249 61. Work Force Employment 41 5 54 29. a formidabled army a potent export driven economy. This had been an asset to this Country for developing international trade. Population 3. Density of Population 4. It exports manufactured goods. The British industries greatly depend upon trade with other countries. low plateaus and the uplands.7million 247 East 108 16. especially those who suffered Nazi Occupation and atrocities during the world war second. Ian. is an nerving thought for some of its neighbours. almost every trans continental route passes through this country facing the north and Baltic seas. But for such a trade. 1990. Because of its central position in Europe. The two halves of Germany are comparted as :Basic Statistics 1.1million 155 48 12 40 8. United Germany will again dominate Europe.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe The waste material from a large number of factories goes into the rivers. It is called water pollution.6 million . UNITED GERMANY The two post war halves of Germany covering western part known as Federal Republic of Germany and eastern part as German Democratic Republic were united on October 3.

These lowlands are covered with sand. The coastal lowlands enjoy a marine type of climate with cool summers and mild winters. there is the famous Rhineland a wide rift vally of Rhine river. pebbles and pieces of rocks. As one proceed south wards or eastwards. depending upon the soil and climatic conditions. The coastal area is sandy with dunes. so it has a temperate climate having frequent changes in weather and rainfall through out the year. The reclamation of swampland and building of dykes along the North sea coast have helped to raise the productive capacity of land. In the production of rye and potatoes. it meets only about three fourth of the nation’s food requirements. from the ploughing of soil to harvesting. This is because of man’s efforts in bringing about a technical revolution on the land. the sea influence diminishes and the range of temperature tends to increase. To its south lie the rugged high lands of the Bavarian Alps separating them from Switzerland and Austria. They border the North sea. This was necessary because a large man power was moving from village farms into the towns. oats. weser and Danube are other important rivers. The winter become severe in the south owing to the rise in altitude and snowfall is relatively heavier. lakes and marshes at a number of places. All the rivers flow in a northerly direction towards the north sea with the exception of the Danube. the country is second only to 170 CMYK . LAND USE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Although Germany is a leading industrial country. The central zone consists of low and worn down uplands. They are the deposits left behind by the old ice sheets of the past ages. rye. small valleys and heavily wooded mountain ranges. The Elbe. which is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean. barley. The black forest is a low lable land belonging to it. The country’s agriculture is now almost mechanical.CMYK Social Science-7 RELIEF: The northern half of the country consists of low lands forming apart of the great European plain. it has an efficient agriculture. Great quantities of fertilizers and manures are used to raise good crops of wheat. The Southern section consists of the high lands. Inspite of the huge productive capacity of German agriculture. potatoes and sugar beet. The 864 km long river is the busiest water way of the world. On the east of the central zone. CLIMATE The country lies between 47° and 55° latitude. deeply eroded by rivers flowing through them. gravel.

These are mostly confined to the southern uplands and the Bavarian Alps. Nearly one third of the land is under forests and woods. Besides lumbering the well cared forests revolution provide base for manufacturing wood pulp. The fertile soil of the valley is known for growing fruits and vegetables. chemicals artificial fertilizer and photographic optical and engineering industries. It is this coal which has given rise to the largest number of mining and heavy industries in the Ruhr area known as Germany’s black Country. It has made animal husbandry. silver copper. 171 CMYK . lead. The hills and plateaus in the south of eastern Germany are more important for the wealth of metals. The best leaves and its factory waste form valuable fodder for cattle in the country. Land is extensively cultivated employing all the modern means and mixed farming is practised allover the country. Zinc and iron have been mined there since long. The vine-clad hills and terraces along the slopes of the Rhine valley are called vineyards. paper and news print. That is why the country has been importing at least one-third of its iron-ore requirements from Sweden alone. Although there are small fields of hard cooking coal in this region its production is less than one percent of the total production. This country is one of the largest producer of sugar beet in the world. The saar is yet another important coal field of the Germany. including dairying an important agricultural activity. MINERAL RESOURCES: The great resource of the country is its coal. which is most important in the heartland of this country. A part of these uplands has been known as Erzgebirge or ore mountains on this very ground.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe the Soviet Union. however low grade. Potash salt is a mineral resource gaining increasing importance for a number of chemical industries. Two resources. farming is highly mechanized especially in the collective farms in the south middle region. The northern most vine growing region of Europe is found on the slopes of Elbe river valley. this country is known for plastic. The Ruhr is the biggest and the richest coal producing area in Europe. The excellent cooking coal is even exported arid is one of the bases of the country’s most intensive iron and steel industry in the world Bulk of its ironore is. Although intensive agriculture is still carried on in lowlands and valleys. synthetic rubber. brown coloured lignite coal and potash salt have been responsible for making these region of the country highly industrialised. Lignite is used both for producing thermal electricity and as a raw material for the chemical industry. Besides industries based on agricultural products.

Eastern part was the capital of German Democratic Republic while western part was under Federal Republic of Germany. inland waterways and roads. Airways are also very important in connecting different parts of the country and those of the world. that it is not easy to distinguish one from the other. The 99 km. there are canals connecting the rivers and the seas. Magdeburg. The Ruhr is often called the heart of Industrial Europe. In the southern part of country. It leave an appearance of a single integrated industrial area in Europe. railways and airways of middle Europe. iron and steel plants. foundries. It is river port and is linked by river and canal with parts of the country with Baltic and North Sea and also the Rhine. making this country the third largest producer of steel in the world after the United States of America and Soviet Union. coal. Before unification Berlin City was divided into two parts. It is also reputed for its chemical products. traditional skills. It is studded with heaps of coal coke furnaces.CMYK Social Science-7 INDUSTRIES: The Ruhr is a small right bank tributary of river Rhine which joins it as it leaves the hills on its way to the sea. It is the meeting place of important roads. Major Cities and Towns : Berlin is the capital city of Germany. The traffic on river Rhine consists of raw materials. Leipzig and Dresden are other important cities in eastern part situated along river Elbe or its tributaries. The industries are well served by a dense network of railways. and textile factories. Industrial centres are now found in all parts of the country away from Ruhr’s coal depending other advantages like hydropower in southern high lands. the Danube Serves a similar purpose in carrying the traffic from northern and central Europe. petroleum and industrial products to and from the Gennany. which is indeed a greater volume of traffic than that in the Panama Canal. steel rolling mills. Magdeburg is built on an island of river Elbe to the northwest of leipzig in the southern part of the great plain. The country is known also for its automobile industry and is next to the United States of America in the production of cars and trucks. A large number of towns and cities are so close together. As many as 400 ships pass through it every day. Besides the life line of the Rhine. food supplies. It is the most densely populated part of this country. chemical plants. the raw materials and the improved means of communications. long Canal known as kiol canal connects the North sea with Baltic sea. It is 172 CMYK .

paper. shipbuilding and the transport industry have gained an added importance. rubber goods and furniture. Besides commerce. It has become famous for its fur trade and some industrial aspects of the city activities. The region along the Baltic coast is very large but there were inadequate communication links between it and the ports. The turnover of exports and imports has greatly increased over the years. It is thus at the head of Navigation for sea-going vessels on the Rhine. It is situated at a point where the Rhine enters into northern low lands. Hamburg and Berman are leading ports along the North Sea. Mannheim and Frankfurt are the other important cities or Rhine valley. It has factories. a great road and railway junction to the north of the valuable coking coal field and has important lignite deposits close to it. TRADE AND COMMERCE : The Commercial links of this country with many other nations have grown. largescale commerce it has industries depending upon agriculture based on lignite. breweries tobacco and the chemical works. Yet is continuous to be better known for its art and culture. It is noted for its breweries and for manufacturing leather. sugar refineries. sugar. Leaving aside Ruhr industrial cities Cologne. These have now been improved and Rostock has become an important port having better links also with the Berlin. It is the oldest bridging point on it and is a junction of the highways from east to west along the southern edge of the European plain. Bonn was the capital city of Federal Republic of Germany. Munich is the chief city of Bavaria in the far south. and from North sea Ports into the heart of western Europe.CMYK Three Major Countries of Western and Central Europe the crossing point of routes. chocolates and cars. Mannheim is not only an important river port but is the centre of one of the most well known chemical works in the country. manufacturing textiles. chemical. It has an iron works and steel photographic and optical products are made at places in this region. 173 CMYK . Leipzig is an ancient city. Besides. tobacco. the focus of the sugar beat growing area. Frankfurt is the focus of routes and the second largest airport in the country. Cologne is situated on the Rhine where its valley starts widening. after which the river emerges in to plains. fisheries.

Britain looks more to the sea than to the land for its prosperity. Whereas France exports iron ore. What geographical factors have made the Federal Republic of Germany the leading industrial country of Europe? Give a brief account of some route-towns of the two German republics showing their importance. The Ruhr region is called the heart of Europe. Why? 2. the United Kingdom has become a sea power. While France has been mainly a land power. The United Kingdom was the first to set up an atomic power plant. 4. By what name is the central plateau of France known? Name one important river each of the two German republics.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1. The government of Britain is worried about the over industrialization. 174 CMYK . Lignite is the most important resource of unified German. the United Kingdom has to import it. 5. Give reasons for the following : (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 3. Mention three important features of the oceanic climate. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) Answer the following questions: Name three different types of climate found in France. Give a brief account of the natural resources of France and show how they are being properly used. Why is France called a miniature Europe? Britain is equal to Kashmir state of India in size but it is counted among the great countries why? The government of Britain is worried about the over industrialisation Why? (viii) The Ruhr region is called the heart of Europe.

Byelorussia 5. Later remaining twelve republics emerged as sovereign states. Lithuania and Estonia were the first to declare themselves as independent states. Lativa 3. Azerbaijan 10. In order to maintain proper co-ordination among themselves. But as a result of the formal dissolution of the Union.CMYK The Common Wealth of Independent States CHAPTER-12 THE COMMON WEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES It is a vast area extending across the continents of Europe and Asia. Out of the above eleven republics the ten situated in Europe are as follwos : 1. the Dneiper and the Don are the most important. This Union of fifteen republics emerged as one of the major powers in the world politics. Latvia. The Plains of Russia These are one of the most extensive plains in the world. After the World War I. or consits of low plateaus of uplands. the eleven republics organised themselves into the common wealth and the Independent States. They stretch from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the south. It was formerly known as the Union of Soviet Social Republics or the Soviet Union. nearly the whole of its area is flat. Armenia 9. Being very fertile. Georgia 8. During the World War II it enormously extended its frontiers and several parts of Asia were annexed by it. the Russian empire was replaced by the Soviet Union. Ukraine 6. It is a continuation of the Central European plains bounded by the Ural mountains in the east. Moldavia 7. Russia is the largest of these republics. fifteen republics were established. Find out their names from the map. Of these the Volga. Lithuania 4. These low-lying rolling plains are drained by several rivers flowing in different directions. Russia Physical Features But for its mountainous fringes. Estonia 2. these plains form the heartland of Russia. 175 CMYK .

These mountains form barrier between the two continental wings of the country. Climate Russia has continental type of climate with extreme variations. covers large areas and there are few all-weather ports.CMYK Social Science-7 Eastern mountainous region. Only in the sheltered areas in the Mountains J a n u a r y temperature may be above freezing point. In general. It is a tributary of the Volga. They rise to a greater height in the south. South-eastern lowlands The land in the north of the Caspian Sea is up to four metre below sea level. the northern lowlands are exposed to the cold polar winds. It ranges from the bitter arctic winters to suffocating hot summers of the Central Asian deserts. winters are long and cold and summers short but warm. The Urals are the main mountains of this region. The Pachori river rises from the Urals. Except the European part of the country. The Volga and the Ural fall into the Caspian Sea after crossing this land. The freezing of inland and coastal water. Russia is little affected by the tempering influence of the oceans. A large part of Russia receives rain during the 176 CMYK . It falls in the Caspian Sea. The Ural river also rises from these mountains. Moreover. They blow from across the Arctic Ocean which is frozen for nine months. Owing to these reasons together with the huge size of the country the winters in THE COMMONWALTH OF INDEPENDENT Russia are STATES (FORMERLY REPUBLICS OF USSR) extremely cold.

It is scanty in Siberia ard the Caspian Turan lowland. 177 CMYK . Forty percent of land is covered with forests. This saves a lot of time. by their hard labour. the mixed forests the steppes and the desert vegetation belts. Vegetation There is a great variety in vegetation. After the revolution of 1917 the people. pigs. Soft wood is used for making pulp for paper and newsprint. cattle. Snowfall is common all over the country for as many as nine months in Siberia. meat. in the dry parts of central Asia. Only 10 percent of its total area is under cultivation. They have big farms called Kolkhozes. The heaviest rainfall occurs in the Caucasus mountains. Animal Rearing Only 15 percent of the land is under pastures and meadows. have done a lot to develop the vast natural resources. Several vegetation belts succeed one another in regular sequence from north to south. Reindeer are reared on the far north for their milk and meat. They also serve as beasts of burden in icy region. both wool and mutton. They are the tundra the taiga. But its valuable resources is its own people. Dairy-farming is specially developed around Moscow. They get most of their rain in winter. It is the largest source of timber in the world. Agriculture Agriculture is the main occupation of Russia. The trees are mechanically felled. sheep and reindeer are reared in large number for their milk. Collective farming was developed here. Rains go on decreasing from west to east. Economic Development Russia is very rich in natural resources of all kinds. They occupy almost half of the cultivated land.CMYK The Common Wealth of Independent States short summers. implements and seeds. Cattle. They are most extensive in Siberia and the eastern region. This has made their country one of the strongest in the world. This region is the major producer of logs and boards of wood which are exported. The farmers pool their resources such as land. wool and fur. yet it is very large when compared to that of any other country in the world. Sheep are scared.

They also serve as demonstration farms and are scattered in different parts of the country. It is used for the production of atomic energy. barley. maize. It has huge reserves of iron ore. copper. Iron and steel is the most important industry of Russia. nickel. Now 178 CMYK . These farms specialize in certain products. Mineral and Power Resource: The country is very rich in mineral resources.CMYK Social Science-7 There are some farms owned and run by the government. The centres of textile industry are Moscow and Leningrad. potash. The Syr and Amu rivers provide water for irrigation in the dry south. The country produces tractors. The country is the largest producer of beet sugar. Their main object is to conduct experiments. It has a leading position in the production of coal and lignite. It is a useful fibre. trucks. heavy machines. tin. contributing half of the national income. manganese and bauxite. Moscow is the biggest railway junction. Cotton is an important crop of the warm desert region of central Asia. sunflower seeds and cotton. blast furnaces. rye. sugar beat. Russia produces wheat. potato. It has a large output of petroleum and natural gas. platinum and tungsten. It helps in building shops and aeroplanes. The country has very rich deposits of gold. Russia has large dams for the production of hydroelectricity. Its other minerals are lead. In the dry central Asian land irrigation has increased the agricultural productivity. They have their own machines and equipment. The Trans-Siberian railway is the largest railway in the world. Railways and rivers are the chief means of transport. New Centres have come up in Siberia and Central Asia. Transport Russia is a country of vast distances. oats. They are called sovkhozes. It is the second largest producer of electricity from all sources. Industries Heavy Industries account for more than two-thirds of the country’s industrial production. Flax is grown around Moscow. The managers and the labourers on these farms are appointed by the state. arms and ammunitions and chemicals. The Trans-Siberian Railway has connected Moscow and Leningrad with distant cotton growing areas. Russia has also considerable deposits of uranium. Coal is the greatest power resource of Russia.

Moscow and Leningrad are the plain airports of the country. Most of the country is flat and has been suitable for inland water transport. It is the first language of about sixty percent people. Moscow has now become a port of four seas the Caspian Sea. Russian is the official language. Despite its location in the extreme north the warm Atlantic Drift keeps it ice-free. The people of Ukraine are of Russian origin Ukraine is important as a wheat producing area. the Baltic and the Pacific are kept open by the ice breakers.CMYK The Common Wealth of Independent States attention is being paid to the construction of good roads and electrification of railway lines. Ukraine has big iron and steel plants. Most of rivers in Russia are now inter connected with canals. It is along the route to Vladivostok. Moscow is the capital of Russia. Kiev is the capital. In winter rivers are frozen and serve as natural tracks for sledges. Tibilisi is the capital of Georgia. It is a thickly populated area. In early 19th century the Russians occupied it. 179 CMYK . Some of the important ports on the Black Sea. Baltic Sea and White Sea. Ukraine Ukraine is the second largest state in terms of population. Murmansk is the only ice-free port in Russia which operates throughout the year in the Arctic Sea. Black Sea. There has been amazing development of air transport in Russia. Georgia Historical evidence suggests that about 2800 years ago Georgian civilisation emerged in the caucasus mountains. Airlines connect practically every country with them. Pipe-lines carry oil from the oil fields to other parts of the country and to many east European countries. It is the largest city of the country and the most important transport centre. Aircraft are of great help in the remote areas like northern and eastern Siberia. floods in the north flowing Siberian rivers make them unsuitable for navigation. It has many important industries though it is basically agricultural region. The other important producer is rye Sugar-beet and sunflower are also produced here. But in early winters and early summers.

It has a big Muslim population. In 1920 Turkey and the Soviet Union divided Armenia between themselves. Both in turns of area and population it is the largest constituent of the Soviet Union. Russia extends from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean. Moscow which has a population of 5. Roman. After the Mongol 180 CMYK . Baku is the capital which is situated on the Caspian Sea.17 crore is the capital. The large variety of its population can be particularly seen in the north-eastern and western areas. Riga is its capital. Arab and Turk influence. Later the turks settled here in large numbers. Lithuania is on the Baltic Sea which is ice free even in the winter and it’s navigable throughout the year. Estonia Estonia is one of the Baltic republics. It is an important cotton producing republic. Lithuania Latvia is situated between Estonia and Lithuania. In 1918 Azerbaijan emerged as a republic in 1920. Volnius is the capital of Lithuania. Tallin is its capital. In the 19th century under difference treaties the northern portion which includes the oil rich area of Baku was included in Turkey. Byelorussia Byelorussia was established by the Russian Ukrainians and basically by the white slave communities of the east in the 9th century. Yerevan is the capital of Armenia.CMYK Social Science-7 Azerbaijan Azerbaijan had been a part of the Russian empire in the pre-christian era. Greek. it was taken over by the Red Army of Russia. It has 8800 km east-west and 4800 km northsouth dimensions. For more than fifty years. Russia The Russian empire came into being in early fifteenth century. It is known for its copper mines. it had been an unwilling partner of the Soviet Union. Armenia Armenia had been under the Persian. In the December of the same year Armenia was declared as a Soviet Republic.

Vesverya. 3. the Soviet Union took back the portion from the Poles. EXERCISES 1. was transferred to Romania in 1918. half of the western portion of Byelorussia was handed over to Poland. Name the eastern and western terminals of the Trans-Siberian Railway. this area was occupied by the Polish and the Lithuanian Kings. its western portion. As an after the conflict between Poland and the Soviet Union during the first world war. 6. In the 19th century it became a part of the Russian empire. Kishinev is the capital of Moldavia. 181 CMYK . 2. When did the Soviet Union collapse? Which areas compose the commonwealth of Independent states? 5. This is a major fertilizers producing area. Moldavia A portion of this area which was known by the name of Kiev Russia was annexed by the Romanian Kings in the 15th century. It is an exporter of consumer goods. It is an important centre for the production of grapes and implements. under a treaty Vesverya was regained to form the Moldavian republic. 4. According to a treaty concluded in September 1939. But in 1940. Write a note on the agricultural products of Ukraine. What natural features divide Russia into two continents? Name the main minerals found in Russia.CMYK The Common Wealth of Independent States invasion.

most of the African people have gained independence. Almost the whole of Africa had come under the domination of one or the other European power. however. Rift valley: A long and deep valley with steep slopes on both sides formed due to a crack or a rift in the land. By the beginning of the twentieth century several European countries had become so powerful that they had brought most parts of the world under their rule.e. The African continent is separated from Europe by the Mediterranean sea and from Asia by the Red Sea. Tropical Rain-forests: Dense and thick forests of the equatorial region where the temperature and rainfall are very high. i. However. (a) the Straits of Gibralter in the north-west. Isthmus : A neck of land separating two seas. RESOURCES AND THEIR UTILIZATION NEW TERMS Strait: A narrow stretch of water Connecting two large bodies of water of seas.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER 13 AFRICA LAND. Today. Wildlife: Animals and birds leading a free life in their natural surroundings. it almost touches Eurasia at three different points. Density of population: The average number of persons per unit area. Waterfall: A sudden descent of water over a big step in the bed of the river. CLIMATE. square kilometre. Savana : The tropical grasslands in Africa having tall and coarse grasses. The people who are still under foreign rule are fighting for their independence and are due to win their freedom soon. The political map of Africa has changed rapidly in recent years. (b) the Suez Canal in the northeast and (c) the Straits of Bab-el Mandeb in the east. 182 CMYK .

It is bounded by wall like steep slopes on both sides. A RIFT VALLEY is a long and deep valley formed due to cracks or rifts in the land. It is also the source of river Nile. A few volcanic mountain peaks rise above the plateau in the eastern part near the equator. Climate. It is mount Kilimanjaro with a height of 5. the highest peak of Africa is located in this highland region. In Africa. Therefore.895 metres above sea level. there are several large lakes in the highland region of Africa. The plateaus is higher in the south and in the east.CMYK Africa .Land. Another important river is the Zaire in Central Africa. Map Fig 13. Almost all of Africa appears to be one huge plateau though it consists of several plateaus. After a long journey through the Sahara desert. 183 CMYK . It remains snow-covered throughout the year. it reaches the Mediterranean Sea. It rises in the rainy equatorial region and flows northward. The Niger in the western part and the Zambezi and the Orange in the southern part are the other important rivers of Africa.1 Africa. Resources and Their Utilization 183 The Land The map shows some of the major land forms of Africa. It is also known as Congo in the later part. there is a long chain of such rift valleys runnning from the south of lake Malawi northward to the Red sea and then through the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Afuaba to the Dead Sea.” Many of these valleys are filled with water called lakes. Hence it is known as the ”Great Rift Valley. Lake Victoria is the largest lake in Africa. In fact it carries the greatest volume of water among all the rivers of Africa. It drains a large area and discharges a huge amount of water into the Atlantic Ocean. In fact. The lowland areas are in the western and the northern parts and along the coast. which is the longest river in the world.Political divisions One of the special physical features of Africa is its Great Rift Valley.

It has caused wide variations in climate. There are marked variations in the distribution of rainfall. The highest temperature in the world has been recorded at Al-Aziziyah (Libya) as 58 0C. About one-third of Africa is a desert land The Sahara is the largest desert in the world. few African rivers can be used for shipping.CMYK Social Science-7 With the exception of the Nile and the Zaire. the most tropical of all the continents.2 Africa Physical features . It is. Thus the major part of it lies within the tropical zone. Total rainfall 184 CMYK Fig 13. there are regions of warm summers and mild winters. Victoria Falls on Zambezi is higher and wider than even the famous Niagara Falls of North America. The belt lying along the equator on both sides has a hot. most of the region is covered with thick forests calledTROPICAL RAIN FORESTS it has a varied wildlife. There is a distinct dry period. This is known as the equatorial type of climate. the hot-wet summer. This is because the rivers drop from the higher plateaus to the coastal lowlands making waterfalls. The temperature is very high almost througout the year. In these belts most of the rain occurs in summer. The Kalahari desert in southern Africa is another great desert. Even on the plateaus the day temperatures are high although the nights are cool. namely. Only on the high plateaus and mountains is it somewhat moderate. Climate and Natural Vegetation Africa extends between 370 14' N to 340 50' S latitudes. wet climate throughout the year. To the north and south of the rain-forests. Because of the abundance of heat and moisture. It rains almost daily and there is only one season. It is located in the northen part of Africa. in fact.

There is almost no rainfall. both in the northern and in the southern parts of Africa. which finally turn into grasslands. They are known as the Sahara in the north and the Kalahari in the south. Vegetation is either wholly absent or includes only scrubs and bushes. It is the homeland of a variety of grass-eating animals and the wild beasts that live by killing them.3 Africa-Climatic divisions Natural Resources And Their Utilization The boundaries provided by nature to any area are known as NATURAL RESOURCES. It takes.Land. The northern and the southern coasts of Africa have mild and rainy winters and warm and dry summers. Climate. This is known as the mediterranean type of climate.CMYK Africa . water. This climate is found in a very large part of the continent. Africa is rich in several natural resources. there are extensive deserts. Its vegetation is mostly grasses. Fig 13. It supports different kinds of plants and trees. Soil is formed very slowly. They include things such as soil. The climate is hot and extremely dry known as the desert type of climate. The climate is cooler in the highlands of southern and eastern Africa. minerals. Soil Soil is one of the most important natural resources. Resources and Their Utilization 185 is also much less than that in the tropical rain-forests. forests and animals. Beyond the savanna. hundreds of years to form a one centimetre thick layer of soil 185 CMYK . Temperature is very high. This climate is known as the Sudan type of climate. The region covered with tall and coarse grasses is known as the SAVANNA. The tropical rainforests gradually begin to open up and give place to woodlands. In fact the highest temperature in the world is found here.

It includes the volcanic soils of east Africa. though they can support other kinds of plants or grasses. However. In Africa. gold and platinum. which is also an important natural resource of the continent. 186 CMYK .5 Africa-Natural at all suitable for Fig 13. A good deal of this water is used for irrigation. It leads the countries of the world in the production of diamond. the alluvial soils of the Nile valley and certain soils of the savanna lands. Such fertile soils are usually found in the river valleys and plains. Many rivers reach the sea through a series of waterfalls because they flow from the higher plateau areas on to the lower coastal plains. which are very fertile. 10 percent of the soil is suitable for crops. The Aswan dam on the Nile in Egypt is another very big dam. There are many rivers which carry plentiful rain water throughout the year. a very large part of central Africa is under forest cover. The Kariba dam on the Zambezi is the largest producer of water-power in. Africa.4 Africa-Annual Rainfall crops. Water: A large part of the Africa is dry. In other parts of the continent climatic conditions and the nature of the land form have been unfavourable for the formation of good soil. however. However the remaining parts get good rainfall.CMYK Social Science-7 Some soils. However. are better suited for crops. These can. only. As such ships and boats are prevented from sailing very far upstream. be used for the development of hydroelectricity. Minerals: Africa is very rich in several valuable minerals. some of the less fertile soils can also be made fertile by adding fertilizers. But some soils are not Fig 13.

Petroleum is found in many parts of Africa such as Nigeria. But there is not much coal and iron ore in this continent. Cobalt and manganese. Resources and Their Utilization 187 More than 95 percent of the world’s diamond production Comes from Africa. Nigeria exports a good deal of this oil. Dates constitute an important item of food for the local people. In the past. This has hampered the production of steel. and uranium. bauxite (which yields alumimum) and uranium (which is used in producing atomic energy). which are mixed with iron to make steel. are found in the Southern half of Africa leads the countries of the world in the production of chromium. As a result. Inferior quality diamonds are used for industrial purposes. Coconut palms are found in the tropical islands (such as Zanzibar and Pemba) and along the equatorial coast such as Tanzania. tin. They yield hardwood which may be used as timber. is common in west Africa. Zaire and South Africa are the main producers of copper (Which is used for making electric wires). Oil palm. Date palm grows in the oasis in the drier regions. As you know. many other products are obtained from them. Libya and Angola. several large copper mines are now closed. 187 CMYK . fetch a high price. Today the independent nations of Africa are facing the problem of finding out ways by which these resources could be utilize wisely for their economic prosperity. Africa has large reserves of cobalt. copper. They are coconut palm. ebony and kapok. Forests Forests and trees are very important sources of wealth. from which palm oil is obtained. they are now being planted properly. Africa exports rubber in large quantities. Besides timber. most of these resources were used reck essly by the Europeans powers. Egypt exports a large amount of dates. Climate. Large parts of central Africa are covered with thick forests. who exported them in large quantities. gold is used for making ornaments but its greatest value lies in the fact that it serves as the basis for issuing currencies in all the countries of the world.CMYK Africa . Rubber trees grow wild in these forests. The price of diamond depends on its size and brightness. Good quality diamonds. They have many valuable trees such as mahogany. manganes. bauxite. which is so important for industrial growth. oil and date palm. often used in jewellery. though they are native to South America. However. chromium. South Africa is the major producer of gold and platinum in Africa. Africa is responsible for more than half the world’s gold production.Land. Three different types of palm trees are found in Africa. a metal which does not rust. They yield copra from which coconut oil is obtained.

CMYK Social Science-7 Cacao and kola are trees which provide us beverages. Cacao grows well in the equatorial lowlands. apples. hippopotamuses and rhinoceros are some of the important animals found in the forests and swamps. fast-running bird. West African countries. East Africa produces cashewnuts. it is a very popular drink and is also used for making chocolate. pythons. Cocoa is obtained from the cacao trees. orange and lime are also grown here. The ostrich. The extensive equatorial forests and swamps as well as the huge grass lands are ideal homes for a variety of birds and animals. Wildlife There is an abundance of wildlife in Africa. export a good deal of cocoa. In the tropical region. Wild animals and birds are important natural resources. Some animals such as lions and tigers prey on these grass-eating animals. wild buffaloes. Africa has a large variety of fruit trees. Deer. Previously they 188 CMYK . Such as Ghana and Nigeria. snakes. zebra and giraffe belong to the open woodlands and grasslands. The mediterranean regions grow olives. Fig 13. Kola trees yield nuts which are used in preparing cola drinks and chewing gum. peaches and grapes. banana. stag. Elephants. Zanzibar and Pemba islands are the biggest producers and exporters of cloves in the world. Citrus fruits such as lemon. Like coffee. monkeys. pineapple.6 Africa-minerals and industries. Camels are found in the deserts. jackfruit and mango are common. is found in the Kalahari desert. a large. papaya.

Amongst the cash. groundnut. horns.7 Africa-widlife surroundings. Climate. Some crops are grown by the people for food. Tourists from all over the world visit these national parks to watch wildlife in natural surroundings. Most of the food crops of Africa are root crops such as yam and cassava. These are restricted woodlands and forests where hunting is not allowed. tusks and feathers. Several Wildlife sanctuaries and national parks have been developed. cocoa. cotton and sisal are important. 189 CMYK . There are other crops which are grown mainly for manufacturing industries. palm oil. With the exception of maize. These are known as CASH CROPS.CMYK Africa . However. Resources and Their Utilization 189 were hunted for their skins bones. rice and millets like sorghum are grown only in small quantities. The governments of the different countries of Africa have. who move from one place to another with their herds. The animals can live freely in their natural Fig 13. These are called FOOD CROPS. the number of these animals and birds reduced. Wheat. northern and western Africa. As a result. cattle grazing is very important. In the higher savanna regions of eastern. Tourism is thus a fast growing industry which provides good income to the local people. crops. hunting of these animals has not stopped completely. Crops Different kinds of crops are grown here. therefore. which were sold for good prices.Land. cereals are not very important. and so there is a need to enforce the laws. made laws against unlicensed hunting. Large herds of cattle are owned by nomadic tribes. coffee.

It is a serious problem. In fact. they practice a policy of segregation i. Sisal is a vegetable fibre that is used in making ropes and sacks. Though the white people are in a minority they rule the country. The People The people of Africa vary greatly.e. drought conditions are prevailing because of the failure of rainfall for many years. About 70 percent of these people are the Blacks. dark and shining leaves. sandy. the area under food crops decreased in many countries. They are reared in a nursery. After three or four years. The fibre is left which is dried and made into ropes and sacks. In the past few years. Sisal plants thrive well on poor.000 Europeans in south Africa alone. many African nations increased their production of cash crops. Cotton has been grown in the Nile Valley for several thousand years.. soils. but they constitute only 20 percent of the population. The clove trees grow to a height of about 12 metres. About nine percent of the world’s trade in cotton comes from Africa. The islands of Zanzibar and Pemba are famous for cloves and coconuts. several hundred languages are spoken here. Hence. The creamy pink buds of the trees are picked just before they burst open. This could provide them money to build dams.000. the non white population is not allowed to live freely in the country. find it useful to be able to speak at least two languages like us. Cocoa and coffee from Africa constitute about 60 and 24 percent of world trade respectively. Besides. therefore. Africa is one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of sisal. their leaves are cut off and crushed by machines. This presents problems in communication. Many Africans. The first European settlement in South Africa was made in 1652. After words they are planted in rows in large fields. They produce about nine-tenths of the world’s cloves. Like in our country. Tanzania leads the countries of Africa in sisal production. There has been acute food shortage in several countries of Africa. In some parts of Mica. The picking season is a very busy time. One is the local language or dialect.CMYK Social Science-7 Palm oil and groundnut are produced mainly in west Africa. They have long. transport and communication lines and improve their living conditions. The rest of them have come from other parts such as Europe and Asia. Now there are more than 3. Picking must be done within a very short time. industries. This 190 CMYK .

The actual distribution of population is.Land. SWAHILI is a language which is understood by many people.9 Africa-distribution of Population 191 CMYK . Christianity and Animism are followed by the people of Africa. Arabic or Swahili. ANIMISM is the religion followed by many tribes. Resources and Their Utilization 191 Fig 13. The Sahara desert in the north and the Fig 13. Look at the population map and note the vast spaces which are unpopulated. however uneven. If it is distributed uniformly over the whole continent there will be only 18 persons per square kilometre In other words DENSITY OF POPULATION in Africa is 18 persons per square kilometres We may. English. In addition. Italian. say that it is a thinly populated continent.8 Crops and livestock enables them to communicate with people in their own village or tribe.CMYK Africa . therefore. The total population of Africa is about 537 million. they learn to speak French. Different religions such as Islam. It is based upon love and respect of nature. Climate.

India and many other nations are helping African nations to develop their resources. Railways and roads are not well developed. Fig 13.CMYK Social Science-7 Kalahari desert in the southwestern part have very little population. Mostly they link the mining and other important centres with the coast. 192 CMYK . The extensive deserts and thick forests hinder the construction of roads and railways. Locate on the map the two sea routes of the world. Air transport is becoming more and more important but it is costly. major cities Africa is a continent of great promise because it has vast natural resources. The new independent countries of Africa are making great progress in developing their agriculture. Why are these regions thinly populated? Why do we find a dense population in the valley and the delta of the Nile and some parts of west Afiica? Transport Africa does not have enough means of transport. The presence of waterfalls makes them largely unnavigable. industries and transport routes.10 Africa. one passing through the Suez canal and the other going around the Cape of Good Hope.transport lines. Rivers are useful only for local transportation.

Why is Africa called a dark continent even today? 193 CMYK . Why are most of the countries of the continent still undeveloped? 3. 2. Resources and Their Utilization 193 EXERCISES Review Questions 1. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (t) 3.. kola.Land. has small population. sisal. ebony. Give reasons: 1. (i) Which mountains lie in the north-western and south eastern parts of the continent of the continent of Africa? (ii) Why do most of the rivers in Africa have water falls before they flow into the sea? (iii) Why has there been a serious food shortage in Africa? (iv) Which are the thickly populated parts of Africa? (v) Which language of Africa is understood by many people? (vi) Why is climate in Africa different at different places? (vii) Which is the hottest place in the world? (viii) How many years does it take in the formation of one Centimetre layer of Earth? 2. Answer the following questions briefly. wheat. Although a big continent. mahogany. and cacao. List them under the following categories : Trees which give hardwood Trees which give fruits for making beverages Plants which yield fibre Plants which produce cereals (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) 4. cotton. Make correct pairs from the following two columns: The world’s longest river (i) Zaire The African river discharging a huge amount of water into the Atlantic Ocean (ii) Kariba The desert northern Africa (iii) Kalahari The dam on the Nile (iv) Nile The dam on the Zambezi (v) Aswan The desert of southern Africa (vi) Sahara Some of the trees and plants found in Africa are sorghum.CMYK Africa . Climate. Africa.

See the location of Zaire in the map of Africa. It is about three-fourths the size of India but it has a small population which is just a little more than that of Kerala State. River basin: A large area drained by a single river and its tributaries. These forests are evergreen 194 Fig 14.CMYK Social Science-7 CHAPTER-14 LAND OF FORESTS-ZAIRE NEW TERMS Cassava: An important plant of the tropical region.1 Zaire CMYK .e.. i. covered by tropical rain forests. Zaire was ruled by Belgium for a long time. But it became an independent country in 1960. The Zaire is one of the largest rivers of the world But it is navigable only in parts because it has numerous waterfalls and rapids. small waterfalls. The Zaire basin is a large saucer-shaped depression surrounded by the plateaus. Land and Climate The greater part of Zaire lies within the basin of river Zaire from which it has derived its name. Export: Goods and services sold by one country to another country. Zaire lies in the equatorial region and so it has high temperature and heavy rainfall throughout the year. The land is therefore. The abundance of heat and moisture causes plants and trees to grow very rapidly. The roots of the plant are eaten as food.

In these dense forests trees compete with each other for sunlight and become very tall. Forests: A large part of the country is covered with equatorial or tropical rainforests. elephants and hippopotamuses are some of the examples of animals living in the forests and swamps of Zaire. Trees of several species are found in a very small area. The tuber is dried and pounded into flour. The foliage in these forests is so dense that the rays of the sun hardly reach the forest floor.CMYK Land of Forest . phythons. a variety of birds also live in its forests. the north-east and in the Kasai province in the south. dark and gloomy.Zaire because all trees do not shed their leaves at the same time. River courses are the only means by which one can travel in these forests. maize. Wildlife: Zaire is often called a gigantic zoo because of its large variety of wildlife. Snakes. Because of the trees and the undergrowth. 195 CMYK . Resources and their Utilization Zaire is rich in several natural resources such as forests. soil. it is very difficult to travel in these forests. monkeys. Agriculture and mining are the two important economic activities of the people. Below the tall trees there are several small trees. Besides. These forests are. Its plant grows to a height of about a metre and a half. savanna grasslands are found. Many of them reach a height of 40 metres or more. Though they contain one of the largest reserves of hardwood in the world. On both sides of the rainforest. they have not yet been utilized much. therefore. The principal food crops grown here are rice. Cassava is a kind of tuber. wildlife. cassava and sorghum. Beneath them is a mat like green cover of grasses. shrubs and climbers. minerals and water power. Maize is grown in the Savanna region. Rice is grown in the north. only onefifth of its total land is under cultivation. Soil and Crops: Although Zaire is a lowland. It is because of its vast forest cover.

CMYK

Social Science-7

Cash crops such as rubber, coffee, cotton and oil palm are grown just for export. Cattle rearing is done on the high lands especially in the savannas. Methods of agriculture are mostly traditional. The food crops are used mainly by the families producing them. Efforts are being made to improve agriculture by providing fertilizers and using new methods of farming.

Minerals and Industries:
Zaire has vast reserves of copper, diamond, cobalt, tin, zinc, manganese and uranium. They are found mainly in the southern province of Shaba (Katanga). It is one of the largest producers of copper and industrial diamond in the world. Most of the minerals extracted within the country are exported. Most of the industries in Zaire process agricultural and mineral products for export. They are located mainly in Likazi (Jodotville) and Lubumbashi (E1izabethville).

Water Power:
There is huge potentiality for water power. It has a number of dams and hydel power stations. It also supplies water power to its neighbouring countries - Congo and Burundi. However, there is a lot of scope for future development.

The people:
The people of the country are mainly the Blacks. They, however, belong to different tribes. Nearly two-third of the population consists of the Bantu-speaking Blacks. Its total population is about 32 milion. Because of the country’s huge size, the density of population is low, i.e., about 14 persons per square kilometre. Zaire is mainly rural. However, the number of people now living in urban areas is growing very fast. In fact, the rate at which the towns and cities have developed in Zaire, is one of the highest in Africa. Many of, these urban centres were developed by the European settlers. They are similar in appearance to any city of a developed country. Kinshasa is the largest city and is the capital of Zaire. Lubumbashi (Elizabethville) and Kisangani are other important cities. Matadi is the chief port of the country which is situated on the river Zaire.
196

CMYK

CMYK

Land of Forest - Zaire

EXERCISES

REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. Answer the following questions briefly? In which river basin is Zaire located ? Why is the river Zaire navigable only in parts? What is an evergreen forest? Which are the main food crops of Zaire? The population of which state of India is equal to that of Zaire ? What are the characteristics of equatorial rain-forests? Why have these forests not yet been used much? Why are most of minerals from Zaire exported and not used ? Explain how cassava is grown and used.

3. 4.

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Social Science-7

CHAPTER-15

LAND OF PALM AND PALM OIL-NIGERIA
NEW TERMS
Tributary: A stream or river which joins a larger river. Hydroelectricity Electricity produced by the force of falling water on turbines. Inland drainage: A river system in which rivers do not reach the sea or the ocean. Nigeria is one of the largest countries of Africa. In population it leads all the countries of Africa. It is one of the wealthiest and most progressive countries of the continent.

Land and Climate:
Nigeria is a country of lowlands and plateaus. The coastal area in the south is a lowland covered with rainforests. The surface of the land is undulating, i.e., it rises and falls so that it looks like waves. Further north, lies the plateau of Jos where woodlands of the south gradually give place to grasslands. The extreme north of the country merges with the Sahara Desert. The Niger is the most important river after which the country is named. It
198
CMYK

Fig 15.1 Nigeria

CMYK

Land of Palm and Palm Oil - Nigeria

drains the greater part of Nigeria before it fall into the Gulf of Guinea. Rivers of the north-eastern part of the country flow into lake Chad, thus forming an inland drainage system, i.e., one where the rivers do not reach a sea or an ocean. Coastal Nigeria has an equatorial type of climate and has rainfall throughout the year. In the interior there is a marked dry season in summer. Hot and dustladen winds often blow from the north east during this season known as the HARMATTAN.

Resources and their utilization Crops:
Nigeria is mainly an agricultural country. The major part of its land is under food crops which are consumed locally. They include yam, cassava, millet, maize, sweet potatoes, rice and beans. The country is self-sufficient in food and is very important for certain agricultural exports. It is the world’s largest exporter of palm kernels, palm-oil and groundnuts It is second largest producer of cocoa. It also produces cotton, rubber, tobacco and banana. The oil palm tree grown very well in the equatorial climate. It reaches its full height of approximately 12 metres in about fifteen years. The fruits of the tree grow in clusters. Oil is extracted from the hard nut as well as from the pulp fruit by simple crude methods or by machines. The chemical properties of the two oils are different. It is used in making margarine, soap, candles, hair-oil and other things.

Animal Rearing :
It is important in the northern grass lands, Cattle, goats and sheep are reared. The goat-skins are supplied to the leather industries of Nigeria.

Forests:
One-third of the country’s total area is under forest. Timber and plywood are the important exports.

Water Power:
Nigeria is rich in water power resources. Kainji dam has been counstructed on the river Niger. There are four hydel power stations in Jos in the north.
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CMYK

It is one of the largest mineral oil producing countries of Africa. Kaduna and Jos in the north and Lagos and port Harcourt in the south. leather and tanning. Nigeria also posses iron. Important industrial ‘centres are Kano. The density of population is comparatively higher in the south western and south eastern parts than in the rest of the country. Lagos and Port Harcourt are the principal ports. cigarettes. 200 CMYK . But the percentage of people engaged in agriculture dropped from 75 in 1970 to 59 in 1982. and on the other it affected agriculture adversely. oil mills. They are exported on a large scale. Ibadan is the largest city and an important trade centre. In the 1970s it experienced a real oil boom because of increased production. On the one hand it helped in earning more money for the country. As a result the percentage of people employed in services increased from about 10 in 1970 to 23 in 1982. The transport and communication system of Nigeria is one of the best in Africa. The People: The majority of the people are the Blacks. zinc. rubber factories and metal works. The density of population is about 100 persons per square kilometre. belong to different tribes. manganese and limestone. Nigeria has several industries such as textiles. They however. Nigeria has a population of 92 million. This affected the economic condition of Nigeria in many ways. It is the only coal producing country of western Africa. lead. Increased income generated demand for services of all types. food processing.CMYK Social Science-7 Minerals and Industries : There are large reserves of tin and columbite in the central plateau. Lagos is the capital city of Nigeria.

Nigeria EXERCISES 1. 201 CMYK . Also name the dam.CMYK Land of Palm and Palm Oil . 4. (i) (ii) (iii) Answcr the following questions briefly How did Nigeria receive its name ? Which industries are found in Nigeria? Name the river on which the dam in Nigeria is located. (a) (b) (c) (d) (c) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) 3. Make correct pairs from the following two columns : The capital city of Nigeria An important port of Nigerla An important trade centre of Nigeria The most important cash crop of Nigeria An important industrial centre of northern Nigeria Kano Cocoa Lagos Port Harcourt Ibadan Accra Palm oil What-are the major crops of Nigeria ? What climatic factors are responsible for their growth ? In what ways has the oil boom in Nigeria affected its economic condition? 2.

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CHAPTER-16

THE GIFT OF THE NILE - THE ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT
NEW TERMS
Gulf: A small area of the sea penetrating into the land. It is usually of a larger extent than a bay. Distributaries: The channels of a river by which it distributes its water. Delta: A more or less triangular tract made up of alluvium at the mouth of a river. It is traversed by a number of distributaries. The Arab Republic of Egypt is situated in Africa but it is at the junction of two continents, namely, Africa and Asia. Until the Suez Canal was constructed, the isthmus of Suez formed a land bridge between Africa and Asia. The Suez Canal serves as a very useful and convenient gateway of international trade between the countries of the east and the west. You will notice, that Egypt is a part of the Great Sahara Desert which occupies nearly half the northern part of Africa. A very small part of Egypt lies in Asia also. The life-giving waters of the Nile have made it one of the richest and most thickly populated lands of Africa. No wonder the Egyptians consider their land the gift of the Nile. The Nile Valley has been the home of one of the oldest civilizations of the world.

Land and Climate
The larger part of the country is a desert because of scanty rainfall. This part is almost wholly uninhabited. Hot, dry and sand laden winds blow from the south during early summer, i.e, April and May. These are Known as KHAMSIN. There is a narrow strip of land along the river Nile, which is fertile. The river has deposited rich mud on both sides during floods. In fact, not more than one thirtieth of Egypt is populated. People live on both the banks of the Nile in a
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The Gift of The Nile - The Arab Republic of Eygpt

strip of land, which has a maximum width of about 25 kilometres. At places, it is not more than two or three kilometres wide. The Nile is the second largest river in the world. Its source lies in Lake Victoria. This lake is located in the equatorial region, where it rains heavily throughout the year. It, therefore, collects a large volume of water before entering Egypt. At Cairo, the river slits into a number of channels, distributing its water over a wide tract. Such channels by which river water is distributed are known as DISTRIBUTARIES.

Resources and their utilization Crops:
Agricultural land is very limited in Egypt. Only three percent of the total land is under cultivation. However, nearly three-fourth of the population is engaged in agriculture, there is a great pressure of population on agricultural land.

Fig 16.1 The Nile Valley 203
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Social Science-7

Even though the Nile Valley and its delta are one of the world’s most fertile lands, agriculture cannot be carried out without irrigation. The flood waters of the Nile have been used for irrigation with great skill for the last 5,000 years. The Egyptian farmer, called FELLAH, has to work very hard on his small field but he is able to grow at least two crops annually. The principal crops of Egypt are maize, rice, wheat, millet, and sugarcane. Dates are an important product, grown especially in oasis. Cotton is the most important cash crop of Egypt. It is world famous for its fine quality. Cotton plant needs a fertile soil, high temperature and abundant sunshine. It grows well here with irrigation water. Its fruit or ball ripens in about six months, after which it burst open showing the white fluff that is cotton. Rain, fog, dust and pests can damage cotton crop. That is why the hot, dry and clean weather of Egypt is very suitable for cotton growing.

Water Resources :
Several high dams have been built on the Nile. The largest among them is at Aswan. Canals taken from the dams irrigate crops throughout the year. Hydroelectricity is also produced at these sites.

Minerals and Industries :
Mineral oil is the most important mineral wealth of Egypt. It is found in Sinai and along the Red Sea coast. Other minerals such as phosphates, sea salt, manganese and iron ore are also produced. The cotton textile and food industries are quite important and also the oldest Engineering industries i.e. manufacture of diffrent kinds of equipment, chemical industries i,e, manufacture of fertilizers, glass, soap, etc, and oil refineries are developing fast.

The people
The inhabitants of Egypt are mostly Arabs and are followers of Islam. The total population of the country is about 46 million. The average density of
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The Gift of The Nile - The Arab Republic of Eygpt

Fig 16.2 A Pyramid

population is thus 46 persons per square kilometer. The actual distribution, however is very uneven. In the Nile valley it is more than 900 persons per square kilometre. Al Qahira (Cairo), the capital of Egypt is the largest city of Africa. The famous pyramids of sphinx are located near Cairo. AI Iskandariya (Alexandria) is the chief sea port and the second largest city of Egypt. But Said (Port Said) at the Suez Canal is a big trading centre.

Transport :
The roads and railways run along the course of the river Nile. The network of transport lines is very dense in the delta region. However, there are roads in all directions. Cairo is the centre of the transport system. Besides, it is also a very important international airport. But, it is the Suez Canal which has put Egypt on the world map of intemational trade. The canal was cut across the isthmus which separates Africa and Asia. It now links the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. The opening of the Canal in 1869 shortened the voyage from Bombay to London by more than 7,000 kilometres. The canal is 162 kilometres long and a ship takes about 10 to 12 hours to pass through it.
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(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 2. Which is the most important cash crop of Egypt? What percentage of land is under cultivation? Why is irrigation necessary for agriculture in Egypt. Name the source of the Nile. Answer the following questions briefly. it saves the long journey round the Cape of Good Hope. Complete the following statement by choosing the correct ending from those given below the statement. What are the favourable conditions for the growth of cotton in Egypt? Why is Egypt called the gift of the Nile? (a) (b) (c) (d) 4. 5. it is an all sea level canal.CMYK Social Science-7 EXERCISES 1. A strait and an isthmus. (i) (ii) 3. Which seas are connected by the Suez Canal ? Which is the biggest dam on the river Nile? Which is the longest river in the world? Distinguish between : A tributary and a distributary. it is the longest sea canal. 206 CMYK . The Suez Canal is the busiest international waterway because it charges nominal toll on the goods passing through it.

the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. It is further cooled by the cold ocean current along the west coast. about three-eighth the size of India. 207 CMYK . The Plateau region is covered with grasses.Land of Gold and Dimonds CHAPTER-17 SOUTH AFRICA-LAND OF GOLD AND DIAMONDS Cape : A prominent headland projecting into the sea. The Drakensberg mountains in the east form the edge of this plateau.CMYK South Africa . It is known for its mineral wealth. South Africa lies in the warm temperate zone. To the east of these mountains. Ocean Current : A general movement of the surface water of the ocean flowing in a definite direction like a stream. It has a variety of natural resources. Pastoral farming : The practice of breeding and rearing animals on pastures for milk. It has a moderate climate due to several reasons. Some of its ridges are higher than 3. It is called ‘the veld’. It is surrounded on three sides by oceans. Land and Climate Almost the whole of South Africa is a high plateau sloping towards the west. It occupies an important position on the international trade route. but has only a small population. To the south. Apartheid : Policy of segregating people on the basis of their race or colour of their skin. wool and skin. It is bounded on three sides by two oceans namely. the land drops down in steps. The great height of the plateau is another reason for its cool climate. meat. It is a large country.000 metres. Mixed farming: Combination of cultivation of crops and rearing of animals on the same farm. particularly gold and diamonds. It is a Dutch word which means field. the land drops down rapidly. South Africa lies in the southernmost part of the continent.

the rainfall is not much and decreases from south to north and from east to west. Wheat. The Limpopo river flows along the northern boundary of the country for some distance. goats and sheep are reared for their milk. it is a dry land. Except in coastal areas. Animal Rearing: It is more important than the cultivation of crops. Maize is the most important crop. Cattle. wool and skin. The eastern part has a good rainfall but most of it is hilly and unsuitable for cultivation. In some areas cultivation of crops is combined with animal rearing. Resources and their utilization Soil and Crops: Since a large part of the country on the western side does not get sufficient rain. This type of agriculture is known as MIXED FARMING. In fact.. The breeding and rearing of animals on pastures is known as PASTORAL FARMING. Fig 17 South 208 CMYK . The Merino sheep of South Africa are famous for their fine wool. It is only in the veld region in the north central part that the land is fertile and rainfall is moderate. Most of the country has rains in summer but the southern coast sets rain during winter. as an exporter of wool South Africa is next only to Australia.CMYK Social Science-7 The Orange and the Vaal river flow from the Drakensberg mountains west ward to the Atlantic Ocean. oats and barley are also grown. meat. As such only one-eighth of the total land of South Africa is under cultivation.

But government was still run by whites. As a result the non whited had been struggling hard for their rights. The rest of the population includes the Asians and mixed groups. The centre of diamond mining is Kimberley Platinum. copper. Nearly two. They could own land only in their reserves. The nonwhites finally succeeded in their struggle. Nelson Mandela is the leader of the new Government. The iron and steel industry has become a major industry. Mining is the most important activity of the people. meat. iron. 209 CMYK . gold is dissolved and separated from the ore. Non-whites has no part in the government. crushed. uranium. The density of population is only 26 persons per square Kilometre. manganese. cigarettes. of whites and an interim Government was formed. They mostly worked in mines and they were paid less than whites. South Africa was earlier a colony of England but later on it was given self government. Thus there was complete segregation of the non-white people in every sphere of lifepolitical. South Africa is the most industrialized country of Africa. The People: The total population of South Africa is about 39 million. Thousands of people including children’s home lost their lives in this struggle.third of the population consists of the Blacks. It manufactures a number of products from its agricultural raw materials. Although the whites were in minority but the government was entirely run by them. All the countries of the world welcomed this. Metal works and chemical industries are also developing. The gold mines are near Johannesburg. Tinned fruit. They were permitted to live only on lands reserved for them.Land of Gold and Dimonds Minerals and Industries: South Africa is the leading producer of gold and diamonds in the world. Before 1915 Gandhiji had awakened nonwhites about their human rights. The policy of segregating the people on the basis of their race or colour is known as Apartheid. Rocks containing gold are blasted. economic and social. dairy products and textiles are the important products. washed and sorted.CMYK South Africa . It accounts for nearly half of the world’s production of gold. Less then one fifth of the population is composed of the whites. In 1994 there was pact-between Nelson Mandela the leader of non-whites and the Govt. sugar. processed food. asbestos and coal are the other important minerals of the country. They were not given higher jobs. Then with the help of chemicals. No other country of the world shows such disregard of human rights as south Africa.

CMYK Social Science-7 Johannesberg is the largest city of South Africa. What is meant by mixed farming? What is apartheid? Make correct pairs from the following two columns. Protria is the Captial City of the Country. 5. This has enabled it to exploit its mineral wealth and to develop its agriculture and industries. What is meant by pastoral farming? Why is it important in South Africa? Which are the important minerals of South Africa? How is gold mined and refined? Why is agriculture less important in South Africa? 210 4. The centre of diamond mining in South Africa The centre of gold mining in South Africa The capital city of South Africa The biggest port of South Africa The southern most tip of South Africa. Cape town is the legislative Capital. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) 3. What is the area of South Africa as compared to India? What is the veld? Why does South Africa enjoy a moderate climate. EXERCISES 1. It is a commercial and Industrial centre. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) 2. Johannesburg Cape of Good Hope Cape Town Kimberley Pretoria Port Elizabeth. Answer the following questions briefly. CMYK . It is also the largest port. The other two important ports are Durban and port Elizabeth. The country has a good network of railways.

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